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  • 1.
    Bentzen, Kristine
    et al.
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Anderssen, Merete
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    Object shift in spoken Mainland Scandinavian2013In: 25th Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics : Reykjavík, May 13-15, 2013: Workshop 5 : Information Structure in Scandinavian Language, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Object Shift (OS) has been studied extensively across the Scandinavian languages (Holmberg 1986, 1999, Vikner 2006). Traditionally, OS is assumed to apply to all weak pronominal objects in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. However, based on written corpora, Andréasson (2008, 2009, 2010) shows that while OS is obligatory with weak pronominal objects in Danish, these elements may marginally remain in situ in Swedish (cf. also Josefsson 2010 for similar Swedish results based on grammaticality judgments). In an elicited production study, Anderssen et al. (2012) find that Norwegian speakers consistently shift such objects, (1). Moreover, Andréasson also shows that not all weak pronominal objects behave the same way. While pronouns with nominal referents typically undergo OS, weak pronoun det ‘it’ referring to a clause or VP may remain in situ in Swedish. In contrast, in Danish also this latter type usually shifts. Anderssen & Bentzen (2012) argue that det with non-individuated (clausal/VP/type DP) referents generally remains in situ in Norwegian, (2).

    In this study, we investigate OS in spontaneous speech of adults in large Danish, Norwegian and Swedish child language corpora (Plunkett 1985, 1986; Simonsen 1990, Anderssen 2006; and Plunkett & Strömqvist 1992, Strömqvist et al. 1993, respectively).

    Our corpus data display both similarities and differences with the patterns reported above. Concerning non-contrastive weak pronominal objects with a nominal referent, our data show a similar pattern to that of previous studies. In Danish and Norwegian, these objects occur in a shifted position 80-90%, while in Swedish the majority of such objects remain in situ (57%). With respect to det ‘it’ with a non-individuated referent, our spoken data are quite different from those reported in Andréasson. While she found that these elements relatively frequently undergo OS in Swedish, we see a strong tendency for non-individuated det to remain unshifted (found in shifted position less than 3% in both Swedish and Norwegian). Moreover, for Danish, Andréasson reports that non-individuated det practically never remains in situ, while in our Danish data, such elements remain in situ as much as 86% of the time.

    Despite these discrepancies, our investigation confirms the picture regarding OS that has emerged in recent years (Andréasson 2008, 2009, 2010, Mikkelsen 2010, Josefsson 2010, Anderssen & Bentzen 2012), namely that OS is not a uniform phenomenon. There is much variation both depending on type of pronoun (and its referent), and across the Mainland Scandinavian languages. To account for some of the variation, Andréasson links OS to accessibility and cognitive status of the pronominal object. Similarly, Anderssen & Bentzen argue that Norwegian OS is clause-internal topicalization of familiar topical objects with an individuated referent, while this position is generally unavailable to pronouns with a non- individuated referent. Since OS clearly depends on information structure, the discrepancies between our data and those of Andréasson may be due to the different types of corpora studied (spoken vs. written discourse).

    Against this backdrop, we investigate the various factors influencing the position of pronominal objects across spoken Danish, Norwegian and Swedish.

    Examples:

    (1) A: Så    du  husetNEUT?       B: Ja,  jeg likte  detNEUT ikke.

              saw you house.the              yes I     liked it          not

              ‘Did you see the house?’     ‘Yes, I didn’t like it.’

    (2) A: Spiste du  noe  frukt?        B: Nei, jeg gjorde {*detVP} ikke {detVP}.

              ate     you any fruit.MASC        no   I    did          it.NEUT  not    it.NEUT

             ‘Did you eat any fruit?’            ‘No, I didn’t.’              (det = ‘eat any fruit’)

    References

    Anderssen, Merete & Kristine Bentzen. 2012. ‘Norwegian Object Shift as IP-internal topicalization,’ Nordlyd 39.1: The Grammar of Objects, 1-23.

    Anderssen, Merete, Kristine Bentzen & Yulia Rodina. 2012. ‘Topicality and complexity in the acquisition of Norwegian Object Shift,’ Language Acquisition 19.1: 39-72.

    Anderssen, Merete. 2006. The Acquisition of Compositional Definiteness. PhD dissertation, University of Tromsø.

    Andréasson, Maia. 2008. ‘Not all objects are born alike — accessibility as a key to pronominal object shift in Swedish and Danish,’ in Miriam Butt and Tracy Halloway King (eds), Proceedings of the LFG08 Conference, CSLI Publications, Stanford, 26-45.

    Andréasson, Maia. 2009. ‘Pronominal object shift — not just a matter of shifting or not,’ Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax 84, 1-20.

    Andréasson, Maia. 2010. ‘Object shift or object placement in general,’ in Miriam Butt and Tracy Halloway King (eds), Proceedings of the LFG10 Conference, CSLI Publications, Stanford, 26-42.

    Holmberg, Anders. 1986. Word order and syntactic features in the Scandinavian languages and English. Doctoral dissertation, University of Stockholm.

    Holmberg, Anders. 1999. Remarks on Holmberg’s Generalization,’ Studia Linguistica 53.1: 1- 39.

    Josefsson, Gunlög. 2010. ‘Object Shift and optionality: An intricate interplay between syntax, prosody and information structure,’ Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax 86, 1-24.

    Mikkelsen, Line. 2011. ‘On prosody and focus in Object Shift,’ Syntax 14.3, 230-264.

    Plunkett, Kim & Sven Strömqvist. 1992. ‘The acquisition of Scandinavian languages,’ in Dan I. Slobin (ed), The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 457-556.

    Plunkett, Kim. 1985. Preliminary approaches to language development. Århus: Århus University Press.

    Plunkett, Kim. 1986. Learning strategies in two Danish children’s language development. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 27, 64–73.

    Simonsen, Hanne Gram. 1990. Barns fonologi: system og variasjon hos tre norske og et samoisk barn. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Oslo, Oslo.

    Strömqvist, Sven, Ulla Richthoff & Anders-Börje Andersson. 1993. ‘Strömqvist’s and Richthoff’s corpora: a guide to longitudinal data from four Swedish children,’ Gothenburg Papers in Theoretical Linguistics 66.

    Vikner, Sten. 2006. ‘Object Shift,’ in Martin Everaert and Henk van Riemsdijk (eds.), The Blackwell companion to syntax, Vol III, Blackwell, Oxford, 392-436. 

  • 2.
    Bentzen, Kristine
    et al.
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Anderssen, Merete
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    Object shift in spoken mainland Scandinavian: a corpus study of Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish2013In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 36, no 2, Special Issue, p. 115-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent work on Object Shift (OS) suggests that this is not as uniform an operation as traditionally assumed. In this paper, we examine OS in the spontaneous speech of adults in large Danish, Norwegian and Swedish child language corpora in order to explore variation with respect to OS across these three languages. We evaluate our results against three recent strands of accounts of OS, namely a prosodic/phonological account, an account in terms of cognitiv status, and an account in terms of information structure. Our investigation shows that there is both withing-language and across-language variation in the application of OS, and that the three accounts can explain some of our data. However, all accounts are faced with challenges, especially when explaining exceptional cases.

  • 3.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Oral language skills and reading in relation to written text production: A longitudinal study of 85 students' written text production in Year 3, 6 and 92017In: Presented at LITUM symposium, Umeå, May 4th 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    Samband mellan språklig förmåga och skriven textproduktion hos elever med lässvårigheter2016In: ASLA : Språk och norm: Sammandrag av sektionsföredrag, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skriven textproduktion är en utmaning för många elever med språk- och lässvårigheter. Tidigare studier har visat att språklig förmåga, arbetsminne och fonologiskt processande utgör centrala förutsättningar inte bara för automatiserade processer i skrivandet (stavning och interpunktion) utan också för skrivprocesser på en högre kognitiv nivå (textens språkliga kvalitet, textorganisation och textlängd). I den föreliggande studien undersöker vi relationen mellan språklig förmåga, fonologiskt processande, verbalt arbetsminne, läsförmåga och skriven textproduktion hos 40 elever som identifierades med svag läs- och stavningsförmåga i årskurs 2. I årskurs 3 deltog dessa elever i en logopedutredning som omfattade en bedömning av fonologiskt processande, receptiv och expressiv språklig förmåga (ordförråd, grammatik och hörförståelse av text), korttidsminne, arbetsminne, ordavkodning, läsförståelse och icke-verbal problemlösning. Utfallet i logopedutredningen undersöktes i relation till den narrativa skrivuppgiften som eleverna genomförde i de nationella proven i svenska i årskurs 3. Elevernas texter analyserades utifrån ett flertal mått på textproduktion på olika nivåer: transkriptionsnivå (stavning och interpunktion), lexikal nivå (lexikal variation och densitet), meningsnivå (syntaktisk komplexitet, morfologiska och syntaktiska avvikelser) och textnivå (textlängd). Utifrån modellen ”Simple View of Writing” och resultat från tidigare forskning formulerades följande hypoteser: (1) receptiv och expressiv språklig förmåga, verbalt arbetsminne, avkodning och läsförmåga relaterar till textproduktion på ord- och meningsnivå och till mått på textnivå, och (2) fonologisk processande, avkodning och verbalt arbetsminne relaterar till stavning på transkriptionsnivån. Pearsons produktmomentkorrelation användes för att analysera relationen mellan språklig förmåga, fonologiskt processande, verbalt arbetsminne, läsförmåga och skriven textproduktion. Resultaten presenteras och diskuteras utifrån både metodologiska och teoretiska aspekter.

  • 5.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Samband mellan språklig förmåga och skriven textproduktion hos elever med svag läsförmåga2017In: Språk och norm : Rapport från ASLA:s symposium, Uppsala universitet 21-22 april 2016: [ Language and Norms : Papers from the ASLA Symposium, Uppsala University 21–22 April 2016 ] / [ed] Saga Bendegard, Ulla Melander Marttala, Maria Westman, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2017, p. 62-70Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Written text production in students with and without reading difficulties2018In: sig writing 2018: 16th international conference of the EARLI special intereset group on writing, Antwerp: University of Antwerp , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of written text is a challenge for many students with language and reading difficulties. Previous research has shown that these students, among other things, produce shorter texts, have a lower lexical variation, use a simpler syntax and make more grammatical errors and spelling errors than students with typical language and reading development (e.g. Dockrell & Connelly, 2015; Puranik, Lombardino & Altmann, 2007; Williams, Larkin & Blaggan, 2013). In the current study, we investigated narrative texts written by 64 Swedish-speaking students in grade 3. Out of these, 40 students were identified with weak reading skills in an assessment of word reading and reading comprehension in grade 2, while the remaining 24 students had age-adequate reading skills. The purpose was to compare the writing performance in these student groups and to examine how the students’ reading skills in grade 2 were related to their writing performance in grade 3. The students’ transcription skills and written language performance in grade 3 were examined using measures of spelling, punctuation, lexical variation and density, syntactic complexity, grammatical errors and text length. An analysis of Story Grammar in the students’ written narratives was also performed using the Narrative Scoring Scheme in SALT (Miller, Andriacchi & Nockerts, 2015). Multiple regression was used to analyze the relations between reading and spelling skills in grade 2 and writing performance in grade 3. In this talk, the findings are presented and discussed in relation to theoretical and methodological aspects.

  • 7.
    Sullivan, Kirk PH
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Muntliga språkliga interaktioner för lärande: [ ingår i Lärportalens modul Språk-, läs- och skrivutveckling (Läslyftet), Muntlig kommunikation, Del 4: Språklig aktivitet och interaktion, årskurs 1–9 ]2019Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel handlar om hur undervisning kan utformas för att stödja elevers muntliga språkliga utveckling. Först beskrivs faktorer relaterade till fysisk miljö, lärtillfällen och interaktioner som har visat sig viktiga för att skapa en språkutvecklande undervisning. Därefter presenteras ett observationsverktyg som lärare kan använda för att identifiera styrkor och utvecklingsbehov i syfte att skapa en mer språkutvecklande undervisning.

  • 8.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Umeå University.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    Language for tomorrow: teaching and innovation for language revitalization and maintenance2013In: HICE conference proceedings, Honolulu: Hawaii International Conference on Education , 2013, p. 1395-1400Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Vinka, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    Doing It in Swedish doesn't mean you've done it2014In: NELS 44: Proceedings of the Forty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the North East Linguistic Society / [ed] Jyoti Iyer, Leland Kusmer, Amherst: GLSA, University of Massachusetts , 2014, p. 243-254Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Vinka, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    Kroik, David
    Umeå University.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University.
    Developing a spoken corpus for South Saami language teaching and learning2015In: Språkdidaktik: Researching Language Teaching and Learning / [ed] Eva Lindgren, Janet Enever, Umeå: Department of Language Studies, Umeå University , 2015, p. 75-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Chapter 5 Mikael Vinka, Christian Waldmann, David Kroik and Kirk Sullivan consider the creation of corpora in the Saami language and how these can be used to support minority language education in pre-school. Using examples both from the CHILDES database and from South Saami they illustrate how corpora may support the development of culturally relevant teaching materials.

  • 11.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Fokus på bara: En experimentell studie av svenska förstaspråksinlärare2005In: HumaNetten, ISSN 1403-2279, no 16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature. Umeå University.
    From egocentric to inherent interpretation of framför 'in front of' and bakom 'behind' among Swedish children2010In: Experimental Approaches to the Perception and Production of Language Variation (ExAPP), Groningen, November 11, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The locative terms in front of and behind express a position in relation to the front and back of a reference object (RO) (see e.g. Clark 1973, Kuczaj & Maratsos 1975). If the RO has an intrinsic front and back (featured RO, e.g. a car), in front of is associated with the front and behind with the back (intrinsic interpretation). If the RO lacks an intrinsic front and back (non-featured RO, e.g. a ball), an egocentric interpretation is triggered. In front of is either associated with the side facing the observer (asymmetrical egocentric interpretation), or with the far side (symmetrical egocentric interpretation), while behind is associated with the side opposite to in front of. The present study investigates how featured and non-featured ROs affect Swedish children’s and adults’ understanding of framför ‘in front of’ and bakom ‘behind’.

    In one experiment, children and adults were asked to place a small object (e.g. a piece of Lego) in front of and behind an RO. In a second experiment, children and adults were asked to judge whether a small object was placed in front of and behind an RO. Subjects were 44 Swedish adults and 41 Swedish children (2-5 years old), grouped into ‘young children’ (2-3 years) and ‘old children’ (4-5 years). Subjects were allotted to featured and non-featured ROs. All subjects heard 8 targets; children also heard 8 controls of simple spatial relations (in and on) and yes- and no-answers.

    Main results show that adults prefer an intrinsic interpretation with featured ROs, significantly more often than both child groups. Both child groups show a large proportion of egocentric interpretation, younger children displaying a slight preference for the asymmetrical and older children for the symmetrical. This pattern is reinforced with non-featured ROs, where younger children prefer the asymmetrical significantly more often than older children and adults.

    The results are discussed in relation to previous research and to theoretical notions such as image schemas (e.g. Johnson 1987) and perspective (e.g. Langacker 1987).

  • 13.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    Förskolebarns förståelse av de spatiala begreppen framför och bakom2012In: Ämnesdidaktisk komparation: Länder, ämnen, teorier, metoder, frågor och resultat / [ed] Niklas Gericke, Bengt Schüllerqvist, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2012, p. 137-148Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Lund University.
    Input och output: Ordföljd i svenska barns huvudsatser och bisatser2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    Moving in small steps towards verb second: A case study2012In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 331-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines rule-based learning and item-based learning in relation to a Swedish child's acquisition of verb second in main clauses. While rule-based accounts assert that young children have access to syntactic structure and acquire a rule of generalized verb second, item-based accounts claim that young children are reproducing frequent word combinations in the input. The paper provides new and important data from one Swedish child, concluding that the acquisition of verb second is the result of rule-based learning.

  • 16.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Lund University.
    On children's knowledge of scope interpretation: Evidence from Swedish bara 'only'2004In: Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition - North America (GALANA), Honolulu, December 17, 2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I investigated whether children, as language learners, show non-adult competence of scope readings of the Swedish focus operator bara ‘only’ in ambiguous and unambiguous sentences. A discrepancy is dictated in ambiguous sentences by the Semantic Subset Principle, and the Principle of Parsimony, the former guiding children, and the latter guiding adults. Two Truth Value Judgement Tasks were conducted among 38 Swedish children (3;6–6;10), and 22 Swedish adults. Furthermore, two Swedish children (1;3.19–2;9.29 and 1;11.8–2;10.4 respectively) and their caretakers found at CHILDES were analyzed with reference to their use of bara. The main conclusion was that children have adult competence of the scope of bara, supporting recent findings that any observed differences between 5 year olds and adults are due to performance factors. The study supports performance accounts to scope investigations. A further conclusion was that children lack adult competence of contrastive stress, i.e. they don’t use it to resolve the ambiguity in sentences with bara

  • 17.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Paths in L1 acquisition of verb second in Swedish children: On the role of input and frequency2009In: Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition (GALA), Lisbon, September 11, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation deals with similarities and differences in L1 acquisition of verb second (V2) among Swedish children. In Swedish, V2 means that the finite verb must be the second constituent in main clauses (1). In subordinate clauses, however, the finite verb occurs in a lower position, following sentence negation (2).

    (1) a. Igår          ville       Per inte   handla   julklappar.

             yesterday  wanted  Per  not   shop      Christmas-gifts

         b. *Igår        Per ville      inte handla julklappar.

             yesterday Per  wanted not  shop   Christmas-gifts

    (2) …att  Per inte ville      handla julklappar        igår.

           that Per not  wanted shop   Christmas-gifts yesterday

    V2 in child language has been discussed thoroughly in the literature, linking it to issues such as verbal morphology, markedness and economy, verb semantics, finiteness and bilingualism (e.g. Jordens 1990, Clahsen & Penke 1992, Poeppel & Wexler 1993, Santelmann 1995, Platzack 1996, Bohnacker 1999), and to some extent to issues of input and frequency (e.g. Josefsson 2003, Westergaard 2006, Waldmann 2008). This study investigates the acquisition of V2 among 4 monolingual Swedish speaking children, focusing on their input as well as their production.

    As regards the input for V2, there are vast individual similarities, quantitatively and qualitatively. All 4 children are exposed to an equally large and stable amount of input for V2 during the investigated age period (1;6–3;0), a similar observation also reported for Norwegian children (Westergaard 2006). Lexically, the input for V2 is characterized to a great extent by the same finite verbs and initial constituents.

    Although exposed to a similar input for V2, not all 4 children acquire V2 alike. 3 children adhere to the general picture presented in previous studies, i.e. that V2 is applied consistently already in the earliest finite utterances and that finite verbs are rarely misplaced. A detailed study of one of the children reveals that her use of V2 does not seem to be limited to certain lexical items, not even in the earliest finite utterances.

    The fourth child, called Tea, makes abundant verb placement errors up to an age of 3;3, a period during which she applies V2 only sporadically. It is however argued that Tea’s early V2 consists of imitated chunks and that V2 is not applied systematically until just before 3;0. Moreover, it is argued that Tea does not misplace finite verbs randomly, but that her verb placement in main clauses develops systematically in 3 phases: from a low verbal position following sentence negation (V), as in subordinate clauses (see (2) above), via a verbal position in the middle of the clause (I), as in (1b) above, to the second position (C), as in (1a) above. The transition to V2 happens abruptly between 3;3 and 3;4.

    As regards the theoretical implications of my results, I discuss the role of input and frequency in acquisition, arguing that neither copying of input patterns based on frequency nor triggering parameters can capture Tea’s verb placement. Instead it seems that Tea formulates and evaluates different hypotheses, a strategy which allows children to take different paths in acquisition. Furthermore, I explore the relation between verb placement in subordinate clauses in the input and Tea’s deviating verb placement in main clauses.

    References

    Bohnacker, Ute. 1999: Icelandic plus English: Language differentiation and functional categories in a successively bilingual child. Department of Linguistics and English Language, University of Durham, UK.

    Clahsen, Harald & Penke, Martina. 1992: "The acquisition of agreement morphology and its syntactic consequences: new evidence on German child language from the Simone-corpus." In Meisel, Jürgen M. (ed.), The acquisition of verb placement: functional categories and V2 phenomena in language acquisition, pp. 181-224. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

    Jordens, Peter. 1990: "The acquisition of verb placement in Dutch and German." In Linguistics, 28, pp. 1407-1448.

    Josefsson, Gunlög. 2003: "Input and output: sentence patterns in child and adult Swedish." In Josefsson, Gunlög, Platzack, Christer & Håkansson, Gisela (eds.), The acquisition of Swedish grammar, pp. 95-133. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

    Platzack, Christer. 1996: "The Initial Hypothesis of Syntax: A Minimalist Perspective on Language Acquisition and Attrition." In Clahsen, Harald (ed.), Generative Perspectives on Language Acquisition, pp. 369-414. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

    Poeppel, David & Wexler, Ken. 1993: "The Full Competence Hypothesis of Clause Structure in Early German." In Language, 69:1, pp. 1-33.

    Santelmann, Lynn Marie. 1995: The acquisition of Verb Second grammar in child Swedish: continuity of universal grammar in Wh-questions, topicalization and verb raising. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI.

    Waldmann, Christian. 2008: Input och output. Ordföljd i svenska barns huvudsatser och bisatser. PhD-thesis. Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University.

    Westergaard, Marit R. 2006: "Triggering V2: The Amount of Input Needed for Parameter Setting in a Split-CP Model of Word Order." In Belletti, Adriana, Bennati, Elisa, Chesi, Cristiano, DiDomenico, Elisa & Ferrari, Ida (eds.), Language Acquisition and Development: Proceedings of GALA 2005, pp. 658-671. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Press.

  • 18.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Paths in L1 acquisition of verb second: On the role of input and frequency2009In: 30th Annual Linguistics Conference: June 11th & 12th 2009, University of Groningen, 2009, p. 133-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation deals with similarities and differences in L1 acquisition of verb second (V2) among Swedish children. In Swedish, V2 means that the finite verb must be the second constituent in main clauses (1). In subordinate clauses, the finite verb occurs in a lower position, following sentence negation (2).

    (1) a. Igår         ville     Per  inte handla julklappar.

             yesterday wanted Per not  shop    Christmas-gifts

         b. *Igår         Per ville     inte handla julklappar.

              yesterday Per wanted not shop    Christmas-gifts

    (2) …att   Per inte ville      handla julklappar         igår.

            that Per not  wanted shop    Christmas-gifts yesterday

    This study investigates the acquisition of V2 among 4 monolingual Swedish speaking children (1;6–3;0), focusing on their input as well as their production.

    As regards the input for V2, all children are exposed to an equally large and stable amount of input for V2. Lexically, the input for V2 is characterized to a great extent by the same finite verbs and initial constituents.

    Although exposed to a quantitatively and qualitatively similar input for V2, not all 4 children acquire V2 alike. 3 children apply V2 consistently in the earliest finite utterances, finite verbs are rarely misplaced. No lexical limitations are observed.

    The fourth child, called Tea, makes abundant verb placement errors up to an age of 3;3, a period during which she applies V2 only sporadically. It is however argued that Tea’s early V2 consists of imitated chunks and that V2 is not applied systematically until just before 3;0. Moreover, it is argued that Tea does not misplace finite verbs randomly, but that her verb placement in main clauses develops systematically in 3 phases: from a low verbal position following sentence negation, as in subordinate clauses (see (2) above), via a verbal position in the middle field of the clause, as in (1b) above, to the second position, as in (1a) above. The transition to V2 happens abruptly between 3;3 and 3;4.

    As regards the theoretical implications of my results, I discuss the role of input and frequency in acquisition, arguing that neither copying of input patterns based on frequency nor triggering parameters can capture Tea’s verb placement. Instead it seems that Tea formulates and evaluates different hypotheses, a strategy which allows children to take different paths in acquisition. Furthermore, I explore the relation between verb placement in subordinate clauses in the input and Tea’s deviating verb placement in main clauses. 

  • 19.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    På gränsen till vuxenspråket: Om egocentrism och inherens i svenska barns tolkning av prepositionerna framför och bakom2012In: Språkets gränser - och verklighetens: Perspektiv på begreppet gräns : studier / [ed] Daniel Andersson, Lars-Erik Edlund, Umeå: Institutionen för språkstudier, Umeå universitet , 2012, 1, p. 67-79Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Umeå University.
    Subject positions in L1 acquisition: On information structure and subject placement2011In: Child Language Seminar (CLS 2011), Newcastle, June 13-14, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish, DP-subjects in the middle field can either precede or follow a negation (1), whereas pronominal subjects can only precede a negation (unless stressed) (2).

    1. a. Varför  kommer  mannen  inte   imorgon     istället?

           why      comes     man-the   not    tomorrow   instead

        b. Varför kommer inte mannen imorgon istället?

    2. a. Varför  kommer  han  inte   imorgon     istället?

           why      comes     he     not    tomorrow   instead

        b. *Varför kommer inte han imorgon istället?

    In recent work, two subject positions have been proposed, a high position for informationally given subjects and a low position for informationally new subjects. As pronouns generally refer to known referents, they occur in the high position. It has been reported that Swedish children place subjects in the higher position from early on; however, the information structural properties of different subject types have not been taken into consideration.

    This presentation deals with the interaction between position and the information structural properties of the subject in L1 acquisition of Swedish. A corpus consisting of 45,000 spontaneous child utterances from 4 monolingual children aged 1;3–4;0 has been investigated. Results show that the children prefer the high position for pronominal subjects (84% pron-neg) and the low position for DP-subjects (80% neg-DP). This pattern is clear in main clauses, and for pronominal subjects in embedded clauses, whereas DP-subjects are rare in embedded clauses. From a developmental perspective, pron-neg and neg-DP precede neg-pron and DP-neg by approximately 6 months in main clauses. In embedded clauses, pron-neg also precedes neg-pron.

    In addition, a corpus consisting of child-directed speech (54,000 of adult utterances) has been investigated. Results show that children’s production largely mirrors the patterns in their input. Thus, it seems that children are sensitive to information structure early on. 

  • 21.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    Subjektsplacering i utveckling: om subjektsposition och informationsstruktur hos svenskspråkiga barn2013In: Svenskans beskrivning: [SvB.] 32, Förhandlingar vid trettioandra sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning, Karlstad den 13-14 oktober 2011 / [ed] Björn Bihl, Peter Andersson & Lena Lötmarker, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet , 2013, p. 326-337Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I svenskan kan ett substantiviskt subjekt (ett s.k. DP-subjekt) i mittfältet stå antingen före eller efter en negation (1), medan ett pronominellt subjekt endast kan stå före en negation (såvida det inte är betonat, då det även kan stå efter en negation) (2).

    (1) a. Varför kommer fotografen inte imorgon istället?

    b. Varför kommer inte fotografen imorgon istället?

    (2) a. Varför kommer hon inte imorgon istället?

    b. *Varför kommer inte hon imorgon istället?

    Inom den formella grammatiken har det föreslagits att det finns två positioner för subjekt, en högre position för subjekt som uttrycker känd information och en lägre position för subjekt som uttrycker ny information (t.ex. Westergaard 2008). Eftersom pronominella subjekt normalt refererar till kända subjekt står de oftast i den högre positionen. Forskning har visat att svenskspråkiga barn redan i tidig ålder placerar subjekt i den högre positionen, medan den lägre subjektspositionen används först i ett senare skede (Waldmann 2008). Subjektets informationsstruktur har dock inte beaktats i tidigare forskning om svenskspråkiga barn.

    I denna presentation behandlas interaktionen mellan subjektsposition och subjektets informationsstruktur i förstaspråksinlärning av svenska. Det undersökta materialet består av 45 000 barnyttranden från 4 svenskspråkiga barn i åldern 1;3–4;0. Resultaten visar att barnen föredrar den högre positionen för pronominella subjekt (84 % pron-neg) och den lägre positionen för DP-subjekt (80 % neg-DP). Ur ett utvecklingsperspektiv uppträder pron-neg och neg-DP cirka 6 månader före neg-pron och DP-neg i barnens produktion.

    Dessutom har ett material bestående av barnriktat tal (54 000 vuxenyttranden) undersökts. Resultaten visar att de mönster som återfinns i barnens produktion i stor utsträckning återspeglar de mönster som återfinns i den input som barnen exponeras för. Det verkar alltså som att barn är känsliga för informationsstrukturella egenskaper redan i tidig ålder.

  • 22.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    The acquisition of embedded verb placement in Scandinavian: On transfer, verb type and input2014In: 17th World Congress of the International Association of Applied Linguistics (AILA), Brisbane, August 10-15, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Verb placement in main and embedded clauses has attracted much attention among first language acquisition researchers. For example, to researchers on the acquisition of the Scandinavian languages one central question is why children acquiring verb second in main clauses and the Mainland Scandinavian (MSc) verb placement in embedded clauses (Negation-Verb order) never make verb placement errors in main clauses but incorrectly place verbs before negation/adverbs in embedded clauses:

    (1) *…om ni   behöver inte några brädor. (Swedish, Harry 3;0)       …if   you need       not   any    boards       ‘…if you don’t need any boards.’       Target: …om ni inte behöver några brädor.

    In previous research on Faroese, Norwegian and Swedish, various factors and their influence on the acquisition of embedded verb placement have been explored, such as transfer of the syntax of verb second from main to embedded clauses, the specific syntactic properties of auxiliaries and modals, and misinterpretation of the language input. Yet, it is still unclear what factors influence the acquisition of Negation-Verb order in embedded clauses. One problematic aspect is the lack of comparable data from different ages, both within languages and between languages.

    In this presentation, new data on the acquisition of Negation-Verb order in embedded clauses are presented. The data come from two elicitation experiments with Swedish-acquiring children aged 4-6 years. The results of the first experiment, which was conducted with 17 5-6 year old children, suggest that the syntactic properties of auxiliaries and modals, but not transfer, may influence the placement of verbs in embedded clauses. The second experiment, which is currently being designed, will be conducted to evaluate these results with 4-5 year olds.

    The new data will complement existing spontaneous and elicited data from Faroese, Norwegian and Swedish children; the influence of various factors on the acquisition of verb placement in embedded clauses will be investigated.

  • 23.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature. Umeå University.
    The acquisition of Neg-V and V-Neg in embedded clauses in Swedish: A microparametric approach2012In: Decennium : The First Ten Years of CASTL, Tromsö, September 13, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation deals with the acquisition of embedded verb placement in Swedish children, focusing the position of the finite verb in relation to a negation or sentence-medial adverb. In Swedish, the verb typically follows the negation/sentence adverb in embedded clauses (Neg-V); however, in embedded clauses introduced by att ‘that’, the verb may sometimes precede the negation/sentence adverb (V-Neg):

    (1) De   frågade om han inte ville     komma imorgon. (Neg-V)

         they asked    if   he   not   wanted come    tomorrow

    (2) De   trodde   att  han ville    inte komma imorgon. (V-Neg)

         they thought that he  wanted not  come    tomorrow

    Investigating child speech and child-directed speech from four Swedish-speaking children between the age of 1;6 and 4;0, it is demonstrated that, despite the lack of clear evidence for the Neg-V order in the input to Swedish children, the children distinguish between different types of embedded clauses in the acquisition of Neg-V and V-Neg already between the age of 3 and 4. However, at the earliest stage, the children often use V-Neg in embedded clauses that only allow Neg-V in adult Swedish.

    It is argued that the findings can be neatly accommodated in a microparametric approach to language acquisition, according to which children are sensitive to very fine syntactic distinctions in the input and are able to produce these fine distinctions at an early age (see for example Westergaard 2008, 2009a, 2009b). The findings are also in agreement with the hypothesis of economy of movement developed by Westergaard & Bentzen (2007). At the earliest stage, a principle of economy of movement creates an overuse of V-Neg order in Swedish children’s embedded clauses, while the extremely low frequency of the target-consistent Neg-V order in child-directed Swedish obstructs children from revising their initial hypothesis about the verb placement in embedded clauses, creating a delay in the acquisition of Neg-V.

    Finally, comparing child-directed Swedish to child-directed German, it is further proposed that the presence of clear evidence for verb-final in the input to German children aids error-free acquisition of embedded verb placement in German (see for example Rothweiler 1993).

    REFERENCES

    Rothweiler, Monika. 1993. Der Erwerb von Nebensätzen im Deutschen: eine Pilotstudie. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

    Westergaard, Marit. 2008. Acquisition and change: on the robustness of the triggering experience for word order cues. Lingua 118(12), 1841-1863.

    Westergaard, Marit. 2009a. The Acquisition of Word Order: Micro-cues, information structure, and economy. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    Westergaard, Marit. 2009b. Usage-based vs. rule-based learning: the acquisition of word order in wh-questions in English and Norwegian. Journal of Child Language 36(5), 1023-1051.

    Westergaard, Marit & Kristine Bentzen. 2007. The (non-) effect of input frequency on the acquisition of word order in Norwegian embedded clauses. In Insa Gülzow & Natalia Gagarina (eds.), Frequency effects in language acquisition: defining the limits of frequency as an explanatory concept, 271-306. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

  • 24.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå university.
    The Acquisition of Neg-V and V-Neg Order in Embedded Clauses in Swedish: A Microparametric Approach2014In: Language Acquisition, ISSN 1048-9223, E-ISSN 1532-7817, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 45-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the acquisition of embedded verb placement in Swedish children, focusing Neg-V and V-Neg order. It is proposed that a principle of economy of movement creates an overuse of V-Neg order in Swedish children’s embedded clauses and that the extremely low frequency of the target-consistent Neg-V order in child-directed Swedish obstructs children from revising their initial hypothesis about the verb placement in embedded clauses, creating a delay in the acquisition of Neg-V. However, it is also demonstrated that, despite the lack of clear evidence for the Neg-V order in Swedish children’s input, the children distinguish between different types of embedded clauses in the acquisition of Neg-V and V-Neg order already between the age of three and four years, supporting a microparametric approach to language acquisition. Comparing child-directed Swedish to child-directed German, it is further proposed that the presence of clear evidence for verb-final in the input to German children aids error-free acquisition of embedded verb placement in German.

  • 25.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Byrman, Gunilla
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Inte ens en gång: a tautological colloquial construction2003In: Grammatik i fokus : Festskrift till Christer Platzack den 18 november 2003 : Volume 2: Grammar in focus : Festschrift for Christer Platzack 18 November 2003 : Volume 2 / [ed] Lars-Olof Delsing, Cecilia Falk, Gunlög Josefsson, Halldór Á. Sigurdsson, Lund: Institutionen för nordiska språk, Lunds universitet , 2003, p. 377-382Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Byrman, Gunilla
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Inte ens en gång: En tautologisk talspråkskonstruktion2003In: HumaNetten, ISSN 1403-2279, no 13Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I sydsvenskt talspråk används ofta den tautologiska konstruktionstypen ens en gång i stället för ens för att uttrycka emfas i förbindelse med negation. Det negativa polaritetsordet ens har tidigare undersökts i förbindelse med negationen inte (Waldmann 2002). Det visar sig i den studien att realisationen kan beskrivas utifrån Chomsky (1999).

    I de sydsvenska dialekterna verkar däremot konstruktionen ens en gång vara en regionalmotsvarighet till ens och tillika den vanligast förekommande konstruktionstypen i äldres kånska dialekter (Isaksson 2002). Excerpter ur dialektsamlingarna i Dialekt- och Ortnamnsarkivet i Lund (DAL) och SOFI Dialektavdelningen i Uppsala (DA) visar 6 belägg på inte ens en gång i Skåne, 2 i västra Blekinge och 1 i södra Halland. Men konstruktionen kan givetvis finnas i andra dialektområden utan att vara belagd i dialektarkiv (jfr Eaker 2002). I denna studie behandlas konstruktionen ens en gång när den förekommer tillsammans med satsnegationen.

  • 27.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Dockrell, Julie
    University College London, UK.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University.
    Att stötta talspråklig förmåga: lärmiljöer, lärtillfällen och interaktioner2016In: ASLA : Språk och norm: Sammandrag av sektionsföredrag, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den talspråkliga förmågan ligger till grund för och interagerar med läs- och skrivutvecklingen och med inlärning i andra skolämnen. En begränsad språklig förmåga hos barn medför en högre risk för svårigheter med läs- och skrivinlärningen, och för svaga skolprestationer. Alla barn har rätt till en skolmiljö som stöttar deras talspråksutveckling, tillfällen att öva och utveckla sina talspråkliga färdigheter och interaktioner med mer kvalificerade samtalspartners som utmanar deras talspråkliga förmåga. Läraren och undervisningen spelar en avgörande roll för att förskolebarn/skolelever ska kunna utveckla sina talspråkliga färdigheter. Hur barns/elevers talspråkliga utveckling stöttas i förskolan/skolan är dock oklart. Som stöd i sin professionella utveckling kan lärare använda verktyg för att identifiera såväl styrkor som utvecklingsbehov i de fysiska lärmiljöerna, lärtillfällena och interaktionerna i lärmiljöer/klassrum med fokus på hur dessa stöttar barns/elevers talspråks- utveckling. I denna presentation redovisar vi resultaten från en undersökning av 20 klassrum i årskurs 1 där lärare har använt en svensk version av ett evidensbaserat observationsverktyg för att identifiera såväl styrkor som utvecklingsbehov i de fysiska lärmiljöerna, lärtillfällena och interaktionerna. Observationsverktyget som användes i undersökningen (Communication Supporting Classroom Observation Tool) utvecklades i Storbritannien och bygger i alla delar på forskningsevidens om vilka lärmiljöer, lärtillfällen och interaktioner som utgör språkutvecklande inslag i undervisningen. Syftet var att undersöka observationsverktygets tillämpbarhet i en svensk skolkontext. Kvantitativ och kvalitativ data samlades in. Resultaten redovisas och diskuteras i relation till resultaten från en stor undersökning i 101 klassrum i Storbritannien. 

  • 28.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Dockrell, Julie
    University College London, UK.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University.
    Supporting indigenous bilingual children's oral language development2015In: ALAA/ALANZ/ALTAANZ 2015: Learning in a Multilingual World, Adelaide, November 30-December 2, 2015: Abstract Listing : As at 25 November 2015, 2015, p. 132-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child states that children from minority groups have the right to learn, use and develop their indigenous/minority languages, and a primary goal for the Sami school in Sweden is to support each child’s functional Sami-Swedish bilingualism. However, Sweden continues to receive criticism from the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe for the lack of a comprehensive and structured approach towards minority language education, resources, materials, and teacher training. Oral language development is central to a child ́s ability to access the curriculum and develop literacy skills. All children need an environment supportive of oral language development, and opportunities and interactions with more knowledgeable conversational partners to practice and develop oral language skills. Little is known about how bilingual children’s oral language development in Sami and Swedish is supported. Teachers can be supported by tools that they can use to describe the language learning environments, opportunities and interactions, and to develop their professional practice in the area of effectively supporting young bilingual children ́s oral language development. We report on a pilot study that has adapted the Communication Supporting Classrooms Observation Tool to the Swedish school context. This adaption is a first step towards adapting and using this tool in bilingual North and South Sami (pre)schools. The results of the pilot study are discussed in relation to the challenges of setting up a research project examining the support of oral language development in both the indigenous Sami languages and the national language Swedish.

  • 29.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Dockrell, Julie
    University College London, UK.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University.
    Supporting language learning environments, opportunities and interactions in bilingual Sami-Swedish (pre)school contexts2016In: 14th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Education, Honolulu, January 3-6, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child states that children from minority groups have the right to learn, use and develop their indigenous/minority languages:

    In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practise his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language. (Article 30).

    In Sweden, the parliament affirmed the right of national minorities to learn, use and develop their minority languages in 2005, and in 2009 this right was written into Swedish law (the Swedish Language Act 2009:600, and the Act on National Minorities and National Minority Languages 2009:724). However, Sweden continues to receive strong criticism from the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (2015) for the lack of a comprehensive and structured approach towards minority language education, resources, materials, and teacher training.

    Oral language development “is central to a child´s ability to access the curriculum and develop literacy skills” (Dockrell et al 2010). In a minority language context, supporting oral language skills is central for language maintenance and revitalization, and for developing a functional bilingualism. A primary goal for the Sami school in Sweden is to support each child’s functional Sami-Swedish bilingualism. Considering the importance of oral language, all children need an environment supportive of oral language development, and opportunities and interactions with more knowledgeable conversational partners to practice and develop oral language and communication skills for all languages. Supporting and enhancing oral language skills for the diverse learners in school settings can be challenging, and little is known about how bilingual children’s oral language development in Sami and Swedish is supported. Teachers can be supported by tools that they can use to describe the language learning environments, opportunities and interactions, and to develop their professional practice in the area of effectively supporting young bilingual children´s oral language development. In this presentation, we report on a pilot study that has adapted the Communication Supporting Classrooms Observation Tool (Dockrell et al 2015) to the Swedish school context. This adaption is a first step towards adapting and using this tool in bilingual North and South Sami (pre)schools. The results of the pilot study are discussed in relation to the challenges of setting up a research project examining the support of oral language development in both the indigenous Sami languages and the national language Swedish.

    References

    Council of Europe. (2015). European charter for regional or minority languages. Application of the Charter in Sweden. 5th Monitoring Cycle. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/minlang/Report/EvaluationReports/SwedenECRML5_en.pdf [downloaded on July 16, 2015].

    Dockrell, J.E, Bakopoulu, I., Law, J., Spencer, S. & Lindsey, G. 2015. Capturing communication supporting classrooms: The development of a tool and feasibility study. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 1-16.

    Dockrell, J.E., Stuart, M., & King, D. 2010. Supporting early oral language skills for English language learners in inner city preschool provision. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 4, 497-515.

    Act on National Minorities and National Minority Languages (2009:724).

    Swedish Language Act (2009:600)

    United Nations. (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. http://www.ohchr.org/ Documents/ProfessionalInterest/crc.pdf [downloaded on July 16, 2015].

  • 30.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University.
    Tankar kring kring: En diakron studie av prepositionsbruket vid kognitionsverb2017In: Språk och stil, ISSN 1101-1165, E-ISSN 2002-4010, Vol. 27, p. 96-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the usage of Swedish prepositions with cognition verbs. Our main focus is on the usage of the preposition kring ‘around’. The study is done within the framework of Cognitive Linguistics, and the notions of trajectory (TR) and landmark (LM) are used to describe the relationships involved. Questions asked are 1. Has the usage of kring with cognition verbs changed over time? If so, how? and 2. Has the preposition usage with the cognition verbs filosofera ‘philosophize’, fokusera ‘focus’, forska ‘research’, fundera ‘contemplate’, reflektera ‘reflect’, resonera ‘reason’, spekulera ‘speculate’, and tänka ‘think’ changed over time? If so, how?

    The study is based on news texts from the period of 1923-2012 from the Korp Corpus. Taken together, the investigated data contains 3.7 million sentences and 56 million tokens of press texts.

    Our results show that changes in the usages of the prepositions are specific to each verb rather than following an overall trend. Throughout the period, the verbs fokusera, fundera, reflektera, spekulera and tänka are used with prepositions that suggest that people’s thoughts (TR) are directed down towards, or into, abstract topics (LM). The verbs filosofera, forska, and resonera, on the other hand, are used with prepositions that suggest thinking (TR) around abstract topics (LM). There is an increase in the usage of kring with resonera, and a decrease in the usage of kring with fokusera.

  • 31.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Kroik, David
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Supporting minority languages: issues and problems with creating and using spoken language corpora2014In: 17th World Congress of the International Association of Applied Linguistics (AILA), Brisbane, August 10-15, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation considers creation of spoken minority language corpora and how these can be used to support minority language education across the entire educational spectrum. The Saami languages are a group of minority languages spoken in Northern Scandinavia, Finland and Russia. In the Saami context there is currently one major language project that focuses on North Saami, Davvisámegiel mánáid giellaovdáneapmi (DASAGO), and is building two longitudinal corpora, one for monolingual acquisition and one for bilingual North Saami/Norwegian. Of the Saami languages, North Saami is the most widely spoken with approximately 25 000 speakers. The DASAGO project has no explicit educational objectives, yet its findings will be of relevance for the development of educational materials for North Saami. Another project creating an oral language corpus for a Saami language is Mávulasj, a spoken Lule Saami documentation project that has explicit educational objectives. Lule Saami has approximately 500 speakers. Creating spoken language corpora that are of relevance for education is complex. Drawing on the experiences of creating these corpora, we explore the complexities of spoken minority language corpus creation through an ongoing South Saami project based in Umeå, Sweden. South Saami is a language with circa 500 speakers and in contrast to North Saami the speakers are spread over a large geographic area. The low number of speakers, the geographical spread, and the even lower number of advanced first language speakers, poses additional problems for the South Sami spoken corpus’ construction, and its use in the development of education materials. Using examples, we illustrate how corpora can be used to support the development of culturally relevant innovative teaching materials that can assist in language revitalization, and illustrate how corpora can be misused and result in linguistically incorrect teaching materials.

  • 32.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Skrivande hos elever med olika typer av lässvårigheter2019In: Klassrumsforskning och språk(ande): Rapport från ASLA-symposiet i Karlstad, 12-13 april, 2018 / [ed] Birgitta Ljung Egeland, Tim Roberts, Erica Sandlund, Pia Sundqvist, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2019, p. 305-323Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks textlängd, narrativ kvalitet, lexikal variation och stavning i narrativa texter skrivna i årskurs 3 av elever identifierade med typisk respektive svag avkodning och/eller läsförståelse i en screening i årskurs 2. Deltagare är 16 elever med avkodningssvårigheter, 19 elever med läsförståelsesvårigheter, 12 elever med både avkodnings- och läsförståelsesvårigheter samt 16 elever med typisk avkodning och läsförståelse. Textmaterialet består av den fria narrativa skrivuppgiften i det nationella ämnesprovet i årskurs 3. Texterna analyseras med hjälp av kvantitativa mått på textlängd, narrativ kvalitet, lexikal variation och stavning samt deskriptiva och parametriska analysmetoder. Resultaten visar att det finns signifikanta skillnader i textlängd, narrativ kvalitet och lexikal variation mellan de fyra elevgrupperna. Alla tre grupper med lässvårigheter skrev signifikant kortare texter jämfört med gruppen med typisk läsförmåga. Narrativ kvalitet och lexikal variation visade sig vara särskilt utmanande för grupperna med läsförståelsesvårigheter. Stavning uppvisade inga signifikanta skillnader mellan några grupper. Sammantaget indikerar studien att elever med läsförståelsesvårigheter utgör en särskilt sårbar grupp i skrivutvecklingen.

  • 33.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå University.
    Skriven textproduktion hos elever med och utan lässvårigheter2018In: Presented at ASLA-symposiet 2018, Karlstad, Sweden, April 12-13, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    How the Materiality of Mobile Video Chats Shapes Emergent Language Learning Practices in Early Childhood2019In: Emergent Practices and Material Conditions in Learning and Teaching with Technologies / [ed] Teresa Cerratto Pargman, Isa Jahnke, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 217-229Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language learning practices are shaped by their material conditions. Using an action research case study intervention, this paper shows how the introduction of mobile video chats for children learning a home language creates the material conditions for language engagement and participation practice to emerge that encourage the learning of the home language in additional contexts. The mobile video chat’s concomitant role in enacting change in the children’s home language learning practices facilitates home language learning in authentic and meaningful interactions. The material characteristics of the microphone, the web-camera, the loudspeaker, Skype and the portability of the tablet together with the material characteristics of their physical environment have the potential to enact change in children’s additional language learning through listening, seeing, speaking, moving, and showing in virtual interaction with a grandparent as adult conversational partner.

  • 35.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Syntax Rules and (Un)Grammaticality2019In: Applied Linguistics for Teachers of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners / [ed] Nabat Erdogan, Michael Wei, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2019, p. 103-126Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter deals with syntax rules and grammaticality judgments in the teaching and learning of English as a second and foreign language for linguistically diverse learners. Grammaticality judgment tasks are used in linguistic research to probe speakers’ implicit knowledge about the syntactic rules of language. This chapter discusses grammaticality judgment tasks in educational contexts and proposes a method for teaching syntactic rules of English based on the grammaticality judgments of second and foreign language learners of English. The chapter also attempts to raise grammatical consciousness for teaching of English as a second or foreign language as well as illustrating how various media can be used to design and present grammaticality judgment tasks to support language learning and learner engagement, participation, and motivation.

  • 36.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Sullivan, Kirk PH
    Umeå University.
    Att stödja barns språkliga utveckling: Miljöer, lärtillfällen och interaktioner i klassrum2017In: Språk och norm: Rapport från ASLA:s symposium, Uppsala universitet 21-22 april 2016 / [ed] Saga Bendegard, Ulla Melander Marttala, Maria Westman, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2017, p. 160-168Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Umeå University.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University.
    Using tablets to facilitate authentic language learning opportunities and interactions: A case study of young isolated language learners2013In: 3rd combined ALANZ & ALAA Conference, Wellington, November 27-29, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young language learners require rich exposure to natural language input coupled with opportunities to use and practice their language skills in a range of authentic interactive contexts. Without such opportunities it has been shown that children are at greater risk of formal educational failure; home and the classroom settings have been shown to be important for children’s language growth, and lexical, syntactic and pragmatic ability. Some young language learners are isolated from the community in which the language is spoken. This can, for example, be the case for young indigenous language learners, heritage language learners, and young refugees who are often learners of these language as an additional language to the language of the community in which they are living. Young additional language learners such as these are at risk of not receiving rich language exposure, language learning opportunities and authentic language interactions in their additional languages, and at risk of not developing linguistic skills in these languages.

    To investigate whether tablets facilitate authentic language learning opportunities and interactions for young isolated additional language learners an action research study was undertaken. Four isolated language learners (aged 3, 7, 9 and 11) were given iPads to communicate with their heritage language grandparents; previously Skype on stationary computers had been used. The children were free to use either the stationary computer or the iPad. The richness of the interactions increased with the iPad being embedded in the authentic interactions in a way that the stationary computer had not been. Further the children preferred the iPad and an increase in the quality and quantity of the language interactions was observed. The potential for introducing iPad to support additional language learning will be discussed, and the virtual additional language tablet pre-school outlined.

1 - 37 of 37
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