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  • 1.
    Abdalla, H.
    et al.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Aharonian, F.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, Armenia.
    Ait Benkhali, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, France.
    Arcaro, C.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Armand, C.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS,LAPP, France.
    Armstrong, T.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Ashkar, H.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia;North West Univ, South Africa.
    Baghmanyan, V.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Barbosa-Martins, V.
    DESY, Germany.
    Barnacka, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, Germany.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Bi, B.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, France.
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, France.
    de Bony de Lavergne, M.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS,LAPP, France.
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Brose, R.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Cangemi, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Caroff, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Chambery, P.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Poland.
    Catalano, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Curylo, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Dalgleish, H.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia;North West Univ, South Africa.
    Mbarubucyeye, J. Damascene
    DESY, Germany.
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Davies, J.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Devin, J.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, France.
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Doroshenko, V.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Dreyer, L.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    du Plessis, L.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Duffy, C.
    Univ Leicester, UK.
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Einecke, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, France.
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS,LAPP, France.
    de Clairfontaine, G. Fichet
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, CNRS, France.
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, France.
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Ghafourizade, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Germany.
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, France;Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
    Glawion, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, France.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Hattingh, S.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Holch, T. L.
    DESY, Germany.
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Horbe, M.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Huang, Z.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Germany.
    Joshi, V.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Kasai, E.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Poland.
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, Germany.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Konno, R.
    DESY, Germany.
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, France.
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, Germany.
    Kreter, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Kukec Mezek, Gasper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Kundu, A.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS,LAPP, France..
    Le Stum, S.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, France.
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, France.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leuschner, F.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Levy, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Luashvili, A.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, France.
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Lypova, I.
    DESY, Germany.
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, Germany.
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Mares, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS,LAPP, France.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, South Africa.
    Meyer, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Mitchell, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Montanari, A.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, France.
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Morris, P.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, France.
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, France.
    Murach, T.
    DESY, Germany.
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Nayerhoda, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, France.
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
    Noel, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Poland.
    Oberholzer, L.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, UK.
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Germany.
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    de Ona Wilhelmi, E.
    DESY, Germany.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Peron, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
    Poireau, V.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Unv Grenoble Alpes, CNRS,LAPP, France.
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, Germany.
    Puhlhoefer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, France.
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Remy, Q.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Rueda Ricarte, H.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, France.
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Sahakian, V.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Salzmann, H.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS,LAPP, France.
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schaefer, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, France.
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Schwanke, U.
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
    Spackman, H.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, France.
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Spencer, S.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Sun, L.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, Germany;Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, France.
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
    Thorpe-Morgan, C.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Thiersen, J. H. E.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Tomankova, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Tsuji, M.
    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    van Rensburg, C.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, South Africa.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Viana, A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Werner, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Germany.
    Wong, Yu Wun
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Yassin, H.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Yusafzai, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Paris, Univ PSL, France.
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Zargaryan, D.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, France.
    Zhu, S. J.
    DESY, Germany.
    Zmija, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Leicester, UK.
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Search for Dark Matter Annihilation Signals from Unidentified Fermi-LAT Objects with HESS2021In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 918, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cosmological N-body simulations show that Milky Way-sized galaxies harbor a population of unmerged dark matter (DM) subhalos. These subhalos could shine in gamma-rays and eventually be detected in gamma-ray surveys as unidentified sources. We performed a thorough selection among unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope Objects (UFOs) to identify them as possible tera-electron-volt-scale DM subhalo candidates. We search for very-high-energy (E greater than or similar to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emissions using H.E.S.S. observations toward four selected UFOs. Since no significant very-high-energy gamma-ray emission is detected in any data set of the four observed UFOs or in the combined UFO data set, strong constraints are derived on the product of the velocity-weighted annihilation cross section sigma v by the J factor for the DM models. The 95% confidence level observed upper limits derived from combined H.E.S.S. observations reach sigma vJ values of 3.7 x 10(-5) and 8.1 x 10(-6) GeV(2 )cm(-2 )s(-1) in the W (+) W (-) and tau (+) tau (-) channels, respectively, for a 1 TeV DM mass. Focusing on thermal weakly interacting massive particles, the H.E.S.S. constraints restrict the J factors to lie in the range 6.1 x 10(19)-2.0 x 10(21) GeV(2 )cm(-5) and the masses to lie between 0.2 and 6 TeV in the W (+) W (-) channel. For the tau (+) tau (-) channel, the J factors lie in the range 7.0 x 10(19)-7.1 x 10(20) GeV(2 )cm(-5) and the masses lie between 0.2 and 0.5 TeV. Assuming model-dependent predictions from cosmological N-body simulations on the J-factor distribution for Milky Way-sized galaxies, the DM models with masses >0.3 TeV for the UFO emissions can be ruled out at high confidence level.

  • 2.
    Abdalla, H.
    et al.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Aharonian, F.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Arcaro, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Armand, C.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Armstrong, T.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Ashkar, H.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia.;North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Baghmanyan, V
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Barnacka, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Batzofin, R.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bi, B.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Boettcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    de Lavergne, M. de Bony
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brose, R.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Cangemi, F.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Caroff, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Catalano, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Chambery, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Curylo, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mbarubucyeye, J. Damascene
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Davies, J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Dreyer, L.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Du Plessis, L.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Duffy, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Einecke, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    de Clairfontaine, G. Fichet
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Lott, F.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Fussling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.;Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Glawion, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Hattingh, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Hoerbe, M.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huang, Zhiqiu
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Joshi, V
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kasai, E.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Inst Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Konno, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kreter, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Kukec Mezek, Gasper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Kundu, A.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Le Stum, S.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Leuschner, F.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Levy, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Luashvili, A.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lypova, I
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany.;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mares, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Meyer, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Mitchell, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Montanari, A.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Nayerhoda, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Oberholzer, L.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Peron, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Reville, B.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ricarte, H. Rueda
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Salzmann, H.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schaefer, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schuessler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spencer, S.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Sun, L.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Univ Tokyo Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tanaka, T.
    Konan Univ, Dept Phys, Higashinada Ku, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 6588501, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Thiersen, J. H. E.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Thorpe-Morgan, C.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Tomankova, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tsirou, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tsuji, N.
    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Watson, J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Werner, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Wong, Yu Wun
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Yassin, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Yusafzai, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zacharias, M.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zhu, S. J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Zmija, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    LMC N132D: A mature supernova remnant with a power-law gamma-ray spectrum extending beyond 8 TeV2021In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 655, article id A7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Supernova remnants (SNRs) are commonly thought to be the dominant sources of Galactic cosmic rays up to the knee of the cosmic-ray spectrum at a few PeV. Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes have revealed young SNRs as very-high-energy (VHE, >100 GeV) gamma-ray sources, but for only a few SNRs the hadronic cosmic-ray origin of their gamma-ray emission is indisputably established. In all these cases, the gamma-ray spectra exhibit a spectral cutoff at energies much below 100 TeV and thus do not reach the PeVatron regime. Aims. The aim of this work was to achieve a firm detection for the oxygen-rich SNR LMC N132D in the VHE gamma-ray domain with an extended set of data, and to clarify the spectral characteristics and the localization of the gamma-ray emission from this exceptionally powerful gamma-ray-emitting SNR. Methods. We analyzed 252 h of High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) observations towards SNR N132D that were accumulated between December 2004 and March 2016 during a deep survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud, adding 104 h of observations to the previously published data set to ensure a > 5 sigma detection. To broaden the gamma-ray spectral coverage required for modeling the spectral energy distribution, an analysis of Fermi-LAT Pass 8 data was also included. Results. We unambiguously detect N132D at VHE with a significance of 5.7 sigma. We report the results of a detailed analysis of its spectrum and localization based on the extended H.E.S.S. data set. The joint analysis of the extended H.E.S.S and Fermi-LAT data results in a spectral energy distribution in the energy range from 1.7 GeV to 14.8 TeV, which suggests a high luminosity of N132D at GeV and TeV energies. We set a lower limit on a gamma-ray cutoff energy of 8 TeV with a confidence level of 95%. The new gamma-ray spectrum as well as multiwavelength observations of N132D when compared to physical models suggests a hadronic origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission. Conclusions. SNR N132D is a VHE gamma-ray source that shows a spectrum extending to the VHE domain without a spectral cutoff at a few TeV, unlike the younger oxygen-rich SNR Cassiopeia A. The gamma-ray emission is best explained by a dominant hadronic component formed by diffusive shock acceleration. The gamma-ray properties of N132D may be affected by an interaction with a nearby molecular cloud that partially lies inside the 95% confidence region of the source position.

  • 3.
    Abdalla, H.
    et al.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Aharonian, F.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Arcaro, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Armand, C.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Armstrong, T.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Ashkar, H.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia.;North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Baghmanyan, V
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Barnacka, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bi, B.
    Inst Astron & Astrophys, Univ Tubingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    de Lavergne, M. de Bony
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brose, R.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buechele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Cangemi, F.
    LPNHE, Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Caroff, S.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Chambery, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gragnan, CNRS IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Curylo, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mbarubucyeye, J. Damascene
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Davies, J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V
    Inst Astron & Astrophys, Univ Tubingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Dreyer, L.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Duffy, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Du Plessis, L.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Eichhorn, F.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Einecke, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    de Clairfontaine, G. Fichet
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Ghafourizade, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.;Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Glawion, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Hattingh, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horbe, M.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huang, Z.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jardin-Blicq, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Joshi, V
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kasai, E.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Inst Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Konno, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kreter, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Kukec Mezek, Gasper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Kundu, A.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Le Stum, S.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Leuschner, F.
    Inst Astron & Astrophys, Univ Tubingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Levy, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Luashvili, A.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lypova, I
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Inst Astron & Astrophys, Univ Tubingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany.;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mares, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Meyer, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Mitchell, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Montanari, A.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Morris, P.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Nayerhoda, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Peron, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Inst Astron & Astrophys, Univ Tubingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Reville, B.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ricarte, H. Rueda
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Salzmann, H.
    Inst Astron & Astrophys, Univ Tubingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Inst Astron & Astrophys, Univ Tubingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schaefer, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Spackman, H.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spencer, S.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Sun, L.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;IDESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Univ Tokyo Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tanaka, T.
    Konan Univ, Dept Phys, Higashinada Ku, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 6588501, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Thiersen, J. H. E.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Thorpe-Morgan, C.
    Inst Astron & Astrophys, Univ Tubingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Tomankova, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan.;RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Watson, J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Werner, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    DeWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Wong, Yu Wun
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Yassin, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Yusafzai, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zhu, S. J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Searching for TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from SGR 1935+2154 during Its 2020 X-Ray and Radio Bursting Phase2021In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 919, no 2, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetar hyperflares are the most plausible explanation for fast radio bursts (FRBs)-enigmatic powerful radio pulses with durations of several milliseconds and high brightness temperatures. The first observational evidence for this scenario was obtained in 2020 April when an FRB was detected from the direction of the Galactic magnetar and soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1935+2154. The FRB was preceded by two gamma-ray outburst alerts by the BAT instrument aboard the Swift satellite, which triggered follow-up observations by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). H.E.S.S. observed SGR 1935+2154 for 2 hr on 2020 April 28. The observations are coincident with X-ray bursts from the magnetar detected by INTEGRAL and Fermi-GBM, thus providing the first very high energy gamma-ray observations of a magnetar in a flaring state. High-quality data acquired during these follow-up observations allow us to perform a search for short-time transients. No significant signal at energies E > 0.6 TeV is found, and upper limits on the persistent and transient emission are derived. We here present the analysis of these observations and discuss the obtained results and prospects of the H.E.S.S. follow-up program for soft gamma-ray repeaters.

  • 4.
    Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Ashkar, H.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia;North West Univ, South Africa.
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, Germany.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Bi, B.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    de Lavergne, M. de Bony
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Bradascio, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Brose, R.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Burger-Scheidlin, C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Cangemi, F.
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Caroff, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Casanova, S.
    Inst Fizyki Jdrowej PAN, Poland.
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Chibueze, O.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Cristofari, P.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Mbarubucyeye, J. Damascene
    DESY, Germany.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    de Clairfontaine, G. Fichet
    Univ Paris, France.
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Ghafourizadeh, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Germany.
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris, France;Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Glawion, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Goswami, P.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Haerer, L. K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Horbe, M.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Holch, T. L.
    DESY, Germany.
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Joshi, V
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Kasai, E.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Poland.
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, Germany.
    Kukec Mezek, Gasper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Lang, R. G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Le Stum, S.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Lenain, J-P
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Leuschner, F.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Luashvili, A.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Lypova, I
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, Germany.
    Malyshev, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Marx, R.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Meyer, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Mitchell, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Montanari, A.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Murach, T.
    DESY, Germany.
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Nayerhoda, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jdrowej PAN, Poland.
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jdrowej PAN, Poland.
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Germany.
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, Germany.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Peron, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Reville, B.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Salzmann, H.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Sushch, I
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Suzuki, H.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    Konan Univ, Japan.
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Thorpe-Morgan, C.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Tsirou, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Tsuji, N.
    RIKEN, Japan.
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Unbehaun, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, South Africa.
    Vecchi, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jdrowej PAN, Poland.
    Wong, Y. Wun
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Paris, France.
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Zhu, S. J.
    DESY, Germany.
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Paris, France.
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Braiding, C.
    Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Burton, M.
    Armagh Observ & Planetarium, UK.
    Cubuk, K.
    Armagh Observ & Planetarium, UK.
    Filipovic, M.
    Western Sydney Univ, Australia.
    Tothill, N.
    Western Sydney Univ, Australia.
    Wong, G.
    Western Sydney Univ, Australia.
    A deep spectromorphological study of the ϒ-ray emission surrounding the young massive stellar cluster Westerlund 12022In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 666, article id A124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Young massive stellar clusters are extreme environments and potentially provide the means for efficient particle acceleration. Indeed, they are increasingly considered as being responsible for a significant fraction of cosmic rays (CRs) that are accelerated within the Milky Way. Westerlund 1, the most massive known young stellar cluster in our Galaxy, is a prime candidate for studying this hypothesis. While the very-high-energy gamma-ray source HESS J1646-458 has been detected in the vicinity of Westerlund 1 in the past, its association could not be firmly identified. Aims. We aim to identify the physical processes responsible for the gamma-ray emission around Westerlund 1 and thus to understand the role of massive stellar clusters in the acceleration of Galactic CRs better. Methods. Using 164 h of data recorded with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), we carried out a deep spectromorphological study of the gamma-ray emission of HESS J1646-458. We furthermore employed H I and CO observations of the region to infer the presence of gas that could serve as target material for interactions of accelerated CRs. Results. We detected large-scale (similar to 2 degrees diameter) gamma-ray emission with a complex morphology, exhibiting a shell-like structure and showing no significant variation with gamma-ray energy. The combined energy spectrum of the emission extends to several tens of TeV, and it is uniform across the entire source region. We did not find a clear correlation of the gamma-ray emission with gas clouds as identified through H I and CO observations. Conclusions. We conclude that, of the known objects within the region, only Westerlund 1 can explain the majority of the gamma-ray emission. Several CR acceleration sites and mechanisms are conceivable and discussed in detail. While it seems clear that Westerlund 1 acts as a powerful particle accelerator, no firm conclusions on the contribution of massive stellar clusters to the flux of Galactic CRs in general can be drawn at this point.

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  • 5.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Kukec Mezek, Gasper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Romano, Patrizia
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Italy.
    Saleh, Ahmed
    Khalifa University, United Arab Emirates.
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Khalifa University, United Arab Emirates.
    Tluczykont, Martin
    Universität Hamburg, Germany.
    Vercellone, Stefano
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Italy.
    The CoMET multiperspective event tracker for wide field-of-view gamma-ray astronomy2022In: Proceedings of Science: 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021 Online – Berlin, German, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA) , 2022, Vol. 395, article id 905Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ALTO project aims to build a particle detector array for very high energy gamma ray observations optimized for soft spectrum sources. The accurate reconstruction of gamma ray events, in particular their energies, using a surface array is an especially challenging problem at the low energies ALTO aims to optimize for. In this contribution, we leverage Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to improve reconstruction performance at lower energies ( smaller 1 TeV ) as compared to the SEMLA analysis procedure, which is a more traditional method using mainly manually derived features.rnWe present performance figures using different network architectures and training settings, both in terms of accuracy and training time, as well as the impact of various data augmentation techniques.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Bylund, Tomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Kukec Mezek, Gasper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Khalifa University, United Arab Emirates.
    Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Studies of Gamma-Ray Shower Reconstruction UsingDeep Learning2021In: Proceedings of Science: 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021 Online – Berlin, German, 2021, article id 758Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ALTO project aims to build a particle detector array for very high energy gamma ray observations optimized for soft spectrum sources. The accurate reconstruction of gamma ray events, in particular their energies, using a surface array is an especially challenging problem at the low energies ALTO aims to optimize for. In this contribution, we leverage Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to improve reconstruction performance at lower energies ( smaller 1 TeV ) as compared to the SEMLA analysis procedure, which is a more traditional method using mainly manually derived features.rnWe present performance figures using different network architectures and training settings, both in terms of accuracy and training time, as well as the impact of various data augmentation techniques.

  • 7.
    Punch, M.
    et al.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Kukec Mezek, Gasper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Thoudam, S.
    Khalifa Univ, United Arab Emirates.
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Sensitivity to point-like sources of the ALTO atmospheric particle detector array, designed for 200GeV-50TeV gamma-ray astronomy2023In: Journal of High Energy Astrophysics, ISSN 2214-4048, E-ISSN 2214-4056, Vol. 39, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of atmospheric shower arrays designed for gamma-ray astronomy and in the context of the ALTO project, we present: a study of the impact of heavier nuclei in the cosmic-ray background on the estimated gamma-ray detection performance on the basis of dedicated Monte Carlo simulations, a method to calculate the sensitivity to a point-like source, and finally the required observation times to reach a firm detection on a list of known point-like sources.

  • 8.
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Khalifa University, United Arab Emirates.
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Kukec Mezek, Gasper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Expected performance of the ALTO particle detector array designed for 200 GeV - 50 TeV gamma-ray astronomy2022In: Proceedings of Science: 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021 Online – Berlin, German, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA) , 2022, Vol. 395, article id 761Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ALTO project aims to build a particle detector array for very high energy gamma ray observations optimized for soft spectrum sources. The accurate reconstruction of gamma ray events, in particular their energies, using a surface array is an especially challenging problem at the low energies ALTO aims to optimize for. In this contribution, we leverage Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to improve reconstruction performance at lower energies ( smaller 1 TeV ) as compared to the SEMLA analysis procedure, which is a more traditional method using mainly manually derived features.rnWe present performance figures using different network architectures and training settings, both in terms of accuracy and training time, as well as the impact of various data augmentation techniques.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Université de Paris, France.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Khalifa University, United Arab Emirates.
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Kukec Mezek, Gasper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Ernenwein, J.-P.
    Aix Marseille Université, France.
    Signal extraction in atmospheric shower arrays designed for 200 GeV–50 TeV γ-ray astronomy2021In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 16, no 07, article id P07050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the SEMLA (Signal Extraction using Machine Learning for ALTO) analysis method, developed for the detection of E>200 GeV γ rays in the context of the ALTO wide-field-of-view atmospheric shower array R&D project. The scientific focus of ALTO is extragalactic γ-ray astronomy, so primarily the detection of soft-spectrum γ-ray sources such as Active Galactic Nuclei and Gamma Ray Bursts. The current phase of the ALTO R&D project is the optimization of sensitivity for such sources and includes a number of ideas which are tested and evaluated through the analysis of dedicated Monte Carlo simulations and hardware testing. In this context, it is important to clarify how data are analysed and how results are being obtained. SEMLA takes advantage of machine learning and comprises four stages: initial event cleaning (stage A), filtering out of poorly reconstructed γ-ray events (stage B), followed by γ-ray signal extraction from proton background events (stage C) and finally reconstructing the energy of the events (stage D). The performance achieved through SEMLA is evaluated in terms of the angular, shower core position, and energy resolution, together with the effective detection area, and background suppression. Our methodology can be easily generalized to any experiment, provided that the signal extraction variables for the specific analysis project are considered.

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