lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 38 of 38
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Spikol, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    A Design Toolkit for Emerging Learning Landscapes Supported by Ubiquitous Computing2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of mobile devices and their integration in our everyday ac- tivities is changing the way we communicate, share information, and learn. The rapid adoption of powerful mobile devices also offers new opportunities to sup- port teaching and learning. For many users, mobile devices along with different types of computers are always connected, providing a constant stream of digital content to and from people and thereby adding new layers to the everyday in- formation landscape. These emergent trends are changing communication and collaboration patterns, but they have not yet been effectively leveraged for the field of education. Nearly 20 years ago, it was argued that the limitations of computer use for education in the coming decades would likely be less a result of technological limitations than a result of limited human imagination and the constraints of old habits and social structures. These two latest behaviors are still observable in many of today's classrooms. Therefore, different strategies are needed to explore and promote innovative educational practices supported by mobile and ubiquitous technologies, and this thesis will argue that design can be the catalyst for such a change.The main research question to be addressed in this thesis relates to what new approaches can be developed to design emerging learning landscapes supported by ubiquitous computing. In order to investigate this question, different design approaches are used to bring together the perspectives of technology- enhanced learning, ubiquitous computing, and interaction design. The empirical work presented in this dissertation is based on the activities and outcomes that emerged from three projects that included informal learning activities, inquiry-based science learning, and mathematics learning inside and outside the formal classroom. The most salient design approaches were identified from a comparative analysis of the projects, and this provided the foundations of a design toolkit. The intention of creating and using such a design toolkit is to provide a set of guidelines for researchers, designers, teachers, and other stakeholders to tackle the challenges of designing innovative learning activities supported by ubiquitous technologies.

  • 2.
    Eliassi, Barzoo
    Mittuniversitetet.
    A stranger in my homeland: The politics of belonging among young people with Kurdish backgrounds in Sweden2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines how young people with Kurdish backgrounds form their identity in Sweden with regards to processes of inclusion and exclusion. It also sheds light on the ways these young people deal with ethnic discrimination and racism. Further, the study outlines the importance of these social processes for the discipline of social work and the ways social workers can work with disadvantaged and marginalized groups and endorse their struggle for social justice and full equal citizenship beyond racist and discriminatory practices. The empirical analysis is built on interviews with 28 young men and women with Kurdish backgrounds in Sweden. Postcolonial theory, belonging and identity formation constitute the central conceptual framework of this study.

     

    The young people referred to different sites in which they experienced ethnic discrimination and stigmatization. These experiences involved the labor market, mass media, housing segregation, legal system and school system. The interviewees also referred to the roles of ‘ordinary’ Swedes in obstructing their participation in the Swedish society through exclusionary discourses relating to Swedish identity. The interviewees’ life situation in Sweden, sense of ethnic discrimination as well as disputes over identity making with other young people with Middle-Eastern background are among the most important reasons for fostering strong Kurdish nationalist sentiments, issues that are related to the ways they can exercise their citizenship rights in Sweden and how they deal with exclusionary practices in their everyday life. The study shows that the interviewees respond to and resist ethnic discrimination in a variety of ways including interpersonal debates and discussions, changing their names to Swedish names, strengthening differences between the self and the other, violence, silence and deliberately ignoring racism. They also challenged and spoke out against the gendered racism that they were subjected to in their daily lives due to the paternalist discourse of ”honor-killing”.

    The research participants had been denied an equal place within the boundary of Swedishness partly due to a racist postcolonial discourse that valued whiteness highly. Paradoxically, some interviewees reproduced the same discourse through choosing to use it against black people, Africans, newly-arrived Kurdish immigrants (”imports”), ”Gypsies” and Islam in order to claim a modern Kurdish identity as near to whiteness as possible. This indicates the multiple dimensions of racism. Those who are subjected to racism and ethnic discrimination can be discriminatory and reproduce the racist discourse. Despite unequal power relations, both dominant and minoritized subjects are all marked by the postcolonial condition in structuring subjectivities, belonging and identification.

  • 3.
    Svanberg, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Cultural Sciences.
    Arbetets relationer och etniska dimensioner: Verkstadsföreningen, Metall och esterna vid Svenska Stålpressnings AB i Olofström 1945-19522010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Labour migration to Sweden is analysed from a labour perspective. As regards theory, the thesis focuses on how class and ethnicity intersect in a capitalistic setting, but it also gives attention to gender and age as structural principles. The main purpose is to analyse migrants in Sweden as a party in the relationship between labour and capital, and to explore how the immigration and the active recruitment of workers in other countries affected and was affected by the relative strengths of the parties on the labour market, covering the period 1945–1952.

    The relationship between labour and capital, regarding migration-related issues, is analysed from above and below on both national and local level, and the thesis discerns how the state mediated between the parties. It examines the first encounters between foreign-born and native-born workers at shop-floor level, how these encounters affected the relationship between the trade union and the industrial management concerned, and explores how all this, in turn, affected the relationship between the national parties on the Swedish labour market. A structural perspective is combined with micro analyses of narratives from the actors involved, which opens up for a study of the history of society.

    Firstly, the thesis addresses the relationship between the Swedish Engineering Employers’ Association and the Swedish Metalworkers’ Union, and secondly it is a local workplace study, focusing on Svenska Stålpressnings AB in Olofström (the Swedish Steel Pressing Company). The more precise focus of attention is on war refugees from Estonia employed by the company in Olofström between 1945 and 1947, and on Estonians recruited directly from West German refugee camps in the early 1950s.

    The study reveals that the Metalworkers’ Union at first opposed labour recruitment abroad – at both national and local level –, but also how coincident interests developed between labour, capital and the state regarding labour immigration. An important finding is that the Metalworkers’ Union had great influence considering which companies would be allowed to recruit foreign-born workers, and that the trade union could direct the migrations to workplaces with acceptable staff policies.

    A fundamental research problem for the thesis is, furthermore, how social groups construct ethnic boundaries between “us” and “the others”. It is stressed that Estonians’ background experiences and social memories differed from those of the Swedish workers, and that these differences affected the outcomes of the first encounters. But it is also pointed out that the Estonian group was internally divided, with a basis in interwar Estonian political history and in disparate class backgrounds among the Estonians.

  • 4.
    Jansson, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Högskolan i Borås.
    Bibliotekarien: om yrkets tidiga innehåll och utveckling2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Engberg, Anna E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Biomaterials and Hemocompatibility2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomaterials are commonly used in the medical clinic today; however, artificial materials can activate the cascade systems in the blood (complement-, coagulation-, contact- and fibrinolytic systems) as well as the platelets to various degrees. When an artificial surface comes in contact with blood, plasma proteins will be adsorbed to the surface within seconds. The composition of the layer of proteins differs between materials and is crucial for the hemocompatibility of the material.

    This thesis includes five projects.

    In Paper I the anticoagulants heparin and the thrombin inhibitor hirudin were evaluated in a whole blood model. Hirudin was found to be superior to low dose heparin since it did not affect the activation of the complement system nor the leukocytes. The most interesting observation was that expression of TF was seen on surface-attached monocytes in hirudin- treated blood but not heparin blood.

    In Paper II peptides from the streptococcal M-protein, which has affinity for the human complement inhibitor C4BP, were attached to a polymeric surface. When being exposed to blood the endogenous complement regulator was enriched at the surface of the material, via the M-peptides. With this new approach we created a self-regulatory surface, showing significant lowered material-induced complement activation.

    In Paper III apyrase, an enzyme which hydrolyzes nucleoside ATP and ADP, was immobilized on a polymer surface. Lower platelet activation and platelet-induced coagulation activation was seen for the apyrase-coated surface compared to control surfaces after exposure to whole human blood, due to the enzymes capability to degrade ADP released from activated platelets.

    In Paper IV and V we synthesized an array of polymeric materials which were characterized regarding physical-chemical properties, adsorption of plasma proteins, and hemocompatibility. The polymers showed widely heterogeneous protein adsorption. Furthermore, when the polymers were exposed to whole blood, two of the materials showed superior hemocompatibility (monitored as complement- and coagulation activation), compared to the reference poly(vinyl chloride).

  • 6.
    Tornhill, Sofie
    Stockholm University.
    Capital visions: the politics of transnational production in Nicaragua2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In processes of economic integration, neoliberal discourse and corresponding notions of development comprise some of the most readily available imaginaries of political and social interaction and change. However, these processes are always also locally produced and negotiated. Engaging with discourse theory, Marxism and postcolonial feminist theory, this dissertation brings together “macro” and “micro” aspects of globalization. The aim is to interrogate discursive reinforcements of and challenges to global orders of production and divisions of labor. With a focus on representations of Free Trade Zones (FTZs), which are tax-exempted enclaves for export production, the study explores competing meanings attributed to the operation of transnational capital in Nicaragua. Based on policy documents, political speeches, promotional videotapes and interviews, the political rhetoric of two governments with competing agendas is analyzed: the neoliberal/conservative government of the Liberal Constitutionalist Party (2002–2007), which framed the FTZs in terms of national progress, and the leftist government of the Sandinista National Liberation Front (2007– ), which attempts to reconnect to the country’s revolutionary past. In this way efforts to formulate legitimate political agendas in the context of shifting relations between states and markets are detailed, together with constructions of citizens and workers along differentiations of class and gender. Relying on interviews with FTZ workers, the study examines ways to interpret, inhabit or resist imperative subject positions at the intersections of contending projects of nation-building and transnational orders of production, in conjunction with a discussion of the uneasy distinction between representation and appropriation that troubles transnational feminist research projects.

  • 7.
    Liu, Tao
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Chemoinformetics for green chemistry2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSPR) models for physicochemical properties, e.g., vapor pressure and partitioning coefficients. Such models can be used to estimate environmental distribution and transformation of the pollutants or to characterize solvents properties. Here, chemoinformatics was used as an efficient tool for modeling to produce safe chemicals based on green chemistry principles.

    Experimental determinations are only available for a limited number of the chemicals; however, theoretical molecular descriptors can be used for modeling of all organic compounds. In this thesis, we developed and validated a global and local QSPR model for vapor pressure of liquid and subcooled liquid organic compounds, in which perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) as outliers appeared in the model due to their molecular properties. Subsequently, after the update of the previous model, the vapor pressure of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) for which no reliable experimental data are available was successfully predicted. At the same time, we used partitioning between n-octanol/water (Kow) and water solubility (Sw) to investigate the similarities and differences between linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) and partial least square projection to latent structures (PLS) models. Further, we developed QSPR model for prediction of melting points and boiling points of PFCs using multiple linear regression (MLR), PLS and associative neural networks (ASNN) approaches, meanwhile, the applicability domain of PFCs was also investigated.

    Experimental, semi-empirical and theoretical quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) models were used to accurately predict retention factors (logk) in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). These models are useful to characterize solvents for determination of the behavior and interactions of molecular structure and develop chromatographic methods. In both of QSPR and QSRR models using the PLS method, the first and second components captured main information which is related to van der Waals forces and polar interactions, and their results coincide with those from LSER.

    The results showed that the models of physicochemical properties and retention factors (logk) in chromatographic system can be successfully developed by the PLS method. PLS models were able to predict physicochemical properties of organic compounds directly from theoretical descriptors without prior synthesis, measurement or sampling. Further, the PLS method could overcome colinearity in data sets, and it is therefore a rapid, cheap and highly efficient approach

  • 8.
    Palovaara, Joakim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Conifer embryology: a study of polar auxin transport and WOX transcription factors2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants, like animals, use endogenous signaling molecules to coordinate their own physiology and development. One such molecule in plants is the hormone auxin and recent research has implicated auxin and its polar transport, together with the WOX transcription factors, in regulating embryo patterning and development in angiosperms (flowering plants), the most diverse group of land plants. No extensive investigation of this has been carried out on the more evolutionary distant gymnosperms, the other major taxa of seed plants. Thus, in this thesis I, together with my co-authors, have analyzed the regulation of embryonic pattern formation in the coniferous gymnosperm Picea abies (Norway spruce) using seed and somatic embryos. Conifers are important forestry species and knowledge of their embryology is vital for reforestration programs, where the method of somatic embryogenesis is employed for mass propagation as well as it is used as a model system for embryo development.

    Mature spruce embryos display a basic body plan and contain a shoot apical meristem (SAM), cotyledons, hypocotyl, embryonic root and a root apical meristem (RAM), with the meristems generating differentiated cells for organ formation. Treatment of embryos with a polar auxin transport (PAT) inhibitor produce embryos with poor SAM and, in some cases, fused cotyledons. Thus, PAT is essential for the correct patterning of conifer embryos. In angiosperms, PAT is mainly established and maintained by members of the auxin efflux facilitator PIN-FORMED (PIN) family. I isolated a PIN homologue (PaPIN1), of high abundance in conifer tissues, that is localized, together with auxin, to the epidermis of precotyledonary spruce embryos and upregulated as well as delocalized from the epidermis in early PAT inhibited embryos. Since also auxin concentration seems to decrease in the epidermis of these embryos, my data indicate that local auxin accumulation in the epidermis is mediated by PIN-dependent auxin transport.

    Further, I investigated WOX genes in conifers and isolated two homologues, PaWOX2 and PaWOX8/9, that are expressed throughout spruce embryo development. Their expression profile suggests involvement in cell proliferation and specification, and, indeed, they both serve as markers for conifer somatic embryogenesis. The expression of PaWOX2 and PaWOX8/9 overlap with PaPIN1 in differentiating vascular tissue (procambium) of spruce embryos and is also upregulated in early PAT inhibited embryos. Thus, PaWOX2, PaWOX8/9, and PaPIN1 may all act together in procambium differentiation. With this, I conclude that a common mechanism, involving PAT and WOX, regulate embryo pattern formation in seed plants. Results in post-embryonic tissue imply a common mechanism regulating pattern formation also here.

  • 9.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Deciphering Unwritten Rules: Patients, relatives and nurses in palliative cancer care2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on palliative cancer care in acute care hospitals and home care settings. The overall aim was to generate a grounded theory explaining the latent patterns of behavior of patients, relatives and nurses. The thesis includes one population-based study with cross-sectional design and four classic grounded theory studies.

    Study I was conducted in two acute care hospitals. In this 5-year follow-up study, the proportion of hospitalized palliative cancer patients had decreased. The patients were older with more symptoms and care needs per patient. In both years, the most common symptoms were pain and deterioration and the most common cancer sites were prostate and colorectal. The results showed that associations between symptoms, care needs and cancer site were mostly weak.

    In study II, striving for emotional survival emerged as the pattern of behavior through which nurses in acute care hospitals deal with their main concern, the risk of being emotionally overloaded. Striving for emotional survival involves emotional shielding, emotional processing and emotional postponing.

    In study III, doing good care emerged as the pattern of behavior through which nurses in home care deal with their main concern, their desire to give good care. Doing good care involves three different caring behaviors: anticipatory caring, momentary caring and stagnated caring.    

    In study IV, living on hold emerged as the pattern of behavior through which patients and relatives deal with their main concern, being put on hold. Living on hold involves three modes: fighting, adjusting and surrendering.

    The overall theory, deciphering unwritten rules, explains how patients, relatives and nurses are dealing with the uncertainty of how to act and behave.   Deciphering unwritten rules involves figuring out, deliberating, maneuvering and evaluating.

    In conclusion, this thesis demonstrates the complexities of palliative cancer care and the importance of knowledge, resources and counseling. Patients should be cared for at the right care level according to their care needs and the care focus should be on treating symptoms irrespective of the diagnosis. The palliative care approach therefore needs to be implemented in all caring contexts with dying people.

  • 10.
    Syrén, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Det outsagda och ohörsammade lidandet: Tillvaron för personer med långvarig psykossjukdom och deras närstående2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Syrén, Susanne (2010). Det outsagda och ohörsammade lidandet. Tillvaron för personer med långvarig psykossjukdom och deras närstående (Being in the world with long term psychotic illness – the unspoken and unheard suffering), Linnaeus University Dissertations No 6/2010. ISBN: 978-91-86491-07-9. Written in Swedish with a summary in English.

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis was to describe the lived experience of being in the world with long term psychotic illness. This is described from three perspectives; the perspective of persons diagnosed with long term psychotic disorder; the perspective of their relatives; and a family perspective. Method: Three studies were conducted guided by a reflective lifeworld approach grounded in phenomenology. The data were generated through individual, group, and family interviews. Data were analyzed for essential meanings of being in the world. Results: Persons with long term psychotic illness live in a borderland of paradoxes between the usual and unusual. For the ill persons the existence is incomprehensible and defenceless with feelings of not being at home in the body and in the world. They search for themselves in a care context that is contradictory, simultaneously good and hostile. These experiences are mostly unspoken, a struggle with doubts about having health or illness, what is good or evil, and about being usual or unusual. The relatives exist in a dilemma of the possible and impossible, a continual infinite struggle. Co-existing with their ill family member is a communion and a longing for togetherness is prominent. Relatives struggle with responsibilities for themselves and for their ill family member. In these unheard struggles the relatives yearn for participation in the formal care context. Family interviews with persons with long term psychotic illness and their relatives revealed a co-existence hovering between chaos and boredom while striving for a peaceful and quiet life. Thefamilies search for constancy and predictability in the presence of incomprehensible and threatening dangers. The experience of being a We balances the unshared meanings of being in the world and the loss of being able to experience and do things together. The experience of being a We keeps their individual existence and co- existence from falling apart.Conclusion: Persons with long term psychotic illness and their relatives have to withstand extensive existential suffering, which is unspoken and unheard. Formal caring should be existential caring, supporting the ill person’s comprehensibility and understanding of life, and feelings and experiences of being at home. Further, relatives should be acknowledged both as persons and carers and invited to participate in formal care. These results also point to the importance of strengthening feelings of togetherness and of being a We through systemic oriented existential conversations, where the ill person, their relative and a formal carer converse together.

  • 11.
    Ekberg, Margareta Stigsdotter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Dom kallar oss värstingar: Om ungas lärande i mötet med skola, socialtjänst och polis2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is of primary concern, both from the perspective of the individual and of society at large, to take measures to prevent the occurrence of a negative development amongst young people. The starting point of this dissertation is the notion that interpersonal interactions that occur between people contribute to a process of learning, thus focus is placed upon the pedagogic interactions between society's authorities and young people in trouble. How such interactions contribute to the process of learning regarding the young people, and what that learning entails, is seen as a vital pedagogic question. The overriding aim of the dissertation is to identify aspects of learning that occur during the interactions between society's authorities and young people in trouble, in order to contribute to an understanding of how such interactions can be developed in a constructive manner.

    The thesis is based on the theories of man as a social being, dependent on relationships and interaction for the process of knowledge. The empirical study includes interviews with teachers, social workers, police officers and young people. Vignettes have formed the basis of discussions about the measures and initiatives taken by society and the types of experience the young people feel the measures and initiatives have led to. Since an element of authority is a component of the relationship between the representatives of society and the young people, the concept of governmentality formulated by Foucault has been used in the process of analysis. Also von Wright's concepts of punctual and relational perspective have been used in this process. The purpose of this study is to attempt to determine what consequences the various perspectives taken in the interactions may lead to, in relation to the knowledge these young people develop about themselves and about society.

    The result shows that society's representatives among themselves have different views of young people in trouble. Young people's experiences of interactions with society's representatives argue for the fact that their backgrounds often direct the course of the interaction and its contents. Young people testify about irrelevant measures and initiatives taken by society; that they are subject to prejudice and that the principle of "equality before the law" is not observed. Their experience has led them to feel that they have less of human dignity. The dissertation ends up in a discussion about the prerequisites necessary, in order that pedagogic interactions between a person in authority and young people in difficulties may proceed from a relational perspective. The ability to take the young person's perspective would thereby be a central aspect in the discussion about what measures and initiatives taken by society are appropriate to change a troubled lifestyle.

  • 12.
    Summer Meranius, Martina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    "Era delar är min helhet": En studie om att vara äldre och multisjuk2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to describe what it means to be old and live with multimorbidity. An additional aim is to examine and describe the contextual meaning of the phenomenon in ordinary housing and nursing homes, and a third aim is to deepen our understanding of the situation for old people who also are ill. The thesis uses a caring science perspective and a reflective lifeworld approach founded on phenomenological philosophy. This approach searches for and describes the meaning of a phenomenon, its variations and its essential meaning structure. Interviews were used for data collection and data were analyzed for meaning, searching for the essence of the phenomenon. The findings are presented in two empirical studies and one philosophical excursion. The empirical studies have been further thematized with the essential meanings from the empirical studies. The philosophical excursion is the result of a more profound understanding of the thematized meanings.

    The essential meaning of being old and living with multimorbidity in ordinary housing is described as a struggle to maintain identity in a life situation that changes. Multimorbidity and aging pose existential barriers at the same time as the possibility of living an independent life and being oneself is hindered. Ordinary housing is experienced as a place where the old can be themselves, and a place that is associated with independence. On the other hand, multimorbidity threatens the possibility of continuing to live in their private homes, as does the failure of others to meet the old as individuals.

    The essential meaning of being old and living with multimorbidity in nursing homes is described as striving for independence which brings with it a zest for life and a feeling of security. The older’s degree of independence can change due to the fragile health situation, and is characterized by the experience of not being a burden for the busy caregivers and relatives. Independence can change to insecurity, vulnerability and helplessness.

    The themes of essential meaning that have been extracted from the empirical studies suggest that the experiences of frailty and loneliness differ more between those living in ordinary housing and in nursing homes than the experiences of trust and independence differ.

    The philosophical excursion illuminates how older people with multimorbidity experience their lives as an ability to manage their daily lives and not merely an absence of disease symptoms. A person is “just” sick, independently of the objective quantity of diseases s/he may suffer from. Health and wellbeing occur from the ability to live in existential coherence, which is encouraged when the older people are allowed to retain their habits, the ability to be oneself, individual’s life story and by social relationships, as well as by continuity among the caregivers.

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Evolution in changing environments revealed by fire melanism in pygmy grasshopper2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to theory, genetic diversity can be maintained by environmental variation and the degree of genetic and phenotypic polymorphism may enhance the ability of populations to endure stress imposed by changing environments. In my thesis I used colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) as a model system to explore how environmental variation influenced genetic diversity. I compared population colour morph frequencies between populations in burnt and non-burnt areas and performed experiments to investigate to what extent colour patterns in these insects are determined by genes and influenced by phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental effects experienced during development. My results showed that the frequency of black individuals on average was much higher in recently fire ravaged areas, a condition known as fire melanism. The highest proportion of black individuals was reached within the first year after a fire. After the initial increase, the proportion of black individuals declined again and the distribution among alternative colour morphs became more even. Data for individuals raised in captivity revealed a high correspondence between maternal and offspring colour patterns, indicating a strong genetic influence on colour. Additional experiments demonstrated that the development of colour patterns in pygmy grasshoppers was not influenced by burnt material or high population densities, two environmental cues associated with post fire environments.

    To test if reduced competition among alternative colour morphs may contribute to the maintenance of colour pattern polymorphism in these insects I examined if average survival was higher in diverse compared to homogeneous groups of individuals. I found that survival increased with colour pattern diversity, presumably due to reduced competition among alternative colour morphs. Relaxation of competition may explain why the distribution among alternative colour patterns changed and became more even after the initial evolution of fire melanism. My results demonstrate that environmental change may cause extremely rapid and reversible evolution, indicate that fluctuating selection may preserve genetic variation and support the notion that polymorphism may increase average individual success and enable populations to withstand environmental change.

     

  • 14.
    Bogatic, Wirginia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Cultural Sciences.
    Exilens dilemma: att stanna eller att återvända: Beslut i Sverige av polska kvinnor som överlevde KZ-lägret Ravensbrück och räddades till Sverige 1945-19472010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the intersection of great narratives and individual decisions. In the intersection, the dilemma of exile is discussed: to remain in exile or return to one’s homeland. The decision to remain or return was made by the surviving Polish female concentration camp prisoners that were brought back to Sweden in 1945 with the Red Cross rescue operation.

    The women’s decisions have been contextualized by being placed against the political, social and economic upheavals that took place primarily in Poland, but also partly in Sweden, as well as in the international environment with which the new Poland had to form a relationship following the Second World War.

    The thesis moves between three levels: the micro level, comprising the individuals, their choices and experiences; the macro level, including the surrounding social, economic and political structures; the meso level, which merges the individual, her network and the state. The theoretical framework is on the one hand based on Reinhart Koselleck’s concepts of “realm of experience” and “expectations” that structure the time horizon and refer to the universal, and on the other hand, the sociological concept of generations and Svante Lundberg's model of exile with the concepts of Circumstance, Frame and Meaning. Both Koselleck and Lundberg focus on the individual / group and structural context. Sources used have been material from the Swedish Government and the two Polish governments and their agencies. In addition, a number of Polish and Swedish newspapers published during the period 1945-1947 as well as material from the Polish Source Institute in Lund (PIZ) have been studied. Thirteen in-depth interviews with the surviving women (both in Poland and Sweden) have been carried out, resulting in so-called life stories, with the objective of providing an answer to the question of why some of them remained in Sweden after the war while others returned to Poland. In the women's life stories, some themes can be distinguished: the common realm of experience, being adherent to the same sociological generation with a manifest collective memory (which in part developed differently depending on their decisions to remain or return), a link between war and captivity and expectations for the future. Otherwise, the life stories highlight the women's construction of identity, which is affected by growing up in the between-war Poland, the time during World War II and the occupation. It also reveals that these experiences influenced their decision: remaining and returning.

  • 15.
    Stark, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Cultural Sciences.
    Folkhemmet på is: Ishockey, modernisering och nationell identitet i Sverige 1920-19722010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the development of Swedish ice hockey as a national phenomenon during the period 1920–1972. The dissertation explores how the sport of ice hockey in just over half a century was transformed from a rather insignificant North American cultural import to one of Sweden’s most treasured pursuits by and large, and harbouring a national team (known as “Tre Kronor”) that at the height of its popularity in 1970 gathered almost the whole nation (82 percent of the adult population) in front of TV-sets during national game broadcasts.

    The analytical approach of the study is grounded in the theoretical assumption that “to be Swedish” is something you “learn” on a daily basis, and that an investigation of how “the nation” is constructed as an imagined community must see to the interplay between national rhetoric on the one hand and national practice on the other. This means that the analysis moves on two different levels, where the first is comprised of the sporting practice in itself (teams, games, players etc.), while the other deals with the conception of ice hockey in relation to national identity.

    The empirical investigation shows that the introduction of ice hockey in Sweden was “launched from above” under the influence of unbridled nationalistic sentiment in Sweden at large at the turn of the 20th century. The study also shows that during the inter-war era the Swedish Ice Hockey Federation promoted the spread of ice hockey in Sweden by stressing the game’s benefits as a more practical sport than the similar and already established winter sport, bandy. It is also argued that in most cases it was not so much a genuine passion for the game itself, but instead prosaic factors (economical considerations, sporting success and maintenance of ice surface etc.) that made sporting clubs take up ice hockey.

    After World War II the public interest in ice hockey exploded in Sweden. In the cold war era, Tre Kronor came to function as a thermometer of how the so called Swedish model stood up in comparison to the superpowers of the world. The analysis also underlines the importance of the comprehensive organizational and moral rearmament of Swedish ice hockey at large conducted by the Swedish Ice Hockey Federation in the post-war era, since it helped its cultural incorporation in the Swedish welfare state and its connection to Swedish national identity

  • 16.
    Gregersen, Malin
    Lund University.
    Fostrande förpliktelser: representationer av ett missionsuppdrag i Sydindien under 1900-talets första hälft2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Devine, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Internationalization and Performance among Small and Medium-sized Firms: A study of furniture producers in Sweden2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Furniture production in Sweden still exists on a comparably small scale. The majority, or more than 99 percent, of all furniture producers in Sweden are small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) with less than 250 employees. Despite their size, these firms are, to a large extent, involved in export. This is fully in line with the accelerating trend of internationalization found among firms of all sizes. However, research focused on internationalization has been primarily concentrated on larger firms, which is unfortunate considering that the vast majority of all firms within the European Union can be described as SMEs. The purpose of this research is, therefore, to extend our understanding of internationalization and performance among small and medium sized firms by explaining export involvement and performance among small and medium sized furniture producers in Sweden.

    This research is completed within the theoretical framework of the modified PSE model, which consists of four components: perception of export barriers, strategy competence, export involvement, and performance. A quantitative survey was conducted among 324 firms, yielding a response rate of 56 percent. The empirical data was analyzed using the methods of multiple linear regression, logistic regression, and ordinal regression.

    The result suggests that strategy competence, measured in terms of relatedness and market knowledge, explains the main export mode and performance among exporting SMEs. In addition, main export mode seems to explain performance. The main findings of this research are visualized through a new model, SCEMPER. Another finding is that barriers originating with the owner/key decision-maker of a firm seem to prevent firms from becoming involved in export. In addition, attitude towards export and the age of the firm appear to be important determinants of export involvement and performance among SMEs.

  • 18.
    Frännhag, Helena
    Centre for Languages and literature, Lund University.
    Interpretive Functions of Adjectives in English: A Cognitive Approach2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a theoretical discussion of meaning creation in general, and interpretive functions of English adjectives in particular. The discussion rests on a dynamic view of meaning and interpretation, according to which there are no fixed linguistics meanings – not even for single lexemes. Instead of symbolising meaning in a more or less static and ‘eternal’ fashion, linguistic items are assumed to effect the creation of meaning and to shape meaning dynamically in the particular communicative event at hand, from some kind of underlying ‘raw material’ (also referred to as purport and schemas).

    It is suggested that the interpretive functions of linguistic items – that is the effects that such items have in the creation of meaning – may be approached in two main ways, namely from the formal and from the semantic point of view respectively. Effects triggered by the form of a certain item are referred to as formal interpretive functions (FIFs), and effects prompted by the meaning created for the form are referred to as semantic interpretive functions (SIFs).

    FIFs are claimed to be the same for all items – namely to activate, delimit and shape underlying purport and schemas – whereas SIFs are said to differ between items, and also for one and the same item on different occasions of use. It is furthermore suggested that FIFs affect the creation of meaning for the relevant item itself, whereas SIFs affect the creation of meaning for other items, on any level of conceptual organisation. For instance, a form such as tall typically activates and delimits purport and schemas to do with some kind of extension (notably in space), thereby shaping a basic word meaning tall. The meaning thus created may in turn affect other meaning in the larger context. For instance, tall, as created in default interpretation of a tall man entered the room, affects the meaning of the noun phrase a tall man as a whole, in that it specifies the interpreter’s conception of a certain something that entered a specific room. In this case, the relevant SIF is thus to specify. Other SIFs suggested for adjectives are kind identification, element identification, identity provision and stipulation.

    The aim of the thesis is two-fold: on the one hand to outline a suggestive theory of meaning creation and interpretive function in general, and, on the other hand, to present a theoretical discussion of adjective functions in particular, with the ultimate goal of providing a general framework from which more specific models for in-depth empirical research can be obtained.

     

  • 19.
    Minnhagen, Susanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kleptoplasty in Dinophysis spp: Ecological role and evolutionary implications2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the question of whether planktonic protits of the genus Dinophysis have permanent plastids (=chloroplasts) or practice kleptoplasty, i.e. acquire plastids via predation on other microorganisms. Sequencing the plastid 16S rDNA of Dinophysis spp. collected from 4 different geographical regions unveiled two different plastid genotypes within this genera: one that was found at all locations investigated, identical to that of the free-living cryptophyte Teleaulax amphioxeia, and another found only in the Greenland Sea, closely related to that of the cryptophyte Geminigera cryophila. Both types were found within the species D. acuminata. These findings imply that the plastids in Dinophysis spp. were not inherited from a common ancestor, but acquired from feeding. By using flow cytometry in combination with an acidotrophic probe, it was shown that 71 % of the cells in a D. norvegica population in the aphotic zone of the Baltic Sea had food-vacuoles. Dinophysis used to be regarded as a primarily phototrophic organism, and this was a higher proportion of cells with food-vacuoles than reported earlier. To further study if Dinophysis needs constant refill of new plastids from the environment, a new method combining flow-cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR was developed to compare the levels of nuclear and plastid DNA in different phases of the cell-cycle. Results showed that plastid acquisition in Dinophysis was uncoupled with the cell-cycle, which is different than the pattern seen in microalgal species with permanent plastids. Furthermore, when quantitative real-time PCR combined with flow-cytometry was used to follow D. caudata cultures during a 65 days starvation/feeding experiment, the cells first went through a steady decrease in plastid DNA during starvation. In contrast, after feeding on the ciliate Myrionecta rubra, plastid DNA in starved cells increased 7-fold, thereby directly revealing the kleptoplastic behavior. The main conclusion from this thesis is that Dinophysis cells are actively taking up kleptoplastids from the ciliates on which they feed, and that kleptoplasty is an important key to understand Dinophysis ecology. Part of this thesis work has also been dedicated to the application and optimization of new methods, and it shows how quantitative real-time PCR, flow cytometry and molecular methods in different combinations can be used as powerful tools for the study of plankton ecology.

     

     

  • 20.
    Wastesson, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    L’atténuation en traduction: Étude traductologique des marqueurs de probabilité en français et en suédois2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a comparative study of how epistemic markers in French and Swedish are treated in translation. The study focuses on epistemic markers indicating high probability, such as säkert, nog, jag tror (att) and epistemic (not deontic) måste in Swedish, and, in French, certainement, sans doute, je crois (que), epistemic devoir etc.

    The epistemic markers qualify the truth of what is being asserted (cf. epistemic modality), indicate the nature of the source that underlies what is being asserted (cf. evidentiality), and show the speaker’s epistemic attitude towards what is being asserted (doubt, belief etc.). Moreover, the epistemic markers are speech acts softeners, related to politeness in language.

    The material used consists of extracts from 15 Swedish novels and their French translations, and extracts from 15 French novels and their Swedish translations. More than 1500 examples collected from this material show that there are some translational problems connected to epistemic markers, especially interference – influence between languages – which manifests itself as “translationese”, i.e. features that characterize translated texts compared to source texts in the same language. For example, the epistemic adverb antagligen (Eng. probably) is over-represented to a great extent in Swedish translations from French, while the epistemic particle väl (Eng. I suppose) is rarely used by Swedish translators.

    Furthermore, the study describes several translational difficulties such as how to keep the subjectivity of the speaker. The indication of subjectivity, which means that the epistemic judgement is made by the speaker alone, is inherent in the particles nog and väl as well as in the mental state predicate jag tror (att) / je crois (que) (Eng. I think), while epistemic adverbs like probablement and sans doute can receive an intersubjective interpretation, indicating that the responsibility for the degree of truth of what is being asserted is shared between the speaker and others.

  • 21.
    Marx Åberg, Angela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Lesefreude und Lernerorientierung: Eine Untersuchung von Lehrerentscheidungen beim Lesen eines Romans in einer Schülergruppe im schwedischen Unterricht Deutsch als Fremdsprache2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, teaching is seen as a complex decision-making situation, where different factors that influence the teaching and learning process are interwoven and connected with each other. To describe and analyse the complexity of teaching literature in a foreign language instruction setting is the aim of the study. The study was conducted with one teacher participant and her group of 16–17 years old pupils in a Swedish upper secondary school, while they read a German youth novel.

    Data on the teacher decisions in the planning phase was collected by interviewing the teacher before the actual teaching of the novel and between lessons, while the implementation of the teacher decisions was observed during the lessons. In the interviews, four decision areas showed to be central to the teacher: teaching goals, choice of text, task formulation, and the role of freedom and control as central concepts of learner autonomy. In the analysis chapters, the decisions within these different areas are described, commented on, and contextualized within the teacher’s own teaching concepts, and within current research and theory on foreign language reading, learning, and teaching. Factors critical to the decision-making situation are identified.

    The findings of the study show that teaching literature employs a decision-making process of great complexity because of the subjective character of the reading process. The complexity of the process is increased by the fact that a foreign language was being taught. Even for an experienced teacher (as the teacher who was observed in the study is) teaching decisions are characterized by a complexity which her many years of teaching experience can only partly compensate for. The main goal for the teaching of the novel was formulated by the teacher as ‘reading pleasure’, a concept grounded on a previous teaching experience. Since the teacher saw tasks as an obstacle for a reading experience, the task formulation constituted a conflict for her. In the study, the structure of the conflict is described by investigating different understandings of the concepts ‘reading pleasure’ and ‘task’. A crucial question was raised: What was considered to be the most important activity of the lesson: the reading or the tasks? When the task is secondary to the reading, there is an opportunity for the learner to focus on the reading experience; an important condition for reading pleasure. When the task is considered to be the primary activity, the student’s focus is on solving the task, and the reading activity thus looses its importance when the task is fulfilled. The interpretation of teaching concepts like ‘task’ is therefore a crucial factor that influences the teacher’s decisions about the teaching.

    A second concept that is central to the teacher’s teaching activities is ‘learner autonomy’. Since it is a central concept in the Swedish school curriculum, learner autonomy is held in very high esteem, whilst teacher control is consequently held in very low esteem. The idealization of learner autonomy, along with insufficient explanation of its impact on the distribution of the responsibility for the learning process between teachers and pupils are seen as factors that lead to an increased complexity in the decision-making process about how to manage situations where pupils are not prepared to take on the responsibility that is given to them.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Cultural Sciences.
    Makar emellan: Äktenskaplig oenighet och våld på kyrkliga och politiska arenor, 1810-18802010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines the discussion that took place during the 19th century surrounding men’s violence against their wives, as well as the contemporary norms and ideas that shaped people’s understanding of, and ability to deal with the problem. The overall objective is to examine how cultural conceptions of gender, class, violence and power (relationships) were created and expressed during the period 1810–1880. I approach this objective through an examination of how men’s violence against their wives was reported and treated as marital conflict, both within local religious arenas (such as church councils and cathedral chapters) and in the Riksdag of the Estates.

    With a longer diachronic analysis of the discussions in the Riksdag of the Estates con-cerning propositions for changes in the law regarding marital conflict and divorce during the period 1828–1860, the dissertation shows that men’s violence against their wives as well as other forms of male misuse of power were neither made invisible, privatised nor marginalised in the public discussion in Sweden, which previous research has maintained. In contrast to previous research, the dissertation also shows that political attention to wife-beating and the reform work that took place in 19th century Sweden cannot be entirely characterised as a secularised project. The attention politicians directed towards the problem took place in a re-ligious context where the clergy, in practice, through their experience of dealing with wife-beating and other unsatisfactory conditions in marital relations, took the initiative and were instigators in the political process that after the middle of the century brought changes in the law on marital conflict and divorce.

    The dissertation’s investigations of how marital conflict and violence were dealt with by church councils and cathedral chapters also show how those involved talked about marital conflict based on competing ideas of gender, class, violence and marriage. The dissertation supports previous research that has demonstrated how men’s violence against their wives tended to be made invisible when it was interpreted and dealt with as marital conflict within the religious arenas. However, the results of the dissertation open up for other interpreta-tional perspectives regarding how violence was made invisible in the past, demonstrating that the prevailing understanding of violence that existed through concepts such as conflict and maltreatment may rather have resulted in an exposition of violence, which also included other forms of marital violence and oppression that were not physical. With a starting point in a marital ideology that perceived marriage as being in principle life-long, the intention of the church’s warnings during conflicts was to mediate, even in cases that included men’s vio-lence against their wives. The principal significance was not to make it easier for wives to remove themselves from their husbands’ violence, but to preserve the sanctity of marriage. Despite this, the study of praxis during the period shows that the church councils in particu-lar could assume more flexible and pragmatic attitudes towards the law. In their attempts to find solutions to their congregation’s unsatisfactory state of marital problems, they could even pursue actions that conflicted with legal provisions.

  • 23.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    MANIPULATION OF OCULAR ABERRATIONS IN MYOPES2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Myopia is a major cause of vision loss throughout the world. High myopia is associated with severe eye diseases like maculopathy, retinal detachment and glaucoma. The prevalence of myopia is increasing, and varies by country and by ethnic group. In some Asian populations the prevalence is 70%-80%. 

    This thesis includes five experiments. In experiment I we investigated the effects of added positive and negative spherical aberration on accommodative response accuracy. We found that the accommodative response can be altered by modulating the spherical aberration of the eye with soft contact lenses. There was an improvement in the accommodative response slopes and a decrease in the lag of accommodation with the negative spherical aberration lenses compared to positive spherical aberration lenses. 

    In experiment II we investigated whether the negative spherical aberration in contact lenses could be tolerated visually in terms of wearability and comfort. We found that all the subjects were satisfied with the contact lens comfort, distance and near vision and the stability of the vision with the lenses. The accommodative response was stable through out the treatment period.

    In experiment III we investigated the efficacy of a novel dual treatment for the improvement of accommodative accuracy and dynamics in myopes. The spherical aberration of the eye was effectively altered to negative in the treatment group as predicted. In the control group as expected there was no significant change in the spherical aberration of the eye with and without contact lenses. The treatment lenses decreased the lag of accommodation and increased the accommodative response slope at 3 months.

    In the experiment IV we investigated the effect of the treatment lenses used in the previous experiment on high and low contrast visual acuities after a one year treatment period. The results showed a significant improvement in both high and low contrast visual acuities after the one year period in the treatment group compared to the control group, even though it was not clinically significant.

    In experiment V we investigated the intrasession repeatability of peripheral aberrations using COAS-HD VR aberrometer and also reported the distribution of higher order aberrations in a group of young emmetropes. There was no significant difference in the variance of total higher-order RMS between on- and off-axis measurements. There was a significant change in the horizontal coma, spherical aberration and higher-order RMS with off-axis angle along the horizontal visual field. We demonstrated that fast, repeatable and valid peripheral aberration measurements can be obtained with this instrument.

    This thesis contributes new results in this field of myopia, aberration and accommodation.

  • 24.
    Hegender, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Mellan akademi och profession.: Hur lärarkunskap formuleras och bedöms i verksamhetsförlagd lärarutbildning.2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Holmberg, Kristina
    Lund University.
    Musik- och kulturskolan i senmoderniteten: reservat eller marknad?2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the education at Swedish community school of music and art. The aim of the study is to investigate how teachers at those schools talk about their own activities, and thereby also to explore, describe and analyse how the teaching is manifested. In the study 27 teachers from six different community schools of music and art participated. All together about 10 hours of group conversation were recorded and subsequently transcribed in to text for further analysis. In line with the theoretical approach of the thesis naturally occurring talk was strived for. The study uses two discourse analytical perspectives, both founded in social construction- ism and post-structuralistic theory. Discursive psychology, influenced by ethnomethodology and conversation analysis in the field of social psychology, and discourse theory, inspired by the work of Foucault. The combination of the approaches is considered as more productive than a one-sided use of one or the other. In order to create options for discussing the conditions society offers on the basis of the macro-discourses generated by the data, theories of modernity has been chosen as a relevant approach. The results are divided into four areas; Change (Förändringen), Future (Framtiden), Frustration (Frustrationen) and Freedom (Friheten), all describing distinctions between systems of difference. Each area is extensively analysed. In the discussion the changed conditions in the teachers work at the schools of music and art are discussed in relation to the tendencies of late modernity. The teachers in the present study are experiencing a loss of influence concerning teaching and are explaining this in terms of an in- creasing demand for participation from the students. At the same time, the changed students are seen as responsible for the changes in the lesson contents. The changed condition in society consequently illuminates what has happened at the schools of music and art. Both teachers and students are by cause of the cultural liberation more free as the norms of the traditional have lost most of its power. This gives consequences for the students, who more actively seek influence according to the music of the lessons. On behalf of the teachers one consequence can be seen in their increasing openness to new ideas and in a higher wish to manage a pleasant teaching for their students. In conclusion, as long as traditions were able to guide the contents of the activities and the students adjusted to it, there was no need for greater clarity. However, in late modernity, when ideas that were once obvious are getting questioned, things come to another situation. A scenario for the future without control documents, would, according to this study, lead to an abandoning of the ambition, and the schools of music and art would transfer into an amusement park for the ”ego children”. But with an increasing distinctness on the mission, it is my conviction that the cultural heritage will also be better able to survive in late modernity. There is no doubt that community schools of music and art have capacity to carry on a market adapted activity and at the same time to mediate a tradition.

  • 26.
    Mosnik, Gunnar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    On Applying Ontologies in Workflows: Ontology driven Workflows for increasing Flexibility and Quality and reducing Production Time and Cost2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend in business goes to higher flexibility of companies due to the manifold wishes of the customer, which challenges information systems. A consequence is the mass customisation, the effort to produce different variants of one product to meet the multifaceted needs of as many customers as possible. Supply-chains are not the only concept to take into consideration, but also value chains and value systems. The customer has to be willing to pay for a product, and every step in the value chain respectively value system has to add a value the customer is willing to pay for. For the companies to live up to these demands new structures have to be established, companies have to work in networks. Every company does what they do best, and are highly specialised.

    The focus in information systems has to be on the point where business partners communicate with each other, on a peer-to-peer basis, the interfaces. The transfer of information from one system to another can be a problem, especially when the system sending the information has other semantics than the receiver, leading to misunderstanding between the business partners. One possible solution for overcoming these problems is to explicitly consider ontologies – a shared agreement about the meaning of the concepts. The communication model shows how to ensure the transfer of content from one system to another, enabling business partners to transfer knowledge between each other, by using ontologies.

    This PhD thesis examines the effect and possibilities of the explicit consideration of ontologies in workflows, when used in a workflow management system. The investigation was done with help of a case with three units of analysis. The examination of the case was within an EU-project, having the goal to improve the quality and flexibility, as well as decreasing costs and time in companies in the automotive industry and their networks.

    A common process of all three units of analyses was the quotation process, which is presented in this PhD thesis. The first task was to investigate the ontologies of the companies, on a social level. The goal was to deliver the information necessary for the four ontologies, using amongst others the Socrates analysis.

    A second task was to evaluate the ontologies used in a prototype. The goal was to get the opinion of the future users about the prototype, in particular about the functions offered by the prototype using the investigated and formalised ontologies. The main goal within the evaluation was to compare the way of working and accomplishing results with and without the prototype. The prototype was evaluated, amongst others, according to the four dimensions quality, flexibility, cost and time.

    The measuring of effects by using the prototype of the workflow management system was one of the challenges of this PhD thesis. The data collected in the evaluation was categorised first according to the four phases of the global architecture, and second according to the four dimensions of the project. A matrix shows in what stage what dimension is occurring. The conclusion is that there are positive effects on the workflow when using the ontology-based prototype. The combined use of the workflow management system and the use of the developed ontologies showed clear and positive results on the four dimensions.

    Last but not least the PhD thesis provides suggestions for improvements when investigating ontologies and designing general ontology based systems. Two models, and how they interplay, are presented, first the 4-Level-Ontology-Model, and then the Intelligent Ontology Translator. The 4-Level-Ontology-Model provides suggestions how to classify ontologies of an organisation vertically, while the Intelligent Ontology Translator considers the transfer of content on a horizontal level. These two models, together with the global architecture, open up for a new architecture for communication between systems, the ontology driven architecture (ODA).

  • 27.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    On drug use, multiple medication and polypharmacy in a national population2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of multiple medications has successively increased during a number of years and has thereby increased the potential risks of adverse drug reactions, interactions and non-adherence to drug therapy. This may result in unnecessary health expenditure, directly due to redundant drug sales, and indirectly due to the increased hospitalization caused by drug-related problems. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the occurrence and development of drug use, multiple medication, and polypharmacy in an entire national population by using individual-based data on dispensed drugs. The studies (I-V) in the thesis are based on data of dispensed prescription drugs for up to 6.2 million individuals obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. The data in the studies cover different periods of time between July 2005-Sept 2008, and the data have been analyzed on the basis of epidemiological measures and statistical methods. The major conclusions of the studies are: the prevalence of dispensed drugs and multiple medications was extensive in all age groups and was higher for females than for males. Multiple medications should be regarded as a risk in terms of potential drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions in all age groups (I). Regional differences in the prevalence of polypharmacy were observed and partly explained by the regional age distribution in Sweden. The use of a novel weighted polypharmacy index indicated regional differences in drug therapy for individuals with polypharmacy (II). The number of drugs used by an individual not only increased the potential risks associated with multiple drug use, but also the potential burden of an increased therapeutic intensity, especially for elderly (III). Individuals with ten or more drugs accounted for almost fifty percent of the total acquisition costs of dispensed drugs. Therefore, interventions with a focus on the reduction of the number of prescription drugs for the small group of patients with a large number of different drugs may also result in a substantial reduction in the total drug costs (IV). In spite of national and regional efforts to reduce polypharmacy, the prevalence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy and the mean number of drugs per individual continued to increase in Sweden 2005-2008 (V). The observed year-by-year increase in polypharmacy underlines the importance of monitoring the development of drug use in all ages. Individual-based registers studies of dispensed drugs provide high quality data and could serve as the basis for further research and also in terms of training health care personnel. It can also be used as a base for interventions and the evaluation of drug use. To enable better comparisons on drug use and its consequences, there is a need for standards concerning measurements, classification and criteria which encompass all types of medications. For clinicians, there is a need for information concerning the patient’s actual use of all different types of medications.

  • 28.
    Edvinsson, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Parallelized Program Analysis2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a framework for parallelized program analysis. It uses available parallel processing power in standard desktop computers to speed up static program analysis.

    Today, processor chip manufacturers produce single processor chips containing multiple cores, each with a processing power of previous single-core processors. Major processor suppliers have released processors with 2, 4, and 6 cores and are currently working on processors with 8 and 16 cores, and are expected to produce processors with a few hundred cores in the near future.

    Static program analysis finds programs’ runtime properties at compile time. It is time-consuming to produce results of high quality, which is necessary for the results to be useful. One way to reduce analysis time is to take advantage of the processing power of multi-core processors.

    The presented framework supports sequences of static program analyses, each producing partial results. In this thesis, the framework is instantiated with points-to analysis, reachability analysis, and escape analysis. Points-to analysis calculates object references in a program and provides the input for subsequent analyses. Reachability analysis calculates reachable methods and provides further input to the escape analysis, which finds object and method lifetimes. It is possible to implement other data-flow analyses using the same parallelized approach by choosing different analysis value types and transfer functions. The framework also facilitates the implementation of static analyses that automatically benefit from the parallelized approaches that the framework offers.

    The framework shortens the analysis time for static program analysis based on points-to analysis in two ways: using a parallelized approach for points-to analysis, and using parallelized approaches for analyses relying on points-to analysis results. It is also possible to shorten the development time of other analyses when reusing the functionality of the framework.

    To further improve the usefulness of the framework, requirements for additional static analysis should be captured, and the framework should be extended accordingly. It should also facilitate to perform independent client analyses in parallel, rather than in sequence. These challenges are part of our future work.

  • 29.
    Järkestig Berggren, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Social Work.
    Personligt ombud och förändringsprocesser på det socialpsykiatriska fältet2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a new reform in 2001, Swedish authorities emphasized the need for support for persons with psychiatric disabilities living in the community. This reform included the establishment of a new occupation: the Swedish case manager, personligt ombud (PO). In examining this new occupation, the overall aim of this thesis is to analyze how the Swedish case manager, PO, as an evolving occupation, affects and is affected by the organisational and professional field in which it enters. More specifically, the aim is to describe and analyse, using organisational and professional theories, the changing processes that the PO con-tributes to in the welfare system and the practice of social policy, the field of social psychiatry focusing on the discretion for professionals and in the under-standing of the professional role to help as described by clients.

    Three studies have been carried out. The first study, for the licentiate´s degree, focused on the PO occupational role and functions for the welfare system as well as for mental health service users. In the second study, the results from the first study were analyzed together with the results of another reform, namely, the Swedish care manager reform, in order to investigate their joint implications for social policy and its practice. The third study focused on what meaning the PO has for the clients and particularly what features of the service the clients find to be helpful.

    In summary, the results indicate that the PO contributes to the development of a negotiated rights model, by taking on the assignment of advocacy as a client representative, and then defining the social worker as a representative for the organisation with the assignment of needs assessment. In the field of social psychiatry, the PO fills a vacancy by supporting the legitimacy of the professionals as well as their organisations. Furthermore, the PO has a function of providing organised transparency through restricting the discretion of other professionals. The discretion of the PO itself has weak boundaries allowing for great liberty of action. Finally, the PO service has led to a new understanding of the professional role, as built on reciprocity with the client, using knowledge evolving from the interaction between the professional PO and the client. These findings suggest that the PO could be understood as a new occupation evolving from weak professional traits to, as suggested, a new model for professionalism, called user-mandated professionalism. This emphasizes the reciprocative foundation of knowledge between the service user and the professional.

  • 30.
    Bergman, Ingrid-Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Polymorphism in pattern recognition receptor genes in pigs2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mammalian immune defense consists of two systems, which are interconnected and co-operate to provide host defense. The innate immune system is always active and detects and responds to non-self without delay. The adaptive immune system has a lag phase, but is more specific and has got a memory.

    The innate immune system relies on pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect molecular patterns signaling microbial presence. This thesis focuses on a centrally placed family of PRRs, namely the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and on mannan-binding lectin (MBL), a PRR which initiates the lectin activation pathway of complement. TLRs are expressed on the cell surface and in intracellular compartments, while MBL is a soluble protein present in most body fluids.

    Polymorphism – literally ’many forms’ – refers to variation between individuals, at DNA level as well as in traits. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) implicates that alternative nucleotides are present at a particular position in the genome. Mutations, together with phenomena like gene duplication and whole genome duplication, are the ultimate source of variation in nature and the fuel for evolution. Through natural selection and breeding, i.e. artificial selection, species are shaped and change over time.

    Domestic animals are well suited for genetic studies, since they enable comparisons of populations exposed to different selection criteria and environmental challenges. Also, in the case of pigs, comparisons to the wild ancestor – i.e. the wild boar – can shed light on the evolutionary process. Moreover, pigs are large animal models for humans.

    Paper I reports the refinement of previously identified quantitative trait loci for immune-related traits on pig chromosome 8.

    Papers II and III report differences in polymorphic patterns between wild boars and domestic pigs in the TLR1, TLR2, TLR6, and TLR10 genes. In TLR1 and TLR2, more SNPs were present in the domestic pigs than in the wild boars. In TLR6, SNP numbers were similar in both animal groups, but the level of heterozygosity was higher in the domestic pigs than in the wild boars. In TLR10, again, more SNPs were present in the domestic pigs, and a higher number of non-synonymous SNPs was detected in TLR10 compared to the other genes. This might suggest redundancy for TLR10 in pigs.

    Paper IV reports the presence of an SNP, previously detected in domestic pigs and assumed to affect MBL concentrations in serum, in European wild boars. Also, the connection between the presumed low-producing allele and low MBL concentration in serum was confirmed. Moreover, a novel SNP, with potential to be functionally important, was detected.

    Owing to the domestication process and differences in selection pressure, differences in polymorphic patterns between wild boars and domestic pigs are not surprising. However, since breeding means choosing among genotypes, the opposite pattern – more SNPs in wild boars than in domestic pigs – would have been expected. However, the result confirms other studies, which have shown that European wild boars went through a bottle neck before domestication started. The higher number of SNPs in domestic pigs may be due to relaxed purifying selection during the domestication process.

  • 31.
    Silander, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Pyramider och pipelines: Om högskolesystemets påverkan på jämställdhet i högskolan2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on gender equality in Swedish higher education shows an unequal gender balance. Women are consistently underrepresented at the highest levels of the academic hierarchy. The lack of gender equality in academia has been illustrated by metaphors such as a narrowing pyramid, a leaky pipeline and a black hole. Unlike other problems in the academic context, gender inequality in higher education is seldom considered from a system perspective. The system of higher education has undergone major changes during the 1990s in terms of scope (more students, more faculty, more institutions, etc.), differentiation (inclusion of new disciplines) and geographical distribution (establishing institutions in previously unserviced areas). In this thesis, theoretical expectations concerning the effect of these changes on gender equality are developed.

    The thesis investigates gender equality in higher education by developing an analytical framework to analyze the system level and its impact on gender equality. The empirical data consists of two sets. The first set contains cross-sectional data on registered students, doctoral entrants, doctors, post-doctoral fellows, lecturers and professors in Swedish higher education. The second set is derived from the longitudinal integration database for health insurance and labor market studies (LISA), which consists of anonymized data on all individuals in the Swedish labor market that hold doctoral degrees.

    The main finding of the thesis is that the system of higher education does have an impact on the gender equality in higher education. The vertical gender balance has increased during the expansion of Swedish higher education during the 1990s. The horizontal gender balance has also increased, but the increase is limited to the student category. On the other hand, the system of higher education has not had an impact on the gender equality measured in terms of exits from academia. Instead, the analysis shows that the rate of men that leave academia is higher than the rate of women, and that commonly used metaphors portraying academia as a narrowing pyramid, a leaky pipeline or a black hole serve poorly as illustrations of the gender equality in academia.

  • 32.
    Leberfinger, Karolina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Revealing the role of shredders and detritus in open-canopy, intermittent streams2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many streams run through naturally-unforested, agricultural, and residential landscapes and thus do not have closed riparian canopies. Little is known of food web dynamics and ecosystem function in such open-canopy streams. Similarly, our knowledge of ecosystem processes in intermittent streams and effects of drought on stream ecosystem function are limited, despite that predictions of climate change effects include increased frequency and duration of droughts in freshwaters. The aim of my thesis was to increase our knowledge of invertebrate shredder assemblages and ecosystem function in open-canopy intermittent streams and to reveal the role of terrestrial organic matter in open-canopy streams. Invertebrate shredders, as primary consumers of detritus, significantly contribute to the ecosystem function decomposition of organic matter. Thereby, shredders are important vectors for transferring detrital energy into stream food webs.

    I found high-density and species-rich shredder assemblages in three open-canopy intermittent streams on the island of Öland in the southern Baltic Sea, Sweden. My results showed that terrestrially derived organic matter was the shredder’s main food source and the amount of high-quality CPOM potentially limited shredder production. However, through supplementing their feeding with algae, a high shredder production, similar to production estimates in forested permanent streams, could be maintained in these open-canopy intermittent streams. Instead, my results indicate that the primary physical factor constraining shredder production in intermittent streams is the length of the summer drought period. Furthermore, drying simulated as decreasing water levels in an experiment, decreased invertebrate shredder feeding activity and consequently, the breakdown rate of organic matter. Drying also altered a caddisfly shredders’ life cycle phenology and such evident induction of earlier pupation due to drying has not been shown for aquatic insects earlier.

    Food webs and ecosystem function and processes in open-canopy and intermittent streams deserve further attention, especially as these types of streams are very common worldwide. My findings indicate that the energy base in open-canopy streams may be terrestrially derived organic matter, as in forested streams, but constraints imposed by habitat traits and differences in organic matter input size may have significant consequences on stream productivity. My results may be important for increased understanding of potential effects of land use changes (i.e. forestry, agriculture, urbanization) and environmental changes (i.e. climate change) on stream ecosystems.

  • 33.
    Zandén, Olle
    Högskolan för scen och musik vid Göteborgs universitet.
    Samtal om samspel: Kvalitetsuppfattningar i musiklärares dialoger om ensemblespel på gymnasiet2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Dapi Nzefa, Léonie
    Umeå University.
    Socioeconomic and sex differences in adolescents’ dietary intake, anthropometry and physical activity in Cameroon, Africa2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People in Cameroon are experiencing a dietary transition characterized by changing from traditional food habits to increased intake of highly processed sweet and fatty food. The rapid change in food pattern combined with an increased sedentary lifestyle has resulted in a rather high prevalence of obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Nutritional intake is important during adolescence for growth spurt, health, cognitive development and performance in school.

    Objective: The aim of this thesis was to assess dietary intake, anthropometry and physical activity of adolescents according to sex and socioeconomic status (SES) and to investigate food perceptions of adolescents living in urban and rural areas of Cameroon.

    Methods: Girls and boys, 12-16 years of age, were randomly selected from schools in urban and rural areas. Food frequency questionnaire, 24-hour dietary and physical activity recalls, anthropometric measurements, qualitative interviews and a background questionnaire were used for data collection.

    Results: The proportion of overweight was three times higher in girls (14%) compared to boys (4%). Stunting and underweight were more common among boys (15% and 6%) than girls (5% and 1%). The prevalence of stunting was two times higher among the urban adolescents with low SES (12%) compared to those with high SES (5%). The rural adolescents had the highest proportion of stunting but more muscle that the urban adolescents. The rural adolescents ate in order to live and to maintain health. Urban adolescents with low SES ate in order to maintain health, while those with high SES ate for pleasure. More than 30% of the adolescents skipped breakfast in the urban area. Urban adolescents with high SES and girls reported a more frequent consumption of in-between meals and most food groups compared to the rural adolescents, boys and those with low SES. Over 55% of the adolescents had a protein intake below 10% of the energy (E%). Twenty-six percent of the adolescents had fat intake below 25 E%, and 25% had fat intake above 35 E%. A large proportion of the adolescents had an intake of micronutrients below the estimated average recommendation. Boys and the adolescents with low SES reported a higher energy expenditure and physical activity level than girls and the adolescents with high SES, respectively. Both under- and over-reporting of energy intake were common among the adolescents.

    Conclusions: The present study showed that nutrient inadequacy, stunting, underweight, as well as overweight and obesity were common among the adolescents in Cameroon. Therefore an intervention program targeting both under- and overnutrition among school adolescents is needed. Sex and socioeconomic differences also need to be considered.

  • 35.
    Björn Milrad, Marianne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Studenter med läs- och skrivsvårigheter som deltagare i högre utbildning2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emphasis on higher education (HE) in today’s knowledge society has increasedthe amount of students enrolled in universities in Sweden. Two percentof these students are people with disabilities, of whom more than half are studentswith dyslexia. Dyslexia is a disability that involves difficulty with writtentext which is the essence of HE. The disability affects these students’ readingand my assumption was therefore that their possibility to complete their educationon an equal footing with their peers was limited.The overall aim of this thesis is to illuminate the prerequisites for participationfor Swedish students with dyslexia in higher education, and to analyse if support,and information about support, offered by higher-education institutionsare accessible to them. Due to lack of previous research, this is a descriptivestudy using the theoretical framework of cultural-historical activity theory(CHAT), a theory that can be summarized in five principles: an activity systemis the unit of analysis, it has historicity, multi-voicedness, it views contradictionsas sources of change, and it has the potential for expansive transformation.To orient myself within the large field of HE and dyslexia, the following questionshave guided my work: What HE measures are taken to ensure accessibilityand participation for Swedish students with dyslexia? What tensions, as definedwithin CHAT, may be found in the HE activities in relation to studentswith dyslexia? How do students with dyslexia regard the support offered? Inorder to answer these questions, I have listened to some of the voices withinHE, by collecting data through a questionnaire sent to all coordinators for studentswith disabilities; by having focus group interviews with university teachers,as well as having individual interviews with students with dyslexia. Thedata were collected and analysed within a CHAT activity system, which depictedHE activities by coordinators and teachers in relation to students withdyslexia. The graph was used in the final discussion to formulate some ideas forexpansive transformation.

  • 36.
    Ekelund, Helena
    University of Nottingham.
    The agencification of Europe: explaining the establishment of European Community agencies2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Governance in the European Union is being transformed through the increased use of agencies to perform a range of functions in a variety of policy areas. The European Commission believes that agencies can add value but admits that their establishment has not been accompanied with a “common understanding” of their roles and purposes. In this thesis, I take the approach that such an understanding is best reached through examination of existing agencies. Focusing on the most common type of agency in the EU, i.e. Community Agencies, this thesis provides a four-level analysis. At the conceptual level, the thesis deals with the ‘agency’ concept. Drawing on public management literature, the empirical level involves classification of these diverse bodies. The contribution of the thesis at the theoretical level is to identify the key driving factors behind agency establishment; following a theoretical framework devised from new institutionalist theories I trace and analyse the establishment process of four case study agencies. The research reveals that to fully understand the establishment of agencies we need to draw on more than one strand of new institutionalism, as they can explain different aspects of agency creation. As a wider outlook the thesis reflects on the role of agencies, relating it to the wider academic debates on the ‘regulatory state’ and its implications for legitimacy.

  • 37.
    Frank, Catharina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Tillfället gör delaktighet: Patienters och vårdares erfarenheter av patientdelaktighet på akutmottagning. En deskriptiv, metodutvecklande och utvärderande studie2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the present thesis was to examine, develop and evaluate patient participation in emergency department (ED) for promoting the relief of suffering for patients in care relations, from the perspective of patients and caregivers.

    Method: The explorative studies (I, II) were based on reflective lifeworld approach and analyzed by phenomenographic method. Data were collected from interviews by patients (9) and caregivers (11) about their conception of patient participation in ED. The methodological study (III) performed analyses and were tested for content, construct and criterion validity as well as homogeneity and stability reliability. The sample for study (III, IV) consisted of 356 patients consecutively cared for in EDs in Sweden. In the evaluating study (IV) the questionnaire Patient Participation Emergency Department (PPED) was used. The statistical methods handled were Student’s t-test, one-way ANOVA and Spearman correlation.

    Findings: The patients’ conception of patient participation means: being acknowledged; struggling to become involved; and having a clear space (I). The caregivers’ conceptions of patient participation can be divided into three different descriptive categories: Caregivers offer the opportunity for participation, Patients demand participation and Mutual participation (II). A 17- item questionnaire was developed. Two separate factor analyses revealed a distinct four- factor solution which was labelled: Fight for participation, Requirement for participation, Mutual participation and Participating in getting basic needs satisfied. Criterion validity presented showed 9 out of 20 correlations equal or above 0.30. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ranged from 0.63 - 0.84 and test- retest varied between 0.59 and 0.93(III).The results show that patient participation is low in two dimensions (Fight for participation, Participation in getting basic needs satisfied), reasonable in one dimension (Mutual participation), and high in one dimension, Requirement for participation (IV).

    Conclusions: Participation does occur on occasion when the circumstances are right despite international and national guidelines that lay down the need for patient participation. Patient participation in EDs is perceived when patients are in contact with caregivers and there is space for collaboration in situations of consistency. However, patient participation cannot be offered in a one-sided caring action. In collaboration patient participation contributes to the relief of suffering in the process of health and patients participate when they are allowed to be the point of departure for caring. However, the results point to a lack of strategy for patient participation and for increased patient participation to take place improvements in external organization requirements are required. The results indicate an amplified clarity in how patient participation can be understood for EDs, in education and community and a scientific tested instrument has made it possible to evaluate patient participation.

  • 38.
    Gustafsson, Barbro
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Undersökningar av sociovetenskapliga samtal i naturvetenskaplig utbildning2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis examines the potential of students’ group discussions in science education in the context of a communicative perspective on democracy and meaning-making. The group discussions in focus are about socioscientific issues (SSI), i.e. controversial and complex issues with scientific as well as sociological aspects. The philosophical works of John Dewey and Jürgen Habermas serve as the main theoretical underpinnings. Different types of empirical data were used for the qualitative analyses: policy documents, student teachers’ essays, student interviews and recorded group discussions between classmates.

    Attention is drawn to the twofold educational mission to ensure students’ subject knowledge and democratic growth, where the democracy aspect of this mission is in danger of being given secondary priority in science education. Deliberations about SSI are suggested as a possible way of bridging the gap between the two tasks. An ideal deliberation is characterised by democratic virtues such as sincerity, consideration, a critical review of what is otherwise taken for granted and an aspiration to seek agreement. SSIs facilitate theoretical, ethical and moral reflection and examine argumentation skills in a reflective and considerate way in order to lead to participation and the creation of meaning in mutual communication.

    Both the possibilities and shortcomings of deliberative-oriented group conversations were highlighted in the interviews with upper secondary school students involved in the socioscientific tasks. This then provided guidance for an extended study of SSI-deliberations among students, also from upper secondary school. An analysis tool, DEQUAL, was constructed in order to be in a position to assess their democratic and deliberative qualities.

    The overall results showed that students could maintain respectful and engaged conversations in which they jointly created and developed arguments. However, expressions of meaning-making in terms of insights and new-found experiences were scarce. Furthermore, the students seemed too eager to agree. Although the guidelines emphasised the importance of advancing various arguments, other students’ statements were rarely challenged. If SSI-conversations are to approach democratic and deliberative ideals and stimulate meaning-making, the participants must be prepared to exchange contrasting views. According to Habermas’ theory, when deliberating one relates to a subjective world of experiences, a social world of common agreements and an objective world of facts. Since both science and SSI contribute objective, factual dimensions, it is suggested that the deliberative idea might have a particular bearing on science education, since the conversations do not just revolve around personal opinions.

    It was concluded that the development of deliberative conversation skills requires careful, guided practice. It also became clear that the deliberative guidelines for seeking agreement and the teacher’s non-participation in the talks needed to be reviewed.

1 - 38 of 38
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf