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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Napolitano, Annalisa
    IMT School for Advanced Studies, Italy.
    Architecting decentralized control in large-scale self-adaptive systems2023Ingår i: Computing, ISSN 0010-485X, E-ISSN 1436-5057, Vol. 105, s. 1849-1882Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Architecting a self-adaptive system with decentralized control is challenging. Indeed, architects shall consider several different and interdependent design dimensions and devise multiple control loops to coordinate and timely perform the correct adaptations. To support this task, we propose Decor, a reasoning framework for architecting and evaluating decentralized control. Decor provides (i) multi-paradigm modeling support, (ii) a modeling environment for MAPE-K style decentralized control, and (iii) a co-simulation environment for simulating the decentralized control together with the managed system and estimating the quality attributes of interest. We apply the Decor in three case studies: an intelligent transportation system, a smart power grid, and a cloud computing application. The studies demonstrate the framework’s capabilities to support informed architectural decisions on decentralized control and adaptation strategies.

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  • 2.
    Zapico, Jorge Luis
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Zennaro, Marco
    ICTP, Italy.
    Insect biodiversity in agriculture using IoT: opportunities and needs for further research2022Ingår i: IEEE Global Communications Conference, 7-11 December 2021, Madrid, Spain: Connecting Cultures around the Globe, IEEE, 2022, s. 1-5Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

      Recent research points out an alarming decline in insect biodiversity and biomass. Changing agriculture practices, together with climate change, are a main driver behind this decline. Biodiversity interventions in agriculture can therefore play an important role for insect conservation. Validating the impact of such interventions is limited by expertise and labor intensive methods, and there is a growing number of projects exploring how IoT could help. For instance using remote sensors to capture insect images and sound fingerprints non-intrusively, and machine learning models to automatically classify the obser- vation in different taxa. This article will: (a) explore recent advances in Internet of Things, Edge ML and LPWAN technologies and their application for monitoring insect biodiversity; (b) discuss opportunities, needs and ideas for validating the impact of biodiversity inter- ventions in agriculture using these technologies; and (c) outline future research opportunities.  

  • 3.
    Andersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Grassi, Vincenzo
    Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Perez-Palacin, Diego
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    A conceptual framework for resilience: fundamental definitions, strategies and metrics2021Ingår i: Computing, ISSN 0010-485X, E-ISSN 1436-5057, Vol. 103, s. 559-588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The resilience system property has become more and more relevant, mainly because of the increasing dependance on a rapidly growing number of software-intensive, complex, socio-technical systems, which are facing uncertainty about changes they are expected to experience during their life-cycle and ways to deal with them. Methodologies for the systematic design and validation of resilience for such systems are thus highly necessary, and require contributions from several different fields. This paper contributes to current resilience research by providing a conceptual framework intended to serve as a common ground for the development of such methodologies. Its main points are: the identification of the main categories of changes a system should face; a clear definition of the different facets of resilience one could want to achieve, expressed in terms of the system dynamics; a mapping of each of these facets to design strategies that are better suited to achieve it; and the corresponding identification of possible metrics that can be used to assess its achievement. 

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  • 4.
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    A Field-Sensitive Security Monitor for Object-Oriented Programs2021Ingår i: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 108, artikel-id 102349Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a sound method to synthesize a permissive monitor using boolean supervisory controller synthesis that observes a Java program at certain checkpoints, predicts information flow violations and applies suitable countermeasures to prevent violations. We introduce an approach for modeling heap and information flow via heap. To improve permissiveness, we train the monitor and remove false positives by executing the program along with its executable model. If a security violation is detected, the user can define sound countermeasures, including declassification to apply in checkpoints. We prove that the monitored program ensures localized delimited release in case of declassifying information and termination-insensitive noninterference in case of no declassification. We implement a tool to automate the whole process and generate a monitor. Our method is evaluated by applying it on the Droidbench benchmark and one real-life Android application.

  • 5.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    De Toma, Marco
    Univ Aquila, Italy.
    Muccini, Henry
    Univ Aquila, Italy.
    Vaidhyanathan, Karthik
    Univ Aquila, Italy.
    A Machine Learning Approach to Service Discovery for Microservice Architectures2021Ingår i: Software Architecture, ECSA 2021 / [ed] Biffl, S Navarro, E Lowe, W Sirjani, M Mirandola, R Weyns, D, Springer, 2021, Vol. 12857, s. 66-82Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Service discovery mechanisms have continuously evolved during the last years to support the effective and efficient service composition in large-scale microservice applications. Still, the dynamic nature of services (and of their contexts) are being rarely taken into account for maximizing the desired quality of service. This paper proposes using machine learning techniques, as part of the service discovery process, to select microservice instances in a given context, maximize QoS, and take into account the continuous changes in the execution environment. Both deep neural networks and reinforcement learning techniques are used. Experimental results show how the proposed approach outperforms traditional service discovery mechanisms.

  • 6.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Flammini, Francesco
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). Linköping University, Sweden.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). Softwerk AB, Sweden.
    A Research Agenda for Smarter Cyber-Physical Systems2021Ingår i: Journal of Integrated Design & Process Science, ISSN 1092-0617, E-ISSN 1875-8959, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 27-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advancing digitisation of society and industry we observe a progressing blending of computational, physical, and social processes. The trustworthiness and sustainability of these systems will be vital for our society. However, engineering modern computing systems is complex as they have to: i) operate in uncertain and continuously changing environments, ii) deal with huge amounts of data, and iii) require seamless interaction with human operators. To that end, we argue that both systems and the way we engineer them must become smarter. With smarter we mean that systems and engineering processes adapt and evolve themselves through a perpetual process that continuously improves their capabilities and utility to deal with the uncertainties and amounts of data they face. We highlight key engineering areas: cyber-physical systems, self-adaptation, data-driven technologies, and visual analytics, and outline key challenges in each of them. From this, we propose a research agenda for the years to come.

  • 7.
    Pappaterra, Mauro Jose
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Vittorini, Valeria
    Univ Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Besinovic, Nikola
    Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    A Systematic Review of Artificial Intelligence Public Datasets for Railway Applications2021Ingår i: Infrastructures, E-ISSN 2412-3811, Vol. 6, nr 10, artikel-id 136Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to review existing publicly available and open artificial intelligence (AI) oriented datasets in different domains and subdomains of the railway sector. The contribution of this paper is an overview of AI-oriented railway data published under Creative Commons (CC) or any other copyright type that entails public availability and freedom of use. These data are of great value for open research and publications related to the application of AI in the railway sector. This paper includes insights on the public railway data: we distinguish different subdomains, including maintenance and inspection, traffic planning and management, safety and security and type of data including numerical, string, image and other. The datasets reviewed cover the last three decades, from January 1990 to January 2021. The study revealed that the number of open datasets is very small in comparison with the available literature related to AI applications in the railway industry. Another shortcoming is the lack of documentation and metadata on public datasets, including information related to missing data, collection schemes and other limitations. This study also presents quantitative data, such as the number of available open datasets divided by railway application, type of data and year of publication. This review also reveals that there are openly available APIs-maintained by government organizations and train operating companies (TOCs)-that can be of great use for data harvesting and can facilitate the creation of large public datasets. These data are usually well-curated real-time data that can greatly contribute to the accuracy of AI models. Furthermore, we conclude that the extension of AI applications in the railway sector merits a centralized hub for publicly available datasets and open APIs.</p>

  • 8.
    Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Marrone, Stefano
    Univ Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy.
    Nardone, Roberto
    Univ Naples Parthenope, Italy.
    Vittorini, Valeria
    Univ Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Compositional modeling of railway Virtual Coupling with Stochastic Activity Networks2021Ingår i: Formal Aspects of Computing, ISSN 0934-5043, E-ISSN 1433-299X, Vol. 33, s. 989-1007Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current travel demand in railways requires the adoption of novel approaches and technologies in order to increase network capacity. Virtual Coupling is considered one of the most innovative solutions to increase railway capacity by drastically reducing train headway. The aim of this paper is to provide an approach to investigate the potential of Virtual Coupling in railways by composing stochastic activity networks model templates. The paper starts describing the Virtual Coupling paradigm with a focus on standard European railway traffic controllers. Based on stochastic activity network model templates, we provide an approach to perform quantitative evaluation of capacity increase in reference Virtual Coupling scenarios. The approach can be used to estimate system capacity over a modelled track portion, accounting for the scheduled service as well as possible failures. Due to its modularity, the approach can be extended towards the inclusion of safety model components. The contribution of this paper is a preliminary result of the PERFORMINGRAIL (PERformance-based Formal modelling and Optimal tRaffic Management for movING-block RAILway signalling) project funded by the European Shift2Rail Joint Undertaking.

  • 9.
    Skandylas, Charilaos
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Design and Implementation of Self-Protecting Systems: A Formal Approach2021Ingår i: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 115, s. 421-437Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As threats to computer security become more common, complex and frequent, systems that canautomatically protect themselves from attacks are imminently needed. In this paper, we proposea formal approach to achieve self-protection by performing security analysis on self-adaptive systems, taking the adaptation process into account. We use probabilistic model checking to quantitatively analyze adaptation security, rank the strategies available and select the most secure one to apply in the system. We have incorporated our approach in Rainbow which is a framework to develop architecture-based self-adaptive systems.To evaluate our approach's effectiveness, we applied it on two  case studies: a simple document storage system and ZNN, a well known self-adaptive exemplar. The results show that applying our approachcan guarantee a reasonable degree of security, both during and after adaptation.

  • 10.
    Edrisi, Farid
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Perez-Palacin, Diego
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Hallberg, Margrethe
    Scania, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Anton
    Virtual Manufacturing, Sweden.
    Kopf, Claudia
    Scania, Sweden.
    Sigvardsson, Johanna
    Virtual Manufacturing, Sweden.
    EA Blueprint: An Architectural Pattern for Resilient Digital Twin of the Organization2021Ingår i: Dependable Computing - EDCC 2021 Workshops. / [ed] Adler R. et al, Springer, 2021, s. 120-131Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancements in Cyber-Physical Systems, IoT, Data-driven methods, and networking prepare the adequate infrastructure for constructing new organizations, where everything is connected and interact with each other. A Digital Twin of the Organization (DTO) exploits these infrastructures to provide an accurate digital representation of the organization. Beyond the usual representation of devices, machines and physical assets supplied by Digital Twins, a DTO also include processes, services, people, roles, and all other relevant elements for the operation of organizations. Therefore, DTO can play a key role in realizing and analyzing aspects of organizations, assisting managers on the knowledge of the organization status, and foreseeing possible effects of potential changes in the organization. However, due to the dynamic, open, and ever-changing environment of organizations, an established DTO will soon degrade or even lose all its utility. Therefore, a DTO needs to evolve to recover its utility when the organization changes. The development of flexible, resilient, and easy to evolve DTO has not been well-addressed yet. Most of the existing proposals are context-dependent, system-specific, or focus on providing solutions in high-level abstraction. This work leverages Enterprise Architecture to propose an architectural pattern to serve as a blueprint toward the development of resilient DTO.

  • 11.
    Skandylas, Charilaos
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Zhou, Luyuan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Roe, Simon
    Outpost24, Sweden.
    Security Risk Analysis of Multi-Stage Attacks Based on Data Criticality2021Ingår i: The 2nd International Workshop on Engineering and Cybersecurity of Critical Systems (EnCyCriS 2021), June 3th, 2021, IEEE, 2021, s. 13-20Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, it has become more challenging for organizations to assess the security risks of their assets properly, as more vulnerabilities are discovered, exploited, and weaponized. Further, attackers usually use complex multi-stage attack strategies to compromise a system and achieve their goals by exploiting several vulnerabilities.The number of affected assets and the strategy used to create the compromises by the threat actor will often dictate the costs and damages to the organization.When performing risk analysis, in addition to existing vulnerabilities, it is important, but often neglected, to consider the criticality of the data residing in the vulnerable asset. However, graphical threat modeling techniques often do not offer suitable toolsfor this type of analysis.In this paper, we propose a class of security risk metrics to estimate the cost of an attack that considers the criticality of data in addition to the dependencies among vulnerabilities. Our metrics are based on graphical modeling techniques in which we incorporate data criticality. We applied our approach to a real-life case study and obtained promising results.

  • 12.
    Skandylas, Charilaos
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Adaptive Trust-Aware Decentralized Information Flow Control2020Ingår i: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Autonomic Computing and Self-Organizing Systems (ACSOS): Virtual Conference 17-21 August 2020 / [ed] Esam El-Araby, Sven Tomforde, Timothy Wood, Pradeep Kumar, Claudia Raibulet, Ioan Petri, Gabriele Valentini, Phyllis Nelson, Barry Porter, IEEE, 2020, s. 92-101Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern software systems are decentralized, distributed, and dynamic, and consequently, require decentralized mechanisms to enforce security. In this paper, we propose an adaptive approach using a combination of decentralized information flow control (DIFC) mechanisms, trust-based methods and decentralized control architectures to enforce security in open distributed systems. In our approach, adaptivity mitigates two aspects of the system dynamics that cause uncertainty: the ever-changing nature of trust and system openness. We formalize our trust-aware DIFC model and instantiate two decentralized control architectures to implement and evaluate it. We evaluate the effectiveness and performance of our method and decentralized control architectures on two case studies.

  • 13.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Edrisi, Farid
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Hallberg, Margrethe
    Scania AB, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Anton
    Virtual Manufacturing AB, Sweden.
    Kopf, Claudia
    Scania AB, Sweden.
    Perez-Palacin, Diego
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Architectural Concerns for Digital Twin of the Organization2020Ingår i: Software Architecture: 14th European Conference, ECSA 2020, L'Aquila, Italy, September 14–18, 2020 / [ed] Jansen A., Malavolta I., Muccini H., Ozkaya I., Zimmermann O., Springer, 2020, s. 265-280Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Employing a Digital Twin of the Organization would help enterprises to change and innovate, thus enhancing their organization’s sustainability. However, the lack of engineering best practices for developing and operating a Digital Twin of the Organization makes it difficult for enterprises to fully benefit from it. Many companies are currently investigating the potential use of it, but available solutions are often context-dependent or system-specific, and challenging to adapt, extend, and reuse. Therefore, digitalization is perceived as a slow, resource-demanding, and extremely expensive process whose outcome is uncertain. To this extent, enterprises seek solutions allowing them to gently introduce a Digital Twin of the Organization into their organization and to evolve it according to the changing needs and situations. This paper reports a first attempt on architecting a Digital Twin of an Organization, and discusses some architectural concerns to be addressed in order to facilitate its development and evolution.

  • 14.
    Skandylas, Charilaos
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    AT-DIFC +: Toward Adaptive and Trust-Aware Decentralized Information Flow Control2020Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, ISSN 1556-4665, E-ISSN 1556-4703, Vol. 15, nr 4, artikel-id 13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern software systems and their corresponding architectures are increasingly decentralized, distributed, and dynamic. As a consequence, decentralized mechanisms are required to ensure security in such architectures. Decentralized Information Flow Control (DIFC) is a mechanism to control information flow in distributed systems. This article presents and discusses several improvements to an adaptive decentralized information flow approach that incorporates trust for decentralized systems to provide security. Adaptive Trust-Aware Decentralized Information Flow (AT-DIFC+) combines decentralized information flow control mechanisms, trust-based methods, and decentralized control architectures to control and enforce information flow in an open, decentralized system. We strengthen our approach against newly discovered attacks and provide additional information about its reconfiguration, decentralized control architectures, and reference implementation. We evaluate the effectiveness and performance of AT-DIFC+ on two case studies and perform additional experiments and to gauge the mitigations’ effectiveness against the identified attacks.

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  • 15.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Grassi, Vincenzo
    Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Decentralized Architecture for Energy-Aware Service Assembly2020Ingår i: Software Architecture: 14th European Conference, ECSA 2020, L'Aquila, Italy, September 14–18, 2020 / [ed] Anton Jansen, Ivano Malavolta, Henry MucciniIpek Ozkaya, Olaf Zimmermann, Springer, 2020, s. 57-72Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary application domains make more and more appealing the vision of applications built as a dynamic and opportunistic assembly of autonomous and independent resources. However, the adoption of such paradigm is challenged by: (i) the openness and scalability needs of the operating environment, which rule out approaches based on centralized architectures and, (ii) the increasing concern for sustainability issues, which makes particularly relevant, in addition to QoS constraints, the goal of reducing the application energy footprint. In this context, we contribute by proposing a decentralized architecture to build a fully functional assembly of distributed services, able to optimize its energy consumption, paying also attention to issues concerning the delivered quality of service. We suggest suitable indexes to measure from different perspectives the energy efficiency of the resulting assembly, and present the results of extensive simulation experiments to assess the effectiveness of our approach.

  • 16.
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Grassi, Vincenzo
    Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Decentralized learning for self-adaptive QoS-aware service assembly2020Ingår i: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 108, s. 210-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly dynamic nature of future computing systems, where applications dynamically emerge as opportunistic aggregation of autonomous and independent resources available at any given time, requires a radical shift in the adopted computing paradigms. Indeed, they should fully reflect the decentralized perspective of the execution environment and consider QoS, scalability and resilience as key objectives. In this context, the everything-as-a-service (XaaS) paradigm, which envisions the creation of new services as an assembly of independent services available within the environment, can greatly help in tackling the challenges of developing future applications. However, in order to be effective, XaaS paradigm requires self-adaptive service assembly solutions able to cope with the unpredictable variability and scalability of the execution environment, the lack of global knowledge, and the QoS requirements of services to be built. We contribute in this direction by designing a fully decentralized and collective self-adaptive service assembly framework whose main features are: (i) self-assembly, i.e., the ability to operate autonomously, (ii) online-learning, i.e., the ability to dynamically learn from experience, (iii) QoS-awareness, i.e., the inclusion of QoS requirements as driving forces for self-assembly, (iv) scalability, i.e., the ability to cope with a large number of services, and (v) resilience, i.e., the ability to maintain the persistence of service delivery when facing unexpected changes (e.g., in the number and/or QoS of services). Simulation experiments show that our solution makes the system able to quickly converge to viable assemblies that improve and maintain over time the social welfare of the system, despite the local perspective of each participating service.

  • 17.
    Svensson, Rasmus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Tatrous, Adell
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Palma, Francis
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Defining Design Patterns for IoT APIs2020Ingår i: Software Architecture. ECSA 2020: 14th European Conference, ECSA 2020 Tracks and Workshops, L'Aquila, Italy, September 14–18, 2020, Proceedings / [ed] Henry Muccini, Paris Avgeriou, Barbora Buhnova, Javier Camara, Mauro Caporuscio, Mirco Franzago, Anne Koziolek, Patrizia Scandurra, Catia Trubiani, Danny Weyns, Uwe Zdun, Springer, 2020, Vol. 1269, s. 443-458Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart devices (or things) in the realm of IoT (Internet of Things) talk to each other and transfer data over the Internet. IoT vendors provide APIs for their clients to send data to the gateways and application servers. However, there is a lack of guidelines on how a vendor would design its API and resource URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers). A generic design solution – design patterns – would make the API design and development easier for the vendors. Design patterns are reusable solutions to recurring problems and provide improved reusability and understandability. Currently, there are no design patterns for IoT APIs that IoT vendors can use. In this paper, we analyzed more than 1,300 URIs from 13 IoT APIs including IBM Watson and Microsoft Azure, and proposed eight novel design patterns for IoT APIs. We analyzed two datasets: (1) analysis set with 70% of all our URIs to define design patterns for IoT APIs and (2) validation set with the remaining 30% of the URIs to verify the prevalence of defined design patterns. We found that design patterns are prevalent in the IoT domain.

  • 18.
    Bucchiarone, Antonio
    et al.
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Pianini, Danilo
    Università di Bologna, Italy.
    Cabri, Giacomo
    Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    De Sanctis, Martina
    GSSI, Italy.
    Viroli, Mirko
    Università di Bologna, Italy.
    Casadei, Roberto
    Università di Bologna, Italy.
    Dobson, Simon
    University of St Andrews, UK.
    On the Social Implications of Collective Adaptive Systems2020Ingår i: IEEE technology & society magazine, ISSN 0278-0097, E-ISSN 1937-416X, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 36-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Collect ive Adaptive Systems (CASs) exist in nature: think of ant colonies, where large collectives of ants operate autonomously but interact with other ants and the environment to provide resilient global behaviors that sustain their colony. Following scientific studies that were aimed at understanding and predicting the evolution of these systems, and fueled by technological advances, research has started to investigate CAS engineering: the methods, tools, and techniques for building CASs. This naturally leads to a vision where collectives of humans and computational elements, situated both in the digital and physical worlds, collaborate to give rise to "intelligent" collective behavior supporting novel kinds of applications and services. Humans can be involved in two ways: both as users and as components of the CAS, in the sense that human behaviors and limitations are often integral to the system description. This has significant social implications that need to be considered by CAS researchers: in this paper, we share a discussion that took place between some experts thinking about CAS engineering, focusing on the social implication of CASs and related open research challenges. We hope that this provides a useful context for future research projects, research grant proposals, and research directions.

  • 19.
    Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Vittorini, Valeria
    CINI, Italy;Univ Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Lin, Zhiyuan
    Univ Leeds, UK.
    Roadmaps for AI Integration in the Rail Sector - RAILS2020Ingår i: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, nr 121, s. 34-35Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The European RAILS research project is investigating the potential applications of artificial intelligence (AI) within the rail sector, and helping define roadmaps for future research in next generation signalling systems, operational intelligence, and network management.

  • 20.
    Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Marrone, Stefano
    Univ Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy.
    Nardone, Roberto
    Univ Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Safety integrity through self-adaptation for multi-sensor event detection: Methodology and case-study2020Ingår i: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 112, s. 965-981Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional safety-critical systems are engineered in a way to be predictable in all operating conditions. They are common in industrial automation and transport applications where uncertainties (e.g., fault occurrence rates) can be modeled and precisely evaluated. Furthermore, they use high-cost hardware components to increase system reliability. On the contrary, future systems are increasingly required to be "smart"(or "intelligent") that is to adapt to new scenarios, learn and react to unknown situations, possibly using low-cost hardware components. In order to move a step forward to fulfilling those new expectations, in this paper we address run-time stochastic evaluation of quantitative safety targets, like hazard rate, in self-adaptive event detection systems by using Bayesian Networks and their extensions. Self-adaptation allows changing correlation schemes on diverse detectors based on their reputation, which is continuously updated to account for performance degradation as well as modifications in environmental conditions. To that aim, we introduce a specific methodology and show its application to a case-study of vehicle detection with multiple sensors for which a real-world data-set is available from a previous study. Besides providing a proof-of-concept of our approach, the results of this paper pave the way to the introduction of new paradigms in the dynamic safety assessment of smart systems. (c) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Skandylas, Charilaos
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Self-Adaptive Trust-aware Decentralized Information Flow Control, extended version2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern software systems and their corresponding architectures are decentralized, distributed, and dynamic. As a consequence, decentralized mechanisms are also required to ensure security in such architectures. Decentralized Information Flow Control (DIFC) is a mechanism to control information flow in distributed systems. However, DIFC mechanisms require the resolution of specific centralized control and trust issues.In this paper, we propose an adaptive, trust-aware, decentralized information flow approach that incorporates trust in DIFC for decentralized systems. We employ decentralized feedback loops to enable decentralized control and adaptive trust assignments. In our approach, adaptivity mitigates two aspects of systems dynamics that cause uncertainty:  the ever-changing nature of trust and the system openness. We formalize our trust-aware DIFC model and instantiate two decentralized feedback loop architectures to implement it.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Self-Adaptive Trust-Aware DecentralizedInformation Flow Control - Technical Report
  • 22.
    Zeller, Silvan
    et al.
    Omegapoint AB, Sweden.
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Deogun, Daniel
    Omegapoint AB, Sweden.
    Self-protection against business logic vulnerabilities2020Ingår i: 15th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS@ICSE 2020), ACM Publications, 2020, s. 174-180Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attacks against business logic rules occur when the attacker exploits the domain rules in a malicious way. Such attacks have not received sufficient attention in research so far. In this paper, we propose a novel self-protecting approach that defends a system against the exploitation of business logic vulnerabilities. The approach empowers a system with a self-protecting layer to protect it against attacks aimed at misusing business logic rules. The approach maintains up-to-date domain knowledge which is analyzed using runtime verification to detect logical attacks. When attacks are discovered they are dynamically mitigated by applying proper system reconfigurations at runtime. We evaluate the approach using a case from the domain of hotel booking systems.

  • 23.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Flammini, Francesco
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Singh, Prasannjeet
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Thornadtsson, Johan
    Sigma Technology, Sweden.
    Smart-troubleshooting connected devices: Concept, challenges and opportunities2020Ingår i: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 111, s. 681-697Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s digital world and evolving technology has improved the quality of our lives but it has also come with a number of new threats. In the society of smart-cities and Industry 4.0, where many cyber-physical devices connect and exchange data through the Internet of Things, the need for addressing information security and solve system failures becomes inevitable. System failures can occur because of hardware failures, software bugs or interoperability issues. In this paper we introduce the industry-originated concept of “smart-troubleshooting” that is the set of activities and tools needed to gather failure information generated by heterogeneous connected devices, analyze them, and match them with troubleshooting instructions and software fixes. As a consequence of implementing smart-troubleshooting, the system would be able to self-heal and thus become more resilient. This paper aims to survey frameworks, methodologies and tools related to this new concept, and especially the ones needed to model, analyze and recover from failures in a (semi)automatic way. Smart-troubleshooting has a relation with event analysis to perform diagnostics and prognostics on devices manufactured by different suppliers in a distributed system. It also addresses management of appropriate product information specified in possibly unstructured formats to guide the troubleshooting workflow in identifying fault–causes and solutions. Relevant research is briefly surveyed in the paper in order to highlight current state-of-the-art, open issues, challenges to be tackled and future opportunities in this emerging industry paradigm.

  • 24.
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Pagliari, Lorenzo
    Gran Sasso Science Institute, Italy.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Trubiani, Catia
    Gran Sasso Science Institute, Italy.
    Towards a Continuous Model-Based Engineering Process for QoS-Aware Self-adaptive Systems2020Ingår i: International Conference on Software Engineering and Formal Methods SEFM 2019: Software Engineering and Formal Methods / [ed] Camara J.;Steffen M., Springer, 2020, s. 69-76Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern information systems connecting software, physical systems, and people, are usually characterized by high dynamism. These dynamics introduce uncertainties, which in turn may harm the quality of service and lead to incomplete, inaccurate, and unreliable results. In this context, self-adaptation is considered as an effective approach for managing run-time uncertainty. However, classical approaches for quality engineering are not suitable to deal with run-time adaptation, as they are mainly used to derive the steady-state solutions of a system at design-time. In this paper, we envision a Continuous Model-based Engineering Process that makes use of architectural analysis in conjunction with experimentation to have a wider understanding of the system under development. These two activities are performed incrementally, and jointly used in a feedback loop to provide insights about the quality of the system-to-be. © 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 25.
    Singh, Prasannjeet
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Flammini, Francesco
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). Mälardalen university, Sweden.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Saman Azari, Mehdi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Thornadtsson, Johan
    Sigma Technology Group, Sweden.
    Towards self-healing in the internet of things by log analytics and process mining2020Ingår i: Proceedings of the 30th European Safety and Reliability Conference and the 15th Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference, Research Publishing Services, 2020, s. 4644-4651Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) will be used in increasingly complex and critical applications where heterogeneous devices will work together in connected systems. In this paper we address methods for log-analytics and process mining in order to support automatic problem detection and diagnosis in IoT. We introduce the idea of generating consistent event logs over various IoT devices in a particular format, and later a roadmap for it to be used in process mining. The paper also provides information about various statistics on process mining and its future prospects. Those methods are essential to provide a foundation for the future generation IoT systems that will be capable of self-healing. © ESREL2020-PSAM15 Organizers.Published by Research Publishing, Singapore.

  • 26.
    Calinescu, Radu
    et al.
    University of York, UK.
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Perez-Palacin, Diego
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Understanding Uncertainty in Self-adaptive Systems2020Ingår i: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Autonomic Computing and Self-Organizing Systems, ACSOS 2020 / [ed] El-Araby E.,Tomforde S.,Wood T.,Kumar P.,Raibulet C.,Petri I.,Valentini G.,Nelson P.,Porter B., IEEE, 2020, s. 242-251Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring that systems achieve their goals under uncertainty is a key driver for self-adaptation. Nevertheless, the concept of uncertainty in self-adaptive systems (SAS) is still insufficiently understood. Although several taxonomies of uncertainty have been proposed, taxonomies alone cannot convey the SAS research community’s perception of uncertainty. To explore and to learn from this perception, we conducted a survey focused on the SAS ability to deal with unanticipated change and to model uncertainty, and on the major challenges that limit this ability. In this paper, we analyse the responses provided by the 51 participants in our survey. The insights gained from this analysis include the view—held by 71% of our participants—that SAS can be engineered to cope with unanticipated change, e.g., through evolving their actions, synthesising new actions, or using default actions to deal with such changes. To handle uncertainties that affect SAS models, the participants recommended the use of confidence intervals and probabilities for parametric uncertainty, and the use of multiple models with model averaging or selection for structural uncertainty. Notwithstanding this positive outlook, the provision of assurances for safety-critical SAS continues to pose major challenges according to our respondents. We detail these findings in the paper, in the hope that they will inspire valuable future research on self-adaptive systems.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Grassi, Vincenzo
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy.
    Perez-Palacin, Diego
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    A Distilled Characterization of Resilience and Its Embraced Properties Based on State-Spaces2019Ingår i: Software Engineering for Resilient Systems: 11th International Workshop, SERENE 2019, Naples, Italy, September 17, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Radu Calinescu & Felicita Di Giandomenico, Springer, 2019, s. 11-25Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, we have observed the increasing interest in the system property resilience. We ascribe this increasing interest to the rapidly growing number of deployed, complex, socio-technical systems, which are facing uncertainty about changes they are expected to experience during their life-cycle and ways to deal with them. This paper contributes to current resilience research by focusing on the different definitions given for this system property, highlighting the risk that, using different terms in different communities, this contributes to create a “tower of Babel” problem, with the consequent difficulty in exchanging ideas and working together towards a common goal. We adopt an extended definition of dependability to define resilience. Based on that, we identify features of resilient systems, capture properties falling under the resilience umbrella, and define a conceptual framework for resilience characterization including how changes affect the system, strategies to design resilience, and discuss metrics for quantifying resilience at design and runtime.

  • 28.
    Khakpour, Narges
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Klein, Jetty
    Leiden University, Netherlands.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    A formal model to integrate behavioral and structural adaptations in self-adaptive systems2019Ingår i: Fundamentals of software engineering: 8th International conference, FSEN 2019, Tehran, Iran, May 1-3, 2019, Revised selected papers / [ed] Hossein Hojjat & Mieke Massink, Springer, 2019, Vol. 11761, s. 3-19Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach for modelling adaptive complex systems should be flexible and scalable to allow a system to grow easily, and should have a formal foundation to guarantee the correctness of the system behavior. In this paper, we present the architecture, and formal syntax and semantics of HPobSAM which is a model for specifying behavioral and structural adaptations to model large-scale systems and address re-usability concerns. Self-adaptive modules are used as the building blocks to structure a system, and policies are used as the mechanism to perform both behavioral and structural adaptations. While a self-adaptive module is autonomous to achieve its local goals by collaborating with other self-adaptive modules, it is controlled by a higher-level entity to prevent undesirable behavior. HPobSAM is formalized using a combination of algebraic, graph transformation-based and actor-based formalisms.

  • 29.
    Saman Azari, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Flammini, Francesco
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Santini, Stefania
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Data-Driven Fault Diagnosis of Once-through Benson Boilers2019Ingår i: 2019 4th International Conference on System Reliability and Safety (ICSRS), IEEE Press, 2019, s. 345-354Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault diagnosis (FD) of once-through Benson boilers, as a crucial equipment of many thermal power plants, is of paramount importance to guarantee continuous performance. In this study, a new fault diagnosis methodology based on data-driven methods is presented to diagnose faults in once-through Benson boilers. The present study tackles this issue by adopting a combination of data-driven methods to improve the robustness of FD blocks. For this purpose, one-class versions of minimum spanning tree and K-means algorithms are employed to handle the strong interaction between measurements and part load operation and also to reduce computation time and system training error. Furthermore, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system algorithm is adopted to improve accuracy and robustness of the proposed fault diagnosing system by fusion of the output of minimum spanning tree (MST) and K-means algorithms. Performance of the presented scheme against six major faults is then assessed by analyzing several test scenario.

  • 30.
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Gerasimou, Simos
    University of York, UK.
    Ghahremani, Sona
    University of Potsdam, Germany.
    Grohmann, Johannes
    University of Würzburg, Germany.
    Nunes, Ingrid
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Pournaras, Evangelos
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Tomforde, Sven
    University of Kassel, Germany.
    On learning in collective self-adaptive systems: state of practice and a 3D framework2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE/ACM 14th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS), IEEE, 2019, s. 13-24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Collective self-adaptive systems (CSAS) are distributed and interconnected systems composed of multiple agents that can perform complex tasks such as environmental data collection, search and rescue operations, and discovery of natural resources. By providing individual agents with learning capabilities, CSAS can cope with challenges related to distributed sensing and decision-making and operate in uncertain environments. This unique characteristic of CSAS enables the collective to exhibit robust behaviour while achieving system-wide and agent-specific goals. Although learning has been explored in many CSAS applications, selecting suitable learning models and techniques remains a significant challenge that is heavily influenced by expert knowledge. We address this gap by performing a multifaceted analysis of existing CSAS with learning capabilities reported in the literature. Based on this analysis, we introduce a 3D framework that illustrates the learning aspects of CSAS considering the dimensions of autonomy, knowledge access, and behaviour, and facilitates the selection of learning techniques and models. Finally, using example applications from this analysis, we derive open challenges and highlight the need for research on collaborative, resilient and privacy-aware mechanisms for CSAS.

  • 31.
    Pagliari, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Gran Sasso Science Institute, Italy.
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy.
    Trubiani, Catia
    Gran Sasso Science Institute, Italy.
    To what extent formal methods are applicable for performance analysis of smart cyber-physical systems?2019Ingår i: ECSA '19: Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Software Architecture: volume 2, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, Vol. 2, s. 139-144Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic nature of complex Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) introduces new research challenges since they need to smartly deal with changing situations in their environment. This triggers the usage of methodologies that keep track of changes and raise alarms whether extra-functional requirements (e.g., safety, reliability, performance) are violated. In this context, we investigate the usage of formal methods as support to provide a model-based performance evaluation of smart CPS. The main goal is to understand to what extent well-known performance models, specifically Queueing Networks, are suitable to represent these dynamic scenarios.

  • 32.
    Khakpour, Narges
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Skandylas, Charilaos
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Goran, Saman Nariman
    University of Human Development, Iraq.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Towards secure architecture-based adaptations2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE/ACM 14th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS), IEEE, 2019, s. 114-125Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As any software system, a self-adaptive system is subject to security threats. However, applying self-adaptation may introduce additional threats. So far, little research has been devoted to this important problem. In this paper, we propose an approach for vulnerability analysis of architecture-based adaptations in self-adaptive systems using threat modeling and analysis techniques. To this end, we specify components' vulnerabilities and the system architecture formally and generate an attack model that describes the attacker's strategies to attack the system by exploiting different vulnerabilities. We use a set of security metrics to quantitatively assess the security risks of adaptations based on the produced attack model which enables the system to consider security aspects while choosing an adaptation to apply to the system. We automate and incorporate our approach into the Rainbow framework, allowing for secure architectural adaptations at runtime. To evaluate the effectiveness of our approach, we apply it on a simple document storage system and on the ZNN system.

  • 33.
    Palma, Francis
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Moha, Naouel
    Univ Quebec Montreal, Canada.
    Gueheneuc, Yann-Gael
    Polytech Montreal, Canada.
    UniDoSA: The Unified Specification and Detection of Service Antipatterns2019Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 45, nr 10, s. 1024-1053Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-based Systems (SBSs) are developed on top of diverse Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) technologies or architectural styles. Like any other complex systems, SBSs face both functional and non-functional changes at the design or implementation-level. Such changes may degrade the design quality and quality of service (QoS) of the services in SBSs by introducing poor solutions-service antipatterns. The presence of service antipatterns in SBSs may hinder the future maintenance and evolution of SBSs. Assessing the quality of design and QoS of SBSs through the detection of service antipatterns may ease their maintenance and evolution. However, the current literature lacks a unified approach for modelling and evaluating the design of SBSs in term of design quality and QoS. To address this lack, this paper presents a meta-model unifying the three main service technologies: REST, SCA, and SOAP. Using the meta-model, it describes a unified approach, UniDoSA (Unified Specification and Detection of Service Antipatterns), supported by a framework, SOFA (Service Oriented Framework for Antipatterns), for modelling and evaluating the design quality and QoS of SBSs. We apply and validate UniDoSA on: (1) 18 RESTful APIs, (2) two SCA systems with more than 150 services, and (3) more than 120 SOAP Web services. With a high precision and recall, the detection results provide evidence of the presence of service antipatterns in SBSs, which calls for future studies of their impact on QoS.

  • 34.
    Petrillo, Fabio
    et al.
    Concordia University, Canada.
    Merle, Philippe
    Inria Lille - Nord Europe, France.
    Palma, Francis
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Moha, Naouela
    Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.
    Guéhéneuc, Yann-Gaël
    Concordia University, Canada.
    A lexical and semantical analysis on REST cloud computing APIs2018Ingår i: Cloud Computing and Service Science. CLOSER 2017: 7th International Conference, CLOSER 2017, Porto, Portugal, April 24–26, 2017, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Donald Ferguson, Víctor Méndez Muñoz, Jorge Cardoso, Markus Helfert, Claus Pahl, Springer, 2018, s. 308-332Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing is a popular Internet-based computing paradigm that provides on-demand computational services and resources, generally offered by Cloud providers’ REpresentational State Transfer (REST) APIs. Developers use REST APIs by invoking these APIs by their names and, thus, the lexicons used in the APIs are important to ease the developers’ comprehension. In this paper, we study the lexicons and the linguistic (anti)patterns from 16 providers of REST Cloud Computing APIs. We observe that, although the 16 REST APIs describe the same domain (Cloud computing), contrary to what one might expect, their lexicons do not share a large number of common terms and 90% of the terms (3,561/3,947) are just used by one provider. Thus, the APIs are lexically heterogeneous and there is not a consensus on which terms to use in Cloud computing. Further, we observe that the majority of the URIs, 54%, follow the Contextualised Resource Names pattern, which is considered a good practice in REST API design. However, a majority of the URIs, 62.82%, suffer from the Non-pertinent Documentation antipattern. Thus, we present three main contributions: (1) a tooled approach, called CloudLex, for extracting and analysing REST Cloud computing lexicons; (2) our analysis of the terms used in 16 REST APIs in 59,677 term occurrences; (3) our analysis of the linguistic (anti)patterns in more than 23,000 URIs of the 142 services of the 16 Cloud providers. We also show that CloudLex has an average precision of 84.82%, recall of 63.57%, and F1-measure of 71.03% on one complete API, Docker Engine, which confirms the accuracy of our semantic analyses for the detection of linguistic (anti)patterns. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.

  • 35.
    Bagheri, Maryam
    et al.
    Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden;Reykjavik Univ, Iceland.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik Univ, Iceland;Univ Tehran, Iran.
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Akkaya, Ilge
    Univ Calif Berkeley, USA.
    Movaghar, Ali
    Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Lee, Edward A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, USA.
    Coordinated actor model of self-adaptive track-based traffic control systems2018Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 143, s. 116-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptation is a well-known technique to handle growing complexities of software systems, where a system autonomously adapts itself in response to changes in a dynamic and unpredictable environment. With the increasing need for developing self-adaptive systems, providing a model and an implementation platform to facilitate integration of adaptation mechanisms into the systems and assuring their safety and quality is crucial. In this paper, we target Track-based Traffic Control Systems (TTCSs) in which the traffic flows through pre-specified sub-tracks and is coordinated by a traffic controller. We introduce a coordinated actor model to design self-adaptive TTCSs and provide a general mapping between various TTCSs and the coordinated actor model. The coordinated actor model is extended to build large-scale self-adaptive TTCSs in a decentralized setting. We also discuss the benefits of using Ptolemy II as a framework for model-based development of large-scale self-adaptive systems that supports designing multiple hierarchical MAPE-K feedback loops interacting with each other. We propose a template based on the coordinated actor model to design a self-adaptive TTCS in Ptolemy II that can be instantiated for various TTCSs. We enhance the proposed template with a predictive adaptation feature. We illustrate applicability of the coordinated actor model and consequently the proposed template by designing two real-life case studies in the domains of air traffic control systems and railway traffic control systems in Ptolemy II.

  • 36.
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Napolitano, Annalisa
    IMT School for Advanced Studies, Italy.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    CyPhEF: A Model-driven Engineering Framework for Self-adaptive Cyber-physical Systems2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceeedings, ACM Press, 2018, s. 101-104Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptation is nowadays recognized as an effective approach to deal with the uncertainty inherent to cyber-physical systems, which are composed of dynamic and deeply intertwined physical and software components interacting with each other. Engineering a self-adaptive cyber-physical system is challenging, as concerns about both the physical and the control system should be jointly considered. To this end, we present CyPhEF, a Model-Driven Engineering framework supporting the development and validation of self-adaptive cyber-physical systems.

    Demo video: https://youtu.be/nmg-w2kfKEA.

  • 37.
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    SA-Chord: A Self-Adaptive P2P Overlay Network2018Ingår i: Proceedings. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Workshops on Foundations and Applications of Self* Systems: FAS*W 2018. 3–7 September 2018 Trento, Italy, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE, 2018, s. 118-123Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pure Edge Computing relies on peer-to-peer overlay networks to realize the communication backbone between participating entities. In these settings, entities are characterized by high heterogeneity, mobility, and variability, which introduce runtime uncertainty and may harm the dependability of the network. Departing from state-of-the-art solutions, overlay networks for Pure Edge Computing should take into account the dynamics of the operating environment and self-adapt their topology accordingly, in order to increase the dependability of the communication. To this end, this paper discusses the preliminary development and validation of SA-Chord, a self-adaptive version of the wellknown Chord protocol, able to adapt the network topology according to a given global goal. SA-Chord has been validated through simulation against two distinct goals: (i) minimize energy consumption and, (ii) maximize network throughput. Simulation results are promising and show how SA-Chord efficiently and effectively achieves a given goal.

  • 38.
    Khakpour, Narges
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Skandylas, Charilaos
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Synthesis of a Permissive Security Monitor2018Ingår i: Computer Security - 23rd European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, ESORICS 2018, Barcelona, Spain, September 3-7, 2018, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Lopez, J; Zhou, J; Soriano, M, Springer, 2018, Vol. 11098, s. 48-65Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a new sound method to synthesize a permissive monitor using boolean supervisory controller synthesis that observes a Java program at certain checkpoints, predicts information flow violations and applies suitable countermeasures to prevent violations. To improve the permissiveness, we train the monitor and remove false positives by executing the program along with its executable model. If a security violation is detected, the user can define sound countermeasures, including declassification to apply in the checkpoints. We implement a tool that automates the whole process and generates a monitor. We evaluate our method by applying it on the Droidbench benchmark and one real-life Android application.

  • 39.
    Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Marrone, Stefano
    Univ Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy.
    Nardone, Roberto
    Univ Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Petrillo, Alberto
    Univ Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Santini, Stefania
    Univ Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Vittorini, Valeria
    Univ Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Towards Railway Virtual Coupling2018Ingår i: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway, Ship Propulsion and Road Vehicles & International Transportation Electrification Conference (ESARS-ITEC) / [ed] IEEE, IEEE, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV). Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Axelsson, Clara
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO).
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO).
    BoConnect – Reliable Assistive Technologies to Empower Elderly People to Live Independently Longer2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    BoConnect was a multi-disciplinary collaborative research project between Linnaeus University and Växjö and Kalmarmunicipalities in Sweden. The project had a budget of 3 MSEK; it stated Jan. 2015 and ended Dec. 2016.The project studied reliable assistive technologies to support elderly people. In contrast to existing work in this areathatis often limited to small-scale technology-driven pilots that are poorly embedded in the social living context, the BoConnect project took a holistic perspective on assistive technologies and put user needs and reliability of the solutions in focus, both from a technological and organizational perspective. This report summarizes the main results of the project.

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  • 41.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy.
    Trubiani, Catia
    Gran Sasso Science Institute, Italy.
    Building design-time and run-time knowledge for QoS-based component assembly2017Ingår i: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 47, nr 12, s. 1905-1922Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern software systems are required to dynamically adapt to changing workloads, scenarios, and objectives and to achieve a certain Quality of Service (QoS). Guaranteeing QoS requirements is not trivial, as run-time uncertainty might invalidate the design-time rationale, where software components have been selected by means of off-line analysis. In this work, we propose a QoS-based feedback approach that makes a combined use of design-time predictions and run-time measurements to manage QoS data over time and support software architects while selecting software components that best fit QoS requirements. We illustrate the feasibility and efficacy of the approach on a case study, where the quantitative evaluation shows how the analysis effectively identifies the sources of QoS violations and indicates possible solutions to achieve QoS requirements.

  • 42.
    Bagheri, Maryam
    et al.
    Sharif University Of Technology, Iran.
    Akkaya, Ilge
    University of California at Berkeley, USA.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    University of Tehran, Iran ; Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Reykjavik University, Iceland ; Mälardalen University.
    Movaghar, Ali
    Sharif University Of Technology, Iran.
    Lee, Edward A.
    University of California at Berkeley, USA.
    Coordinated actors for reliable self-adaptive systems2017Ingår i: FACS 2016: The 13th International Conference on Formal Aspects of Component Software, Springer, 2017, s. 241-259Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptive systems are systems that automatically adapt in response to environmental and internal changes, such as possible failures and variations in resource availability. Such systems are often realized by a MAPE-K feedback loop, where Monitor, Analyze, Plan and Execute components have access to a runtime model of the system and environment which is kept in the Knowledge component. In order to provide guarantees on the correctness of a self-adaptive system at runtime, the MAPE-K feedback loop needs to be extended with assurance techniques. To address this issue, we propose a coordinated actor-based approach to build a reusable and scalable model@runtime for self-adaptive systems in the domain of track-based traffic control systems. We demonstrate the approach by implementing an automated Air Traffic Control system (ATC) using Ptolemy tool.We compare different adaptation policies on the ATC model based on performance metrics and analyze combination of policies in different configurations of the model. We enriched our framework with runtime performance analysis such that for any unexpected change, subsequent behavior of the model is predicted and results are used for adaptation at the change-point. Moreover, the developed framework enables checking safety properties at runtime. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.

  • 43.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV). Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Axelsson, Clara
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO).
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO).
    IoT-enabled Physical Telerehabilitation Platform2017Ingår i: Proccedings of the International Workshop on Engineering IoT Systems: Architectures, Services, Applications, and Platforms, IEEE, 2017, s. 112-119Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical telerehabilitation services over the Internet allow physiotherapists to engage in remote consultation with patients at their homes, improving the quality of care and reducing costs. Traditional visual approaches, such as webcams and videophones, are limited in terms of precision of assessment and support for assistance with exercises. In this paper, we present a Physical Telerehabilitation System (PTS) that enhances video interaction with IoT technology to monitor the position of the body of patients in space and provide smart data to physiotherapists and users. We give an overview of the architecture of the PTS and evaluate (i) its usability based on a number of interviews and focus groups with stakeholders, and (ii) its technical efficiency based on a series of measurements. From this evaluation, we derive a number of challenges for further improvement of the PTS and outline a possible solution based on a microservices architecture.

  • 44.
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Napolitano, Annalisa
    University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Italy.
    Model-driven Engineering of Decentralized Control in Cyber-Physical Systems2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on  Foundations and Applications of Self* Systems (FAS*W), IEEE, 2017, s. 7-12Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-Adaptation is nowadays recognized as an effective approach to manage the complexity and dynamics inherent to cyber-physical systems, which are composed of deeply intertwined physical and software components interacting with each other. A self-Adaptive system typically consists of a managed subsystem and a managing subsystem that implements the adaptation logic by means of the well established MAPE-K control loop. Since in large distributed settings centralized control is hardly adequate to manage the whole system, self-Adaptation should be achieved through collective decentralized control, that is multiple cyber-physical entities must adapt in order to address critical runtime conditions. Developing such systems is challenging, as several dimensions concerning both the cyber-physical system and the decentralized control loop should be considered. To this end, we promote MAPE-K components as first-class modeling abstractions and provide a framework supporting the design, development, and validation of decentralized self-Adaptive cyber-physical systems.

  • 45.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Pllana, Sabri
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Software Technology for Self-Adaptive Systems2017Ingår i: Swedsoft's Software Technology Exchange Workshop, 18-19 oktober, 2017, Stockholm, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 46.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Towards Fully Decentralized Self-Adaptive Reactive Systems2017Ingår i: ICPE'17: COMPANION OF THE 2017 ACM/SPEC INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PERFORMANCE ENGINEERING, ACM Digital Library, 2017, s. 17-17Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing demand for real-time data originating from myriads of Internet-connected devices, the number of requests hitting today's computing infrastructures goes beyond what is manageable for operations and affordable for management. Coping with these challenges requires a modernization of the application architectures and the underlying infrastructures. The mobile nature inherent to modern communications and interactions requires a radical shift towards new computing paradigms that reflect the fully decentralized perspective of the emerging execution environment. To this end, the trend is to switch thinking from assembling components into systems to dynamically composing autonomous systems into systems-of-systems. Indeed, systems-of-systems possibly emerge dynamically as an opportunistic aggregation of systems available at a given time. Since these systems operate under highly dynamic conditions where both the entities and their interconnections are subject to continuous change, the traditional stability assumptions made on distributed systems' design are no longer valid. Indeed, the dynamic operating conditions introduce uncertainty, which may harm the dependability of the system. In order to guarantee the provision of dependable functionality in such an unknown, ever-changing execution environment, systems should be fluid and able to self-adapt their structure depending on the changing situation. This talk examines a set of principles and techniques facilitating the design and development of fully decentralized systems that leverage on self-adaptivity to mitigate run-time uncertainty. Specifically, the key objective is to efficiently and effectively provide engineers with proper abstractions to develop self-adaptive systems capable of being at the same time fluid, as well as dependable.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Aligning Architectures for Sustainability2016Ingår i: ACM Proccedings of the 10th European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops (ECSA-W) / [ed] Rami Bahsoon and Rainer Weinreich, ACM Press, 2016, artikel-id 13Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The digitization of industry has drastically changed the competitive landscape by requiring a higher degree of specialization and shorter time to delivery that affect the design properties a software platform should satisfy. The platform architecture must sustain continuous and rapid change to the organizational architecture, which in turn is affected by external forces: i.e., forces drive the velocity of change. In this paper, we explore the effects of digitization, characterizing internal and external forces that impact on business strategies and trigger the continuous realignment of the platform, and outline a research agenda to mitigate the effects.

  • 48.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Grassi, V.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Marzolla, M.
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Mirandola, R.
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    GoPrime: A Fully Decentralized Middleware for Utility-Aware Service Assembly2016Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 136-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern applications, e.g., for pervasive computing scenarios, are increasingly reliant on systems built from multiple distributed components, which must be suitably composed to meet some specified functional and non-functional requirements. A key challenge is how to efficiently and effectively manage such complex systems. The use of self-management capabilities has been suggested as a possible way to address this challenge. To cope with the scalability and robustness issues of large distributed systems, self-management should ideally be architected in a decentralized way, where the overall system behavior emerges from local decisions and interactions. Within this context, we propose GOPRIME, a fully decentralized middleware solution for the adaptive self-assembly of distributed services. The GOPRIME goal is to build and maintain an assembly of services that, besides functional requirements, fulfils also global quality-of-service and structural requirements. The key aspect of GOPRIME is the use of a gossip protocol to achieve decentralized information dissemination and decision making. To show the validity of our approach, we present results from the experimentation of a prototype implementation of GOPRIME in a mobile health application, and an extensive set of simulation experiments that assess the effectiveness of GOPRIME in terms of scalability, robustness and convergence speed.

  • 49.
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Pure Edge Computing Platform for the Future Internet2016Ingår i: Software Technologies: Applications and Foundations (STAF 2016): Collocated Workshops: DataMod, GCM, HOFM, MELO, SEMS, VeryComp. Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Milazzo, Paolo; Varró, Dániel; Wimmer, Manuel, Vienna: Springer, 2016, s. 458-469Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Future Internet builds upon three key pillars – namely, Internet of Things, Internet of Services, and Internet of Contents – and is considered as a worldwide execution environment that interconnects myriad heterogeneous entities over time, supports information dissemination, enables the emergence of promising application domains, and stimulate new business and research opportunities. In this paper we analyse the challenges towards the actualisation of the Future Internet. We argue that the mobile nature inherent to modern communications and interactions requires a radical shift towards new computing paradigms that fully reflect the network-based perspective of the emerging environment. Indeed, we position the adoption of a Pure Edge Computing platform that offers designing and programming abstractions to specify, implement and operate Future Internet applications.

  • 50.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Grassi, V.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Mirandola, R.
    Politecn Milan, Italy..
    Reinforcement Learning Techniques for Decentralized Self-adaptive Service Assembly2016Ingår i: SERVICE-ORIENTED AND CLOUD COMPUTING, (ESOCC 2016), Springer, 2016, s. 53-68Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a self-organizing fully decentralized solution for the service assembly problem, whose goal is to guarantee a good overall quality for the delivered services, ensuring at the same time fairness among the participating peers. The main features of our solution are: (i) the use of a gossip protocol to support decentralized information dissemination and decision making, and (ii) the use of a reinforcement learning approach to make each peer able to learn from its experience the service selection rule to be followed, thus overcoming the lack of global knowledge. Besides, we explicitly take into account load-dependent quality attributes, which lead to the definition of a service selection rule that drives the system away from overloading conditions that could adversely affect quality and fairness. Simulation experiments show that our solution self-adapts to occurring variations by quickly converging to viable assemblies maintaining the specified quality and fairness objectives.

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