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  • 1.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Between Performance and Beauty: Towards a sociological understanding of trajectories to drug use in a gym and bodybuilding context.2013In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 4, p. 69-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emanating from an ethnographic study of Swedish bodybuilders, this article aims to present a sociological understanding of various circumstances influencing the decision to begin taking performance-enhancing drugs. Theoretically, the research builds upon a constructionist approach, in which actors’ identity claims, the way they describe themselves and their group affiliation, are understood both as individual stories of identity construction and as discursive statements. The result shows that the willingness to perform, to focus on the body’s function, is a paradigmatic narrative being expressed throughout. As such, this performance oriented lifestyle can be related to traditional values saluted within organised sports and also understood as a fairly stable part of a hegemonic masculine construction. However, the results also show how the performance logic is entwined with a strong zest for bodily aesthetics. In the article, this cultural ambiguity is used as an analytical window through which one can see how different understandings of gender, health and doping continuously are socially negotiated in relation to contemporary fitness culture and public health organisations in Swedish society. By analysing doping trajectories in this way the article suggests that drug using practises could be understood as an activity performed along a continuum of cultural and societal (over-)conformity, rather than actions representing societal abnormality.

  • 2.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bodybuilding in practice and in representation: A subcultural and subjective odyssey2014In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, no 11 marsArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Brudar, bärs och bögar: maskulinitet och sexualitet i en enkönad miljö2003In: Sexualitetens omvandlingar: politisk lesbiskhet, unga kristna och machokulturer / [ed] Thomas Johansson och Philip Lalander, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2003, 1, p. 25-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Doping Trajectories: Becoming and Unbecoming a Fitness Doper2019In: INDR, WADA's 20th Anniversary: 22-23 August, Aarhus, Denmark / [ed] Ask Vest Christiansen & John Gleaves, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Fitness dopning: Kroppsideal, dopningskultur och genus2019In: Samtal om samhällsideal, machokultur och dopning / [ed] Länsstyrelsen, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Fotbollens arbetarklass2010In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 4, p. 11-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kulturhistoriskt har fotboll dominerats av män och maskulinitet.

    Den manliga normen inom fotbollen tvingar spelare i damallsvenskan

    att anpassa sig och vänja sig vid begränsade resurser. De

    känner sig oönskade, går i opposition och utvecklar strategier för att

    distansera sig från den manliga dominansen.

  • 7.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Gym- och Fitnessdopning.: Kropp, genus och en föränderlig dopningsdemografi2019In: Dopning idag - inom idrott och samhälle / [ed] STAD, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Huset: Utvärdering av verksamheten på Ungdomens Hus i Kalmar2001Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    I viljan att prestera2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 8-12Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Idrott, kropp och jämställdhet2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Idrott, kön och klass2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Idrott och jämställdhet2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Idrottens kön2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Lund:Sociologiska institutionen.
    Idrottens kön. Genus, kropp och sexualitet i lagidrottens vardag2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Kön och åldrande2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Mellan svett och mascara: Masculinitet i ett kvinnligt fotbollslag2005In: Manlighetens omvandlingar: ungdom, sexualitet och kön i heteronormativitetens gränstrakter / [ed] Thomas Johansson, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2005, p. 21-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Muskler, maskulinitet och motionsdoping2018In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, no October 25Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Negotiating Manhood: Doping and the mainstreaming of online marginal masculinities2017In: Presented at: International Network for Doping Research (INDR), Aarhus, August 24-25, 2017. / [ed] Ask Vest Christiansson and John Gleaves, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Pojkflickan, fotbollsflatan och alla andra. Myt och verklighet i svensk damfotboll2005In: I Kulturella Perspektiv. Svensk etnologisk tidsskrift, nr 1:2005. Stockholm: Carlsson BokförlagArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Reconceptualising the gender of fitness doping: Performing and negotiating masculinity through drug-use practices2015In: Evaluating the Unintended Effects of Anti-Doping, 27-28 August, 2015 / [ed] Ask Vest Christiansen, John Gleaves, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Reconceptualising the Gender of Fitness Doping: Performing and Negotiating Masculinity through Drug-Use Practices2015In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 4, p. 546-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses self-portrayals and gender constructions among Swedish male bodybuilders who are engaged in fitness doping. The empirical material comes from a larger ethnographic investigation into gym culture. The results show that there is a strong propensity to conform with particular gender fantasies that rests heavily on a binary understanding of gendered, doped bodies. However, this storyline does not apprehend the entire self-presentation of the analysed drug users. Negotiations and inclusive subversions of traditional gender norms are also expressed. For example, the narratives show how the use of performance-enhancing substances makes it possible for (heterosexual) men to approach, touch and express feelings of desire towards other men and their bodies. As such, this practice can be viewed as a contestation of hegemonic gender values, in which masculinity and fitness doping are detached from a quite heterosexist understanding, and turned into a symbolic world of homoerotic pleasure.

  • 22.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    ‘Shut up and squat!’: Learning body knowledge within the gym2014In: Ethnography and Education, ISSN 1745-7823, E-ISSN 1745-7831, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to describe and analyse learning processes among bodybuilders in bodybuilding environments, focusing on the ways activities form the basis for incorporation of both physical and cultural knowledge. Emanating from an ethnographic study, the arguments are based on a constructionist approach to knowledge. The result provides an understanding of knowledge as being, and becoming, embodied through different learning processes. This article shows how knowledge of exercise, nutrition and physiology is gradually acquired and physically experienced, eventually becoming knowledge ‘in the body’ rather than ‘about the body’. Through these learning processes, the individual develops perceptual as well as tactile abilities that, earlier, were unexplored or bodily inaccessible.

  • 23.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Smärta, pump och förkroppsligade läroprocesser på gymmet2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Steroider på nätet: Att använda sociala medier för att diskutera och legitimera dopning2016In: Presented at: DrogFOKUS 2016, nationell konferens om alkohol, narkotika, dopning och tobak, 13-20 Oktober, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sociala medier och olika internetforum har blivit en del av en ny självhjälpskultur där människor anonymt kan legitimera och diskutera sina erfarenheter av att använda prestationshöjande substanser(PED). Användarna är medvetna om att de riskerar sin egen hälsa men töjer på gränserna för att nå uppsatta mål.

  • 25.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    The Global Gym2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    (Un)Becoming a fitness doper: Negotiating the meaning of illicit drug use in a gym and fitness context2019In: International Network of Doping Research, 2019 Conference, WADA’s 20th Anniversary, 22.-23. August 2019, Aarhus University, Denmark: Book of Abstracts, Aarhus university, Denmark , 2019, p. 8-8Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    'Vi spelar också i Allsvenskan'.: Kvinnors idrottsliga förutsättningar under omvandling.2009In: Uppbrott: Brytpunkter och övergångar i tid och rum / [ed] Mats Larsson, Kalmar: Högskolan i Kalmar , 2009, p. 75-90Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Elitmotionärens vardag - familjeliv, tidspussel och extremidrott2016In: Idrottsforskning, E-ISSN 2002-3944, no 18 majArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att kombinera vardagen som elitmotionär med ett fungerande familjeliv är ingen enkel ekvation. Uppoffringar, glädje, dåligt samvete och glada hejarop är en del av vardagen. Men på vems villkor och bekostnad formas egentligen elitmotionärens livsstil?

  • 29.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Henning, April Dawn
    University of Stirling, UK.
    Glocal fitness doping: Policy, practice and prevention in the United States and Sweden2019In: Performance Enhancement & Health, E-ISSN 2211-2669, Vol. 6, p. 103-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situated within a framework of a globalized gym and fitness culture, this paper aims to investigate and compare how fitness doping can be understood in relation to, and how it is affected by, different national and local contexts. Representing different forms of welfare state regimes, the comparative analysis focuses on policy, practice, and prevention in the United States and Sweden. The findings indicate, among other things, how national level policy and implementation reflect local priorities, understandings, and values. Sweden’s choices form a pattern reflecting the priority of protecting the collective good over individual pursuits. Conversely, that the U.S. does not police outside formally governed competitions in sports or in criminal contexts. Further, U.S. bodybuilders do not feel targeted for their appearance in the same ways, illustrating the priority of individual choice. Further, the paper discusses how each country implements anti-doping in ways consistent with global policies, but are also informed by various local understandings and values. This interplay between the supranational structures and locally diverse implementation is not only complex, but can seem contradictory as each locality partly remains within a global system of anti-doping in sport, and partly operates outside this context. We suggest glocal fitness doping needs to be understood as a process through which global ideals, organisations, and more contribute to influencing local and national prevention policies and cultures, and vice versa.

  • 30.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Becoming a half-time parent: Fatherhood after divorce2019In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 2-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Men have increasingly been dedicating time and effort to childcare. Consequently, the idea of the ‘new’ emotionally involved father has been discussed in the literature. This article focuses on narratives of divorced Swedish fathers with joint physical custody of their children. This arrangement, a new model of post-divorce parenting, has become increasingly popular in several Nordic countries. The article aims to analyse the experiences attached to and emanating from this particular form of post-divorce agreement, and how it is understood in relation to the Swedish childcare system. The fathers interviewed had a strong ambition to share things equally, as well as to carry on family practices in gender-equal ways. This desire was, however, balanced with a number of obstacles, such as work requirements, living conditions and conceptions of gender differences. In this way, the fathers’ subjective aspirations and strivings were filtered through structural and cultural conditions in society, with clear connections to Swedish family and gender politics.

  • 31.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bodybuilding and Fitness Doping in Transition: Historical Transformations and Contemporary Challenges2019In: Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes and analyses the historical development of gym and fitness culture in general and doping use in this context in particular. Theoretically, the paper utilises the concept of subculture and explores how a subcultural response can be used analytically in relation to processes of cultural normalisation as well as marginalisation. The focus is on historical and symbolic negotiations that have occurred over time, between perceived expressions of extreme body cultures and sociocultural transformations in society—with a perspective on fitness doping in public discourse. Several distinct phases in the history of fitness doping are identified. First, there is an introductory phase in the mid-1950s, in which there is an optimism connected to modernity and thoughts about scientifically-engineered bodies. Secondly, in the 1960s and 70s, a distinct bodybuilding subculture is developed, cultivating previously unseen muscular male bodies. Thirdly, there is a critical phase in the 1980s and 90s, where drugs gradually become morally objectionable. The fourth phase, the fitness revolution, can be seen as a transformational phase in gym culture. The massive bodybuilding body is replaced with the well-defined and moderately muscular fitness body, but at the same time there are strong commercialised values which contribute to the development of a new doping market. Finally, it is possible to speculate on the development of a fifth phase, in which fitness doping is increasingly being filtered into mainstream gym and fitness culture, influencing the fitness doping demography.

  • 32.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    ‘Doing for group exercise what McDonald's did for hamburgers’: Les Mills, and the fitness professional as global traveller2016In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 148-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses fitness professionals’ perceptions and understanding of their occupational education and pedagogical pursuance, framed within the emergence of a global fitness industry. The empirical material consists of interviews with personal trainers and group fitness instructors, as well as observations in their working environment. In addition, printed material from different occupational organisations and educational companies has been included. The narratives of the fitness professionals and a case study of Les Mills are presented and analysed through the concept of the McDonaldisation of society, or more specifically of fitness culture. The results show that, even though gym and fitness franchises differ from hamburger restaurant chains, there are crucial similarities, but also differences. One can, for example, discern a tendency towards the construction of predesigned and highly monitored programmes, such as the one developed by Les Mills. Homogenisation is also apparent when looking at the body ideals produced, as fitness professionals work on their own or clients’ bodies, which makes it possible to anticipate a global body ideal. The social and cultural patterns of self-regulation and self-government found in gym and fitness culture can be understood and analysed in a global context. What we find is an intriguing and complex mixture of regulation, control and standardisation, on the one hand, and a struggle to express the body, to be ‘free’ and to transgress the boundaries set by the commercial global fitness industry, on the other.

  • 33.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Doped Manhood: Negotiating Fitness Doping and Masculinity in an Online Community2017In: Marginalized Masculinities: Contexts, Continuities and Change / [ed] Chris Haywood & Thomas Johansson, New York and London: Routledge, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Extreme Sports, Extreme Bodies: Gender, Identities & Bodies in Motion2019Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book investigates extreme sports, defined as sports in which athletes challenge and transgress societal perceptions of what is humanly possible to achieve, in terms of physical training and bodily development/performance. Situated within a growing body of literature analysing the impact of new training trends on an individual’s body, identity, lifestyle and perception of his/her social surroundings, Extreme Sports, Extreme Bodies focuses on the gendered and embodied experiences of bodybuilding, Ironman triathlon, and mixed martial arts.Through their ethnographic analysis, Andreasson and Johansson present a unique and updated account of the increasing phenomenon of extreme sports and extreme bodies in contemporary Western society, grounded in the sociology of sport, body studies and embodiment literature.

  • 35.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Female Fitness in the Blogosphere: Gender, Health, and the Body2013In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 3, no July-September, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  • 36.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fitness Doping: Trajectories, Gender, Bodies and Health2020Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book compiles several years of multi-faceted qualitative research on fitness doping to provide a fresh insight into how the growing phenomenon intersects with issues of gender, body and health in contemporary society.

     

    Drawing on biographical interviews, as well as online and offline ethnography, Andreasson and Johansson analyse how, in the context of the global development of gym and fitness culture, particular doping trajectories are formulated, and users come into contact with doping. They also explore users’ internalisation of particular values, practices and communications and analyse how this influences understandings of the self, health, gender and the body, as well as tying this into wider beliefs regarding individual freedom and the law.

     

    This insight into doping goes beyond elite and organised sports, and will be of interest to students and scholars across the sociology of sport, leisure studies, and gender and body politics.

  • 37.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Fitnessrevolutionen: Kropp, hälsa och gymkulturens globalisering2015Book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    From exercise to "exertainment": Body techniques and body philosophies within a differentiated fitness culture2015In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 6, p. 27-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on two highly influential body techniques used in contemporary gym and fitness culture, namely bodybuilding and group fitness activities. The paper presents detailed self-portraits of two highly esteemed and well-known individuals representing each of these spheres of exercise. Both body techniques have their roots in physical culture. However, whereas bodybuilding goes back to the historical roots of European physical culture developed during the 19th century, Les Mills group fitness activities are a more recent phenomenon, with roots in aerobics and in the fitness culture developed during the 1960s. The case stories are read as both portraits of individuals and histories of two different forms of body techniques and philosophies of the body, and the analysis suggests that the narratives are to be understood in relation to historical changes in how society is organised and what this implies in terms of national and global demands for specific bodies.

  • 39.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gender, Fitness Doping and the Genetic Max: The Ambivalent Construction of Muscular Masculinities in an Online Community2016In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-13, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on written accounts posted on an online forum called Flashback.The purpose of the study was to explore how participants in this community negotiated themeanings of fitness doping and how such negotiations could be understood in terms of masculinity.The findings indicate that the Internet community studied in this article can be read as an example ofa transformational process in which ordinary rules are questioned and partly put out of play. In theworld of the bodybuilder, the marginal masculinity is, in certain senses, dominant. On the one hand,achieving a muscular and well-trained body is regarded as a core aspect of manhood within thecommunity. Marginal masculinity is thus momentarily transformed into dominant and hegemonicmasculinity. On the other hand, however, the findings also indicate that a drug-using, muscularmasculinity is constructed in negotiation with other central masculine ideals, such as the employableman and the responsible father. Found within the community is a complex and dynamic interplaybetween intersecting discourses of manhood.

  • 40.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Global narratives of fatherhood: Fathering and masculinity on the Internet2016In: International Review of Sociology, ISSN 0390-6701, E-ISSN 1469-9273, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 482-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently an increasing amount of research on online fatherhood. In this article, we have used international blogs as our empirical data, in order to investigate and create an in-depth picture of fatherhood as it is expressed in various men’s stories about their everyday lives. Three distinct conceptions of fatherhood and masculinity emerge. The first of these positions could be described as a nostalgic position in relation to hegemonic masculinity. The second position is referred to here as complicity. This position indicates a changing landscape of fatherhood and family politics, moving towards gender-equal conditions. Thirdly, we have an inclusive position that reflects a gender-neutral position, and are understood less in terms of masculinity, heteronormativity and gender-divided responsibilities.

  • 41.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Glocalised fitness: the franchising of a physical movement, fitness professionalism and gender2018In: Leisure/ Loisir, ISSN 1492-7713, E-ISSN 2151-2221, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 301-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is on the development of a globalised and localised gym and fitness culture. The article takes its point of departure from three distinct levels. These are (1) organisational aspects of the culture, (2) fitness professionals’ individual trajectories, and (3) national variations and gender regimes. The findings indicate that fitness professionalism is emerging as an uncertain profession. On the one hand there are international accreditation systems that aim to ensure the status of these professionals. On the other hand, there are simultaneous tendencies towards devaluation of the status of fitness professionals, on a global level. Partly, this can be related to the standardisation of training programmes, as well as the connectedness between the service industry and feminised gender regimes. In conclusion, the globalisation of fitness is a highly gendered process, involving national body ideals and cultural variations in how fitness professionals are valued and perceived locally.

  • 42.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gymkulturen balanserar på könsgränserna2014In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 4, p. 29-33Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Synen på relationen mellan kroppar och könsidentiteter varierar över tid inom gymkulturen. I dag finns en längtan efter tydliga skillnader mellan könen. Men spännvidden är stor mellan de som vill utmana och överskrida gränser, och de som försöker upprätthålla strikta normativa ideal.

  • 43.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    It All Starts Now!: Gay Men and Fatherhood in Sweden2017In: Journal of GLBT Family Studies, ISSN 1550-428X, E-ISSN 1550-4298, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 478-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how Swedish gay men pursue and understand fatherhood, using a qualitative, semi-structured methodological approach. We are interested in how practical issues and different fatherhood arrangements are understood and handled by the fathers; how the construction of “rainbow families” is understood in relation to legal issues; parental responsibilities; and thoughts regarding gender-equal and gender-neutral relationships within Swedish society and culture. The results show that the trajectory of gay men toward fatherhood is shaped by a variety of mediating factors such as interactions with agencies, clinics, attorneys, and the state. There are some significant legal, social, financial, and cultural obstacles to realizing gay parenthood. There are also cases where study participants talked about a sense of intolerance expressed toward gay parents within a gay community. Although there are still strong normative dimensions involved in the construction of modern parenthood, the grip of heteronormative views on family life and sexuality is changing; the narratives presented also represent a questioning of the hegemonic image of fatherhood in Sweden. Consequently, it is possible to discern different attempts at transgressing and changing the cultural landscape of fatherhood and the ways people build families today.

  • 44.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Negotiating female fitness doping: Gender, identity and transgressions2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of qualitatively gathered interview material and data from various postings on a pro-doping online community called Flashback, the aim of this article is to describe and analyse how female users of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIED) understand and negotiate their use in relation to gender and the body. Positioned within post-structural feminism, the results show that there is an increasing amount of knowledge that not only targets but is also developed by and for women concerning PIED use. Traditionally scholars have connected female PIED use more or less exclusively to female bodybuilders, but as new body and femininity ideals develop the demographics of female fitness doping are widening. Although PIED use in the context of gym and fitness culture remains primarily a masculine domain, the results point towards a development in which women are increasingly becoming more integrated into a fitness community of PIED users.

  • 45.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Negotiating violence: mixed martial arts as a spectacle and sport2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 1183-1197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on qualitative interviews with Mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes and stakeholders, this study aims to investigate the relationship between, on the one hand, MMA as a spectacle and imaginary world, and on the other, the fighters’ experiences of violence, pain and ‘the real’. Analytically, we are influenced by the literature on the spectacle and on hyperreality. The results show that athletes’ negotiations concerning the sport largely connect to a particular way of approaching violence – culturally and in terms of physical experience. On the one hand, there is a desire to portray MMA as a civilized and regulated sport. The athletes develop different strategies by which to handle or renegotiate the physical force and violence in the cage. On the other hand, however, the fighters’ bodily control and management of their fear sometimes breaks down. When the spectacle of the octagon becomes ‘real’, the legitimacy of the sport is questioned.

  • 46.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Online Doping2015In: Paper presented at the Journal of youth studies conference, March 30-April 1, 2015, Copenhagen, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, but also internationally, official regimes and public health organizations conduct fairly comprehensive anti-doping measures. As a consequence, numerous ‘new’ ways to learn about and access these types of drugs have emerged. Social media and different Internet forums, for example, have become part of a new self-help culture in which mainly young people anonymously can approach these substances, discuss their experiences of using them, and minimize the possibility of encounters with the police. What we see today is the development of new doping trajectories. This presentation is based on a ethnographical inspired research project that focuses on how the use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs (PED) is perceived and negotiated socially in the context of an Internet-mediated and online community called Flashback. The results of the study are in accordance with similar studies on Internet bodybuilding communities. That is, even though the community members to a certain degree are aware of the risks and health costs of this kind of physical regime, the gains of using PED clearly dominate the discussions. Adding to this research, the results also indicate that in the imaginary world of online bodybuilding a number of ideas about the ‘genetic max’, as well as the ultimate possibility of exceeding one’s limits, and creating something special and extra-ordinary, circulate. These stories confirm in many ways the legitimate mission of searching for the ultimate bodybuilding adventure, using different means and methods to transcend the limits of the self/body.

  • 47.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Online doping: The new self-help culture of ethnopharmacology2016In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 957-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, but also internationally, official regimes and public health organizations conduct fairly comprehensive antidoping measures. As a consequence, numerous ‘new’ ways to learn about and access these types of drugs have emerged. Social media and different internet forums, for example, have become part of a new self-help culture in which people can anonymously approach these substances, discuss their experiences of using them and minimize the possibility of encounters with the police. This article focuses on how the use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs (PED) is perceived and negotiated socially in the context of an internet-mediated and online community calledFlashback. The results are in accordance with similar studies on internet bodybuilding communities. That is, even though the participants to a certain degree are aware of the risks and health costs of this kind of physical regime, the gains of using PED clearly dominate the discussions. Adding to this research, this article found that in the imaginary world of online bodybuilding a number of ideas about the ‘genetic max’, as well as the ultimate possibility of exceeding one’s limits, and creating something special and extraordinary, circulate. These stories confirm in many ways the legitimate mission of searching for the ultimate bodybuilding adventure, using different means and methods to transcend the limits of the self/body.

  • 48.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    The Fitness Revolution: Historical Transformations in the Global Gym and Fitness Culture.2014In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2066-8732, Vol. XXIII, no 3-4, p. 91-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, fitness gyms and private health clubs are a huge global business. Fitness has turned into a folk movement, but not one comparable to the old 20th-century movements, often connected to national sentiments, but instead a highly individualized preoccupation. In this article the historical development of modern gym and fitness culture is described and an analytically developed approach to the understanding of the emergence of this multi-billion-dollar phenomenon is developed. The analysis suggest that the techniques, tools, and physical exercises used today in gyms all over the world are the results of a physical culture developed and refined during the 20th century. The body ideals, exercises, techniques, and the pedagogy of fitness have become an increasingly international enterprise. A tentative analysis of the globalization of gym and fitness culture is developed and presented. Three important and decisive phases in the globalization of gym and fitness culture are identified and analyzed.

  • 49.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    The Global Gym: Gender, Health and Pedagogies2014Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both by participating in the everyday life of fitness professionals, gym-goers and bodybuilders, and by analyzing fitness blogs and other sources, The Global Gym explores fitness centres as sites of learning. The authors examine the kind of learning processes that take place within the gym and the wider fitness industry, and investigate how knowledge is acquired, negotiated and embodied by different agents operating within this context. Beyond this, the book also addresses the construction of gender within fitness culture. Many images of the body beautiful and perfect body ideals are manufactured and sold on a global commercial market. Jesper Andreasson and Thomas Johansson illustrate various extant modes of learning by asking how physical, psychological and cultural knowledge about health and the body is incorporated into people's (gender) identity in a local, national and global gym and fitness context.

  • 50.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    The Global Gym: Gender, Health and Pedagogies2013Conference paper (Other academic)
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