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  • 1.
    Grahn, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hur uppfattar farmaceuter tillgänglig information om patienters aktuella läkemedel och hur ser de på övergången till en gemensam nationell läkemedelslista?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Doctors, nurses, pharmacists, patients and next of kin are all parts of the chain that is needed to make sure that the use of medication is safe and appropriate for the patient. That many people involved and in many different settings can make the use of medication difficult to manage. In the year 2014 there were 102 913 130 prescriptions made out to patients in Sweden. Up to the year 2014 850 000 corrections had been made to prescriptions with faults in them by pharmacists each year. To correct prescriptions is an essential part of the pharmacist’s obligations and responsibility, a responsibility that is regulated in Swedish law. The pharmacist is the last part of the chain that has the possibility to adjust anything that is wrong with medications and the use of it before it is in the patient’s own hands. The access to a nationally shared medication list for all involved parties might solve some of the problems that faces the responsible parties when it comes to dealing with patients and their new and ongoing medications and in that way be able to increase the safety around mediation for the patient in need. Although the survey conducted as part of this paper focuses on pharmacists the background tries to explain in what way the different professions come in contact with medicines and how they would perhaps benefit from a shared list. The paper also tries to give a little insight to what kind of problems there could be related to prescriptions. In Sweden we have come a rather long way in the use of computers and the use of internet in the field of eHealth compared to other countries. The paper tries to show how the problem surrounding prescription of medicine is handled in the other countries of Scandinavia. Earlier studies have been conducted that looks at shared lists from the doctors view and also studies have been conducted that looks upon eHealth for patients partly in view of shared medication lists. No studies have been found that looks specifically at how pharmacists feel about it and how such a list would benefit them in their work to secure patient safety, hence this paper. In order to reach the papers purpose a survey was performed with pharmacists employed at different pharmacies in the southern part of Sweden. The result of the survey showed that there are indeed problems with prescriptions in the prescription repository and the majority of the pharmacists agreed that a shared medication list could help them in their work to secure patient safety when releasing prescribed medication. Although the pharmacist agreed for the most part in the benefits of such a list they did not know if it would solve all problems, which is for the future to decide.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Julia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Englund, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Diabetesmottagningars perspektiv på implementering av webbtidbokning: En studie om diabetesmottagningars förutsättningar och motsättningar vid en implementering av webbtidbokningar.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The authors of this bachelor thesis have completed the information logistics program and they had the will to influence the ongoing technical development in health care. The different diabetes receptions in Sweden works in different speeds with the development of e-health services such as web-based bookings. The three County Councils Blekinge, Kronoberg and Kalmars opinions about the introduction of web-based bookings were collected through interviews with twelve diabetes nurses from nine receptions. The purpose was to find out what conditions and contradictions that the employees of the receptors had experienced at the time of introduction or when the decision about the introduction was made. The purpose was also to show some tips and advice for receptions that is planning to introduce web-based bookings.

    The theory Diffusion of Innovations was used to analyze the results based on factors such as the innovations attributes, time for implementation, communication channels that were used and the social systems effect on the implementation. Even though four of the total nine receptions had introduced, or plans on introducing web-based bookings, none of them had actually implemented web-based bookings into a permanent change where the technology is used as planned. The failure to implement web-based bookings could be due to the many contradictions that has been pointed out by the informants. One of the most significant contradictions was the complexity because the majority of the informants considered the technology to be difficult to learn, hard to grasp that web-based bookings was, and hard to understand what it would be used for. This could have been happened due to the fact that the employees did not have a chance to test or observe the system before the introduction. Another crucial contradiction was the lack of demand of web-based bookings from the receptions patients. This is an interesting result because the informants also described many benefits from the patient's point of view. The results of this study also showed some benefits and tips for a successful implementation. Some good conditions was the physical communication regarding web-based bookings and the introduction, that the managers and management showed support for the change and that the receptions saw a need for web-based bookings and they also considered the technology to have more advantageous than the prior art. The authors also suggest that further studies as to why patients choose not to use e-health services, such as web-based bookings, even though they are available.

  • 3.
    Halilovic, Muratka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kranskärlssjuka patienters attityd och följsamhet till läkemedelsbehandling: En kvantitativ undersökning om läkemedelsanvändning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Brister i läkemedelsföljsamheten är ett världsomfattande problem. Varannan kroniskt sjuk patient följer inte sin läkemedelsordination. Trots starka bevis på att förebyggande behandlingar efter akut kranskärlssjukdom är effektiva har det i undersökningar visats att följsamheten till dessa mediciner är låg. Låg följsamhet leder till negativa hälsoeffekter; ökade hälso- och sjukvårdskostnader och ökad dödlighet. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka attityder och följsamhet till läkemedel hos patienter med kranskärlssjukdom. Vidare skulle sambandet mellan olika faktorer hos patienterna och deras attityd och följsamhet till läkemedel undersökas.

    Studien baserades på enkätundersökningar och ingick som en delstudie i ett större forskningsprojekt ”God läkemedelsanvändning för äldre i Småland (GLAS)”. Till analysen samlades enkäter och journaluppgifter från totalt 91 kranskärlssjuka patienter. Enkäterna var BMQ-Specific (attityd till hjärtläkemedel) och MMAS-8 (följsamhet till kolesterolsänkande läkemedel). 

    Av 91 patienter som deltog var 75 % män. Medelåldern var 69 år (SD = 8,704 år) och genomsnittligt antal regelbundna läkemedel per patient var 7,2 (SD =2,419). En femtedel av patienterna hade stark oro om användningen av förskrivna hjärtläkemedel och 28 % hade bristande följsamhet till kolesterolsänkande läkemedel. De patienter som hade positiv attityd till sin medicin var också de som var mest följsamma.

    Slutsatser som kan dras av studien är att attityder till läkemedel är en viktig del i hur patienter väljer att följa eller inte följa sin behandlingsregim. Resultaten från studien kan komma att användas till att utveckla insatser för att förbättra patienters läkedelsföljsamhet och behandlingsresultat.

  • 4.
    Hartmann, Kirsten
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Barns upplevelser av att leva med diagnosen diabetes mellitus typ 1: en systematisk litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För barn som har fått diabetes mellitus typ 1 betyder diagnosen en del förändringar och inskränkningar i vardagen eftersom vardagen behöver förändras både utifrån deras sociala, fysiska men också mentala perspektiv. För att som sjuksköterska kunna stödja barn och deras familjer är det av betydelse att ha kunskap om hur barnen upplever situationen med sin sjukdom. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att beskriva barns upplevelser av att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 1. Metoden som har använts är en systematisk litteraturstudie baserad på sju vetenskapliga artiklar som hittades i databaserna Cinahl, PsycINFO, Pubmed och Elin@lnu.se samt via manuella sökningar. För att säkerställa artiklarnas kvalitet gjordes en kvalitetsgranskning. Analysen har genomförts med inspiration av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Huvudresultaten visar att barnen var oroliga och rädda att drabbas av komplikationer. Många av dem kände sig begränsade i vardagen på grund av de rutiner som finns kring diabetesbehandlingen. Viktiga faktorer för att barnen skulle känner sig trygga var stödet av familjer, vänner och skolpersonal, men även kunskap om diabetes och dess behandling som sjuksköterskan tillhandahåller i form av diabetesutbildning.

  • 5.
    Jonasson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petersson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Törst hos patienter som behandlas med hemodialys2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Bakgrund

    : Andelen njursjuka som är i behov av hemodialys ökar ständigt. I stort sett alla dessa patienter lider av törst. Att vara njursjuk och under dialysbehandling innebär stränga restriktioner i hur mycket vätska patienterna bör inta. Den kraftiga törsten kan leda till att patienterna intar så mycket vätska att dialysbehandlingen blir en fara. För att de inte ska riskera sin hälsa behöver patienten stöd i hanterandet av törst. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att belysa hanteringen av törst hos patienter som behandlas med hemodialys. Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie av endast vetenskapliga artiklar användes som metod och sökningar gjordes i PubMed och Cinahl. 10 artiklar valdes ut, kvalitetsgranskades och analyserades. Resultat: Törst hos hemodialyspatienter upplevs som ett lidande. Hur väl patienterna hanterar vätskerestriktioner och törst beror på bland annat graden av törst, motivationsgrad, sjukdomsstadiet och patientens ålder. Patienter med stor självdisciplin har lättare att hålla sig till de ordinerade vätskerestriktionerna och utstå törsten. Slutsats: I slutänden är det när patienter tar ett eget ansvar och utvecklar egna egenvårdsstrategier som de framgångsrikt kan utstå törsten som följer med hemodialysbehandlingens vätskerestriktioner. Utöver att ge sedvanlig information bör sjuksköterskor stödja hemodialyspatienter att hitta egna copingstrategier, speciellt barn och ungdomar.

  • 6.
    Karpestam, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Prescribing Patterns to Children and Adolescents (10-19 years) in Sweden during 2006-2011: A Registry Study with Focus on Drugs Acting on the Nervous System2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children and adolescents are a group among which the data on efficacy and safety of drugs is particularly scarce. This has consequences that can lead to adverse effects. The recent increase in utilization of specialized psychiatric care among young men and women in Sweden may influence drug utilization because the Swedish guidelines for treating neuropsychiatric disorders in youth include medical treatment. Using de-personalized prescription data from The Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry for the years 2006-2011 to estimate period prevalence of drug use for males and females aged 10-19 years; trends in prescribing were analyzed on a national as well as a regional level. The prevalence of both overall (+ 2.6 %) and ATC N (+ 51 %) drug use has increased for the age group 10-19 years during the years 2006-2011. In general, the increase was greater for males than for females, and the number of prescriptions increased generally more than the number of individuals getting a prescription dispensed. Hypnotic/sedative drugs increased most for males (> 200 %) and for females drugs used to manage ADHD increased the most (> 350 %). There were considerable differences in both prevalence and change in prevalence of drug use between various regions.

  • 7.
    Lundin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Användbarhet och designprinciper i ett webbaserat gränssnitt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet startade på uppdrag av eHälsoinstitutet i Kalmar. Syftet var att ta fram ett webbaserat utbildningsgränssnitt för äldre läkemedelsanvändare. Arbetets omfattning har inneburit att ta designa ett gränssnitt som skall uppfylla vissa krav för användbarhet inom olika kriterier. Problemets utgångspunkt har varit att försöka undersöka vilka faktorer som kan stimulera och vara viktiga för användbarhet i gränssnitt emot en äldre målgrupp med åldersrelaterade svårigheter. För att belysa problemet har olika metoder åtagits såsom Normans designprinciper, gestaltlagar, observationer och intervjuer. Med hjälp av dessa har intressant data kunnat tas fram som senare analyserat, utvärderats och visualiserats.

    Resultaten har genererat intressanta företeelser om användbarhet utifrån flera perspektiv. En del har varit konkreta, medan andra mer abstrakta. Vad som framkommit av betydelse är att designprinciper får anses vara en viktig källa för god användbarhetsdesign och positiva upplevelser för de äldre. 

  • 8.
    Nilsson, Erica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Gränssnittsdesign för videocentrerad online-rådgivning: Utformad efter frågeställarens och rådgivarens olika användarroller2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following essay is a design study which has developed a design proposal for a online-counseling service by information from literature, earlier analysis, interviews and personas which is suited for the user roles, questioner and advisor by their subject skills and by knowledge of the web service. The aim with the study was to investigate who the interfaces would be designed to accomplish the goals that the respective user role have when using the service. The design proposal is a part of a larger project where patients, diagnosed with cancer have had the opportunity to borrow an iPad which will work as a source of communication when there are no ordinary visits. The part where this work is involved in is a web service where patients have the opportunity to watch pre-recorded videos about the medication and may discuss potential questions with a nurse. The users have the opportunity to use a videotool as a mean of communication, which has been in the center of the design because it can be used to ease the communication between users. The video information which is attached from the existing videos can clarify the users messages. The advisor is in need for an interface with a sufficient amount of functions to clarify the information who is sent to the questioner. In the design proposal it has been made by a larger number of steps for the video function. The design proposal for the questioner's interface has been tested individually with five different participants through a prototype implemented with HTML5, Css and Javascript. The users integrated with the prototype and later answered some questions through an interview. The result showed that it is important to avoid a complicated interface with a large number of functions for the questioner. Furthermore, a simple interface design with clear descriptions and visualization for the clickable element is necessary. If the questioner is irritated and spend a lot of time on learning how the service works he or she may choose not to use the web service.

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