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  • 1.
    Ekberg, Margareta Stigsdotter
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Anderberg, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Dahlberg, Mikael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Ungdomar med missbruksproblem och deras uppfattning om skolproblem2016Ingår i: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 36, nr 4, 266-278 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the article is to highlight school problems of adolescents with alcohol and drug problems in Sweden. Bronfenbrenners social-ecological model has been applied in a quantitative content analysis of 415 interviews in connection with the adolescent’s admission of an outpatient contact. The results show that over a third of the adolescents statements are linked to individual characteristics or abilities, while problems related to the school are 13 percent, interaction with peers to 13 percent, and with the connection to the family of 3 percent. About a third of the statements involve both individual factors and the school, and the interaction between these. An important conclusion is that most of these adolescents are still enrolled in school and that several of the school problems mentioned in the study are changeable and thus possible to remedy through both an educational and social support that promotes their connection to the school.

  • 2.
    Ekberg, Margareta Stigsdotter
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Dahlberg, Mikael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Anderberg, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Ungdomar med missbruksproblem och deras uppfattning om skolproblem2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Det godkända fusket: Normförhandlingar i gymnasieskolans bedömningspraktiker2014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Education on behalf of social trust constitutes a central theme in all societies. Different forms of cheating and fraud have a negative impact on the bonds of social trust. The purpose of the thesis is to increase understanding of the scope for learning about the individual-society relationship as it finds expression in pedagogical practices involving norms relating to cheating. The established norms concerning school cheating are identified in group-based discussions involving Upper Secondary students and teachers.

    Students ascribe each other roles on the basis of the perceived capacity to produce school results and thereby also to justify the need for school cheating. In the norm negotiations a significant tolerance is shown towards cheating which is adjudged to be necessary, provided that a hierarchic, fair distribution of grades can be retained.

    The teachers perceive expectations of acting for goal fulfilment, in the form of good student grades, as based on economic arguments. Good student grades imply satisfied customers in a market exposed to competition and a strong market value for the individual school. From a critical viewpoint these norms are related to the contemporary, dominant neo-liberal principles of commercialisation and individualisation in social organisation.

    The school actors perceive, in accordance with stratified norm theory, the norms from economic systems of conduct as more strongly conditioning on conduct than those norms from political-administrative or socio-cultural conduct systems. The teachers are aware of expectations, in hidden concert and consent with other school stakeholders, to offer social approval for student cheating and sympathetic marking concerning the lowest grade for passing i.e. violation of rules, where this is necessary to meet the economic as well as political-administrative objectives that have been established.

    To be part of pedagogic practices involving school cheating implies learning to uncouple rules and practice, law and morality. Such a double agenda is incompatible with norms and ideals in official curricula as well as being destructive of the bonds of social trust; it thereby functions as a hidden curriculum. 

  • 4.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    „Všichni vědí, že opisovat se nemá, ale stejně to každý dělá.“ Pedagogický pohled na paradoxy „férového“ opisování: "Everybody knows that cheating is wrong, but everybody does it anyway": Educational paradoxes of fair cheating2013Ingår i: Studia Paedagogica, ISSN 1803-7437, Vol. 18, nr 2-3, 73-92 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This empirical study shows that Swedish upper secondary students and teachers perceive the control of procedures for knowledge checks and grading so inadequate that the distribution of final assesment risks being unfair. In a market-orientated competitive school system, managed by objectives and results, grades tend to be regarded as the best measure of educatioal quality. Student grades thus become important for individual students, teachers and schools. Particularly important as educational hard currency is the lowest acceptable grade level, that distinguishes failures from result-achievement. Data from discussions on norms indicate that students and teachers (all of whom discussed the matters seperately) show a clear justice-based tolerance for school-cheating perceived as re-securing a fair distribution of grades. The teachers are particularly tolerant to cheating students who would risk failing grades had they not cheated. Explicit prohibitions of cheating are thereby outcompeted by negotiated social norms of justice that implicitly encourages some forms of cheating. The well-known double agenda is kept as a hidden truth and thereby reproduced.

  • 5.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    "Det är nästan som lite ansvar att fuska": En kritisk analys av hur normer kring skolfuskpraktik i gymnasieskolan villkoras av en tilltagande marknadisering av utbildning2012Ingår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 21, nr 2, 61-80 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As a consequence of an emerging marketisation, the Swedish upper secondary school is increasingly governed through standard-based reforms along with a view on students as customers. This development also changes the conditions for everyday school activities. With fixed minima standards for approved performances of individual students, as well as for single school units, negotiation arises on how the expected results are allowed to be reached. Students in difficulties of passing the fixed limits for acceptable grades become hard currency in the struggle for schools to fulfill the set standards. Framed by this context, norm-negotiations among school actors in the form of students and teachers, shows notable tolerance for test-cheating by students in difficulties of performing. The cheating is legitimized within interacting discourses of mercy and norms of performance. Explicit prohibitions of cheating are thereby outcompeted by negotiated social norms that implicitly encourages cheating if it is considered necessary for fulfilling minimum standards.

  • 6.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Fusk i skolan2015Ingår i: Skola & samhälle, ISSN 2001-6727Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Lämplighetsprövning inför antagning till lärarutbildning och några andra jämförbara professionsutbildningar: Översikten sammanställd på uppdrag av Universitets- och Högskolerådet (UHR)2017Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Ökande krav och ökande komplexitet i utbildningssystem över hela världen innebär nya utmaningar. Ett sätt att möta utmaningar i form av lärarbrist och allmän skolkritik är att utbilda flera lärare med de rätta kvaliteterna. Lämplighetsprövningar inför antagning till lärarutbildning används i flera länder som en kvalitetssäkring både som en följd av politiska reformer och utifrån internt kvalitetsarbete i lärarutbildningar.

    Forskning kring lämplighetsantagning har sitt ursprung i framförallt Nordamerika men en del studier kommer också ifrån Europa. Många studier är framförallt beskrivande och påfallande få studier följer upp lärarkvalitet efter lämplighetsantagning.

    I forskningen redovisas en betydande enighet i vilka lärarkvaliteter som anses värdefulla. I de flesta lämplighetsprövningar inför antagning till lärarutbildning fokuseras förmågor till muntlig och skriftlig kommunikation, socialt interaktiv förmåga, ledarskapsförmåga och motivation.

    Metoderna för att genomföra urvalsbedömningar är mångskiftande. En kombination av stegvisa delprov där sökandegruppen succesivt minskas är vanlig, liksom att resurskrävande delprov avslutar antagningsprocessen. Vanliga metoder för lämplighetsprövning är essäskrivande, självbiografier, gruppövningar, referensbrev och personliga intervjuer.

    I de studier där sökandes resultat från antagningsbedömningar har följts upp är resultaten inte entydiga. Betyg från tidigare utbildningar anses generellt kunna prognosticera framgång i utbildningars teoretiska delar. En handfull uppföljande studier av lämplighetsantagna studenters prestationer under utbildningspraktik indikerar att resultat från lämplighetsprövning, i grova drag, kan förutsäga framgång i utbildningspraktik. Studier med uppföljning även efter avslutad utbildning är så få att inga slutsatser kan dras.

    I flera länder pågår sedan ett trettiotal år tillbaka diskussioner om hur skolelever skall få tillgång till ett bredare spektrum av lärarrollmodeller. Resultat från studier om eventuella diskriminerande effekter av lämplighetsantagning i förhållande till antagning via betyg eller högskoleprov är mångskiftande. I vissa studier beskrivs framgångsrika försök att bredda rekryteringsbasen via lämplighetsantagning. I andra studier beskrivs inslag i lämplighetsbedömning som svårhanterliga för vissa grupper av sökande till lärarutbildning.

    Kostnaderna för antagning med lämplighetsprov beskrivs genomgående att vara höga, framförallt om individuella intervjuer ingår. Studier av kostnadseffektivitet finner att besparingar kan göras genom en antagningsprocess i flera steg med intervjuer som sista delprov eller genom att intervjuerna byts ut emot gruppövningar eller självbiografiska essäer.

    Resultat från studier kring lämplighetsantagning till jämförbara professionsutbildningar skiljer sig inte nämnvärt från motsvarande studier med fokus på lärarutbildningar.

  • 8.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Lunds universitet.
    Rollspel som pedagogisk metod i samhällskunskapsundervisning1994Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Bedömning av lärarkvalitet vid antagning till lärarutbildningen2017Ingår i: Att bedöma lärarkvalitet: Skicklighet, lämplighet & kompetens / [ed] Per Gerrevall, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2017, 1, 137-150 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    School cheating on the conditions of audit society2015Ingår i: ECER 2015, Education and Transtition. Contributions from Educational Research. Network: 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders and Organisations., 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    General desciption

    Trends in modern society put demands on how educational activities can be organized. Institutionalized education system needs continuous legitimation (Schiro, 2008).

    Meritocratic principles have long been an integral pillar of justice and social trust in liberal democracies. Life opportunities should be allocated on individual performance. Fair and clear procedures for how knowledge is assessed and graded thereby becomes a central element of a legitimate education and a central aspect of teachers' work. Duplaga and Astani (2010) has shown how proceduriell justice is a key in students' perceptions of fairness in educational contexts.

    Contemporary society can be understood as an audit society where public enterprises are constantly exposed to a strong focus on comparing results and to a comprehensive audit (Power, 1999). Performance and accountability have become dominant value concepts in education (Solbrekke & Englund, 2011). In the audit society legitimate educational organizations are expected to produce both good results and to follow quality assured routines in doing this (Ahlbäck Öberg & Wockelberg, 2012).

    The performative turn implies a strong focus on measurable outcome (Ball, 2000), which in the world of education may consist of grades documenting pupils knowledge. Evaluation of school quality based on student performance is a strongly growing global trend (Figlio & Loeb, 2011). This is done both at the international level through eg PISA surveys and at the local level through the rankings of schools' grade results. The average points of final grades from the Swedish compulsory and upper secondary schools has greatly increased between the years 1994-2011 (Vlachos, 2012) while the PISA surveys show a deterioration of Swedish student achievement in comparison with students in other countries (Ministry of Education, 2013).

    Sweden's education system was deregulated by political decisions in the early 1990’s and Sweden is today considered as one of the most education-liberalized countries in the world (Levin, 2013). Students grade results have become an important factor in the competition between schools in attracting new students. The performative culture of competition also includes a strong emphasis on individual accountability (Apple, 2007) which affect the possible roles of pupils and teachers.

    In the audit society simultaneous demands are put on organizations and individual employees to act according to formalized procedures for grading  while creating good grading results. The parallel responsibility is not without problems. Within the framework of new institutionell theory Meyer and Rowan (1977) argues that formalized procedures for quality assurance can make it difficult for organizations to produce good results in an effective way. School-cheating is a phenomenon that can be understood as problematic for teachers' work in relation to both the expectations of complying correct procedures for assessment and for opportunities to exhibit good grade results.

    Strong expectations for good measurable resultats and for comprehensive audit routines conditions how organizations prioritize and evaluate its practical activity (Ahlbäck Öberg & Wockelberg, 2012). Pupils and parents demand for good grades are clearly an element of the dilemmas that arise when teachers' professional ethics meet market logics (Fredriksson, 2010) The Swedish teachers' unions expresses concern that teachers are increasingly subject to pressure in terms of setting high scores (Lärarnas Riksförbund, 2011).

    Teachers evaluating student knowledge are faced with a goal- and norm conflict where expectations to act as rule complying bureaucrats are likely to be in conflict with the expectation of acting flexibly and customer-friendly towards pupils and their parents. The research question for this study is: How do teachers, based on the phenomenon of students 'school cheating, argue for appropriate courses of action?

    Methods / Methodology

    Data has been collected by letting 12 swedish teacher at a college preparatory high school debate in two focus group sessions. The starting point for the discussions where the result of previous studies in which pupils norms (at the same school) on school cheating were identified. The pupil norms shows i.a. that students socially tolerate schoolcheating from schoolmates in difficulties of coping with tests at school as long as the cheating only extends to the minimum pass grade level. Tolerance for schoolcheating also goes for pupils in temporary difficulty to perform at a normal level. These are tolerated to cheat up to the grade level they usually achieve. Clever students as well as lazy students are not tolerated to cheat at all.

    From the data generated in the teachers' discussions norms were identified that teachers perceive as regulations on how they should act in relation to school cheating. Social norm theory assumes that people who share a community need to negotiate the social norms for how to act in situations of common interest (Hydén, 2002). These social norms can be observed by leaving "an extensive trail of communication among actors that we can study " (Finnemore & Sikkink, 1998, s.892). The method for analyzing data has been meaning-concentration according to Lindseth & Norberg (2004).

    The methodology has roots in critical hermeneutical approaches (Gadamer, 1989) and are handled in a two step process. First, norms that teachers perceive to be conditionality for their actions in grading practices are identified and secondly the identified norms are understood in the social context of audit society of education.

    In critical hermeneutics focus is layed on critical examination of the interpretations people do in their lived experiences. In a methology based on critical hermeneutics an interpreting aproach with its focus on understanding the local on an actor level meets a critical approach with an interest in structural explanatory models.

    The critical approach also links to critical realism which, i.a. includes a point of departure where social structures are seen as preceding participants' actions. In critical realism structures are understood to be hierarchically ordered based on their power to resist transformation by the actions of individuals. Physically material structures are difficult for people to transform whereas social trends are easier to modify. Economically affiliated norms are understood as connected to physically material structures and thereby also strong conditionality for individual actions.

    Expected outcomes

    The empirical data shows that the teachers perceive that they are held personally accountable for their students' grade results. A low proportion of failing grades are perceived to be the school management clearest indicator of both a highly competent teacher and a competitive school unit.

    Teachers perceive that high effectiveness, i.e. that all pupils at least achive passing grades, is impossible if formal procedures for grading shall be fully obeyed.

    The teachers are faced with a conflict where they need to negotiate how the priorities of the normconflict are best solved. Strictly following rules makes it difficult to meet the expectations of  good student grades.

    The negotiations shows that teachers perceive the expectations of pupils, pupils parents and school management to perform well in terms of good pupil’s grades as stronger than expectations to strictly comply with both national regulations regarding grading and local rules for how school cheating should be prevented and managed.

     The teachers see it as desirable not to follow upp on suspicions of cheating at school because it could be regarded as customer-unfriendly to discredit pupils. The teachers regret that expectations to act customer-friendly makes it difficult for them to work with social norms that they find important.

    The teachers perceive it as desirable that they help to cover the organizational goal- and normconflict by not pretend about it. By ostensibly hiding the norm-conflict, school may outwardly be able to show both a strong legal framework to combat school cheating and high achievement in the form of good grades. The apparent solution of the goal- and norm-conflict can be understood by Meyer and Rowan (1977) concept of decoupling. Two conflicting systems are tolerated to operate in parallel without the conflict between them being exposed.

    References

    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin & Wockelberg, Helena (2012). The politics of public administration policy. Statsvetenskaplig tidsskrift, 114(2), s. 273-281.

    Apple, Michael (2007). Ideological success, educational failure? Journal of Teacher Education, 58(2), pp.108-116.

    Ball, Stephen J. (2000). Performativities and fabrications in the education economy: towards the performative society. Australian educational researcher, 27(2), pp.1-23. 

    Duplaga, Edward A. & Astani, Marzie (2010). An exploratory study of student perceptions of which classroom policies are fairest. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 8(1), pp. 9-33.

    Figlio, David & Loeb, Susanna (2011). School accountability. In: Eric A. Hanushek; Stephen Machin & Ludger Woessmann (Eds.). Handbook of the economics of education Vol. 3. Amsterdam: North-Holland. 

    Finnemore, Martha & Sikkink, Kathryn (1998). International norm dynamics and political change. International Organization, 52(4), pp. 887-917.

    Fredriksson, Anders (2010). Marknaden och lärarna: hur organiseringen av skolan påverkar lärares offentliga tjänstemannaskap. Göteborg: Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.

    Gadamer, Hans-Georg (1989). Truth and method. (2., revised edition). London: Sheed and Ward. 

    Hydén, Håkan (2002). Normvetenskap. Lund: Sociologiska institutionen, Lunds universitet.

    Levin, Henry (2013). Vouchers in Sweden: Scores fall, inequality grows. http://dianeravitch.net/2013/03/26/the-swedish-voucher-system-anappraisal/

    Lindseth, Anders & Norberg, Astrid (2004). A phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experience. Scandinavian Journal for Caring Sciences, 18(2), pp.145-153.

    Lärarnas Riksförbund (2011). Betygssättning under påverkan. Rapport.

    Meyer, John, W. & Rowan, Brian (1977). Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as Myth and ceremony. American journal of sociology, 83(2), pp. 340-363.

    Ministry of Education (Skolverket), (2013). Kraftig försämring i Pisa. Pressmeddelande.

    http://www.skolverket.se/press/pressmeddelanden/2013/kraftigforsamring-i-pisa-1.211208

    Power, Michael (1999). The audit society: rituals of verification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Schiro, Michael (2008). Curriculum theory – conflicting visions and enduring concerns. Los Angelses: Sage.

    Vlachos, Jonas (2012). Är vinst och konkurrens en bra modell för skolan? Ekonomisk debatt, 40(4), s. 16-30.

  • 11.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Vilka elever anses ha mera rätt att skolfuska än andra?: ....Och på vilka grunder kan det anses vara ett allvarligare normbrott att lärare aktivt jagar skolfusk än att de blundar för vissa former av fusk?2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Can schoolcheating ever be regarded as a responsible behavior?2012Ingår i: ECER 2012, The Need for Educational Research to Champion Freedom, Education and Development for All: Network: 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    European public education is increasingly governed through management by objectives and results. This development also changes the conditions for different concrete practices in everyday school activities. With fixed criteria for both skill levels of individual students, as well as for the effectiveness of individual school units, negotiations arises on how the expected results are allowed to be met. Students in difficulties of passing the fixed limit for acceptable grades become hard currency in the struggle for schools to achieve their set goals in a competitive education market. From such a meritocratic grounded approach cheating at tests in schools can be regarded as obstructive for schools official assignments of fairly allocation of future life chances. Schoolcheating also risks undermining the social capital that is the ultimate target of values education. Though schoolcheating is formally a violation of rules at the larger Swedish upper secondary school where my studies took place approximately 80% of the students in the academic prepatory social science program admit of schoolcheating during their secondary education. The overall motive for schoolcheating was to achieve desired grades. One category of students experience difficulties in achieving the centrally set criteria for passing the lowest grades. These students cheat to survive in secondary school. (Fonseca 2006).

    Through statistical factor analysis of secondary school pupils' attitudes to the seriousness of schoolcheating and other violations of norms and rules it was found that school cheating can be understood as a socially conventional dilemma. (Nucci 2001) Schoolcheating is thus considered neither as universal right / wrong, or as a free private choice, but as a subject of norm negotiations in a defined culture.

    The special interest of this paper is to examine the paradox that both schoolmates and teachers shows a significant tolerance for survivors rulebreaking acts of school cheating. In normresearch, within Sociology of Law, human behavior is regarded not primarily as governed by rules, but by norms (Hydén, 2002). Norms can be understood as socially reproduced imperatives of action, perceived as expectations by the individual (Baier and Svensson, 2009) and thus fall within what Nucci (2001) calls the social conventional domain.

     

    Research Question

    The aim of this study is (i) to examine the norms of survivors school cheating as negotiated in discussions between students, respectively their teachers and (ii) explain how the goal and result-oriented policy terms can be understood as conditional for these norm formation processes.

     

    Method and methodology

    Guided by the critical theoretical framework in Hydéns (2002) normanalytical approach, as in Faircloughs (2001) critical discourse analysis and Jacksons et al (1968) "The Hidden Curriculum", the analysis initially concerns identifying and interpreting the norms / discourses in students, and teachers' discussions of survivors school cheating. In a second analytic step the identified norms and discourses are related to the structural conditions of goal-and result-oriented policies. The study examines negotiations of norms according survivors school cheating among students in anonymous web-based focus groups, and among teachers at regular team meetings.

    A norm consists analytically of an individual's (i) willingness to - , (ii) the valuation of - (iii) structural conditioned opportunities to act in a certain way (Hyden, 2002). These norm elements are used as analytical tools in the examination of normnegotiations: “Norms' leave an extensive trail of communication among actors that we can study." (Finnemore and Sikkink, 1998, aa, p. 892).

     

    Expected Outcomes

    The student category of survivors is perceived to have difficulties of obtaining the requirements for passing approved grades. Both schoolmates and teachers significant tolerance for survivors schoolcheating is to some degree legitimized in a discourse of mercy with survivors exposed school situation, but to a far greater extent in a discourse of expectations of an effective fulfillment of performance goals for all school operators. Teachers in the survey also feel that management partly considers their professionalism by the achievement level of their students, (in Sweden teachers themselves grade their students).

    In a goal-and results-driven school with fixed lower limits for approved grades the school results of survivors become particularly important to both the survivor himself, to the survivors’ teachers, but also to the individual competitive school unit, who are all first and foremost expected to meet their respective stated performance targets. The results of this paper show that the discursive practice of survivors schoolcheating is conditioned by the goal-and results-oriented social practice which it is embedded in. Explicit prohibitions of cheating are thereby outcompeted by negotiated norms that implicitly encourage cheating / tolerance for students test cheating if it is considered necessary for fulfilling stipulated goals.

     

    References

    Baier, M. och Svensson, M. (2009): Om normer. Malmö (S): Liber.

    Englund, T. och Quennerstedt, A. (2006): Vadå likvärdighet? In: Vetenskapsrådet

    (2006): Resultatdialog 2006 - forskning inom utbildningsvetenskap, p.51-56.

    Vetenskapsrådets rapportserie 15:2006.

    Finnemore, M. och Sikkink, K. (1998): International Norm Dynamics and Political

    Change. International Organization, 1998 (4), p. 887-917.

    Fonseca, L. (2006): Gymnasieelevers uppfattningar om eget skolfusk. Växjö (S):

    Institutionen för pedagogik, Växjö Universitet.

    Fairclough, N. (2001): A dialectical-relational approach to critical discourse analysis in

    social research. I Wodak, R. & Meyer, M. (red.), (2001): Methods of Critical

    Discourse Analysis, p.162-186. London: SAGE Publications.

    Hydén, H. (2002): Normvetenskap. Lund (S): Sociologiska institutionen.

    Jackson, P. W. (1968/1990): Life in classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press.

    Nucci, L. P. (2001): Education in the Moral Domain. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • 13.
    Fonseca, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Ekberg, Margareta Stigsdotter
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Anderberg, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Dahlberg, Mikael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Skolproblematik i relation till ungdomar med missbruksproblem2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolan har en avgörande betydelse för barns och ungdomars utveckling. Skolmisslyckande har i ett flertal studier visat sig vara en särskilt inflytelserik riskfaktor för utvecklandet av drogmissbruk, kriminalitet och psykisk ohälsa. Omvänt hänger en god anknytning till skolan och goda skolresultat samman med en minskad risk för individuella och psykosociala problem som ung vuxen. Detta paper belyser hur ungdomar med alkohol- och narkotikaproblem uppfattar sin skolproblematik och hur de kan relateras till skola, familjeförhållanden, vänner och till den unge själv.

    Studien baseras på underlag från uppgifter som har samlats in av Maria-mottagningarna i Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö och urvalet utgörs av 755 ungdomar som under 2013 påbörjade någon form av behandling på öppenvårdsmottagningarna. Av det empiriska materialet framgår att 433 ungdomar – eller 63 procent – uppger att de har eller har haft skolproblem som påverkat deras närvaro, resultat och/eller trivsel. En kvantitativ innehållsanalys har med stöd av ett socialekologiskt utvecklingsperspektiv samt attributionsteori tillämpats för att skapa kategorier av ungdomarnas utsagor om sina skolproblem.

    De preliminära resultaten illustrerar hur ungdomar med missbruksproblem tillskriver sig själva eller andra yttre faktorer som orsaker till problem i skolan. Av ungdomarnas utsagor kan 37 procent relateras till individuella faktorer som t.ex. koncentrationssvårigheter, inlärningssvårigheter, fysiska eller psykiska problem samt missbruksproblem. Andelen yttranden som kan kopplas till skolan uppgår till 17 procent, till klasskamraterna 11 procent och till familjen 3 procent. En tredjedel av utsagorna kan hänföras till relationen mellan ungdomarna och skolan i form av skolfrånvaro, motivationsproblematik och otrivsel med skolan.

    Studien pekar även på ett antal implikationer där skolan lyfts fram som en betydelsefull skyddande faktor mot fortsatta alkohol- och narkotikaproblem, genom att med pedagogiskt och socialt stöd stärka elevers engagemang för skolarbetet parallellt med behandling samt som en möjlighet att återintegrera de ungdomar som hoppat av skolan i förtid. 

  • 14.
    Fonseca, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Gerrevall, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Trials of suitability testing prior to admission to teacher education in Sweden2017Ingår i: Abstract book. NERA 2017. Learning and education - material conditions and consequences. Copenhangen, Denmark, 23-25 March, 2017, 2017, 387Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Trials of suitability testing prior to admission to teacher education in Sweden

    RELEVANCE FOR NORDIC EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH - Contemporary Swedish reports on teacher education and the teaching profession focus decreasing status of the teaching profession (Skolvärlden, 2014), a large future teacher shortage (Regeringen, 2016), major defection from teacher education (UKÄ 2016), an increasing number of complaints against individual teachers and schools (Skolinspektionen 2015) and falling ratings in PISA's knowledge assessments (OECD 2015). Related concerns are found in the other Nordic countries, with the exception of Finland (Nordic Council of Ministers 2009)

    In many of the problems described the good teacher is a prerequisite for improvement. The state's public inquiry (SOU 2008:109) states that "the single most important factor for a school system to be successful is that the right people become teachers.” (ibid., p.424)

    In 2014 The Swedish government asked for the holding of “a trial with requirements for suitability tests before entering the teacher and preschool teacher education ". Linnaeus University has, as one of two universities, been responsible for developing and trying out the suitability tests prior to admission in autumn 2016.

    The Linnaeus suitability tests were divided into three subtests regarding five content domains: a) written communications skills, b) oral communications skills, c) the ability to take a leadership role, d) interactive capabilities and e) ability to self-reflection and motivation for the teaching profession. A score was given for each of the five content domains. The presentation outlines the experience gained so far based on 168 applicants who have undergone the admittance test in 2016, as well as on 75 already admitted teacher students who participated in the prior simulated testing sessions during their first month at university in 2015.  

    RESEARCH AIM - The research aim addresses how 113 students preacademic results on the five domains in the suitability tests relate to their early achievements in both theoretical and teacher practice courses in teacher education. 

    THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK - The study is framed within theories of admission research noting fields of tension where different interests meet. Admission test should give fair access to teacher education whilst justice also must include that future pupils are given access to the good teachers (Childs et al, 2011).  Previous studies has indicated that tests on written communication can predict academic success (Hernandez et al, 2006). Previous studies show varying results regarding to what extent socially interactive elements in suitability testing can predict success in teacher practice courses (Shechtman, 1989; Kosnik et al, 2005). 

    RESEARCH DESIGN - Teacher Students (113) results on suitability tests are compared to their performance on theoretical courses and teacher practice courses in teacher education. Correlations are calculated for the relations between results of the five content domains in the suitability test. 

    FINDINGS - Will consist of a comparision of the results of 113 Teacher Student on Linnaeus suitability tests compared with their results in early theoretical courses as well as in their first teacher training courses in teacher education.

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