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  • 1.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Att jag kallar mig själv för lärare i fritidshem uppfattar jag skapar en viss provokation": Om de nya grundlärarna med inriktning mot arbete i fritidshem2016In: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, no 1, 86-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014 the first cohort of (a newly designed group of teachers) ”primary teachers with a specialization in extended school education” graduated from Swedish universities. In addition to the traditional formal qualifications as leisure pedagogues their degree also includes the competency to teach practical/aesthetical subjects in compulsory school up to year six. The newly designed teachers thus have to relate to dual professional identities and try to maintain balance between their work in the traditional socially oriented recreation centers against their teaching in a goal- and results-driven school. In this article we study a group of 40 new teachers before and after graduation, trying to get hold of how they perceive and negotiate their professional identities and how they orient themselves in the professional landscape. The results show that the graduates try to balance their own ideals and professional intentions against traditional professional identities and labor market conditions.

  • 2.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Lessons Learned – Changing Times: 87 Former Teacher Graduates on their Careers During 15 Years2012In: ECER 2012, The Need for Educational Research to Champion Freedom, Education and Development for All, European Educational Research Association , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Hegender, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Från samspråk om lämplighet mot förhandling om skicklighet?: Bedömningssamtal i verksamhetsförlagd lärarutbildning2012In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, Vol. 12, no 1-2, 61-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Hegender, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    The assessment of student teachers' vocational knowledge. A design experiment.2011In: Paper presented at the Conference of EERA (European Educational Research Association), Berlin., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Hegender, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    The assessment of student teachers' vocational knowledge: A design experiment2010In: Paper presenterat vid Forskarskolan i pedagogisk bedömning:s Forsknings- och utvecklingskonferens, Stockholm, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Hultman, Glenn
    et al.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Wedin, Ann-Sofi
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Hegender, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Lärandet i den verksamhetsförlagda delen av lärarutbildningen: Yrkeslärande, lärlingsprocesser och handledarskap. Resultatdialog 2012, Vetenskapsrådets rapportserie, 7:20122012Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Lärarhögskolan i Malmö.
    Att förändra genom kollegiala samtal: en studie av arrangerade samtal i ett lärarkollegium och dess effekter på lärarkulturen1999Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Better safe than sorry - teachers' work in the regimes of risk and audit2010In: Presentattion at the conference of DPR (Discourse, Power and Resistance), University of Greenwich, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Lindqvist, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    En oändlig historia2005In: Gränslösa tider och tidlösa gränser i skolans vardag / [ed] Sjöberg, M & Westlund I., Linköpings universitet: Skapande Vetande , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Lindqvist, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Examinatorn som torped eller mysgubbe - en introspektiv studie2007In: "Om de säger vetenskapligt en gång till så spyr jag" - erfarenheter av att handleda examensarbeten / [ed] U.K. Nordänger, Kalmar: Lärarutbildningen , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Lindqvist, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Ingen lärare är en ö2004In: Etik i princip & praktik: en antologi om lärares yrkesetik / [ed] Katta Nordenfalk, Lärarnas Riksförbund och Lärarförbundet , 2004, 1, 73-79 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Lärarhögskolan i Malmö.
    Lärares förtroendearbetstid2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Lindqvist, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Om vikten av att hitta på och att slippa vara sig själv2002In: Didaktisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1101-7686Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Ödmjuk orubblighet - en avgörande kvalitet i lärares yrkeskunnande2010In: Didaktisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1101-7686, Vol. 19, no 1, 1-18 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ödmjuk orubblighet: En avgörande (och rimlig) ingrediens i lärares yrkeskunnande2015In: Nordisk tidskrift för allmän didaktik, ISSN 2002-1534, Vol. 1, no 1, 61-74 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article provides one answer to the question of what the ingredients of teacher qualityare. The findings are based on data collected from experienced teachers. Three differentmethods have been used; e-Delphi, stimulated recall and dialogue seminars. In cooperationwith the teachers, the scholars have tried to conceptualize decisive qualities in the teachersprofessional experiences. Two words – humble tenacity – appeared as an essential descriptionof the characteristics of a skilled teacher. The generation of the concept is inspired byDavid Hansen’s writing, in which he claims “tenacious humility” as an ideal for good teaching.To do justice to the empiricism in the present study Hansen’s word order are reversed.In contrast to a tenacious humility, a humble tenacity stresses the tenacious, the teacher’sportrait of him- or herself. The knowledge of the teacher is then more focused on makingoneself and one’s ideals visible and less about trying to see the pupils, or that the pupils haveto make themselves visible. Finally the article discuss such knowledge in relation to the riseof an individualized society enclosed with a therapeutic education in which the pedagogy ofseeing, a pedagogy which emphasizes closeness and intimacy, has become an important ingredientwithin the teaching profession.

  • 16.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Already elsewhere - A study of (skilled) teachers' choice to leave teaching2016In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 54, no February, 88-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents findings from a longitudinal study (1993–2014) examining how ex-teachers, who were perceived as “skilled” during teacher training, describe their paths out of the profession and discussing the possibility of retaining or re-recruiting teachers in - or back to - the occupation. The result emphasizes teacher attrition as a process related to identity-making within the interrelation between opportunity structures and individuals' frames of reference. Findings indicate that leavers with broader frames of references and images of themselves not attuned to apprehended professional identity are more likely to leave the profession.

  • 17.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att skilja agnarna från vetet - om underkännanden i lärarutbildningens VFU2017In: Att bedöma lärarkvalitet: Skicklighet, lämplighet & kompetens / [ed] Per Gerrevall, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2017, 1, 192-211 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Att studera lärararbetets insida - grundad teori som vetenskapligt redskap2008In: Läraren i blickpunkten - olika perspektiv på lärares liv och arbete / [ed] C. Aili, U. Blossing & U. Thornberg, Stockholm: Lärarförbundets Förlag , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Better Safe than Sorry? Risk and Educational Research2006In: Educational Studies, Vol. 33, no 1, 15-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Cheerful, silent and shy - Stories and professional images in teacher education2004In: NERA-conference, Reykjavik, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Crossroads – a longitudinal study of choises and values in teachers work trajectories, The first five years2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Crossroads: A longitudinal study of Swedish teacher attrition. The first five years2014In: Abstracts. Teachers Matter - But How? Linnæus University, Växjö, October 23-24, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing international trend in policy emphasizes the relationship between the competitiveness of a state and the quality of its educational system. Excellent teachers are a fundamental requirement in such reasoning and increasing efforts to provide students with such have become a challenging world-wide quest. In 2020, the Swedish educational system will, according to national statistics, lack roughly 22 000 teachers, approximately 20 % of the teaching workforce.

    The most common measure to overcome such a shortage of teachers is to try to increase recruitment into the profession. However, statistical findings also indicate that the major problem is not a shortage of teachers coming into the system. The real problem is that it appears as if many of the newly graduated choose not to go in to teaching at all or to leave after just a few years. These observations hint at a different kind of measure to remedy the shortage: It may be a more efficient strategy to put in an effort to retain and support active teachers, or to attract teachers who quit or never started teaching to return to the profession. As Richard Ingersoll has put it metaphorically, it is better to patch the holes in the bucket before trying to fill it up.

    The ambition in this presentation is to take a closer look at the holes in the bucket by presenting data from a longitudinal study of Swedish teachers. What do the holes look like? When do they occur? Is there a flow in-and-out? Can we detect possibilities to plug the leaks?

    Through a unique material consisting of mail correspondence between a group of Swedish teacher graduates and their former teacher educator - starting in 1993 - continuing for more than 15 years and followed up by additional questionnaires and interviews, we face the opportunity to follow 87 teachers during their first 20 years after graduation. The study is an attempt to fill up what has often been pointed out as a gap in research on teachers’ career trajectories - the need for qualitative longitudinal studies. Data has been collected on ten occasions. The percentage of answers is extremely high (83-100 %). The project is funded by the Swedish research council.

    In the presentation we focus on the teacher’s attrition the first five years. The teacher’s trajectories during this period are described with the help of mixing quantitative data with individual narratives. Data from the cohort has also been put in relation to general statistical overviews on teacher attrition. The analysis indicates that we should be cautious when we interpret and make use of general statistics. Teacher attrition seems to be a more non-linear and complex phenomenon than what is often presented. Drop-outs are in many cases temporary. Individuals are leaving from, but also returning to, the profession over time and their out of school experiences can in many cases be understood as individual initiatives to enhance teacher ability in the long run.

    References

    Cooper, J.M. & Alvarado, A. (2006). Preparation, recruitment and retention of teachers. UNESCO, IIEP Education policy series No. 5.

    Hammerness, K. (2008). “If You Don’t Know Where You are Going, Any Path Will Do”: The Role of Teachers’ Visions in Teacher’ career Paths. The New Educator, 4:1, pp. 1–22.

  • 23.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Detectable at first sight?: Failures in student teaching related to the idea of admission tests2013In: Creativity and Innovation in Educational Research: ECER 2013: Network 10. Teacher Education Research, European Educational Research Association , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of a larger research project: ”Let the right one out! -Teacher training and the induction period as gatekeepers to the teaching profession” in which the overall aim is to examine the indicators which are used to argue for a student failure, the procedures that frame such a decision and the quantity of student teachers who finally are failed in the Swedish teacher education. In the presentation the practice of failing in student teaching is linked to a current issue in Sweden: The introduction of admission tests before entering the teacher education. Based on empirical examples - nine cases of failures - the following issues are discussed: Do the examples contain possibilities to detect insufficient teacher quality “at first sight”, that is before the student has entered the program? Can knowledge of such possibilities facilitate the selection of future teacher students? If so, how?

    The Swedish teacher education has, like many others, been criticized for not sufficiently enough “separate the wheat from the chaft”, i.e. to reject students who are not suitable for the profession. In response to this criticism, the Swedish government has proposed that admission tests should be (re-)introduced. These tests shall, in accordance to the Government's proposal, measure “teaching ability - not opinions or behavior”. The question is how "teaching ability" can be distinguished from “opinions and behavior" and what qualities such an admission test can detect? A re-introduction of alternative selection instruments raises both the question of how such an instrument can be constructed and sharpened and the question of what is actually meant by "teacher quality". What qualities can be detected at first sight, and what qualities can/must be improved through training?

    Admission testing in teacher education goes back several hundred years in Sweden. Up until the 1970s – when the tests were abandoned – the objective was to sort out "mature" and "healthy" teachers with a "pleasant personality" (Sjoberg, 2006). In 1977 the responsibility for assessing the students’ quality, to function as a gatekeeper, was consigned to the teacher education. Both Swedish and international research (Hegender 2010; Raths & Lyman, 2003; Goodwin & Oyler, 2008) show that this gatekeeping function is unclear and complex. These studies found that poor quality is relatively easy to detect but that the assessment often has a formative character and that barriers that are set up tend to be diffuse and local. It shows that the practice of failure is complicated, time-consuming and troublesome ant that the process often assumes the guise of “counseling out” rather than to be characterized of a distinct summative assessment (Goodwin & Oyler, 2008).

    Method

    All the known cases of failures in student teaching, during one semester at one university, were followed up. We interviewed the supervisors, the visiting teachers from the university and the administrators who handled the cases. Furthermore we gathered all the documentation on the cases concerned. Based on comparisons between indicators in the different cases categories have been formed and relevant themes have been generated. The result does not contain coherent case histories. Information from a specific case are to be found under several themes (multi-case report, see Yin, 2006). The aim is not to portray the different students; it is to try to create a synthesis of lessons learned from the different cases in order to develop knowledge around the questions at issue. The design is flexible and theory-generating (Robson, 2007, Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Processing of the data has been guided by the relationship between the initial questions (What indicates insufficient teacher quality? When is it detected?) and the problems surrounding what an admission test can measure ("ability, opinions or behavior").

    Expected Outcomes

    The cases can be categorized into two groups: Those who won’t be fit to teach and those who might be fit to teach. Crucial for the sorting was experiences of hope for development. Even if the informants do not take the word "hopeless" in their mouths, their expectations on that the students in the first group will be able to develop the necessary qualities and skills are low. On the other hand, those who “might be fit to teach” show a certain degree of talent and the prospect of acquiring the necessary skills/qualities. Although there are gaps in knowledge there "is hope." The main difference between the two groups is the point of time when the deficiencies are detected. In the first group this happens immediately, while for the group that might fit a pedagogical situation is required to spotlight their shortcomings. The second major difference between the groups concerns the indicators of deficiency. The results are discussed in relation to previous studies (Knudsen & Turley, 2000; Duffy Hardicre, 2007; Leshem, 2012, Riner & Jones, 1993; Sudzina & Knowles, 1993) and in relation to the problematic area of admission tests.

    References

    Duffy, K. & Hardicre, J. (2007). Supporting failing students in practice 1: assessment. Nursing Times; 103: 47, 28-29. Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. (1967) The discovery of grounded theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press Goodwin, A. L. & Oyler, C. (2008). Teacher educators as gatekeepers. Deciding who is ready to teach. I M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, & D. J. McIntyre (Red.). Handbook of Research on Teacher Education (ss. 468-489). New York: Routledge. Hegender, H. (2010). The assessment of student teachers’ academic and professional knowledge in school-based teacher education. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, Vol 54, No 2. s. 151-171. Knudson, R. & Turley, S. (2000). University Supervisors and At-Risk Student Teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, Vol 33, No. 3, pp. 175-186 Leshem, S. (2012). The group interview Experience as a Tool for Admission to Teacher Education. Education Research International. Volume 2012. Article ID 876764, 8 pages Raths, J., & Lyman, F. (2003). Summative evaluation of student teachers: An enduring problem. Journal of Teacher Education, 54(3), 206-216 Riner, P.S. & Jones, W. P. (1993). The reality of failure: Two case studies in student teaching. Teacher Education and Practice. Vol 9, No 1 pp 39-48. Sjöberg, M. (2006). Prövad-granskad-godkänd. Till det goda lärarskapets och lärarutbildningens historia. I Sjöberg (Red) ”Goda lärare” Läraridentiteter och lärararbete i förändring.Skapande Vetande, nr 49. Linköpings universitet. Sudzina, M.R. & Knowles, J. G. (1993). Personal, Professional and Contextual Circumstances of Student Teachers Who “Fail” : Setting a Course for Understanding Failure in Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education. Vol 44, No 4 pp 254-262. Yin, R. (2006). Case Study Methods. In J.L. Green m.fl. (Eds.) Handbook of complementary methods in education research. London:Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • 24.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Detectable at First Sight?: Failures in Student Teaching Related to the Idea of Admission Tests2013In: ECER 2013, Creativity and Innovation in Educational Research: Network:10. Teacher Education Research, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of a larger research project: ”Let the right one out! -Teacher training and the induction period as gatekeepers to the teaching profession” in which the overall aim is to examine the indicators which are used to argue for a student failure, the procedures that frame such a decision and the quantity of student teachers who finally are failed in the Swedish teacher education. In the presentation the practice of failing in student teaching is linked to a current issue in Sweden: The introduction of admission tests before entering the teacher education. Based on empirical examples - nine cases of failures - the following issues are discussed: Do the examples contain possibilities to detect insufficient teacher quality “at first sight”, that is before the student has entered the program? Can knowledge of such possibilities facilitate the selection of future teacher students? If so, how?

    The Swedish teacher education has, like many others, been criticized for not sufficiently enough “separate the wheat from the chaft”, i.e. to reject students who are not suitable for the profession. In response to this criticism, the Swedish government has proposed that admission tests should be (re-)introduced. These tests shall, in accordance to the Government's proposal, measure “teaching ability - not opinions or behavior”. The question is how "teaching ability" can be distinguished from “opinions and behavior" and what qualities such an admission test can detect? A re-introduction of alternative selection instruments raises both the question of how such an instrument can be constructed and sharpened and the question of what is actually meant by "teacher quality". What qualities can be detected at first sight, and what qualities can/must be improved through training?

    Admission testing in teacher education goes back several hundred years in Sweden. Up until the 1970s – when the tests were abandoned – the objective was to sort out "mature" and "healthy" teachers with a "pleasant personality" (Sjoberg, 2006). In 1977 the responsibility for assessing the students’ quality, to function as a gatekeeper, was consigned to the teacher education. Both Swedish and international research (Hegender 2010; Raths & Lyman, 2003; Goodwin & Oyler, 2008) show that this gatekeeping function is unclear and complex. These studies found that poor quality is relatively easy to detect but that the assessment often has a formative character and that barriers that are set up tend to be diffuse and local. It shows that the practice of failure is complicated, time-consuming and troublesome ant that the process often assumes the guise of “counseling out” rather than to be characterized of a distinct summative assessment (Goodwin & Oyler, 2008).

    Method

    All the known cases of failures in student teaching, during one semester at one university, were followed up. We interviewed the supervisors, the visiting teachers from the university and the administrators who handled the cases. Furthermore we gathered all the documentation on the cases concerned. Based on comparisons between indicators in the different cases categories have been formed and relevant themes have been generated. The result does not contain coherent case histories. Information from a specific case are to be found under several themes (multi-case report, see Yin, 2006). The aim is not to portray the different students; it is to try to create a synthesis of lessons learned from the different cases in order to develop knowledge around the questions at issue. The design is flexible and theory-generating (Robson, 2007, Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Processing of the data has been guided by the relationship between the initial questions (What indicates insufficient teacher quality? When is it detected?) and the problems surrounding what an admission test can measure ("ability, opinions or behavior").

    Expected Outcomes

    The cases can be categorized into two groups: Those who won’t be fit to teach and those who might be fit to teach. Crucial for the sorting was experiences of hope for development. Even if the informants do not take the word "hopeless" in their mouths, their expectations on that the students in the first group will be able to develop the necessary qualities and skills are low. On the other hand, those who “might be fit to teach” show a certain degree of talent and the prospect of acquiring the necessary skills/qualities. Although there are gaps in knowledge there "is hope." The main difference between the two groups is the point of time when the deficiencies are detected. In the first group this happens immediately, while for the group that might fit a pedagogical situation is required to spotlight their shortcomings. The second major difference between the groups concerns the indicators of deficiency. The results are discussed in relation to previous studies (Knudsen & Turley, 2000; Duffy Hardicre, 2007; Leshem, 2012, Riner & Jones, 1993; Sudzina & Knowles, 1993) and in relation to the problematic area of admission tests.

    References

    Duffy, K. & Hardicre, J. (2007). Supporting failing students in practice 1: assessment. Nursing Times; 103: 47, 28-29. Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. (1967) The discovery of grounded theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press Goodwin, A. L. & Oyler, C. (2008). Teacher educators as gatekeepers. Deciding who is ready to teach. I M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, & D. J. McIntyre (Red.). Handbook of Research on Teacher Education (ss. 468-489). New York: Routledge. Hegender, H. (2010). The assessment of student teachers’ academic and professional knowledge in school-based teacher education. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, Vol 54, No 2. s. 151-171. Knudson, R. & Turley, S. (2000). University Supervisors and At-Risk Student Teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, Vol 33, No. 3, pp. 175-186 Leshem, S. (2012). The group interview Experience as a Tool for Admission to Teacher Education. Education Research International. Volume 2012. Article ID 876764, 8 pages Raths, J., & Lyman, F. (2003). Summative evaluation of student teachers: An enduring problem. Journal of Teacher Education, 54(3), 206-216 Riner, P.S. & Jones, W. P. (1993). The reality of failure: Two case studies in student teaching. Teacher Education and Practice. Vol 9, No 1 pp 39-48. Sjöberg, M. (2006). Prövad-granskad-godkänd. Till det goda lärarskapets och lärarutbildningens historia. I Sjöberg (Red) ”Goda lärare” Läraridentiteter och lärararbete i förändring.Skapande Vetande, nr 49. Linköpings universitet. Sudzina, M.R. & Knowles, J. G. (1993). Personal, Professional and Contextual Circumstances of Student Teachers Who “Fail” : Setting a Course for Understanding Failure in Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education. Vol 44, No 4 pp 254-262. Yin, R. (2006). Case Study Methods. In J.L. Green m.fl. (Eds.) Handbook of complementary methods in education research. London:Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • 25.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Encounters in metaphors: Connecting the bridgeheads of teachers´practical knowledge and professional language2010In: International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, ISSN 1833-4105, Vol. 6, no 1, 49-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses the possibility of bridging the gap between the personal and contextual practical knowledge of teachers on the one hand and presumptive generic teacher knowledge on the other. Within the framework of two research projects and with the help of several different methods, data concerning the practical knowledge of teachers have been collected. To begin with, data are related to Martin Buber’s theories regarding experience as insight. Teachers’ will and ability to be present in the classroom, their desire to realize a relationship, is suggested to be a crucial part of their practical knowledge. The article furthermore emphasizes the way teachers use metaphors to describe the core of their knowledge. The article discusses how these ways of talking about practice can contribute to professional development. The use of “living metaphors” highlights such a possibility.

  • 26.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Experiences and expressions. The core of teachers' competence - and how they talk about it2008In: Presentation at the international conference of education, Athens, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Finding ways of articulating teachers' practical knowledge2008In: American Educational Research Conference, New York, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    För säkerhets skull - en studie av lärararbetet i risksamhället2009In: Presentation vid konferensen Gränssättning inom och utanför professioner, Malmö, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Guide för handledning och bedömning Verksamhetsförlagd utbildning, Grundlärarutbildningen2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Guide för handledning och bedömning Verksamhetsförlagd utbildning,Förskollärarutbildningen. 2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Learning within the schoolbased parts of teacher education - a study of practical knowing and supervising2011In: Paper presented at the conference of Nordic Stucies on Educational Research, Jyväskylä, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Lost in translation - Kan lärares praktiska kunnande översättas till professionellt språk?2007In: Konferens FoU i Praksis, Trondheim, Trondheim, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    "Lost in translation?": Om lärares praktiska yrkeskunnande och professionella språk2007In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 12, no 3, 177-193 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Lärande i riskzonen: konturer av ett obrukat forskningsfält2007In: Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning, ISSN 1404-7659, Vol. 14, no 1, 59-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lärares förväntningar på yrket 1993-2013: På väg mot en uppdelad lärarkår?2016In: Professionerna i mötet mellan kunskapssamhället och granskningssamhället: Förändrade villkor och nutida utmaningar. NORDPRO-konferensen 2016, Lund, 27-28 oktober, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Lärares osynliga arbete.: Skolmästarkonst i ett nytt århundrade2004Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Lärarstudenter - "I want you to want me". Ett bildspel om vilka som söker sig till lärarutbildningen2003Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Lärarstudenter. Skolmästarkonst i ett nytt århundrade2004Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Mellan försiktighetsprinciper och kreativitetsmod. Lärares arbete som balansakt i risk- och granskningssamhället.2011In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, Vol. 31, no 3, 180-193 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with how the risk- and audit society encourages the creation of new strategies for coping in the daily work of Swedish teachers. With the help of empirical excerpts from documents and focus group interviews we provide examples of how the mediation of «safe school» images is performed and how preventive measures in order to avoid future blame are established. We depict this as strategies of assurance and insurance. The results of a survey show that teachers withdraw from «risky» parts of the professional domain. When considering an action teachers seem to balance the risk of attracting blame against the didactic potential and in this act of balance, the latter seem to fall short.

  • 40.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    (Mis-?) using the E-Delphi method. An Attempt to Articulate Practical Knowledge of Teaching2007In: Journal of Research Methods and Methodological Issues, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Preventiva och promotiva strategier i risksamhällets skola - 8000 år av erfarenhet2009Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Relations between teachers' practical knowledge and professional language2008In: American Educational Research Conference, New York, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Relocation - A way of recruiting new groups of students into teacher education?2004In: NERA-Conference (Nordic Educational Researc Association), Reykjavik, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    School-staging and back-watching – teachers’ strategies in risk-concious shools2009In: Paper presented at the conference of Europeans Sociological Association, Lisboa, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Sharpening the practial sight - a way of enhancing quality in student teacher practice2011In: Paper presented at the conference of European Educational Research Association, Berlin, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Sharpening the practical sight: a way of enhancing quality in student teachers practce?2011In: European Educational Research Association (ECER) 2011, Urban Education, Berlin, European Educational Research Association , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it possible to enhance the teacher students’ quality of learning in the school based periods of teacher education by providing the supervising mentors with a sharpened ability to notice, discuss and articulate their own practical knowing? Results from one of our previous projects show that the sharpening of such abilities can provide tools for shared generic knowledge amongst teachers, but can it also enhance the mentoring quality or the possibilities of transferring practical knowledge to new members of the profession? And does such consciousness- raising lead to an increased ability to assess the students practical knowing? Results from a design experiment where we - in collaboration with field mentors - have studied these questions will be at the center of the presentation. The project is funded by the Swedish Research Council.

    The current study takes it point of departure in the results from a previous project where the central questions dealt with teachers’ practical knowing, mainly the possibilities of expressing it. But also the possibilities and impractabilities of transferring and translating this type of knowledge from the practice based periods into academia. Something essential seem to be lost in these efforts, the specific qualities of practical knowing become “lost in translation” (Lindqvist & Nordänger, 2007a; Lindqvist & Nordänger 2010). In teacher education the concepts of theory and practice are often used as if they were two completely separated phenomena, located to separate phases in the education, but relationships between them are of course more complex. Teacher education can neither be seen as divided into “theoretical” and “practical” sections, nor as “one practice”. Instead you have to perceive it as consisting of a whole lot of “practices” (Wenger, 1998 ) – placed on university campus as well as in the schools and preschools and sometimes overlapping the physical and sequencial placing. These practices hold partly differing perspectives concerning what teachers’ professional skills are (and are supposed to be), they draw their arguments from different knowledge areas and they use different languages to present them. In this theoretical perspective the student becomes a traveler between practices, a broker in different forms of knowledge by moving across this landscape. The intended integration of “theoretical” and “practical” knowledge comes to existence within the students and in their sense of growing professional integrity (Rogers & Scott, 2008).

    One way of qualifying teacher education and enhancing the possibilities of the travelers’ integration of “theory” and “practice” would – in this perspective - be to qualify each of the practices on their own terms and then let them meet as equally qualifying experiences within the student.

  • 47.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Should I stay or should I go (or should I return)?: A longitudinal  study of teacher drop-outs2014In: Abstracts. NERA 42nd Congress, Education for Sustainable Development, N 19. Teachers' work and teacher education, Parallell sessions 5, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through a unique material consisting of mail correspondence between a group of Swedish teacher graduates and their former teacher educator - starting in 1993 - continuing for more than 15 years and followed up by additional questionnaires and interviews, we face the opportunity to follow 87 teachers during their first 20 years after graduation. The study is an attempt to fill up what has often been pointed out as a gap in research on teachers’ career trajectories - the need for qualitative longitudinal studies. Data has been collected on nine occasions. The percentage of answers is extremely high (83-100 %). The project is funded by the Swedish research council.

    In the presentation we focus on the teacher’s attrition the first five years. The teacher’s trajectories during this period are described with the help of mixing quantitative data with individual narratives. Data from the cohort has also been put in relation to general statistical overviews on teacher attrition. The analysis indicates that we should be cautious when we interpret and make use of general statistics. Teacher attrition seems to be a more non-linear and complex phenomenon than what is often presented. Drop-outs are in many cases temporary. Individuals are leaving from, but also returning to, the profession over time and their out of school experiences can in many cases be understood as individual initiatives to enhance teacher ability in the long run.

  • 48.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stayers, leavers and shifters: A longitudinal study of teacher attrition and retention2014In: ECER 2014, The Past, the Present and Future of Educational Research in Europe. Network: 10. Teacher Education Research, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing international trend in policy emphasizes the relationship between the competitiveness of a state and the quality of its educational system. Excellent teachers are a fundamental requirement in such reasoning and increasing efforts to provide students with such have become a challenging world-wide quest. The Unesco Institute for Statistics (2009) claims that half of the world’s countries need to expand their teaching forces by 1.9 million in order to be able to enroll all primary school-age children by 2015. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have by far the greatest need for additional teachers, but also Western countries such as Ireland, Spain, Sweden and the USA are pointed out as facing teaching gaps, although these can be considered as moderate in comparison (ibid.). In the case of Sweden, prognoses indicate that the number of certified teachers in the compulsory school will be too low to cover the demand during the next 20 years. In 2020, the Swedish educational system will, according to national statistics, lack roughly 22 000 teachers, approximately 20 % of the teaching workforce (Statistics Sweden, 2012; Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, 2012).

    The most common measure to overcome such a shortage of teachers is to try to increase recruitment into the profession. Hence, a number of campaigns to attract young people to teaching have been launched during recent years and alternative routes into the profession have been put on the agenda by governments around the world.         

    However, statistical findings also indicate that the major problem for schools is not a shortage of teachers coming into the system. The real problem is that, even in countries where sufficient numbers of teachers are trained, it appears as if many of the newly graduated choose not to go in to teaching at all (Luekens et.al, 2004) or to leave after just a few years (Cooper & Alvarado, 2006 ). This observation has been developed in the scholarly literature, notably in the works of Ingersoll (2003; 2007) and hints at a different kind of measure to remedy the shortage of teachers. The alternative it suggests is that it may be a more efficient strategy to put in an effort to retain and support active teachers, or to attract teachers who quit or never started teaching to return to the profession. Putting it metaphorically, it is better to patch the holes in the bucket before trying to fill it up.

    In the case of the Swedish teaching “bucket” there were 235 878 teachers (including pre-school teachers) working in Sweden 2010 (Swedish Government, 2010). Compared to the number of graduated teachers at that time, one can logically conclude that 37 500 of the graduated (16 %) were working outside the educational system. If these “missing teachers” were re-recruited to the teaching profession they would, to a large degree, fill up the future shortage of teachers, especially in certain categories.

    The ambition in this presentation is to take a closer look at the holes in the bucket by presenting data from a longitudinal study of Swedish teachers.What do the holes look like? When do they occur? Is there a flow in-and-out ? Can we detect possibilities to plug the leaks? Since we know that the proportion of graduated teachers who drop out often correlates with the number of years in the profession and we will set our focus on the first five years, which seems to be a particularly critical period in teachers’ decision to stay in or leave the profession (e.g. Hammerness, 2008), but we will also have an unique possibility to add a twenty-year perspective to our results.

    Method

    Based on a material consisting of correspondence between 87 teachers and their former teacher trainer, from their graduation 1993 -2008 and continuing up to the present (2008-2013) with us in charge, we have had the opportunity to follow a cohort of Swedish teachers during their first 20 years after graduation. The informants have, regardless of whether they have been sick, been on parental leave or just have quit working as teachers, continued to deliver data around where they work and what kind of work they are doing (including non teaching work). Over the years they have also recurrently described experiences of and expectations on their work as teachers.. The number of teachers in this longitudinal study is small relative to the sample sizes available in teacher-specific databases on which results – as the ones mentioned above – are based. However, our material allows analyses and comparisons that have not previously been possible Results from research on teacher attrition are generally on a one-shot basis, drawn from a wide target population of teachers, producing general overviews of a population from a long distance at a particular point of time. More rarely attrition is considered as a process over time where cohorts of teachers are followed in longitudinal studies, through extensive parts of their careers, in order to identify typical patterns of development and examine individual variations (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2011). With a mixed method approach we have had the possibility to combine particularity with generality, to make quantitative and qualitative data “mutually illuminating” (Cohen et. al., 2011, p. 24). The mixed design of the study is sequential in which qualitative and quantitative procedures run one after the other, in order to sufficiently answer the research questions. In the first stage of the analysis, parts of the mainly qualitative data have undergone basic qualitative analyses in order to be transposed into quantitative variables (examples are: working as a teacher, in what subjects and grades, movements in and between schools). These variables have been analyzed by means of STATA 12.1 and SPSS 19

    Expected Outcomes

    In the presentation we follow our 87 newly graduated teachers through the first five years. The trajectories during this period are described with the help of mixing quantitative data with individual narratives. What happens to them? Data from the cohort is also discussed in relation to general statistical overviews on teacher attrition. The analysis indicates that caution is advised in interpreting and making use of general statistics when trying to understand and suggest local remedies in relation to predicted teaches shortages. Teacher attrition is a more non-linear, complex and context-related phenomenon than what is typically proposed and our results show that the early leavers consist of a small and heterogeneous group of individuals. In many cases drop-outs are temporary. Individuals leave, but also return to, the profession over time and their out-of-school experiences can sometimes be understood as individual initiatives to enhance teaching ability in the long run. The analysis of the longitudinal non-retrospective data from the early leavers makes us also wonder if career decisions are as rational as we often seem to suppose. Finally we discuss if there is reason to believe that we should abandon the image of teaching as a long-term career, and look upon it as a temporary profession? Are we returning to Lorties’ classical description (1977) of the teaching profession as a low paid, temporary job for young women prior to their real career (of child rearing)?

    References

    Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2011). Research Methods in Education. New York: Routledge. Cooper, J.M. & Alvarado, A. (2006). Preparation, recruitment and retention of teachers. UNESCO, IIEP Education policy series No. 5. Hammerness, K. (2008). “If You Don’t Know Where You are Going, Any Path Will Do”: The Role of Teachers’ Visions in Teacher’ career Paths. The New Educator, 4:1, pp. 1–22. Ingersoll, R.M. (2003). Is There Really a Teacher Shortage? Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington. Ingersoll, R.M. (2007). Misdiagnosing the Teacher Quality Problem. (CPRE Policy Briefs No. RB-49), Consortium for Policy Research in Education. University of Pennsylvania. Lortie, D.C. (1977). Schoolteacher: a sociological study. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Luekens, M.T., Lyter, D.M. & Fox, E.E. (2004). Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the Teacher Follow-up Survey, 2000-2001. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC. Statistics Sweden (2012). Trender och Prognoser 2011 [Trends and Forecasts 2011]. Statistics Sweden. Swedish Government (2010). Tillgången på behöriga lärare [Supply of certified teachers] (Report 2010:7). Utredningstjänsten. Swedish National Agency for Higher Education (2012). Högskoleutbildningarna och arbetsmarknaden [Higher education and the labor market] (Report 2012:22R). Unesco Institute for Statistics (2009). Projecting the Global Demand for Teachers: Meeting the Goal of Universal Primary Education by 2015. Technical Paper No. 3.

  • 49.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Stories and professional images in teacher education2004In: NERA-konferens, Reykjavik, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Supervisors practical knowing as a base for mentoring2012In: The 40th Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association, 8 – 10 March 2012: Abstract book / [ed] Department of Eduation, Aarhus University, Department of Eduation, Aarhus University , 2012, 117-117 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it possible to enhance the teacher students’ quality of learning in the school based periods of teacher education by providing the supervising mentors with a sharpened ability to notice, discuss and articulate their own practical knowing? Results from one of our previous projects show that the sharpening of such abilities can provide tools for shared generic knowledge amongst teachers, but can it also enhance the mentoring quality or the possibilities of transferring practical knowledge to new members of the profession? And does such consciousness-raising lead to an increased ability to assess the students practical knowing? Results from a design experiment where we - in collaboration with field mentors - have studied these questions will be at the center of the presentation.

    14 supervisors, from pre-school up to senior level, have participated in the project. The methods used in this study for enhancing the supervisors ability to notice, express and discuss their own practical knowledge are a variation of a traditional e-delphi study (Reid, 1988, Lindqvist & Nordänger, 2007b), stimulated recall (Calderhead, 1981) and dialogue seminars (Göranzon, 2006). The outcomes, in form of supervisors’ apprehension of changes in quality, have been studied through interviews.

    The preliminary results show that the supervisors claim to have detected their own practical skills and ways of talking about them. This has, in the supervision, led to a sharpening of practical sight and a strengthening of focus on how this type of knowledge is learned and transferred. Another effect is, according to the teachers, that their assessments and grading of students practical skills have been more rigorous.

    This presentation is attached to the symposium “Learning within the school based parts of teacher education. Practical knowing, apprenticeship and mentoring”, NERA-network Teachers’ work and lives.

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