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  • 1.
    Reinap, Ausra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Aerosol deposition to coastal forests: a wind tunnel approach2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aerodynamically rough surfaces of forests provide for efficient air/ canopy exchange of mass, heat and momentum. In that context, the effects of forest edges come into focus, and therefore, coastal-zone forests constitute aparticular concern. Aerosol-sink modelling is of importance to the global-scalecontext, because sink strengths influence the concentration of aerosol particles in the atmosphere, and that concentration, in turn, influences climate. Dry deposition models are insufficient due to a lack of semi-empirical data and because of difficulties in parameterization of the efficiency (E) with which leaves capture aerosols. Quantifications of such parameters promote possibilities for modelling aerosol-sink processes within various canopy layers. This thesis focuses on studies of sea-salt aerosol dry deposition within models of oak canopies exposed to artificially generated aerosols in a wind tunnel. The overall goal is to advance the understanding of deposition processes in forest ecosystems. Aims are to determine capture efficiencies and deposition velocities (Vd) for oak (Quercus robur L.), to investigate E and Vd dependence on aerosol particle size, wind velocity and vegetation structural elements such as Leaf Area Index (LAI), to explore edge effects on deposition, to relate my results to natural situations in the field, and to address modelling applications. This thesis is a result of five studies. The first study is based on developing awind tunnel approach with a main focus on establishing reference conditions.The next step is to quantify E and provide estimates of how E, with respect toa well defined mass-vs-particle-size distribution, varies with wind speed. To that end, a special wash-off technique is developed. Finally, edge effects ondeposition processes are investigated. Results demonstrate that forest ecosystems would experience substantially increased deposition at edges. The findings suggest that field measurements of deposition in the interior of a forest “island” in an otherwise open landscape would underestimate the deposition to the entire forest. Results clearly indicate needs for further research on the effects of LAI on capture efficiency and deposition velocity. The obtained capture efficiencies can be translated into deposition velocities for trees with a specific leaf area. An increase of Vd with increasing wind speed is found, and is consistent with other studies. Results confirm advantages of the wind tunnel approach, including its ability to enable experiments under controlled conditions. However, several problems require that explicit sub-models be developed of wind-speed dependent effects on leaf posture in the aerosol flow field and that gradients in relative humidity close to leaf surfaces need further attention. The results also propose needs for a range of further experimental investigations regarding aerosol deposition across the complete sea-to-land aerodynamic transition.

  • 2.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Akut omhändertagande: i mötet mellan patienter, närstående och olika professioner på skadeplats och på akutmottagning 2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To describe and develop understanding of  the patient’s first encounter with the involved persons at the scene of an accident and at the emergency department; with a special focus on describing the meaning of emergency care of patients in these caring contexts. 

    Method: The thesis uses a reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach founded on phenomenological philosophy. The purpose with this approach is to describe the essential meaning and the variations of a phenomenon. Interviews with a lifeworld perspective were used for data collection and analyzed according to the RLR approach for searching for the essence of the phenomenon.  The four essences in the studies (I-IV) establish a general structure for the phenomenon.

    Findings:  Emergency care is characterized by an organisation, whose goal and resources are focused on life-saving, and that encounters a human being with needs of emergency care as well as existential support. The responsibility in emergency care means an intertwining of doing and being.  The one who is in charge takes responsibility for performing or “doing” medical actions, and by “being” close and present in the situation the patient can at the same time feel an existential support. The responsibility for the injured or ill body is handed over to a chain of persons with more and more specialized competence and resources. This hand-over entails a relief for all involved but fails in one link in the chain, namely to explicitly hand back  the responsibility to the patient.  When the patient’s condition allows the distance to be larger the responsibility pales and the existential support decreases. A gap between doing and being arises where the patient is left to regain control and independence. The intertwining of doing and being, which appears as soon as the one in charge is close and present to the patient, facilitates the hand-over to the patient who in a natural way is able to receive the responsibility with possibilities to be able to conclude the encounter.

    Conclusions: A new understanding of emergency care appears which entails more than just life support measures.  Emergency care includes different ways of communication in order to hand over the responsibility and complete the care chain back to the patient in a safe way. The results highlight the importance of empowering patients with a confirming, communicative contact throughout the whole caring process in order for them to retain their identity. There are also implications for educating students and personnel in inter-professional communication and work. In order to assist the intertwining between doing and being there are needs for the development of supportive structures for inter-professional reflection, which in turn would improve the interaction between patients and professionals in their encounter. 

  • 3.
    Engstedt, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Anadromous Pike in the Baltic Sea2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pike (Esox lucius) is a major predator and top-down regulator in the Baltic Sea where it exists in two sympatric forms. One spawn in streams and rivers and the other one spawn in the sea. During the last decades, the habitats for both of these forms have developed in a negative way. In some freshwater systems, up to 90 % of the water areas have disappeared, mainly through drainage and straightening of watercourses for agricultural purposes. In the sea, reproduction habitats decrease due to construction of harbours and human activities that create disturbances. The perhaps largest single factor negatively affecting recruitment of pike in the sea is the eutrophication. Bottoms are overgrown with filamentous algae and shallow bays are covered with dense Phragmites belts decreasing the habitats suitable for spawning. Further on, a predator on egg and fish larvae, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has increased in abundance. It is difficult to restore and enhance pike production in the sea and probably the only economically viable alternative is to make restorations in freshwater. However, there is a limited knowledge about the freshwater spawning pike in the Baltic Sea. Thus in this thesis I, together with my coauthors, set out with an aim to increase the knowledge base regarding anadromous pike behaviour.

    We found that pike of natal freshwater origin were common in the Baltic Sea. Through Sr:Ca studies in otoliths, about 45 % of the pike were interpreted to be of freshwater origin. The majority of the pike had emigrated out of freshwater at a length below 6 cm. These results indicate that freshwater recruitment is successful, contrasting the vast areas available for spawning in the sea. This creates incitements that restoration measures in these watercourses could have a significant effect on the pike population in the Baltic Sea.

    Further, in four streams running out in the Baltic Sea, more than three thousand pike were marked to study spawning migration. About 30-40 % returned to the same river the subsequent year. Most of the pike used the lower parts of the stream for spawning. The homing of pike to a watercourse indicate that freshwater pike in the Baltic Sea consist of specific populations and this is crucial information when taking decisions on fish restoration measures.

    Three wetlands adjacent to streams were restored for pike production. The most successful restoration involved minimal digging, with flooded grasslands providing optimal conditions for spawning. The first spawning season after restoration increased the pike production hundredfold.

    In conclusion, the anadromous pike are numerous in the Baltic Sea. To compensate for the decline in pike populations in the sea, “pike-factories” created along the coastline are probably the most justifiable option.

  • 4.
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Analysis of shear wallsfor multi-storey timber buildings2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis addresses questions of how wind loads acting on multistoreytimber buildings can be dealt with by structural design of such buildings.The conventional use of sheathing either nailed or screwed to a timberframework is considered, together with other stabilizing structures such ascross-laminated timber panels.The finite element method was employed in simulating the structuralbehaviour of stabilizing wall units. A series of studies was carried out of walls inwhich the sheathing was nailed to a timber frame. Different structural levelswere studied starting with modelling the performance of single sheathing-toframingconnections, to the use of models for studying the overall structuralbehaviour of walls. The results of calculations using models for simulation ofwalls subjected to different loading agree reasonably well with experimentalresults. The structural properties of the connections between the sheathing andthe frame, as well as of the connections between the members of the frame,were shown to have a substantial effect on the simulated behaviour of shearwall units. Both these types of connections were studied and described inappended papers.Regarding cross-laminated timber wall panels, it was concluded that walls witha high level of both stiffness and strength can be produced by the use of suchpanels, and also that the connections between the solid wall panels can bedesigned in such a way that the shear forces involved are transmitted from onepanel to the next in an efficient manner.Other topics in the thesis include the properties of connections between shearwalls and the rest of the building. Typically high tension forces occur at specificpoints in a timber structure. These forces need to be transmitted downwards inthe structure, ultimately connecting them to the substrate. A lap-joint that maybe used for this purpose has been studied using generalized Volkersen theory.Finally the maximum capacity of a conventional rail to substrate connection hasbeen examined using linear and nonlinear fracture mechanics.

  • 5.
    Berglund, Mia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att ta rodret i sitt liv: Lärande utmaningar vid långvarig sjukdom2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A starting point for this thesis is that patients’ learning has not received sufficient attention and thus has not featured in the study programmes in the field of caring. Focus has instead been placed on patients being given information and advice about their illness and treatment, advice that they are then expected to comply with. Too little attention has been paid to the individual who lives with his/her illness and who should be considered to have significant experiences. The overall aim has been to analyze and describe the phenomenon of learning to live with long-term illness as well as to develop a didactic model that can help carers to support patients’ learning processes.

    The theoretical perspective in the thesis is lifeworld theory, which permeates ontological, epistemological and methodological standpoints and also the view on learning. The design and carrying out of the research is based on a reflective lifeworld approach. The empirical study consists of interviews with people who live with different types of long-term illnesses.

    The learning that follows life with a long-term illness is generated in such a way as to respond to the will to live the well-known everyday life. A greater understanding of the empirical results has been achieved by a lifeworld philosophical elucidation, with a particular focus on learning turning points and the importance of reflection. Based on the empirical results, the lifeworld philosophical elucidation and the caring science lifeworld didactics a didactic model has been formulated. This model is entitled: The challenge – to take charge of one’s life with long-term illness. The model contains four theses: 1) Confronting one’s life situation and challenging to make a change, 2) Positioning oneself at a distance when creating a new whole, 3) Developing self-consciousness and taking responsibility, 4) Making learning visible with the aim of providing development and balance in life.

    The results in the thesis show that a genuine learning is something that differs from the learning of information and that the learning must be supported at an existential level based on the sufferer’s situation and for a long period of time.

  • 6.
    Ozolins, Lise-Lotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Beröringens fenomenologi i vårdsammanhang2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the phenomenon of touch and describes its meaning in the healthcare context. Caring science theory based on a lifeworld approach forms the theoretical perspective of the dissertation and consequently the patient perspective is guiding the research. The ontological, epistemological and methodological framework of the thesis is phenomenology.

    The overall aim was to describe the phenomenon of touch in the healthcare context. Touch showed to be a phenomenon with several diverse aspects being differentially explicit in different contexts. Four empirical studies were therefore conducted in different contexts. Further, a synthesis of the empirical results was carried out to show the invariant meanings and structure of the phenomenon. Furthermore, a philosophical illumination of the results was carried out to further deepen and expand the understanding of touch related to healthcare. The phenomenon of touch is described as a complex caring movement, as an interplay between lived bodies forming a foundation to understand health, suffering, well-being, and care. The results show how touch has the power to both alleviate the patients’ suffering and to experience joy and deep connectedness, as well as how touch can frighten and cause or worsen suffering. In order to take advantage of the caring potential, the person who touches must be fully present in all senses of the word. Caring touch of different kinds can never be reduced to a “method”. It is much more than a mechanical and static act or a treatment. Moreover, touch that is objectifying may be understood as an obstacle or detrimental for the caring relationship and well-being since it lacks the necessary pliable interpersonal room. Such touch creates distance and alienation rather than closeness, trust and togetherness. If the potential of touch for caring is to be used and the threat of non-caring warded off, then the intentionality of touch must be balanced visavi the existential vulnerability of the individual. Therefore carers need to be open and attentive to the lifeworld of the patients to enhance their health-processes and avoid hurting them.

  • 7.
    Ewald, Jonas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Challenges for the democratisation process in Tanzania: Moving towards consolidation 50 years after independence?2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania has been independent in 2011 for 50 years. While most neighbouring states have gone through violent conflicts, Tanzania has managed to implement extensive reforms without armed political conflicts. Hence, Tanzania is an interesting case for Peace and Development research. This thesis analyses the political development in Tanzania since the introduction of the multiparty system in 1992, with a focus on the challenges for the democratisation process in connection with the 2000 and 2005 elections. The question of to what extent Tanzania has moved towards a consolidation of democracy, is analysed through an analysis of nine different institutions of importance for democratisation, grouped in four spheres, the state, the political, civil and economic society. Focus is on the development of the political society, and the role of the opposition in particular. The analysis is based on secondary and primary material collected in the period September 2000 to April 2010. The main conclusion is that even if the institutions of liberal democracy have gradually developed, in practice single-party rule has continued, manifested in the 2005 election when the CCM won 92% of the seats in the parliament. Despite an impressive economic growth, poverty remains deep and has not been substantially reduced. On a theoretical level this brings the old debate between liberal and substantive democracy back to the fore. Neither the economic nor the political reforms have apparently brought about a transformation of the political and economic system resulting in the poor majority gaining substantially more political influence and improved economic conditions. Hence, it is argued that the interface between the economic, political and administrative reforms has not been sufficiently considered in the liberal democratic tradition. Liberal democracy is necessary for a democratic development, but not sufficient for democracy to be consolidated. For that a substantive democratic development is necessary.

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Characterization of particulate matter from atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifiers2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through biomass gasification, biomass can be converted at high temperature to a product gas rich in carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane. After cleaning and upgrading, the product gas can be converted to biofuels such as hydrogen; methanol; dimethyl ether; and synthetic diesel, gasoline, and natural gas. Particulate matter (PM) is formed as a contaminant in the gasification process, and the aim of this work was to develop and apply a method for sampling and characterization of PM in the hot product gas.

     

    A particle measurement system consisting of a dilution probe combined in series with a bed of granular activated carbon for tar adsorption was developed, with the aim of extracting a sample of the hot product gas without changing the size distribution and composition of the PM. The mass size distribution and concentration, as well as the morphology and elementary composition, of PM in the size range 10 nm to 10 µm in the product gas from a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier, a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier and an indirect BFB gasifier using various types of biomass as fuel were determined.

     

    All gasifiers and fuels displayed a bimodal particle mass size distribution with a fine mode in the <0.5 µm size range and a coarse mode in the >0.5 µm size range. Compared with the mass concentration of the coarse mode the mass concentration of the fine mode was low from all gasifiers. The evaluation of the results for the fine-mode PM was complicated by condensing potassium chloride for the CFB gasifier when using miscanthus as fuel and by condensing tars for the indirect BFB gasifier when using wood C as fuel. The mass concentration of the coarse-mode PM was higher from the CFB gasifier than from the two BFB gasifiers. The coarse-mode PM from the BFB gasifier when using wood A as fuel was dominated by char. In the CFB gasifier the coarse-mode PM was mainly ash and bed material when using all fuels. The coarse-mode PM from the indirect BFB gasifier when using wood C as fuel was mainly ash.

  • 9.
    Petrakou, Alexandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Design for Places of Collaboration2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis reports a research effort that comprises six papers and a cover paper. In essence, the thesis contributes to the understanding of collaborative settings by introducing the perspective of ‘places of collaboration’. This perspective is particularly important when designing computer-based technologies that support collaborative settings.

     

    The starting point and overall research aim is to understand people’s efforts to configure their current context for the purposes of collaboration. The cover paper of the thesis comprises a theoretical reflection and examination of four collaborative settings. The settings have been studied in situ through ethnographic inquiry and the results are reported in the six papers enclosed in the thesis. In my theoretical reflection, the concepts of ‘place’, ‘space’ and ‘boundary objects’ are central.

     

    The studies revealed that people’s efforts to configure the current context create and reflect a ‘place of collaboration’. In other words, the effort to configure the context results in a practice characterized by an understanding of how to cooperate; a collaborative practice that constitutes a ‘place of collaboration’. During this configuration, the space and the use of materiality in this space are important parts in the creation of a place of collaboration. In addition, people configure collaborative contexts of intersecting practices by creating boundary objects. Boundary objects serve as mediators in a place-making process for the integration of places into a ‘place of collaboration’ for several practices. What is more, the dynamics of a place of collaboration may affect changes in existing modes of working and in computer-based tools that have been introduced into the workplace. The people and practices that constitute the place will in turn re-configure the place of collaboration, including the space and objects available due to the new circumstances.

     

    People’s configuration of their current context reveals crucial aspects about the place of collaboration that must be considered also when designing to support this setting. However, this configuration may not necessarily equal efficiency and effectiveness, as evaluated by actors external to this context. The conclusion of this thesis is that future research and design should consider how to support people in their own effort to configure their collaborative context.

  • 10.
    Hultgren, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Det dubbla statushandikappet och sjukförsäkringens moraliska praktiker: en aktstudie om sjukpenningärenden som får negativa beslut på Försäkringskassan2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years an increasing number of sickness allowance cases have been closed with a negative decision despite the fact that a certifying doctor has recommended sick leave. At Social Insurance Offices, a case file is established for each sickness allowance case. The case files for 538 rejected cases form the basis for this study.

     

    The assessment of the entitlement to sickness allowance is a key instrument of control in the health insurance system and the sharpened borderline between the obligation to work and the entitlement to sickness allowance can be interpreted as the result of a political aim to promote work through the health insurance system. This thesis explores these demarcation practices, highlighting the ways in which this policy of work promotion is translated into and made manifest in real world cases.

     

    Three aspects of these practices were highlighted in the study described in the thesis. The first aspect concerns the identification of those who are denied sickness allowance; their diagnoses and work situations. The second aspect relates to the interaction between the certifying doctor, the medical officer and the case officer and their respective roles in the process leading to negative decisions. The third aspect examines how the actors interpret and apply the concepts of sickness and ability to work in cases with negative decisions. In addition to these themes, in the final chapter of the thesis, I draw on theories of institutionalised organisations and moral practices to analyse the outcomes of the decision-making process.

     

    The thesis shows that a negative decision is most likely to be applied to insured persons who are either unemployed or who are manual workers without educational qualifications, and who have received diagnoses of mental illhealth or of diagnoses of pain and ache problems in the locomotive organs. It is argued that this is a moral category formed through the interaction of government policy dictates promoting work with actors, who in their official roles must apply an extremely vague criterion for entitlement to social insurance, namely disablement caused by illness.  In this way, the dual handicap  – undervalued labour (market) position plus undervalued gravity of illness – has become a borderline marker when the right to sickness allowance is being investigated and contested.

     

  • 11.
    Carlsson, Stina K.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Effects of adenosine and acetylcholine on the lacrimal gland2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A balanced tear film is essential for a healthy ocular surface. Insufficient tear production may result in dry eye, a common disorder in the elderly population. Dry eye causes significant discomfort in the patients and may lead to visual impairment and ocular infections. The lacrimal gland secretes water, proteins and electrolytes to the aqueous layer of the tear film. Lacrimal gland secretion is tightly regulated by e.g. neuronally released acetylcholine. The effect of acetylcholine on lacrimal gland secretion was recently found to be potentiated by adenosine. Adenosine is an important signaling molecule acting upon the adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B and A3.

    The aim of this thesis was to study effects of adenosine and acetylcholine on intracellular signaling pathways and lacrimal gland secretion. Cholinergic stimulation of secretion was shown to be regulated by the mitogen activated protein kinase p38, a protein previously not known to be involved in exocrine secretion. p38 was activated in response to cholinergic stimulation and inhibition of p38 significantly diminished cholinergic secretion.

    When investigating adenosine effects, potentiation of cholinergic secretion was observed by activation of the A2B receptor in addition to the previously studied A1 receptor. An A2 receptor agonist increased cholinergic rabbit lacrimal gland protein secretion at several concentrations. The increase was inhibited by antagonism of the A2B receptor, but not the A2A receptor. When investigating the intracellular signaling pathways following adenosine and acetylcholine receptor activation, adenosine was shown to increase of cAMP levels. An additional increase in cAMP levels was observed after parallel adenosine and cholinergic receptor activation. Inhibition of Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum had inhibitory effects of cholinergic stimulation of secretion. In addition, the expression of adenosine receptors in a mouse model of autoimmune dry eye was investigated. The results showed a lymphocyte dependent upregulation of A2A receptors in diseased mice compared to controls.

    In conclusion, the results in this thesis provide significant contributions in the search of dry eye therapeutics through studies of adenosine and acetylcholine receptor activation.

  • 12.
    Jensen, Anna M.
    SLU, Sweden.
    Effects of facilitation and competition on oak seedlings: Using shrubs as nurse-plants to facilitate growth and reduce browsing from large herbivores2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant–plant interactions have been indicated as a potential means to facilitate oak seedling establishment and reduce herbivory when restoring oak forests. The aim of this thesis was to investigate mechanisms and outcomes of competitive and indirectly facilitative interactions between oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea) seedlings and neighboring plants, primarily shrubs. The associational resistance of planted oak seedlings to larger herbivores provided by naturally occurring shrubs was tested in ten temperate broadleaved forests across southern Sweden. The results showed that shrubs reduced ungulate browsing frequency and intensity by concealing the oak seedlings and by sharing enemies (i.e. ungulate herbivores) with surrounding and more preferred shrub species, thus providing numeric dilution and associational plant refuges. The occurrence of naturally regenerated oak seedlings, five years after a conservation-oriented thinning, was negatively influenced by the presence of tall ground vegetation and positively influenced by high soil moisture. For oak seedlings planted in an open field, shrubs indirectly facilitated biomass accumulation by reducing competition from herbaceous vegetation. However, shrubs became net competitors three years after planting. The oak seedling response, in terms of biomass accumulation, transpiration and photosynthesis, to competition from shrubs was proportional to resource availability. Aboveground competition for light had a greater effect on oak seedling growth than belowground competition. Nevertheless, oak seedlings were able to produce a second shoot flush, over-topping the shrub canopy. This periodic flushing enabled light-acclimation in a stratified light environment. In conclusion, management of shrubs has the potential to reduce browsing and herbaceous competitors during oak regeneration, particularly during the first years after planting. Although shrubs alone may not replace fences as an effective means of reducing browsing on oaks, they provide a complement to improve the growth of seedlings during the early stages of establishment.

  • 13.
    Gadler, Ulla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    En skola för alla - gäller det alla?: Statliga styrdokuments betydelse i skolans verksamhet2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis aim is to visualize and understand what happens to intentions formulated in national steering documents to be interpreted and implemented in schools to give every pupil without exception access to an equivalent education.

     

    The principal starting point is that the individual official, or “street bureaucrat”, working inside school is the key person in interpreting steering document content.  A theory-based analysis model was constructed from the different levels of national school steering systems, including knowledge appropriation and knowledge transfer as theoretical concepts.  In the model, state, municipality, school and pupil constitute separate institutional concepts forming four frames, with three levels, macro, meso and micro, with school and pupil on the latter level. Following the process involving national steering documents, the actual steering of schools and the interpretation and implementation of the mission at different system levels highlights these documents’ importance.

     

    The empirical material comprises five studies: Study 1, a literature study focusing on the expression A school for everyone; Study 2, a document study on the steering of schools in two systems; Studies 3 and 4, two mutually independent questionnaire studies about national steering documents involving school leaders undergoing school leadership education and special needs teachers-to-be during their education and Study 5,  a document study of pupil assistants’ role as officials in the two steering systems.

     

    The conclusion of the thesis may be that the pedagogical significance of the steering documents depends on how administrative and school officials, individually and collectively, interpret and implement the mission among the pupils. Claiming that A school for everyone applies to everyone requires routines in whichever system which ensure that all steering process officials absorb the steering document content and agree on a common pedagogical foundation about who are all pupils, which ones need special support and what measures will give all pupils access to an equivalent education.

     

  • 14.
    Lindell, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Environmental Effects of Agricultural Expansion in the Upper Amazon: A study of river basin geochemistry and hydrochemistry, and farmers' perceptions2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis natural science is combined with environmental psychology in order to determine how deforestation and subsequent agricultural expansion in the Peruvian highland jungle has affected the natural environment and rural livelihoods. This region is part of one of the most biodiverse areas on Earth and is also exposed to high pressure from deforestation that threatens the ecosystems as well as the well-being of local populations. The problem stretches beyond the upper Amazon since the region constitutes headwaters to theAmazon Riverand is part of the most important forest ecosystem of the world.

    This study evaluates the relative controls of human induced land-cover change and natural factors on the chemical status of soils, stream waters, and sediments, mainly through a spatial sampling design. The field work was located to two adjacent river basins underlain by sedimentary rocks. Streams of 48 independent sub-basins, the two main rivers, 80 upland soil sites (weakly developed soils on sandstone and siltstone) and four vertical profiles of floodplain sediments were sampled and analysed for major and trace elements, including nutrients and potentially toxic metals. Further, perceptions of environmental changes were investigated through a combination of quantitative and qualitative interview data collected from 51 smallholder farmers.

    Soils of primary forests were found to be chemically similar to those of regenerated forests and agricultural land-covers (pastures and coffee plantations), and differences in chemical concentrations between streams draining areas to varying degrees covered by forest were assigned to natural variability. In addition, the chemical composition of alluvial deposits was similar in the two drainage basins despite a substantial difference in exploitation degree (30 % versus 70 % cleared from forest). Thus, no evidence was found of long-term changes in the geochemistry of the Subandean river basins as a result of the conversion of primary forest to agricultural land-uses. The farmers, however, perceived an overall increase in environmental degradation as well as a change towards drier and warmer climatic conditions. The climate change was reported to be the main factor responsible for a negative trend in life quality (rural livelihoods). The results may be used in the work of identifying priorities and key factors necessary for environmental and socioeconomic sustainability in the upper Amazon.

     

  • 15.
    Semenova, Natalia
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Essays on the Value Relevance of Environmental and Social Performance2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Establishment of Insidership Positions in Institutionally Distant Business Networks2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the opening of formerly closed markets in Eastern Europe and China in the early 1990s, numerous firms have sought to capture the growth opportunities prevailing in the virgin but institutionally distant business networks in these countries. I claim that the entry process into an institutionally distant business network has been realised when the entering firm has reached an insidership position in the network. To advance this idea, the thesis introduces the overlooked medium-sized multinational exporter (MME) and answers the following overarching research questions: (I) how do MMEs establish insidership positions in institutionally distant business networks, and (II) what critical abilities are developed by MMEs in the process of entering an institutionally distant business network? To answer these questions, qualitative and quantitative methods have sequentially been mixed to first give an in-depth understanding of the empirical field, and second to verify and generalise some of the most central tentative findings. Empirically, the study reports from a case study of eight firms in the Baltic Sea Region and from an on-site survey of 203 Swedish firms with experience of entries in Eastern Europe and/or China. Five individual essays are presented—all designed to reflect different aspects of the institutionally distant network entry process. The findings are condensed in the cover of the thesis, where it is claimed that an insidership position is reached through three main phases: the Scouting phase, the Qualifying phase and the Shielding phase. Furthermore, it is found that that the most critical abilities developed through the institutionally distant network entry process is local experience-based knowledge of high specificity. It is shown that previous experiences, generated in different business networks in mature markets, are not useful in the network entry process in immature markets. As a consequence, there is reason to believe that the entering firm needs to develop unlearning abilities to replace obsolete or misleading experience.

  • 17.
    Svanevie, Kajsa
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Evidensbaserat socialt arbete: Från idé till praktik2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an innovation Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is designed as a tool for clinical problem solving. According to its theory of use EBP will bring a difference for policy makers, for professionals, for researchers and for service users. One question to be asked is whether EBP actually leads to the radical social change it is designed to accomplish. The aim of the study is to describe and analyse the outcome of the effort to establish EBP, with a focus on the case of social work in Sweden. The research questions are: What is EBP? Why are efforts made to establish EBP? What is the outcome of the EBP project? How can the outcome of the EBP project be explained?

    The case study was conducted on a critical realistic meta-theoretical ground with a focus on explanation of social change with an explicit actor-structure perspective. Methodologically, a narrative synthesis of studies was made. As a complement primary data were collected to fill empirical gaps. The state of things was described before and after the EBP-initiatives. Several helping theories – Kuhn’s theory of paradigm, program theory, neo-institutional theory and theory of diffusion – were used to analyse the empirically mapped outcome of the EBP project.

    The results show that the import of the original model of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) to social work is a part of a wider social movement in the helping and educational professions. The new model has influenced social work as a discipline, as a field of practice and as a field of policy. There are examples of full-scale implementations of EBP, although EBP has not reached a general status as daily practice. Some obstacles remain.

    The gradual adaption of EBP corresponds to criteria hold by Kuhn for a paradigm shift. Acceptance of the model has contributed to change the structure and function of social systems. At an organizational level, this change means on-going institutionalization. The innovation is influencing the way institutional actors conduct their work. Although the structural conditions have been optimal, the EBP-model has been debated with heat. The EBP-debate and policy-driven infrastructural efforts have brought a more in-depth examination of the model. So-called coercive, normative, and regulative isomorphisms were used to change organizations. The degree of institutionalization depended on the individuals and the organizations willingness and preparedness to change, to understand, and to put the model into practice. When actors used a less strict version of the original EBP model, the pace of cultural and institutional change slowed down.

  • 18.
    Sarstrand Marekovic, Anna-Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Från invandrarbyrå till flyktingmottagning: Fyrtio års arbete med invandrare och flyktingar på kommunal nivå2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation investigates what happened when a new field – the incorporation of immigrants and refugees – was to be organized at the local level in Sweden. The result shows that the public authorities during the 40 year period that the study covers struggled with several questions, such as: how they should organize this, who should carry out the work, what should be done in practice, and towards which groups should it be directed? It is around these questions that the municipal work with immigrants and refugees revolved, without finding any clear and permanent answers. I analyze this in terms of four themes: responsibility, personnel and competence structure, direction of the work, and target group, which together constitute what I call the organizations’ ‘practices of incorporation’. The main aim with the dissertation is to illuminate and analyze how these practices have developed and changed from the mid 1960’s and approximately 40 years on. To accomplish this I have conducted a historical and comparative study of eight municipalities. The material comprises several different sources, from interviews with civil servants and participant observation, to archive material and secondary literature. My theoretical perspective is mainly drawn from the sociology of organizations, with a focus on the history of organizations.

     

    The analysis defines two roughly defined periods, the period of immigrant service bureaus (1965-1985) and the period of refugee reception centers (1985-2008). My study of the history of the organizations shows both the change of practice that has occurred and the stability that remains at the same time. It also shows that the transition to refugee reception centers made it necessary to redefine and renegotiate the practices of incorporation. During the first 20 years covered in this dissertation, the immigrant service bureaus developed into independent administrative agencies; they became institutionalized as organizations. The break occurred as soon as the new system for refugee reception was initiated in the mid-1980s, when the role of the social welfare offices increased considerably. In recent years there are signs that labor market units in the municipalities are strengthening their role in relation to the reception centers, but also that the social welfare offices ‘working under cover’ continue to have the main responsibility for reception centers. Criticism against the role of the social welfare offices is mostly based on the accusation that they tend to make immigrants and refugees into clients, dependent on subsidies and remaining outside the labour market. In sum, the introduction of municipal refugee reception centers ultimately led to the closing of practically all immigrant service bureaus during the 1990s. In some individual cases they have lived on, or had some of their functions included in the praxis of the refugee reception centers, but on the whole they became increasingly marginalized, and finally disappeared.

  • 19.
    Hellström, Martin
    Linköping University.
    Förpackningens förvandlingar: Konsumtion och karneval i barnboken2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mass-produced package is studied here as a motif in a number of children's books. The most signiflcant are Pippi Longstocking and Mio min Mio by Astrid Lindgren, Charlie and the Chocolate factory by Roald Dahl, In the Night Kitchen by Maurice Sendak, Korken flyger by Barbro Lindgren, and works by Tove Jansson and Herge. The package is viewed in these works as the primary symbol of our consumer society. A theoretical background for the consumer society has been provided in Zygmunt Bauman's studies. Bauman describes how people are subject to the requirement that they must consume and rapidly throw away what they have purchased. This attitude extends to human relationships as weiL But Pippi Longstocking and the other works elevates the discarded tin and allows it to become a thing of value. The discarded items, the packages, are thereby seen as something valuable. They are given new functions and represent other values, as they maintain a resistance to the guiding principles of the con sumer society. This can be seen in relation to children's games, but also to the carnival described by Mikhail Bakhtin. The analyses of the works lead to a common conc\usion: the packages represent a different way to live than the one offered up by the consumer society. The issue is not, tirst and foremost, to make new things from old package, but rather to avoid constantly desiring new products and to see value in what we already have. This applies not only to material things, but to our relationships as weiL It concerns the way in which we view other individuals.

  • 20.
    Norrby, Marlene
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Gene and protein expression in denervated atrophic and hypertrophic skeletal muscle2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Following denervation skeletal muscles change their functional and structural properties. Some changes resemble conditions in developing muscles and may be important for reinnervation. Due to inactivity following denervation most skeletal muscles loose muscle mass and become atrophic. The hemidiaphragm muscle, however, undergoes a phase of transient hypertrophy following denervation, gaining weight during the first 6-10 days followed by a decrease in weight. In this thesis the expression (mRNA, protein and protein phosphorylations) of potential factors involved in the regulation of muscle mass were examined in denervated hind-limb and hemidiaphragm muscles.

    NIFK is a protein that associates with Ki67, a protein expressed predominantly in proliferating cells. The mRNA expression of NIFK was upregulated in denervated atrophic muscles but unaltered in denervated hypertrophic muscles, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass (Paper I). p38 MAPK has previously been implicated in both anabolic and catabolic processes. Its substrate MK2 becomes phosphorylated at two sites, one of which is suggested to be important for nuclear export. MK2 phosphorylation at this site correlated with muscle weight in both atrophic and hypertrophic denervated muscles and may thus have a role in atrophy and hypertrophy (Paper III). Factors regulating protein synthesis are likely to play a role in atrophy and hypertrophy and many signaling pathways appear to converge on the formation of the translation initiation complex. The protein expression and phosphorylation status of several components in both Wnt and Akt signaling pathways indicate increased protein synthesis in denervated atrophic muscles as well as in denervated hypertrophic muscles (Papers II, IV and V). This suggests that increased protein degradation is more important than decreased protein synthesis for the loss of muscle mass in denervated atrophic muscles.

  • 21.
    Pourmand, Firouze
    Uppsala universitet.
    How do Small Firms Manage their Political Environment?: - A Network Perspective2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To this point research on firms’ political behavior has contributed knowledge concerning large firms’ relationships and strategies with political actors and their surrounding environment. Less is known about small firms’ behavior towards political organizations. As a matter of fact, the fields of international marketing, international business and corporate political science have left the political behavior of small firms almost untouched. Therefore, extant literature assumes that small firms due to their resource constraints are passive receivers of political initiatives.

    About 99 percent of all firms within the European Union are small firms, and it is therefore questioned whether all these firms are passive receivers of political initiatives. The intention with this thesis is to challenge some assumptions regarding how small firms manage their relationships with political actors concerning EU related rules and regulations. Consequently, the study raises the overarching research question; how do small firms manage their political environment?

    Theoretically, the study takes a network perspective on business political interaction to examine both individual and/or collective political behavior of small firms. It develops a theoretical view constituted of knowledge, commitment and legitimacy. Methodologically, two sequential stages are followed: first an in-depth qualitative case study of three successful cases is presented and second, the in-depth understanding is broadened to a wider population of firms based on a quantitative survey.

    A central contribution of this thesis is to aid research on the political behavior of small firms. It is found that small firms, in contrast to prevailing assumptions, do possess political resources. They are not passive receivers of political initiatives. Instead, the findings show that small firms are active and can exercise influence. This, however, is shown to be dependent on the firm’s political commitment, political knowledge and competency and business-political legitimacy. It is also shown that small firms mobilize these critical resources not only directly, but also indirectly through various intermediating actors. Besides the theoretical contributions, these conclusions are important not just because of the managerial implications but also, and perhaps more importantly, for the policy implications that can be drawn from the study. Being exploratory and opening up the black box of small firm’s political behavior, the thesis ends with a number of future research directions.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Mairon
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Social Work.
    I dialogens namn - idén om en överenskommelse mellan regeringen och ideella organisationer2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many European countries have a model of formal agreements between the state and voluntary organisations involved in the core field of welfare, regarding their relative roles and cooperation. This dissertation analyzes the establishment of a Swedish agreement and how the cooperation leads up to the agreement. The cooperation process, known as the dialogue process, took place during more than a year, with the government inviting around eighty voluntary organisations. The theoretical framework of the dissertation is mainly what is know as institutional theory and a line of thought describing how ideas are not transferred and spread but translated and spread. The theoretical focus is on how original ideas are interpreted and why they gain a foothold in new contexts. With the help of empirical material in the form of documents, observations and interviews the dissertation shows how the idea of an agreement was spread from England to Sweden and how the government and the voluntary organisations acted during this process. One of the study’s conclusions is that the voluntary organisations took the initiative to create an agreement about “the role of game” but that the government transformed the voluntary organisations’ idea of an agreement to justify their own political goals. The Swedish agreement can therefore be seen as a step in clarifying Swedish social policy as regards responsibility for welfare. Voluntary organisations that have signed the agreement commit to contribute to securing welfare production. The dissertation shows that this role is appreciated by some of the voluntary organisations, while others question it.

  • 23.
    Kilhammar, Karin
    Linköping University.
    Idén om medarbetarskap: en studie av en idés resa in i och genom två organisationer2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to increase knowledge of the idea of co-workership and how it is manifested in the practice of organizations. The point of departure is how the concept of co-workership is interpreted and used.

    The theoretical framework is based on an integration between new institutional theory and theories about learning and implementation. The starting point of the analysis is a metaphor about popular ideas travelling into and through organizations. Central concepts are learning, translation and mutual adaptation.

    The study is based on a qualitative case study with two cases, a county council and a state-owned company, where co-workership programs have been implemented. The empirical material consists mainly of interviews. In addition observations and document studies have been used.

    The results indicate that a mutual adaptation between idea and operation occurred in the studied unit in the county council, with consequences in the daily work, while the idea passed without any lasting impressions at the unit level in the state-owned company. These findings may be understood in terms of how the co-workership program was implemented, interpreted through theories of learning and implementation. The co-workership development in the county council was characterized by employee participation in identifying needs and choice of areas of work as well as a high level of integration in the daily operations. In the studied groups in the state-owned company, the employees did not participate in the planning, and the co-workership program was not actively integrated into daily operations. Hence, there were not the same opportunities for a mutual adaptation between idea and operation as we found in the unit at the county council.

    In translating the idea into words, differences were found mainly between people at different levels in the organizations. At the organizational level co-workership was viewed as an individual concept emphasizing the responsibility and actions of the individual. Employees in the studied units, on the other hand, mainly expressed co-workership as a collective concept, focusing on the team and how it functions. The interpretation of the concept seems to be connected to the perspective of different parties within the organizations. Furthermore, the spread and the popularity of the idea of co-workership in Swedish working life can be understood in terms of the ideas correspondence with the current zeitgeist, and in relation to the general development going on in society and working life.

  • 24.
    Almgren White, Anette
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Intermedial narration i den fotolyriska bilderboken: Jean Claude Arnault, Katarina Frostenson och Rut Hillarp2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This bipartite thesis presents and implements an intermedial model for co-reading poems and photographs in paper books, a genre I call photo poetry. A survey of the genre in Sweden was carried out and presented in a selected bibliography in my licentiate thesis.

    Two well-established poets, Katarina Frostenson and Rut Hillarp, made their debut in the genre in the 1980s and have since produced three books each. Frostenson cooperates with photographer Jean Claude Arnault and Hillarp created the poems as well as the pictures herself. Scholarly studies up to now have focused on the poems, however, and have therefore neglected the impact of the photographic pictures.

    The first part of the thesis elaborates a model based on the framework of the picture book and adapted to the text genre of poetry and the epistemology of the photographic picture. Two different narrative reading strategies are developed and applied to the material: the metonymical and the metaphorical linking. The metonymical linking implies that the diegesis on the spread is perceived to be part of a larger diegesis and that that diegesis has direct virtual contact with the diegesis on the next spread. The metaphorical linking implies that the diegesis on the single spread is perceived to be part of a larger diegesis, but that that diegesis has no direct virtual spatial contact with the next spread.

    Whether or not a diegesis is perceived to have direct virtual spatial contact with spreads depends on the story’s display of the contingency of characters, time and place.

    The model is based on the relations tied to the book’s construction: the schematic, the synchronic and the diachronic relation. The schematic relation concerns meaning created on all spreads, the synchronic relation meaning on a single spread, and the diachronic relation meanings on spreads in a row. The schematic and the diachronic may appear to overlap somewhat but in the schematic relation the focus is on tracing different story schemes, and in the diachronic relation the focus is on how the narration progresses and alternates between different schemes.

    The findings show that with the co-reading model the impact of the photographs gives a deeper understanding of not only the narrative interplay of word and image but also of semiotic, intermedial and intertextual connections. The reading strategies applied show that Frostenson’s and Arnault’s works gain from a metonymically linked interpretation whereas

    Hillarp’s mainly gain from a metaphorically linked interpretation. The study also discusses the impact of the photographic picture and connects it to the semiotic theory of C. S. Peirce as well as to Western picture practices.

  • 25.
    Stoltz, Joakim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    L'alternance codique dans l'enseignement du FLE: Étude quantitative et qualitative de la production orale d'interlocuteurs suédophones en classe de lycée2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is, firstly, to investigate the amount of Swedish and French that is produced by teachers and students in the foreign language classroom and, secondly, to examine in which situations the interlocutors code-switch and for what purposes the two languages are used. The study is based on empirical data consisting of audio recordings of interactions taking place in two different classrooms in Sweden.

    The study is carried out within an interactionist perspective on language teaching and learning, stressing that learning is situated in learners’ social and interactional practices.

    The empirical material has been categorized into five different groups according to the participation structure of each interaction and then analysed in two different parts, one quantitative and one qualitative.

    The quantitative analysis of the corpus established that the Swedish language is present in each of the categories. The results of the count of every turn and word pronounced in each language in the corpus show that many turns expressed by both teachers and students consist of a mixture of Swedish and French. This switching between different codes is the main object of the qualitative analysis of the corpus.

    The results of the qualitative analysis indicate that the participation structure and the choice of activity types and how these are organised in the classroom are decisive for teachers’ and students’ code-switching. Furthermore, the teachers’ actions concerning the choice of language for the interaction as well as their strategies to deal with the presence of both languages are conclusive for the students’ oral production of French in class. The analysis also reveals that the more the teachers use the target language in a consistent way, the more the students try to express themselves in French even if they often code-switch.

    The study points out the complexity of speaking French in a classroom context, where the teachers have to deal with the fact that the Swedish language is almost always present and used by the learners for different purposes.

  • 26.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Östersund :Department of engineering and sustainable development, Mid Sweden university,.
    Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of residential buildings2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Bergman, Ann-Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Social Work.
    Lämpliga eller olämpliga hem?: Fosterbarnsvård och fosterhemskontroll under 1900-talet2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about foster family care in Sweden during the 20th century. In the beginning of the century many children lived in foster homes. Because of the law regulating state child care passed in 1926, children’s welfare boards were established in the municipalities. These boards were responsible for placing children with foster parents and for supervising foster homes. It was required of foster parents and foster homes to be suitable in order to be allowed to take care of a foster child. What was then meant by the term suitability? This was not clearly expressed; in the assessment of suitability there was room for discretion. The overall aim of this study is to describe and analyse dominant conceptions of what has been characterized as suitable foster homes and foster parents, through the examination of the child welfare practice. The study also deals with power as an essential aspect of how suitability is determined, as well as with the supervision of foster homes. Via a long-term analysis of foster care it is possible to describe patterns and trends, continuity and change over time. The study focused mainly on the children’s welfare board in the municipality of Växjö, and was also put into a broader context of foster care inspections in the county of Kronoberg and the debate on foster care in Swedish journals. Key concepts for this analysis have been discourse, professionalization, power relations, the clinical gaze, class, gender, normality and control.

    The discourse around the suitability of foster homes and foster parents changed during the 20th century. The greatest change took place in the early 1970s, when foster care began to be described in terms of treatment. This shift can mainly be understood in the context of: changes in what problems led to placement; deinstitutionalization; professionalization; along with the influences of psychology and psychiatry on social work. Focus shifted over time from material needs and physical health to social and mental health. However, the discourse also includes elements of continuity. The focus on foster mothers in the inspectors’ examinations and assessments has been persistent and strong, despite great social changes. The norm that foster children should grow up in a nuclear family has prevailed, and it grew even stronger over time. Sometimes conflicts arose between various actors in the foster care practice, due to differing opinions on what was suitable or unsuitable. When deciding upon this issue there could be negotiations or disputes between the involved children, their parents, foster parents and inspectors. Problems in the foster homes which captured the attention of the board, could lead to increased control or to the children’s relocation. Throughout the previous century there has been criticism regarding insufficient control. The idea that supervision should not only serve as control, but also as support has also been advanced. The focus on the inspector’s supporting role was strengthened over time during the century. 

  • 28.
    Amsteus, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Managerial foresight and firm performance2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To specify what defines managerial foresight and to assess the association between managerial foresight and firm performance

    Methodology/Approach – First, previous research was reviewed and foresight was defined. Second, an instrument for measuring managerial foresight was developed. Third, an empirical case served as an illustration and as anassessment of validity. Fourth, managerial foresight was tested for association with firm performance.

    Findings – Foresight was specified as behavior with eight sub-components. A moderate and statistically significant positive relationship between managers’ foresight and firm performance was found.

    Research implications – The empirical evidence for the importance of managerial foresight provides a strong rationale for further studies. In distinguishing eight sub-components of foresight, and developing a managerial foresight measurement instrument, the dissertation makes relating foresight to various research fields possible, both on individual managerial andorganizational levels.

    Practical implications – Managers may consider whether foresight is important to them or to their organization. Managers, practical foresight tools, foresight programs et cetera, may now be assessed and compared in terms of foresight.

    Originality/Value – The dissertation provides empirical evidence of the importance of managerial foresight to firm performance. It conceives and advances foresight as a distinct construct. In developing and estimating aninstrument for measuring managerial foresight, the dissertation advancesforesight into a quantitatively measurable concept.

  • 29.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Mechanical properties of sound and of deteriorated softwood at different length scales: Poromicromechanical modeling and experimental investigations2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to its natural origin and its inherent heterogeneities, mechanical properties of wood are highly anisotropic and show a broad variability, not only between different wood species, but also within a tree. Similar to other biological materials, the wood mi- crostructure is well organized and hierarchically structured from the annual rings visible to the naked eye down to the wood polymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin at the nanometer-scale. This thesis aims at a deeper understanding of the role of different hi- erarchical levels and their corresponding physical and chemical characteristics in relation to mechanical properties of sound wood and of deteriorated wood. This is achieved by means of micromechanical modeling and experimental analyses.

    This thesis starts with the re-formulation of an existing micromechanical model for the elastic behavior and elastic limit states of wood in the framework of poromechanics. The mechanical role of cell wall water at different hierarchical levels is investigated by means of this model. In a broader sense, the developed model allows to investigate the transition of eigenstresses from the cell wall to the softwood level. Moreover, this poromicromechanical model forms the basis for subsequent consideration of a microscopic failure criterion for lignin for the derivation of softwood failure stresses. The suitability of the modeling approach is underlined by a satisfactory agreement of the model-predicted failure stresses with experimental results of biaxial strength tests on Norway spruce.

    As a result of partly considerably different microstructural characteristics, Common yew exhibits exceptional mechanical properties compared to other softwood species. The re- lationship between microstructure and stiffness properties of Common yew and Norway spruce is investigated by means of the poromicromechanical model and mechanical tests across various length scales. Moreover, this offers the opportunity of a broader model validation. The influence of differences in microfibril angle of the S2 cell wall layer and in mass density between yew and spruce is found to be more dominant than the influence of differences in the annual ring characteristics.

    The suitability of the poromicromechanical model to predict changes in mechanical prop- erties upon fungal decay is demonstrated. For this purpose, relationships between mi- crostructure and mechanical properties of deteriorated wood are experimentally explored. Changes in mechanical properties and in the microstructure, measured at pine wood samples after standard wood durability tests using one brown rot fungus (Gloeophyl- lum trabeum) and one white rot fungus (Trametes versicolor), are presented. Transverse stiffnesses are revealed to be more sensitive to degradation than longitudinal stiffness, particularly as a result of pronounced degradation of hemicelluloses. Moreover, ultrason- ically derived anisotropy ratios of elastic stiffnesses allow to identify certain degradation mechanisms of the two considered fungi. The experimental campaign is complemented by micromechanical modeling. For this purpose, the micromechanical model is extended to take into account degradation-specific microstructural characteristics. 

  • 30.
    Nyman, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    On relations between classical and quantum theories of information and probability2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we study quantum-like representation and simulation of quantum algorithms by using classical computers.The quantum--like representation algorithm (QLRA) was  introduced by A. Khrennikov (1997) to solve the ``inverse Born's rule problem'', i.e. to construct a representation of probabilistic data-- measured in any context of science-- and represent this data by a complex or more general probability amplitude which matches a generalization of Born's rule.The outcome from QLRA matches the formula of total probability with an additional trigonometric, hyperbolic or hyper-trigonometric interference term and this is in fact a generalization of the familiar formula of interference of probabilities.

    We study representation of statistical data (of any origin) by a probability amplitude in a complex algebra and a Clifford algebra (algebra of hyperbolic numbers). The statistical data is collected from measurements of two dichotomous and trichotomous observables respectively. We see that only special statistical data (satisfying a number of nonlinear constraints) have a quantum--like representation.

    We also study simulations of quantum computers on classical computers.Although it can not be denied that great progress have been made in quantum technologies, it is clear that there is still a huge gap between the creation of experimental quantum computers and realization of a quantum computer that can be used in applications. Therefore the simulation of quantum computations on classical computers became an important part in the attempt to cover this gap between the theoretical mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics and the realization of quantum computers. Of course, it can not be expected that quantum algorithms would help to solve NP problems for polynomial time on classical computers. However, this is not at all the aim of classical simulation.

     The second part of this thesis is devoted to adaptation of the Mathematica symbolic language to known quantum algorithms and corresponding simulations on classical computers. Concretely we represent Simon's algorithm, Deutsch-Josza algorithm, Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm and quantum error-correcting codes in the Mathematica symbolic language. We see that the same framework can be used for all these algorithms. This framework will contain the characteristic property of the symbolic language representation of quantum computing and it will be a straightforward matter to include future algorithms in this framework.

  • 31.
    Hommerberg, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Persuasiveness in the discourse of wine: The rhetoric of Robert Parker2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this study is to explore a case of remarkably powerful contemporary rhetoric, namely Robert Parker’s wine writing, which has had an unprecedented impact in the world of prestigious wine for more than two decades. Parker, an American autodidact who gave up his career in law to become a fulltime wine critic, is considered the most influential critic of all time. This background motivates the approach of the current enquiry, which targets the persuasiveness in Parker’s writing. The investigation strives to bring to the fore both explicit and implicit elements of his wine reviews that have the potential to contribute to rhetorical success.

    The material selected for analysis comprises a corpus of reviews extracted from Parker’s extensive bulk of wine writing. The texts are studied against the backdrop of socio-cultural and institutional frames. Considerable importance is assigned to the fact that the reviews occur within a strictly specialized field of discourse with a highly conventionalized configuration.

    This hermeneutic enquiry approaches the topic from three analytical perspectives, designed to highlight persuasiveness in representations, argumentation and appraisal. The presentation reports on schematic patterns in Parker’s discourse as well as close interpretation of individual texts. The analysis of representations shows that both visual and verbal representations contribute to the persuasiveness of the text. The argumentative exploration of Parker’s discourse, which is assisted by the analytical tools of pragma-dialectics, demonstrates that the reviews involve rational argumentation on several subordinate levels, given in support of assessments and recommendations. Finally, the perspective of appraisal draws on the analytical resources provided by the Appraisal model to shed light on the way in which the audience is positioned to respond with respect to emotional, associative and perceptual values. The results indicate that the persuasiveness of Parker’s discourse arises as a result of concordance among an intricate array of interrelated factors. The audience is recurrently demonstrated to play a crucial role as co-constructors of the message.

    The present study also has methodological outcomes, presenting a novel combination of analytical methods to perform contextually situated discourse analysis. In addition, the material is allowed to challenge the theoretical ideas and notions that are addressed.

  • 32.
    Johansson, Karoline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Properties of wave-front sets and non-tangential convergence2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we consider regularity properties for solutions to partial differential equations and pseudo-differential equations. The thesis mainly concerns wave-front sets and micro-local properties. Regularity properties are also viewed in terms of nontangential convergence for the generalized free time-dependent Schrödinger equations, where the Laplace operator is replaced by more general functions.

    Wave-front sets describe location of singularities and the directions of their propagation. We establish usual and convenient mapping properties for such wave-front sets under action of pseudodifferential operators with smooth symbols.

    We define three components of wave-front sets with respect to appropriate Banach and Fréchet spaces, in order to describe local properties as well as behavior far away, including heavy oscillations. The union of these components is called the global wavefront set. For these wave-front sets, we establish micro-local and micro-ellipticity properties for pseudo-differential operators in appropriate symbol classes. We obtain the classical wave-front sets as special cases (cf. Hörmander [9]). For the type of wave-front sets which describe local properties we also prove equivalence between wave-front sets of Fourier Banach function and modulation space types.

    To open up for numerical computations we introduce admissible lattices and Gabor pairs to define discrete versions of wave-front sets with respect to Fourier Lebesgue and modulation spaces. Furthermore, we prove that these wave-front sets agree with each other and with the corresponding wave-front sets of continuous type. We also consider the link between analytic functions and temperate distributions in terms of such wave-front sets.

    The last part of this thesis concerns counter examples of nontangential convergence for the generalized time-dependent Schrödinger equation with initial data in Sobolev spaces.

  • 33.
    Tuvesson, Hanna
    Malmö University.
    Psychiatric nursing staff and the workplace: Perceptions of the ward atmosphere, psychosocial work environment, and stress2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Major changes have taken place in psychiatric care in Sweden as well as in other countries. These changes, and the current climate of pressure and demands on the nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care, make it important to be able to understand the relationship between environmental aspects and the nursing staff’s working conditions. The overall aim of the present thesis was to investigate perceptions of the ward atmosphere, the psychosocial work environment and stress among nursing staff working in psychiatric in-patient care. The findings were based on two questionnaire surveys (65 + 93 participants) and were analyzed using non-parametric statistics. The findings showed that a revised Swedish version of the Ward Atmosphere Scale involved some reliability problems that need to be addressed in future studies. Several aspects of the ward atmosphere were found to be related to the psychosocial work environment, and aspects of the ward atmosphere and the psychosocial work environment were related to the nursing staff’s Perceived Stress and Stress of Conscience. The nursing staff’s sense of Mastery was found to be a protective factor against Stress of Conscience, while a Sense of Moral Burden increased the vulnerability. Taking these aspects into consideration when making improvements in the workplace could help to prevent stress.

  • 34.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Malmö högskola.
    På spaning efter idrottsdidaktik2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Orozovic, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors in influenza A virus isolated from mallards2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza A virus belongs to the Orothomyxoviridae family of viruses and is one of the most common pathogens that cause infections of the respiratory tract. The aim of this thesis was to investigate if neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) Tamiflu® (oseltamivir, OC) and Relenza® (zanamivir, ZA) - related resistance mutations exist in the neuraminidase (NA) gene of viruses collected from wild birds.

    A new set of degenerate primers was designed for the sequencing procedure, which resulted in a protocol that reduced time and costs of NA sequencing. This protocol was employed for subtyping of 120 NA genes (i.e. influenza viruses). Altogether, 230 NA sequences from avian influenza viruses originating from wild mallards (Ottenby, Sweden) were scanned for NAI-related mutations together with 5,490 avian, 379 swine and 122 environmental NA sequences from the NCBI dataset. The screening showed a distinction between the numbers of mutants found in avian virus sequences derived from NCBI (2.4%) as compared to virus sequences form mallards (6.5%). This is the first report of NAI resistance mutations in viruses isolated from wild birds.

    The mutants carrying NAI resistance-related and resistance-unrelated mutations were screened using NA inhibition assay (NAIA) with ZA and OC inhibitors. The majority of mutations assayed showed IC50 values indicating an inhibitor sensitive phenotype. One H12N3 mutant showed a cross-resistant phenotype, i.e. insensitive to both ZA and OC treatment. Protein structure homology-modeling indicated that this cross-resistance might be associated to a D151K mutation, possibly supported by changes in NA residue 149, 150, 152 and 153. In addition, an OC resistance-related emergence of H274Y mutants was revealed in an experimental set up where mallard ducks, subjected to different concentrations of OC ( 0.28, 3.5 and 280 nM)  in their water pool, were infected with avian H1N1 virus.

    In conclusion, this thesis provides new insights into the field of NAI resistance in avian influenza virus as well as indicating the evolutionary forces modern drug design has to confront. This thesis also emphasizes the importance of a continuous search for new means of protecting the human population from this potentially devastating pathogen. 

  • 36.
    Bjervås, Lise-Lotte
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Samtal om barn och pedagogisk dokumentation i förskolan som bedömningspraktik: En diskursanalys2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Jormfeldt, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Skoldemokratins fördolda jämställdhetsproblem: Eleverfarenheter i en könssegregerad gymnasieskola2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general question in this dissertation is whether the democracy of schools is carried out in a gender equal manner in Sweden’s gender segregated upper secondary school. Students’ experiences of school democracy are measured using the dimensions of influence, discussion and legal rights. Three different explanatory factors are considered: the significance of gender, gender context and the character of the school programmes for these experiences.

    The study is based on student responses to a poll conducted in the top form classes of Kronoberg County’s upper secondary schools during the school year 2008/2009. The results of a series of regression analyses show that neither gender, gender context or programme character alone had an affect on experiences of school democracy. However, the more males present in a teaching environment, the poorer the experiences of influence and discussion are when all of the three explanatory factors are controlled for. In addition, the school programmes having male-coded character content particularly stand out favourably regarding school democracy. The number of males is usually high in such programmes and therefore the negative effects of male representation cancel out the positive effects of programme affiliation unless an explicit division is made of both of these aspects. Thus, keeping gender context and programme character separate is very important with studies of school democracy, since significant effects otherwise remain hidden.

    The study demonstrates that school democracy is important for students. Those students who have good experiences of school democracy perceive the school environment as significantly better than those who have poor experiences of school democracy. Concerning secondary effects, it appears that experiences of school democracy have different implications for learning among female and male students. There is a negative relationship between male experiences of influence and their grades in Swedish and Maths, while female experiences of discussion seem to show a positive covariance with grades. There is no relationship found in the data between students’ daily experiences of school democracy and their thoughts on voting in the upcoming parliamentary election.

  • 38.
    Håkansson, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Cultural Sciences.
    Standing up to a Multinational Giant: The Saint-Gobain World Council and the American Window Glass Workers' Strike in the American Saint Gobain Corporation in 19692011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1960s, a large number of World Councils were founded in a number of industrial branches. One of the most recognized World Councils was established in the multinational glass manufacturer Compagnie de Saint-Gobain in 1969, in connection to an international trade union action against the company. The purpose of this study is to investigate and understand the origin and character of this World Council and international action.

    The study places great emphasis on the American participation in the Saint-Gobain World Council and the international action, but explores, in addition, the work and function of the World Council, the international action’s outcome in terms of wages and working conditions, the so-called vertical implementation of the trade union action, i.e. the integration of several trade union-organizational levels in a single action, as well as the wider contexts beyond the purely economic to which the World Council and the action can be linked.

    An essential point of departure is retrieved from the historical materialist tradition in order to understand the conflicts of interests and the ability to realize interests on the labor market, in the production, and within politics. An in-depth discussion on the structuring of overt conflicts and international trade union actions is undertaken based on four specific theories that are based on the assumption that trade unions and employers are rational actors.

    The survey consists of three main parts. The first empirical section identifies the action itself—its parties, origins, course of events, and aftermath. The second empirical section interprets the parties’ perspectives and interests in the long run. The third, and final empirical section examines the structural conditions in the United States for conflictual sentiments and international action.

    The study provides new perspectives on the structural background to the American union’s mobilization and international strategies. It also helps to explain why the World Councils were short-lived and, in the end, did not meet the high expectations placed on them. At the same time, the study displays the main achievements and shortcomings of the international campaign against Saint-Gobain and the postwar political context to which the action can be linked.

     

  • 39.
    Haugaard-Kedström, Linda M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Structure and function of relaxins2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relaxin/insulin superfamily is a group of peptide hormones that consists of ten members in human, namely relaxins 1-3, insulin-like peptides (INSL) 3-6, insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGF) I-II. These peptides have various functions in the body, such as regulating growth, blood glucose levels,  collagen metabolism, germ cell maturation and appetite. Misregulation of these mechanisms is associated with disease and accordingly they are of interest as potential pharmaceutical targets. Structurally the hormones are characterised by two peptide chains, A and B, which are held together by one intra A-chain and two inter chain disulfide bonds. Four different G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) called relaxin family peptide receptor (RXFP) 1-4 have been found to respond to stimuli by different relaxin peptides. RXFP3 and RXFP4 are classic peptide ligand GPCRs, whereas RXFP1 and RXFP2 are characterised by a large extracellular leucine rich-repeat domain. Relaxin-3, which is the relaxin family ancestor, is the only relaxin peptide known to be able to bind and activate both subtypes of GPCRs, namely RXFP1, RXFP3 and RXFP4.

    The aim of this thesis was to analyse the structure-function relationship of the relaxin ligands and receptors, and to use this information to develop selective ligands for the relaxin receptors, which can be used as drug leads or pharmacological tools for investigating the physiological roles of the RXFPs.

    The 3D structures of native INSL5 and relaxin-2 were determined by solution NMR spectroscopy. The peptides showed an insulin/relaxin-like overall fold. A relaxin chimera peptide, consisting of the A-chain from INSL5 and the B-chain from relaxin-3, R3/I5, which has been shown to be selective for RXFP3 and RXFP4 over RXFP1, was also subjected to NMR studies. The R3/I5 peptide maintained an insulin/relaxin-like overall fold, and the relaxin-3 B-chain adopted a conformation identical to that in native relaxin-3, confirming that the activity of R3/I5 can be directly related to its primary sequence. Furthermore, a truncation study was undertaken to ascertain the importance of the termini for structure and function. By using the knowledge generated from the structure-function relationship, a single-chain high affinity RXFP3 selective antagonist was developed.

    In conclusion, this thesis has contributed to broaden the knowledge of the structure-function relationship of the relaxin ligands and the development of a selective RXFP3 antagonist, which is currently a drug lead for treatment of neurological disorders including stress and obesity.

  • 40.
    Samyn, Dieter R.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Structure/function relationships of inorganic phosphate transporters2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Of the many nutrients that make the metabolic clock tick, inorganic phosphate fulfills an essential role in all yeast (and other organisms), being necessary for both structural and metabolic purposes. In order to transport phosphate into the cell interior, Saccharomyces cerevisiae makes use of two systems, comprising high- or low-affinity transporters, which are responsible for the cellular accumulation of inorganic phosphate. Depending on the extracellular concentration of inorganic phosphate, one of the two systems will be responsible for scavenging phosphate from the surroundings.The present thesis focuses on the high-affinity transport system in S. cerevisiae, i.e. Pho84, which is induced under low phosphate conditions. The expression and degradation of Pho84 is dependent on the availability of phosphate. When confronted with ample amounts of external phosphate, the Pho84 undergoes phosphorylation, prior to ubiquitylation. These events will eventually lead to the removal of Pho84 from the plasma membrane, followed by vacuolar degradation. The Pho84, together with the ANTR1 high-affinity inorganic phosphate transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana, are integral membrane proteins belonging to the major facilitator superfamily. Both are predicted to have 12 transmembrane helices, which have been confirmed by in silico modeling of both proteins, using the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter as template. The obtained models served as a rational start point for the study of the molecular transport mechanisms by means of site-directed mutagenesis and consequently functional and biochemical characterization.The other high-affinity transporter, Pho89, has been studied less because of its lower activity (as compared to the Pho84) and its preferred alkaline operational conditions. In order to study Pho89 in more detail, a quadruple deletions strain (Pho84Δ Pho87Δ Pho90Δ Pho91Δ) was used.In conclusion, this thesis has contributed to broaden the knowledge of structural and functional aspects of inorganic phosphate transporters.

  • 41.
    Pettersson, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Studiesituationen för elever med särskilda matematiska förmågor2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to describe variation in the expression of students’ mathematical ability and the various ways in which their mathematical aptitude is acknowledged and supported by their teachers, parents and peers in a Swedish context. Ability is defined as a complex of various abilities each of which may be more or less pronounced in a given individual. The study is based on ten case studies of highly able students (ages 6-19). Six of the studies are longitudinal, ranging from three to six years. In order to validate the results of the case studies, two survey studies were carried out involving 180 teachers (preschool to Grade 9 in Swedish compulsory school) and 284 mathematics developers from 229 Swedish municipalities. The survey studies raised questions concerning the teachers’ personal experience of identifying and supporting highly able students, the nature of their everyday teaching, and the support given to able students. The results show that mathematical abilities can take many different forms and there is great need for pedagogical support for this group of students. Since extra resources are rarely available for the benefit of nurturing talent and since there are, as yet, no Swedish national or local policy documents that specifically address the support of talent in students, teachers are on their own in figuring out how to best help able students develop mathematically. The study points to the importance of the social norms that influence the interaction between teacher and student(s): everyday social norms as well as socio-mathematical norms, i.e. norms specific to the subject of mathematics. The latter place considerable demands on the teachers’ mathematical knowledge and competence. The benefits of early interventions, of supportive teaching environments, and of providing the students with challenging tasks and questions are also discussed.

  • 42.
    Karlsudd, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science. Mälardalens University.
    Support for learning: possibilities and obstacles in learning applications2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis an overarching analysis is made of four articles published in refereed international journals. The articles are describing the development and implementation of learning support systems/learning support applications. The text which summarizes and retrospectively analyzes the projects described in the articles has been condensed into yet another article, which has been placed at the end of the thesis. This makes a total of five articles.

    In the analysis that is made of learning support applications the following questions are in focus: What results have the projects achieved and how have the experiences gained been utilized? What factors in the described projects have facilitated or hindered the idea, vision, design and implementation of the learning support systems? How have university intentions of supporting entrepreneurship and the commercialization of ideas and products benefited the projects?

    The results show that there are a great many similarities in the ideas and visions that have initiated and affected the learning support work. Improved communication and availability are expected from all the applications, as well as coordination, creating order and an overarching view. In spite of a large number of positive users, it has been difficult for the applications described to become integrated into the organizations. One possible reason for this is the bad anchoring of the projects in the management organization. Further, there was a lack of funding in the final phases of the projects, which considerably reduced the chances of establishing and continuing operating them. In the gap arising between the end of the implementation phase and the possible application for and granting of new funding, the project dies out of itself. One way of reversing this trend is to grant means for continued work and to get the organization and administration to upgrade the value of a learning application that has become established in the organization.

  • 43.
    Hansen, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    "Så fixade vi Allhallen": Resursmobilisering och organisationsförtätning i ett lokalsamhälle2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004 the non-profit association Allhall i Hovet was founded in a middle-sized town situated in southeastern Sweden with just over 3000 inhabitants. The goal of the organization was to build a multi-functional facility that could be used for sporting, cultural and commercial activities.

    This dissertation in sociology describes and explains the strategies, activities and unexpected events that transformed the idea in a newly founded organization into a concrete building. How could an entirely new organization in the town of Hovmantorp in relatively short period of time mobilize sufficient economic (more than SEK 18 million including EU-funding) and human resources? How has this accumulation of resources come about and how can it be explained? The study explains how this mobilization of resources and new organization came about in a geographically well-defined area with many preexisting organizations and local interests to take into consideration. The aim has been divided into four questions. Each one of the dissertations four empirical chapters answers one of them:

    -          What has the organizational process around the facility project looked like and how can it be explained?

    -          How has the organization Allhall i Hovet mobilized local opinion and political support for its project?

    -          How has the organization Allhall i Hovet dealt with conflicts of interests in its project?

    -          How has the organization Allhall i Hovet mobilized material resources and voluntary work for its project?

     In the concluding chapter it is argued that resource mobilization in part comprises sequences, in part resource conversions during which immaterial and material resources of various types become interwoven and combined in different ways to release economic resources. Furthermore it is argued that resource mobilization is largely accomplished by inter-organizational processes. These conditions in combination with resource mobilization in this case, which is  geographically limited, make it necessary, from a bisecting organizing principle, to unify an organizational field behind a common interest. The project succeeded in attaining its goal via inter-organizational resource mobilization built upon a consolidated organizational field. At the same time it also produced organizational densification and strengthening of the town’s existing network in such a way that the potential for future successful mobilizations is enhanced. 

  • 44.
    Stening, Kent
    Linköpings universitet, avd för cellbiologi.
    The effect of gonadal hormones on the sensation of pain: Quantitative sensorty testing in women2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Weissbach, Astrid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The role of allelopathy in microbial food webs2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoplankton produce allelochemicals; excreted chemical substances that are affecting other microorganisms in their direct environment.

    In my thesis, I investigated strain specific variability in the expression of allelochemicals of the harmful flagellate Prymnesium parvum, that is euryhaline but mainly bloom forming in brackish water. I found a large variation among strains, but further showed that all strains of P. parvum were more allelopathic in brackish water compared to marine water.

    In a marine microbial community, allelochemicals can affect prey, competitors and grazers both, directly and indirectly. For instance, in a food web where grazing controls prey abundance, the negative direct effect of allelochemicals on grazers will positive affect their prey. During my thesis, I investigated how marine microbial communities respond to the addition of allelochemicals. I performed field experiments with microbial communities from seawater collected from different places over Europe, and tested how this communities respond to the addition of allelochemicals from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Before I incubated the microbial communities for several days with A. tamarense algal filtrate, I evaluated the allelopathic efficiency of the algal filtrates with an algal monoculture of Rhodomonas spp. This allowed me to compare the effect of A. tamarense filtrate between the different microbial communities.

    In general, bacteria reached higher abundances when allelochemicals were present. As allelochemicals also inhibited nanoflagellates and ciliates, we concluded, that allelochemicals indirectly benefit bacteria by reducing grazing pressure. In microbial food webs with many heterotrophic grazers, allelochemicals further benefitted other phytoplankton by inhibiting grazers.

    It was also shown that bioavailable DOM is released from a microbial community when allelochemicals are present. As most DOM was released from the seawater fraction > 60 μm, we concluded, that larger microorganisms are more affected by allelochemicals than smaller microorganisms. The results can be explained by the surface to volume ratio of microorganisms: Larger organisms provide more contact surface for allelochemicals, and therefore, are probably more vulnerable towards allelochemicals.

    In conclusion, the effect of allelochemicals on a microbial community depends among others on the structure of the microbial food web, the amount of available DOM, the particle density in the seawater and the composition of the phytoplankton community.

  • 46.
    Hadziabdic, Emina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    The use of interpreter in healthcare: Perspectives of individuals, healthcare staff and families2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the use of interpreters in Swedish healthcare. The overall aim was to explore how individuals, healthcare professionals and family members experience and perceive the use of interpreters in healthcare.

    The study design was explorative and descriptive. The thesis included Serbo-Croatian(Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian)speaking individuals(n=17), healthcare professionals(n=24), official documents(n=60)and family members(n=10)of individuals using interpreters in healthcare. Individual interviews, written descriptions, review of official documents in the form of incident reports from a single case study and focus group interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using phenomenography, qualitative content analysis and qualitative data analysis of focus group interviews.

    The overall finding from all perspectives was the wish to have a qualified interpreter whose role was as a communication aid but also as a practical and informative guide in healthcare. The perception of a qualified interpreter was someone highly skilled in medical terminology, Swedish and individuals’ native language with ability to adapt to different dialects, wearing non-provocative and neutral clothes, of the same gender, with a professional attitude and preferably in personal contact through face-to-face interaction. Besides being a communication aid, the interpreter was perceived as having an important role in helping individuals to find the right way to and within the healthcare system because foreign-born individuals were unable to understand information in healthcare. Another aspect was to have a well-developed organization with good cooperation between the parties involved in the interpretation situation, such as patients, interpreter, interpreter agency, family members and healthcare professionals to offer a good interpretation situation.

    In conclusion, the use of an interpreter was determined by individual and healthcare situational factors. Individualized holistic healthcare can be achieved by offering and using high-quality interpreters and cooperation within a well-developed interpreter organization.

     

    Keywords: communication, healthcare service, patient-safe quality care, qualitative data collection, qualitative data analysis, users’ perceptions/experiences, utilization of interpreters.

  • 47.
    Karlsson, Katarina A.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Think’st thou to seduce me then?: Impersonating female personas in songs by Thomas Campion (1567-1620)2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is in the field of Artistic Research in Music Interpretation. It is a study of songs with female personas written by Thomas Campion, investigated through performance practice and a critical reading of historical research carried out on the English Renaissance. The study is inspired by gender- and queer theory and looks at the function of the songs within their socio-cultural context. Since the songs seems to have been used and performed in a homosocial society, the study also discusses the possibility of male bonding and same-sex desire as part of the songs’ hidden or overt messages. The dissertation consists of a thesis in two parts, a newly-made transcription from the original lute tablature of the fourteen chosen songs, and a CD-recording, documenting different modes of interpretation, including the following accompaniments for the songs: a clavichord, tuned in meantone, a positive organ tuned in meantone, a modern guitar and a female vocal quartet. Four of the arrangements for female vocal quartet are also included in the transcription appendix. The aim of the dissertation is to find out how the songs worked in their society and what impact their historical function can have on a contemporary musical practice. The aim is also to find hidden layers of the songs and try to make these layers come alive in musical practice today. The act of singing is used as means of inquiry. Part II of the thesis describes how a singer can work with contradicting stories behind the songs in order to make the music come alive. In the transcriptions, discrepancies between earlier editions and Campion’s original music have also been found and corrected.

  • 48.
    Hållén, Nicklas
    Umeå universitet.
    Travelling Objects: Modernity and Materiality in British Colonial Travel Literature about Africa2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the functions of objects in a selection of British colonial travel accounts about Africa. The works discussed were published between 1863 and 1908 and include travelogues by John Hanning Speke, Verney Lovett Cameron, Henry Morton Stanley, Mary Henrietta Kingsley, Ewart Scott Grogan, Mary Hall and Constance Larymore. The author argues that objects are deeply involved in the construction of pre-modern and modern spheres that the travelling subject moves between. The objects in the travel accounts are studied in relation to a contextual background of Victorian commodity and object culture, epitomised by the 1851 Great Exhibition and the birth of the modern anthropological museum. The four analysis chapters investigate the roles of objects in ethnographical and geographical writing, in ideological discussions about the transformative powers of colonial trade, and in narratives about the arrival of the book in the colonial periphery. As the analysis shows, however, objects tend not to behave as they are expected to do. Instead of marking temporal differences, descriptions of objects are typically unstable and riddled with contradictions and foreground the ambivalence that characterises colonial literature.

  • 49.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Uncertainty, variability and environmental risk analysis2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The negative effects of hazardous substances and possible measures that can be taken are evaluated in the environmental risk analysis process, consisting of risk assessment, risk communication and risk management. Uncertainty due to lack of knowledge and natural variability are always present in this process. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate some tools as well as discuss the management of uncertainty and variability, as it is necessary to treat them both in a reliable and transparent way to gain regulatory acceptance in decision making.

    The catalytic effects of various metals on the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds during the heating of fly ash were investigated (paper I). Copper showed a positive catalytic effect, while cobalt, chromium and vanadium showed a catalytic effect for degradation. Knowledge of the catalytic effects may facilitate the choice and design of combustion processes to decrease emissions, but it also provides valuable information to identify and characterize the hazard.

    Exposure factors of importance in risk assessment (physiological parameters, time use factors and food consumption) were collected and evaluated (paper II). Interindividual variability was characterized by mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and multiple percentiles, while uncertainty in these parameters was estimated with confidence intervals.

    How these statistical parameters can be applied was shown in two exposure assessments (papers III and IV). Probability bounds analysis was used as a probabilistic approach, which enables separate propagation of uncertainty and variability even in cases where the availability of data is limited. In paper III it was determined that the exposure cannot be expected to cause any negative health effects for recreational users of a public bathing place. Paper IV concluded that the uncertainty interval in the estimated exposure increased when accounting for possible changes in climate-sensitive model variables. Risk managers often need to rely on precaution and an increased uncertainty may therefore have implications for risk management decisions.

    Paper V focuses on risk management and a questionnaire was sent to employees at all Swedish County Administrative Boards working with contaminated land. It was concluded that the gender, age and work experience of the employees, as well as the funding source of the risk assessment, all have an impact on the reviewing of risk assessments. Gender was the most significant factor, and it also affected the perception of knowledge.

  • 50.
    Eberhagen, Niclas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Understanding the Designing of Knowledge Work Support Tools as a Situated Practice2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is twofold. First, a need is exposed for adopting a situated design perspective in designing computer-based tools that support knowledge work. Second, an examination is made of what this perspective may reveal concerning the nature of processes and relations within the design situation. This is done to understand better what it means for users and developers, as well as other stakeholders, to approach and capture the tacit knowing within the work context.

    The argument for adopting a situated design perspective is based on experience drawn from development projects, as well as literature reviews. In these projects, the design situations encountered are best characterized as explorative and iteratively interpreted. Here, approaching and understanding the work context, together with the users, has at best been a pursuit of the vision of the future system guided by local circumstances, and where the users had difficulties in expressing and understanding what it is they want and how they want it. This implies that formal engineering methods, where the development work is reduced to an engineering endeavor based on a rationalistic perspective, are not sufficient.

    The situated design perspective is presented in this thesis as a conceptual model of the design practice, highlighting its constituent worlds, processes, and relations. The model depicts designing as an explorative and sense-making process, navigating between what is wanted or envisioned and what may be negotiated and discovered. It emphasizes the importance of the artifact being designed as a means to capture, communicate, and discover what is possible in the work context. The model makes clear that the design process is highly situated, and that it cannot take place outside the work context because of interdependent relationships. It is designing within the living work context, not design for an objectified one. Thus, it cannot be planned as a pure engineering endeavor, but needs to be viewed as a situated practice.

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