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  • 1.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    KTH, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    3D Gesture Recognition and Tracking for Next Generation of Smart Devices: Theories, Concepts, and Implementations2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of mobile devices during the recent decade has been greatly driven by interaction and visualization technologies. Although touchscreens have signicantly enhanced the interaction technology, it is predictable that with the future mobile devices, e.g., augmentedreality glasses and smart watches, users will demand more intuitive in-puts such as free-hand interaction in 3D space. Specically, for manipulation of the digital content in augmented environments, 3D hand/body gestures will be extremely required. Therefore, 3D gesture recognition and tracking are highly desired features for interaction design in future smart environments. Due to the complexity of the hand/body motions, and limitations of mobile devices in expensive computations, 3D gesture analysis is still an extremely diffcult problem to solve.

    This thesis aims to introduce new concepts, theories and technologies for natural and intuitive interaction in future augmented environments. Contributions of this thesis support the concept of bare-hand 3D gestural interaction and interactive visualization on future smart devices. The introduced technical solutions enable an e ective interaction in the 3D space around the smart device. High accuracy and robust 3D motion analysis of the hand/body gestures is performed to facilitate the 3D interaction in various application scenarios. The proposed technologies enable users to control, manipulate, and organize the digital content in 3D space.

  • 2.
    Gil de la Iglesia, Didac
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    A Formal Approach for Designing Distributed Self-Adaptive Systems2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering contemporary distributed software applications is a challenging task due to the dynamic operating conditions in which these systems have to function. Examples are dynamic availability of resources, errors that are difficult to predict, and changing user requirements. These dynamics can affect a number of quality concerns of a system, such as robustness, openness, and performance. The challenges of engineering software systems with such dynamics have motivated the need for self-adaptation. Self-adaptation is based on the principle of separation of concerns, distinguishing two well defined systems: a managed system that deals with domain specific concerns and a managing system that deals with particular quality concerns of the managed system through adaptation with a feedback loop. State of the art in self- adaptation advocates the use of formal methods to specify and verify the system's behavior in order to provide evidence that the system's goals are satisfied. However, little work has been done on the consolidation of design knowledge to model and verify self-adaptation behaviors.

    To support designers, this thesis contributes with a set of formally specified templates for the specification and verification of self-adaptive behaviors of a family of distributed self-adaptive systems. The templates are based on the MAPE-K reference model (Monitor-Analyze-Plan-Execute plus Knowledge). The templates comprise: (1) behavior specification patterns for modeling the different MAPE components of a feedback loop, and (2) property specification patterns that support verification of the correctness of the adaptation behaviors. The target domain are distributed applications in which self-adaptation is used for managing resources for robustness and openness requirements. The templates are derived from expertise with developing several self-adaptive systems, including a collaborative mobile learning application in which we have applied self-adaptation to make the system robust to degrading GPS accuracy, and a robotic system in which we apply self-adaptation to support different types of openness requirements. We demonstrate the reusability of the templates in a number of case studies. 

  • 3.
    Maskenskaya, Olga M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Abundance and fractionation of rare earth elements in calcite and other secondary minerals in fractures in the upper kilometre of crystalline bedrock, SE Sweden2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the geochemistry of secondary minerals, mainly calcite but also others such as fluorite and Ca/Al silicates, precipitated throughout the last 1.5 billion years in fractures of crystalline rock, SE Sweden. The work was based on previous reconnaissance studies and has been possible thanks to access to high-quality drill cores and associated mapping data provided by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). Concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) and occasionally other metals were determined in a variety of secondary minerals from fractures (mainly open systems) and veins (mainly sealed systems) and in primary minerals from the bedrock. Stable-isotope composition was measured in the secondary minerals. The overall aim was to define the sources, uptake and fractionation of REEs in calcite, and a few other co-genetic minerals, precipitated throughout the geological history under conditions ranging from hydrothermal to low temperatures.

    Collectively, the findings of the individual studies show that there is no easy and straightforward control of REE abundance and fractionation in calcite and other minerals in fractures and veins in crystalline bedrock settings. For example, the REE features in calcite vary extensively within sub-generations of single vein-precipitating events, on micro scale in transects across individual veins, and unsystematically over the geological history characterised by successively decreasing temperatures of mineral formation. Although the REE content in, and release from, the crystalline bedrock can have an influence on REE distribution in calcite and other minerals, it is of overall minor importance within a given bedrock domain. The main advantage of determining REEs in secondary minerals in fractures and veins in crystalline rock is therefore, as revealed in this work, to assess the character and evolution of the conditions (including features of the paleofluids) during confined mineral-precipitating events.

  • 4.
    Vogel, Bahtijar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    An Open Architecture Approach for the Design and Development of Web and Mobile Software2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid evolution of web and mobile technologies as well as open standards are important ingredients for developing open software applications. HTML5, affordable electronics, and connectivity costs are some of the trends that drive the web towards an open platform and lead to an increased use of distributed applications. Proprietary software technologies have been extensively deployed throughout multiple platforms, including desktop, web, and mobile systems. Such systems are closed in many cases. Thus, it is rather difficult to expand existing and create additional features for them. Web and mobile software development is fragmented with the existence of multiple browsers and mobile operating systems, that comply differently with web standards. The evolution of web and mobile technologies, coupled with the changes in the deployment environments in which they operate, has resulted in complex requirements that are challenging to satisfy. Additionally, the largest part of the development lifecycle is related to the need to constantly change/modify these software systems within a short-time period. The fact that these systems evolve over time makes it difficult to meet the changing requirements.

    In this thesis, we offer a novel open architecture approach in the area of web and mobile software design and development when dealing with heterogeneous device environments, together with constantly evolving and dynamic requirements. This approach is grounded on our experiences gained during the last four years of project work regarding the development of a web and mobile software system to support mobile inquiry learning. This case served as a testbed for experimentation with heterogeneous device environments. After five development iterations, our software solution is considered robust, flexible, and expandable as a platform. Among others, this was validated with being tested with more than 500 users. The open architecture approach is also grounded on a literature survey of state of the art projects and definitions related to this concept. The outcomes of this thesis show that an open architecture approach is characterized by flexibility, customizability, and extensibility, which are instantiated into a set of properties. The importance of stressing these three characteristics and their properties in the open architecture approach is based on the identified needs of using open source components, using open data standards, and reducing development time. The research efforts in this thesis resulted in a refined definition of an open architecture approach as well as the initial and refined models that are contextualized within the field of web and mobile software. 

    For validation of the research, the Goal Question Metric (GQM) approach is adapted and extended with a layer of Tasks/Activities. The data is collected from the project work mentioned above and three follow-up cases. The results show that the benefits of an open architecture approach can be reflected in terms of: achievement of the software system’s long-term goals; reduced development time; and increased satisfaction of the users. These benefits refer to the possibility to easily adapt emerging technologies and address dynamic changes and requirements. The contributions of this thesis are threefold: (1) for researchers, our open architecture approach could be used to analyze a system from a top down perspective; (2) for developers, it could be used as an approach to identify and address the needs for building an open evolvable system from a bottom up perspective; (3) for domain experts in the technology enhanced learning field, it could be used as a sustainability approach through which to integrate new tools and address complex requirements when designing new educational activities.

  • 5.
    Hultqvist, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att göra aktivitetsersättning: Om målförskjutning och icke-kontakt vid förtidspension för unga2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates ‘the doing’ of the Swedish social insurance program Activity Compensation (AC). AC is an example of disability policies in Western welfare states. These policies have two goals: to ensure financial security and to promote social participation. In 2003 AC replaced Early Retirement Pension for persons aged 19 to 29 years and who, for medical reasons, have reduced work capacity.

    Three features characterize AC. Young adults are differentiated in a separate system. For them, benefits are time-limited. Benefits include an established right to participate in activities.

    Doing AC is studied bottom-up. Interviews with two actor groups have provided the empirical base: 1) persons accorded AC and medically certified to have an anxiety and/or a depression diagnosis and 2) the respective administrator(s) at the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. National legislative preparatory texts and legal documents complete the data.

    The conclusions of this study are three-fold addressing goal displacement and non-contact. Firstly, a discursive change in respect to the denotation of social participation within the politics of principle has appeared throughout OECD countries over the last decennium. This goal displacement obscures the goal of economic security emphasizing the profitability of work. AC explicitly manifests this change in establishing a right to activity participation for beneficiaries. This displacement is without full impact in the politics of practice when actors’ experience of doing AC is examined. Financial security remains the foremost goal in the local politics of practice mirroring the initial function of safeguard for those with reduced work capacity due to certified illness.

    Relating to this lexical displacement, the study concludes that social participation is revealed as a goal to be realized in a specific form, salaried employment, within a distinct arena, the labor market. Values such as life-quality are neglected as regulatory efforts to get persons on the track to work have been underscored.

    Finally, the prescribed contact between the insured young adults and their administrator(s) is not consistently present. This contact is a necessary condition for the intended planning of activities to take place. When non-contact prevails, the established regulatory right to participate in activities can not materialize.

  • 6.
    Wallin, Pontus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Authoritarian collaboration: Unexpected effects of open government initiatives in China2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a recent emergence of open government initiatives for citizen participation in policy making in China. Open government initiatives seek to increase the level of participation, deliberation and transparency in government affairs, sometimes by use of Internet fora. In contemporary political science the introduction of these initiatives in authoritarian contexts has been described as a paradox of authoritarian deliberation. This thesis uses cybernetic theory, perspectives of information steering in all systems, to resolve the paradox and present a new view on authoritarianism and autocracy. A cybernetic definition of autocracy allows for an analysis of different types of autocracy in different models of governance. The theoretical tools developed are used to define and assess the potential for democratic autocracy, representative autocracy, deliberative autocracy and collaborative autocracy in online open government initiatives in China.

     

    The argument of the thesis is that these initiatives must be understood within the environment in which they are introduced. In the case of the Chinese online environment, individuals often have limited possibilities of acting anonymously. To explore how online identity registration affects citizens, a lab-in-the-field experiment was set up. Chinese university students were invited to engage with a government sponsored online forum under conditions of both anonymity and identity registration. Previous research suggests that anonymity would lead users of online fora to be more active and produce more content. This hypothesis was partly proven false by the experiment. This study shows that users who have their identities registered, sometimes even produce more content. The study also shows that registered users tend to act against their own preferences and participate more in nationalistic debates. The concluding discussion is focused on the wider implications of these effects. If citizens are incentivized to channel their dissatisfaction as loyalty, rather than voice or exit, they might become complicit in sustaining authoritarianism. Interviews with experiment participants show that open government initiatives primarily enable deliberative and collaborative autocracy when introduced in the Chinese online environment. This has the potential of increasing the amount of dissatisfaction that citizens channel as loyalty via mechanisms of authoritarian collaboration.

     

  • 7.
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bacterioplankton population dynamics in a changing ocean2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterioplankton is characterized by high diversity, short generation times and rapid turnover. Despite their small size, these numerous microorganisms are a fundamental piece of aquatic ecosystems by channeling carbon to higher trophic levels through dissolved organic matter utilization. Yet, several gaps remain in our knowledge and understanding of bacterioplankton populations regarding detailed temporal dynamics, and mechanisms determining biogeographical patterns and potential responses to climate change. The aim of this thesis was to examine responses in bacterioplankton community composition and function when challenged by natural and anthropogenically-induced change in environmental conditions.

    High temporal resolution analysis of bacterioplankton population dynamics in the Baltic Sea indicated detailed seasonal responses. It also showed a similar but wide spectrum of niche differentiation patterns within several major bacterial groups. Analysis of geographic distributions of marine bacterial populations revealed bimodal occupancy-frequency patterns in bacterial communities, indicating that the presence of many locally rare taxa along with a few locally abundant taxa were explained by stochastic variation in colonization and extinction rates. Experimental manipulations with natural marine bacterioplankton assemblages revealed both specialist and generalist strategies in utilizing specific dissolved organic carbon compounds. When subjected to experimentally increased sea surface temperatures, lowered pH and additions of terrigenous carbon, some populations decreased in relative abundance while others were stable; concomitantly, many populations increased in relative abundance. Shifts in bacterial community composition were shown to correlate with changes in community functioning, but detection of such correlations depended largely on the detail of phylogenetic analysis and successional stage of the communities.

    The results in this thesis suggest that both natural and anthropogenically-induced changes in environmental conditions promote simultaneous adjustment and replacement of bacterial populations tightly linked with metabolic plasticity. These trade-offs play a significant role for understanding the relationship between bacterioplankton population dynamics and potential shifts in carbon cycling properties. We also show the importance of regional effects in shaping bacterial community composition, crucial for interpreting bacterioplankton distribution patterns. In conclusion, this thesis emphasizes the critical importance of connecting analysis of bacterioplankton population dynamics with examination of ecological mechanisms to improve our understanding of factors that regulate the distribution and activity of distinct bacterioplankton populations.

  • 8.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass: Gränser, identiteter och (dis-)kontinuiteter2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to gain knowledge of how the transitions to and from preschool class are described and understood by children. Previous research has indicated that transitions between different school forms can be seen as both problematic and threatening. Transitions should be facilitated and "smooth", something that indicates that continuity is important. Of interest for this study is to gain knowledge of children's perspective of continuities: which continuities and discontinuities children express intransitions.

    Transitions are theoretically considered as social processes that are constructed, shared and reconstructed together with others. In these processes, children mark and construct borders through speech and action. Their border markings (for example, expression of differences and/or similarities between different communities and between different school forms) also become part of a child's identity constructions.

    The thesis is based upon the research described in three articles. The empirical data underlying these studies was constructed in a longitudinal ethnographic inspired field work where children have been observed in two transitions between three different school forms: preschool, preschool class and compulsory school.

    Results suggest that from children’s perspectives the transitions between different school forms contain challenges, opportunities, limitations, changes and preservation. However, the transitions also involve expressions concerning security, risk-taking and include visual markings between the different school forms.

    One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this work is that it isn’t enough to turn to policy level, such as curricula or even teachers’ aims or aspirations to facilitate these transitions. The child’s perspectives need to be taken into account. Through children's narratives, we have gained knowledge about the opportunities transitions can offer, but also how transitions can be considered as threats or be difficult to interpret for children. This study has also increased our understanding of the importance of continuity as well as discontinuity to mark borders between different school forms.

  • 9.
    Gerdin, Göran
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Boys will be boys? Gendered bodies, spaces and dis/pleasures in Physical Education2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I argue that in order to change the social influence of dominant discourses of gender in PE, which have previously been subject to sustained critique, there is a need to examine the discourses that constitute pleasure within PE. Such an examination is justified due to the broad social significance of pleasure but specific absence of empirical investigations within PE. My prime research questions, accordingly, asked: (i) How do boys’ performances of gender in PE articulate with dis/pleasures? (ii) How are spaces and bodies implicated in these performances? These questions were answered via ethnographic data, generated through a participatory visual research approach (Pink, 2007), involving observations, video recordings, focus groups and individuals interviews, with 60 Year 10 (ages 14-15) boys participating in PE at a single-sex boys’ secondary school in Auckland, New Zealand. In order to interpret the visual and verbal data I utilised the works of Michel Foucault and Judith Butler to explore how pleasures work as the productive effect of power (Foucault, 1985). The findings suggest that pleasures are produced in PE when boys perform gender in a way that typically conforms to discourses related to fitness, health, sport and masculinity. Beginning with a spatial analysis, I highlight how the boys derive pleasures from the power articulated in and through the performative spaces (Gregson & Rose, 2000) of PE. This exploration is extended further to a study of the discourses of PE that have co-produced these pleasures. Finally, the thesis demonstrates the materialisation (Butler, 1993) of pleasurable bodies within the discursive practices of boy’s PE. This thesis illustrates how boys’ performances of gender in PE can, correspondingly, be understood as a co-construction of pleasures, spaces and bodies, where each depends on the other so, that they are constituted reciprocally. I argue that this reciprocal constitution can be problematic as the gendered pleasures can ‘lock’ PE into ‘traditional’ forms that legitimate and produce inequitable sets of gendered power relations. That is, the discourses and relations of power in boys’ PE that produce certain pleasures can, at times, also induce dis/pleasures (e.g. as associated with exclusion, humiliation, bullying and homophobia). In sum, this thesis draws attention to pleasures as an educational, productive practice in boys’ PE while at the same time offering a critique of such pleasurable moments within this context. PE teachers need to be aware that they are not only enabling students’ experiences of pleasures, but they are also influential in (re)producing gendered understandings about the dis/pleasures of learning in, through and about movement in PE.

  • 10.
    Rodrigues, Clarinda
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Brand Sensuality and Consumer-Based Brand Equity2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary branding and sensory marketing literature stresses the significance and positive impact of sensory dimensions through brand sensuality in relation to brand experiences within a value-generating process. Moreover, it also accounts for the need to fulfill a research gap concerning how sensory dimensions contribute to enhance consumer-based brand equity when consumers experience products and services.

    Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is to explore, analyze and explain the relationship between brand sensuality and CBBE by answering the overarching research problem: Is the construct of brand sensuality an antecedent to CBBE in a B2C context? In this context, three research questions are raised and discussed in the three Essays compiled in this thesis, namely: (1) From a strategic point of view, how can brands express their sensuality to consumers in the value-generating process?; (2) Which is the relationship between brand sensuality and CBBE within a sensory branding framework? and (3) From an empirical point of view, does brand sensuality impact directly or indirectly on CBBE?

    Three main conclusions are derived from aforementioned research questions, namely (1) brand sensuality can only be expressed to consumers using sensorial strategies along the value-generating process; (2) brand sensuality, as a construct, is a key driver of brand value in the focus of service provision and (3) brand sensuality impacts directly on brand experiences and indirectly on CBBE.

    The main contribution of this thesis consists in integrating brand sensuality for the first time into a CBBE context, along with traditional branding constructs such as brand personality, brand relationship and brand experience, identified in literature as key drivers of brand value. Furthermore, this thesis is the first to explore the direct and indirect impact of brand sensuality on CBBE. Finally, the empirical research uses a sample of real consumers and was conducted online with the collaboration of ACP – the Portuguese Automobile Association. In this regard, it is the first study on car brands, which incorporates brand sensuality as a construct within a sensory-branding framework.

  • 11.
    Mirera, David Oersted
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Capture-based mud crab (Scylla serrata) aquaculture and artisanal fishery in East Africa- Practical and ecological perspectives: Mud crab ecology and aquaculture2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mud crab Scylla serrata is a crustacean that spends most of its life cycle in the mangrove environment throughout its range. Fishery and aquaculture of this crab are significant economic activities in coastal areas in the tropics and sub-tropics because of the meat quality and nutritional value. However there is a significant shortage of information on the ecology, fishery and aquaculture of these crabs in sub-Saharan Africa. This impacts the development of a sustainable aquaculture and fishery for the benefit of coastal communities. The present study analyses various aspects of mud crab ecology, fishery, aquaculture and social economics in East Africa using multidisciplinary approaches. The results are given in seven papers based on field and laboratory studies. The study established for the first time that high intertidal mangrove back-flats constitute a key habitat for the earliest instars of S. serrata (4 -30 mm CW). It also showed that diurnal tidal migration behaviour occurs in small juveniles that migrate to sub-tidal habitats during the day, possibly due to variable predation risks. Monthly sampling of juveniles in Kenya and Tanzania indicated continuous recruitment throughout the year. The large numbers of juvenile crabs along mangrove fringes indicate that these habitats could serve as sites suitable for collection of juvenile crabs for aquaculture. However, these areas must also be managed and protected to support the recruitment to the wild crab populations. An assessment of the crab fishery indicated that artisanal crab fishers possess significant traditional knowledge mainly inherited from their parents that enabled them to exploit the resource. Such knowledge could be useful for the development of the aquaculture and in management of the fishery. Mud crab fishing was found to be a male dominated activity, and fishers on foot practiced fishing in burrows at spring low tides. Interviews indicated that the average size of marketable crabs has declined over the years and a weak management system was observed with most fishers operating without a license. Due to the knowledge required regarding the local conditions, fishers are unable to shift to new areas. Furthermore fishers and could not fish at neap tides. Such limitations provide a “natural closure” of the fishery. Also foot fishers cover fairly limited distances in their daily operations, an aspect that can be utilized to effect site-specific management for the fishery if necessary. Laboratory and field experiments indicated that cannibalistic interactions are heavily influenced both by size differences of crabs and the availability of shelter but no significant effect was found for different stocking densities. Such information is of direct importance for crab farmers in East Africa, where seed from the wild are of multiple sizes and there is a need to grade juvenile crabs and provide shelter at stocking to ensure maximum survival. Experimental studies in earthen pond and mangrove pen cultures indicated high mortality rates. Comparing growth in earthen pond and mangrove pen systems indicated that growth rates were generally high in both systems, but significantly lower in pen systems without shelter, suggesting that shelter may have a stronger effect on growth than has been previously thought. Similar to artisanal mud crab fishery, an assessment of small-scale mud crab farming by organized community groups in Kenya indicated low level of women participation. A good knowledge of the market existed among the mud crab farming groups where hotels and exporters offered the highest prices. However there is a need for national policies to be directed to support small-scale aquaculture development by ensuring training and capacity building for women, operation and management of groups, data management and provision of user rights for communities working in the mangrove environment. Market analyses showed that the common market size of crabs in East Africa ranged between 500-1000 g and are thus larger than in Southeast Asia where the average size is reported at 300 g. Prices for mud crabs were over 50 % lower in Tanzania than in other East African countries and most of the profit was earned by middlemen and exporters. Cost revenue analysis showed that it would be more profitable to farm smaller commercial crabs, and develop a market for 300 g crabs to increase the profitability of crab farming in East Africa. Also, the same analyses found that farming large crabs in individual cages, which is the dominant culture form in East Africa today, had very low profitability due to high labor costs and low growth rates. Using a step-wise function of natural growth it was shown that growth rates of S. serrata cultured in cages was 40 % of the growth rates obtained in experimental pond and pen cultures, which were similar to natural growth. Therefore the good performance of grow-out cultures of juvenile mud crabs in earthen ponds and mangrove pens showed a potential to develop into a profitable and sustainable intervention. However, more work is needed to improve survival in culture systems and address the identified limitations of crab seeds and feed to enable development of sustainable mud crab aquaculture in East Africa.

  • 12.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Mid Sweden University.
    Carbon Balance Implications of Forest Biomass Production Potential2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests in boreal and temperate forest-ecosystems have importance for carbonbalance since they sequester large amount of atmospheric carbon by uptake ofcarbon-dioxide during photosynthesis, and transfer and store carbon in the forestecosystem. Forest material can be used for bio-fuel purposes and substitute fossilfuels, and supply wood products, which can replace carbon-and-energy-intensivematerials. Therefore it is vital to consider the role of forests regarding today´s aimto mitigate climate change. This thesis assess (i) how climate change affects futureforest carbon balance, (ii) the importance of different strategies for forestmanagement systems, and biomass production for the carbon balance, (iii) how theuse of forest production affect the total carbon balance in a lifecycle perspective,and (iv) how the Swedish carbon balance is affected from the standpoint of boththe actual use of forest raw material within Sweden and what Swedish forestryexports. The analysis was made mainly in a long-term perspective (60-300 years) toillustrate the importance of temporal and also the spatial perspective, as theanalysis includes stand level, landscape level, and national level.

    In this thesis, forestry was considered a system. All activities, from forestregeneration to end use of forest products, were entities of this system. In theevaluation, made from a systems perspective, we used life-cycle analysis toestimate carbon stock in different system flows. Different forest managementsystems and forest production were integrated in the analyses. Different forestmanagement scenarios were designed for the Swedish forest management incombination with the effect of future climate change; (i) intensive forest practiceaiming at increased growth, (ii) increased forest set-aside areas, changes in forestmanagement systems for biomass production, and (iii) how the use of forestproducts affect the total carbon balance (construction material, bioenergy and otherdomestic use).

    The results showed that future climate changes and intensive forest managementwith increased production could increase the biomass production and the potentialuse of forest raw material. This has a positive effect on carbon stock change in theforest biomass, litter production and below ground carbon stock and help reducingcarbon-dioxide emissions. Increased forest set-aside areas can increase the shorttermcarbon stock in forest ecosystems, but will reduce the total long-term carbonbalance. The net carbon balance for clear-cut forestry did not differ significantlyfrom continuous-cover forestry, but was rather a question of level of growth. Mostimportant, in the long term, was according to our analysis, how forest raw materialis used. Present Swedish forestry and use of forest raw material, both withinSweden and abroad, reduce carbon-dioxide emissions and mitigate climate change.The positive effect for the total carbon balance and climate benefit mostly takeplace abroad, due to the Swedish high level of export of wood products and thehigher substitution effects achieved outside Swedish borders. One strategy is toincrease production, harvest and use Swedish forest raw material to replace morecarbon intensive material, which can contribute to significant emission reduction.Carbon-dioxide mitigation, as a result of present Swedish forestry, was shown tobe almost of the same level as the total yearly emission of greenhouse gases. Thetotal carbon benefit would increase if the biomass production and felling increasedand if Swedish wood products replaced carbon intensive materials.

    This thesis shows also that, by changing forest management, increase thegrowth and the use of forest raw material and export of forest material we cancontribute to even larger climate benefits. In a long-term perspective, thesubstitution effects and replacement of carbon-and energy-intensive materials areof greater significance than carbon storage effects in forests. A more productionoriented forestry needs to make balances and increase the prerequisite forbiological diversity, improve recreation possibilities, and protect sensitive landareas and watersheds.

    Climate benefits, from Swedish forestry, are highly dependent on policydecision-making and how that can steer the direction for the Swedish forestry.

  • 13.
    Svensson, Henric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Characterization, toxicity and treatment of wood leachate generated outdoors by the wood-based industry2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is a natural raw material, and would hardly be considered a risk to the environment. However, the handling of wood materials on an industrial scale has been shown to have a negative impact on water bodies that run-off from industrial sites that process wood-based materials. Most investigations related to water pollution from wood-based industries have focused on large industrial sites such as pulp and paper mills. The goal of the present thesisis to understand better such environmental problems and treatment solutions that occur at most wood handling sites. Where there are large outdoor storage areas for logs and sawdust that are exposed to rainfall or irrigation, such as the wooden-floor and bio-energy sectors. Leachate generated by the contact of water with wood in storage areas contains a large amount of organic matter that is potentially hazardous to water bodies that receive run-off from the site.

    It has been found that different wood species yield different leachate compositions, with leachate from oak having the highest pollutants content, followed by leachate from pine. This investigation shows that oak has the potential to leach about 10 times the amount of polyphenols compared with other investigated species (i.e., pine, beech and maple). Furthermore, oak leachates have the lowest ratio of biological oxygen demand at 7 days tochemical oxygen demand (0.12), which suggests a potential problem with the biological degradation of this leachate. It has also been shown that leachate from wood are potentially toxic to aquatic organisms.

    Treatability studies with the aim of reducing the environmental impact of wood leachate were conducted on a pilot scale as part of the scope of this thesis. The results showed, among other options, the possibility of using constructed wetlands to treat leachate. It was found that plants and aeration can affect the performance of a wetland. However, the most important factor is the time water spends in the wetland. Filter material that could be used to absorb leachate was also studied. A filter consisting of a mixture of peat and ash (from incinerated organic matter), was used to absorb a specific chemical group (polyphenols) in the leachate. It was also shown that polyphenols are vulnerable to ozone, representing a third viable treatment process.

  • 14.
    Lundby, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Consuming for friendship: Children´s perceptions of relational consumption2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish children have, from a historical perspective and compared with many other countries, greater economic resources and a higher material living standard. However, there is a widening gap between affluent and vulnerable households in Sweden. At the same time, children are targets for significant pressure to consume in order to gain inclusion among peers. This thesis aims to investigate how children, between the ages of 9 and 12, perceive consumption, as part of their social life among peers. Children’s own perspectives are central throughout the thesis. Therefore, an additional aim is to make a contribution to the debate concerning how to interpret children in their roles as consumers. A research overview of Nordic consumer research relating to tweens was carried out. Thereafter, empirical data was collected through projective focus group interviews and drawings. In total, 101 children, from four different schools, participated in the study. The location and prestige of the schools confirms that the selected children were mixed in terms of class and ethnicity. The results are presented in four articles that provide different segments in the understanding of how children perceive consumption in their social life among peers. In the summary chapters, a synthesized analysis shows, among other things, that most children perceived consumption as a useful tool to enhance social relationships with peers. However, some children expressed moral values concerning consumption, where they emphasised that it felt “wrong to buy friends”. Moreover, the children’s perceptions of consumption varied depending on age, gender and neighbourhood. The analysis suggests that we need to address children both as competent and dependent individuals, in order to gain a more nuanced understanding of children as consumers. Additionally, a new concept, relational consumption, is developed from the children’s perceptions of consumption, principally referring to consumption used to create, strengthen and maintain social relationships. In summary: the work presented in this thesis contributes to increase the knowledge about 9 to 12 year old children’s perceptions of consumption in today’s Swedish society and demonstrates the importance for social work to address the aspect of relational consumption.

  • 15.
    Larsson Olaison, Ulf
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Convergence of National Corporate Governance Systems: Localizing and Fitting the Transplants2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to elucidate the phenomenon of legal transfers fromthe perspective of the dominant comparative corporate governance researchparadigm. Drawing on legal studies and empirical observations, the thesis developsa terminology for understanding the legal transplant metaphor in comparativecorporate governance and problematizes the debate on the convergence ordivergence of corporate governance systems.This purpose is achieved through five empirically-based articles that areincluded in the thesis. The first article concerns a change in the SwedishCompanies Act that allows for stock repurchases. The second article discusses thevoluntary and then mandatory introduction of nomination committees. The thirdand the fourth articles focus on the introduction of the Swedish corporategovernance code. Finally, the fifth article discusses the role played by independentdirectors in the Swedish corporate governance setting.The focus on legal transplants broadens the framework of comparativecorporate governance in three respects. First, it develops and applies a clearerframework for distinguishing between accepted and rejected legal transplants(based on Watson, 1974, Miller, 2003 and Mattei, 1994), thus refining the debateregarding convergence or divergence of corporate governance systems (e.g.Hansmann and Kraakman, 2004, and Branson, 2001). Second, the empiricalstudies demonstrate how imported regulations can be “localized” (Gillespie,2008a) by local regulators and/or “fitted” (adapted from Kanda and Milhaupt,2003) by other local actors. The studies show that fitting often precedes localizing.Third, the thesis ads to a growing body of research (e.g. Buck et al., 2004; Lutz,2004 and Collier and Zaman, 2005) emphasizing that convergence anddivergence are not necessarily two empirically or analytically distinguishableprocesses. Rather, depending on the perspective of the scholar, convergence anddivergence might refer to very similar – or even identical – processes.Finally, in focusing on the transplant process, this thesis offers a descriptionand analysis of the role played by various key actors in the Swedish corporategovernance system.

  • 16.
    Larsson Olaison, Ulf
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Convergence of National Corporate Governance Systems:: Localizing and Fitting the Transplants2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to elucidate the phenomenon of legal transfers from the perspective of the dominant comparative corporate governance research paradigm. Drawing on legal studies and empirical observations, the thesis develops a terminology for understanding the legal transplant metaphor in comparative corporate governance and problematizes the debate on the convergence or divergence of corporate governance systems. This purpose is achieved through five empirically-based articles that are included in the thesis. The first article concerns a change in the Swedish Companies Act that allows for stock repurchases. The second article discusses the voluntary and then mandatory introduction of nomination committees. The third and the fourth articles focus on the introduction of the Swedish corporate governance code. Finally, the fifth article discusses the role played by independent directors in the Swedish corporate governance setting. The focus on legal transplants broadens the framework of comparative corporate governance in three respects. First, it develops and applies a clearer framework for distinguishing between accepted and rejected legal transplants (based on Watson, 1974, Miller, 2003 and Mattei, 1994), thus refining the debate regarding convergence or divergence of corporate governance systems (e.g. Hansmann and Kraakman, 2004, and Branson, 2001). Second, the empirical studies demonstrate how imported regulations can be “localized” (Gillespie, 2008a) by local regulators and/or “fitted” (adapted from Kanda and Milhaupt, 2003) by other local actors. The studies show that fitting often precedes localizing. Third, the thesis ads to a growing body of research (e.g. Buck et al., 2004; Lutz, 2004 and Collier and Zaman, 2005) emphasizing that convergence and divergence are not necessarily two empirically or analytically distinguishable processes. Rather, depending on the perspective of the scholar, convergence and divergence might refer to very similar – or even identical – processes. Finally, in focusing on the transplant process, this thesis offers a description and analysis of the role played by various key actors in the Swedish corporate governance system.

  • 17.
    Wahlgren, Paula
    Stockholm University.
    De laglydiga: Om skolans brottsförebyggande fostran2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Politicians and scholars often frame schooling as one of society’s most important crime preventive measures. The object of the study is to examine and problematize the hopes and ambitions that have evolved around what the study conceptualizes as the crime preventive educational task of public schooling and its historical trajectory as articulated in government publications. Drawing on governmentality theory, the study focuses on the liberal conception of the autonomous and self-regulating subject, and how the liberal mode of government works through the governing of freedom. The study identifies three discourses on crime preventive education: The emancipatory (1970s onwards), the deterrence (late 1980s onwards) and the safety/security discourse (21st century). The discursive shifts identified are further analysed in respect to how i) the explanation of crime, and the relationship between the deviant and the law-abiding subject, ii) control and iii) freedom and responsibility, are conceptualized over time. The conceptualization of criminal behaviour goes from being caused by social deprivation, becoming instead a calculated rational act. Subsequently, the deviant is altered from a person in need of reintegration to a deterrent example and a risk. The problematization of control has a trajectory from being a matter of social control and integration, ending instead as a matter of risk control and prudentialism. The conceptualization of the kind of freedom and responsibility the crime preventive education should foster is also reframed, from a strategy to counter a lack of democracy and influence, to a way of making prudent citizens. In this, the notion of a collective responsibility has been superseded by a belief in individual responsibility. The key problematization vindicating the process has gone from how to integrate youths into a society in constant flux, to how to restore control if lost and how to protect a pre-given social order.

  • 18.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Det godkända fusket: Normförhandlingar i gymnasieskolans bedömningspraktiker2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Education on behalf of social trust constitutes a central theme in all societies. Different forms of cheating and fraud have a negative impact on the bonds of social trust. The purpose of the thesis is to increase understanding of the scope for learning about the individual-society relationship as it finds expression in pedagogical practices involving norms relating to cheating. The established norms concerning school cheating are identified in group-based discussions involving Upper Secondary students and teachers.

    Students ascribe each other roles on the basis of the perceived capacity to produce school results and thereby also to justify the need for school cheating. In the norm negotiations a significant tolerance is shown towards cheating which is adjudged to be necessary, provided that a hierarchic, fair distribution of grades can be retained.

    The teachers perceive expectations of acting for goal fulfilment, in the form of good student grades, as based on economic arguments. Good student grades imply satisfied customers in a market exposed to competition and a strong market value for the individual school. From a critical viewpoint these norms are related to the contemporary, dominant neo-liberal principles of commercialisation and individualisation in social organisation.

    The school actors perceive, in accordance with stratified norm theory, the norms from economic systems of conduct as more strongly conditioning on conduct than those norms from political-administrative or socio-cultural conduct systems. The teachers are aware of expectations, in hidden concert and consent with other school stakeholders, to offer social approval for student cheating and sympathetic marking concerning the lowest grade for passing i.e. violation of rules, where this is necessary to meet the economic as well as political-administrative objectives that have been established.

    To be part of pedagogic practices involving school cheating implies learning to uncouple rules and practice, law and morality. Such a double agenda is incompatible with norms and ideals in official curricula as well as being destructive of the bonds of social trust; it thereby functions as a hidden curriculum. 

  • 19.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    District heat production under different environmental and social cost scenarios2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    District heat production systems (DHSs) are normally designed to meet the heat demand of customers at a minimum cost whilst fulfilling local and national regulations. Various factors influence the choice of district heat production units in a minimum-cost system. In this thesis, the performance of DHSs of different types were analyzed under a range of environmental and social cost scenarios. The scenarios include No tax using the bare cost of fuels without any taxes or fees, Swedish tax using Swedish taxes and fees on fuels, Social cost-550ppm using a carbon damage cost of US$30/t CO2, Social cost-BAU using a carbon damage cost of US$85/t CO2, and Renewable-based without using fossil fuels for energy purposes. DHSs were analyzed under varying conditions of scale, potential to co/poly-generate district heat with other products, and integration of new technologies currently being developed. The influence of end-use energy efficiency measures in district-heated buildings on DHSs was also analyzed.

    The cost optimal composition of a DHS depends on several factors including the scale, the load factor of the heat demand, the technologies used in the DHS, as well as the environmental and social costs. When environmental and social costs are considered, the co-generation of electricity is more cost-efficient than other options, except for small scale systems, for which heat-only production is more cost-efficient. Also, in a minimum-cost DHS, district heat production cost is about the same for all the environmental and social cost scenarios except for the No tax scenario. The district heat production cost of a small-scale DHS under the No tax scenario is lower than that of the same scale system under the other scenarios. However, a large-scale DHS under the No tax scenario gives higher district heat production cost than the same scale system under the other scenarios. The changed environmental and social costs vary the types and amount of fuel use as well as the value of co-generated products such as electricity, which consequently balances the district heat production cost.

    Renewable-based DHS using biomass is economically viable if environmental and social costs of using fossil fuels are taken into account. A fully biomass-based DHS can be as primary energy-efficient as other DHSs analyzed. Typically, biomass-based co-generation of district heat and electricity combined with stand-alone production of biomotor fuels is more cost- and primary energy-efficient than the co-generation of district heat and biomotor fuels combined with stand-alone production of electricity. The integration of non-fuel renewable technologies such as solar water heating can further reduce the use of biomass in a cost-efficient way for small-scale DHSs in combination with high fuel costs.

    The characteristics of a DHS influence the effectiveness of end-use energy efficiency measures in district heated buildings. Although end-use energy efficiency measures change the final energy use, the composition and operation of the supply system determine the amount and types of fuel savings. Supply systems with different composition and operation give varying primary energy savings per unit of reduced end-use energy from an energy efficiency measure. The primary energy savings due to end-use heat saving measures in buildings is much higher for heat-only production units than for co/poly-generation units, because heat savings in co/poly-generation systems also reduce the potential production of co-products. Therefore, the analysis of both demand and supply sides of district heating systems as well as their interaction is crucial for the evaluation of the consequences of end-use energy efficiency measures in district-heated buildings. Actually, energy efficiency measures in district-heated buildings typically increase the overall heat load factor for a DHS which reduces the operating cost per unit of produced district heat in existing system and the total cost when existing district heat production units have to be renewed or changed. The connection of new energy-efficient buildings that balances the energy efficiency improvement in existing district-heated buildings appears to be an optimal option for a DHS.

  • 20.
    Päivärinta, Anne
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Dylan Thomas's Poetics of Embodiment2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation explores the structure and functions of embodied metaphors in Dylan Thomas’s (1914–1953) works. It aims to show that embodiment defines Thomas’s writing both stylistically and thematically, and that Thomas’s body metaphors are essentially founded on the biblical myths of creation and the Fall. On the one hand, human life is presented as a journey towards a greater understanding, and on the other, a tragedy stemming from the earthly side of bodiliness. The theme is approached with theoretical tools adapted from Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) and blending theory: both build on the notion of the embodied mind, as derived from the findings of cognitive science. In the spirit of descriptive poetics, the theoretical framework and the texts examined are set in constant dialogue with each another. CMT redefines metaphor as a pattern of thought in which one concept illuminates another. The body provides the basis for spatial conceptualisation, which is reflected in metaphors central to our thinking: bodily experience thus offers a tangible tool for conceptualising more abstract things. However, the multidisciplinary and thought-oriented nature of CMT poses a considerable challenge when applying the framework to the analysis of literary texts. This is particularly evident with Thomas’s figuratively opaque writing. The approach taken in the dissertation emphasises the importance of making a distinction between conceptual metaphors and their linguistic realisations, and complements cognitive interpretations with stylistic and contextual observations. Indeed, one of the main arguments of the dissertation is that such a systematic investigation of local embodied metaphors may provide valuable insights into the study of embodiment in literature in general. The particularities of Thomas’s writing style give rise to a number of theoretical issues: metaphor as a stylistic device in consciousness representation, intertextuality as part of metaphoric mapping, and the lyric ‘I’s role in searching for metaphoric coherence in reading. While the dissertation tries to formulate a more context-sensitive application of Conceptual Metaphor Theory, it also argues that Thomas’s poetics of embodiment evolves from the very abstract bodiliness of the early poetry towards linguistically less dense but in many ways more ‘difficult’ metaphoricity. The texts analysed are from the compilations "The Collected Poems 1934–1953" (2000) and "The Collected Stories" (1955), except for the radio play "Under Milk Wood" (1954).

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Electromagnetic Dispersion Modeling and Analysis for Power Cables2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses electromagnetic wave propagation in power cables. It consists of five papers, where the three first papers are based on one and the same model, and the last two papers are based on a similar but slightly different model. The first model considers electromagnetic modeling in connection with basic transmission line theory with a mismatch calibration of the scattering parameters, while the second model is based on a magnetic frill generator with calibration on the input current.

    The two models describe the dispersion characteristics of an 82 km long High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) power cable, and the results are validated with Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurements. In both models the relevant bandwidth is 100 kHz, with the result that the fields inside the metallic layers must be calculated due to a large skin-depth. The present study is concerned with Transversal Magnetic (TM) modes of order zero. Higher order TM modes, including the Transversal Electric (TE) modes, will essentially be cut-off in this low-frequency regime.

    An asymptotic analysis regarding the low-frequency dispersion characteristics is provided in Paper I. Comparing the result with a numerical solution shows that the low-frequency characteristics of the power cable is complicated, and an asymptotic solution is only valid at frequencies below 1 Hz.

    Paper II presents a sensitivity analysis of the propagation constant. It is concluded that some of the electrical parameters of the metallic layers, and of the insulating layer, have a large impact on the model, while other parameters do not perturb the model in any substantial way.

    In Paper III a general framework for the electromagnetic modeling is provided. The paper addresses sensitivity analysis, computation, and measurements regarding wave propagation characteristics in power cables.

    The asymptotic behavior of the non-discrete radiating mode, the branch-cut, is presented in Paper IV. The result is compared with the first and second propagating Transversal Magnetic (TM) mode.

    Finally, Paper V addresses the numerical problems associated with large arguments in the Bessel functions, which are due to the large conductivity parameters of the metallic layers. The introduction of a perfect electric conductor (PEC) and a short illustration of an inverse problem are also discussed in the paper. At the end an analysis is presented regarding uncertainties in the model parameters, which shows that temperature is an important parameter to consider.

     

  • 22.
    Hammar, Tora
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    eMedication – improving medication management using information technology2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Medication is an essential part of health care and enables the prevention andtreatment of many conditions. However, medication errors and drug-relatedproblems (DRP) are frequent and cause suffering for patients and substantial costsfor society. eMedication, defined as information technology (IT) in themedication management process, has the potential to increase quality, efficiencyand safety but can also cause new problems and risks.In this thesis, we have studied the employment of IT in different steps of themedication management process with a focus on the user's perspective. Sweden isone of the leading countries when it comes to ePrescribing, i.e. prescriptionstransferred and stored electronically. We found that ePrescribing is well acceptedand appreciated by pharmacists (Study I) and patients (Study II), but that therewas a need for improvement in several aspects. When the pharmacy market inSweden was re-regulated, four new dispensing systems were developed andimplemented. Soon after the implementation, we found weaknesses related toreliability, functionality, and usability, which could affect patient safety (StudyIII). In the last decade, several county councils in Sweden have implementedshared medication lists within the respective region. We found that physiciansperceived that a regionally shared medication list generally was more complete butoften not accurate (Study IV). Electronic expert support (EES) is a decisionsupport system which analyses patients´ electronically-stored prescriptions in orderto detect potential DRP, i.e. drug-drug interactions, therapy duplication, highdose, and inappropriate drugs for geriatric or pediatric patients. We found thatEES detected potential DRP in most patients with multi-dose drug dispensing inSweden (Study V), and that the majority of alerts were regarded as clinicallyrelevant (Study VI).For an improved eMedication, we need a holistic approach that combinestechnology, users, and organization in implementation and evaluation. The thesissuggests a need for improved sharing of information and support for decisionmaking, coordination, and education, as well as clarification of responsibilitiesamong involved actors in order to employ appropriate IT. We suggestcollaborative strategic work and that the relevant authorities establish guidelinesand requirements for IT in the medication management process.

  • 23.
    Olaison, Lena
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Entrepreneurship at the limits2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD dissertation is based on four published articles. It operates within the processual view of entrepreneurship studies (Steyaert, 1997), which draws on process philosophy to develop research strategies (Sørensen, 2005). The research has been guided by two strategies for understanding entrepreneurship: ‘moving’ (e.g. Steyaert and Hjorth, 2003) and ‘unveiling’ (e.g. Jones and Spicer, 2009). These strategies have so far been pursued largely in the conceptual domain, and this doctoral dissertation is an effort to take them a step further by combining empirical investigation and philosophical reflection. The aim is to investigate how a processual study of entrepreneurship ‘should be worked out’ in practice (Kristensen, Lopdrup-Hjorth and Sørensen, 2014).

    The first two studies contribute an empirically informed conceptualisation of entrepreneurship, the first focused on how organisations are created, the second providing stories of emerging practices of female entrepreneurs. Though they aim to provide alternative conceptualisations, they remain firmly rooted in ‘traditional’ social science, offering alternative approaches to the dominant understandings of entrepreneurship, and utilizing accepted and traditional methodologies and theories. The last two papers are more experimental in their design. The aim is still to problematize discursive or practical aspects of entrepreneurship and processes around entrepreneurship, but also to investigate alternative methods for creating knowledge. The third study explores the somewhat paradoxical results of SME support schemes and develops a role-play-enhanced focus group technique. The fourth study is based on an organisational ethnography in antiquarian bookshops and experiments with fictional accounts and literary techniques as methods to generate knowledge.

    The contribution of this dissertation to processual studies in entrepreneurship research is twofold. The first two papers are illustrations of an application of process concepts, while the last two papers illustrate the attempt to create process concepts. Taken together, the studies demonstrate how a processual study of entrepreneurship might be worked out in practice. 

  • 24.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Fast and Precise Points-to Analysis2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many software engineering applications require points-to analysis. These client applications range from optimizing compilers to integrated program development environments (IDEs) and from testing environments to reverse-engineering tools. The software engineering applications are often user-interactive, or used in an edit-compile cycle, and need the points-to analysis to be fast and precise.

    In this compilation thesis, we present a new context- and flow-sensitive approach to points-to analysis that is both fast and precise. This is accomplished by a new SSA-based flow-sensitive dataflow algorithm (Paper 1) and a new context-sensitive analysis (Paper 2). Compared to other well-known analysis approaches our approach is faster in practice, on average, twice as fast as the call string approach and by an order of magnitude faster than the object-sensitive technique. In fact, it shows to be only marginally slower than a context-insensitive baseline analysis. At the same time, it provides higher precision than the call string technique and is similar in precision to the object-sensitive technique. We confirm these statements with experiments in Paper 2.

    Paper 3 is a systematic comparison of ten different variants of context-sensitive points-to analysis using different call-depths  for separating the contexts. Previous works indicate that analyses with a call-depth  only provides slightly better precision than context-insensitive analysis and they find no substantial precision improvement when using a more expensive analyses with call-depth . The hypothesis in Paper 3 is that substantial differences between the context-sensitive approaches show if (and only if) the precision is measured by more fine-grained metrics focusing on individual objects (rather than methods and classes) and references between them. These metrics are justified by the many applications requiring such detailed object reference information.

    The main results in Paper 3 show that the differences between different context-sensitive analysis techniques are substantial, also the differences between the context-insensitive and the context-sensitive analyses with call-depth are substantial. The major surprise was that increasing the call-depth  did not lead to any substantial precision improvements. This is a negative result since it indicates that, in practice, we cannot get a more precise points-to analysis by increasing the call-depth. Further investigations show that substantial precision improvements can be detected for but they occur at such a low detail level that they are unlikely to be of any practical use.

  • 25.
    Dahl, Marianne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fritidspedagogers handlingsrepertoar: Pedagogiskt arbete med barns olika relationer2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to make a contribution to our current understanding regarding leisure-time pedagogues’ work with children’s relationships. Here focus is placed on the collective action repertoire as expressed by two different groups of leisure-time pedagogues. The research questions addressed are:  

    How do leisure-time pedagogues work with children’s relationships and how do they view such relationships? What communities do they identify? What qualities in children’s relationships do they regard as desirable?

     The theoretical framework of this study is based on Wenger’s (1998) social theory regarding learning in communities of practice, as well as Gergen’s theory of relationships as an inevitable part of human existence. Consequently, within this thesis relationships are viewed as mainly negotiated and are therefore dynamic in character. The methodological approach is ethnographic, focusing on leisure-time pedagogues’ work with and talk about children’s relationships. The study is based on data derived from eight leisure-time pedagogues divided into two different work teams of four pedagogues, covering two different leisure-time centres and involving 60 children of 6-11 years of age.  

    Final analysis is based on concepts derived from both Wenger’s and Gergen’s theories, for example; action repertoire, relational qualities, communities of practice and shared interests. Results suggest that the communities of practice and the alliances that pedagogues identify are often gender-related and built on common interests. The pedagogues’ action repertoire illustrates a desire to facilitate encounters between children and promote harmonious relationships. Leisure-time pedagogues support relationships characterized by consensus, respect, confidence and adaptation to rules, whereas those marked by conflict, disharmony, breaking rules or aggressions are counteracted. Various notions emerge in pedagogues’ action repertoire based on normative thinking, where different relational competences are ascribed to children. Some children are described as relationally competent while other children, who do not adapt themselves in a desirable manner, are described as having difficulties adjusting their relational competence. The results also reveal a lack of guidelines for handling the variety of differences in children’s relationships and display the lack of a common professional language for verbalizing children’s relational work.

  • 26.
    Perselli, Ann-Katrin
    Mid Sweden University.
    Från datasal till en-till-en: En studie av lärares erfarenheter av digitala resurser i undervisningen2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis a study upper secondary school teachers’ experiences from using digital resources is presented. The study was carried out in two upper secondary schools where the students had each recently been given their own laptop, a so-called one-to-one computer. The purpose of the study was to describe and analyse the teachers’ experiences of using digital resources in teaching. Four teachers, three men and one woman, from two upper secondary schools in a Swedish municipality, participated in the study. Empirical material was collected during autumn 2010 and spring 2012. The methods used in the collection were interviews and participatory observations, so-called go-along observations. The study’s theoretical approach has its foundation in phenomenological philosophy. In the result care, time and teachers’ lived experiences of didactic work emerge as important for the utilisation of digital resources in teaching. In the teaching, the teachers’ experiences and knowledge of their subjects, teaching, digital resources, and life experiences and knowledge seemed to interact. This interaction between experiences and knowledge is described in the study as lived experiences of didactic work. The study shows that teachers dealt with the new digital technology and designed learning environments for the students with the starting point of their lived experiences of didactic work and assumptions about the students’ interest for digital resources. The teachers’ care with relationship building and creation of trust and confidence was shown to have importance for how, and to what extent, digital resources could be used in teaching. Both similarities and differences in the teachers’ experiences of, and knowledge about, how teaching is carried out with one-to-one computers emerged in the study. Two of the teachers were more experienced users of digital resources in comparison with the two others. The teachers’ experiences of digital resources are often related to their own interest in these, but their experiences are also related to the lack of time for learning to use digital resources as pedagogical tools. 

  • 27.
    Golker, Kerstin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Fundamental Studies on Molecularly Imprinted Materials2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis focuses on fundamental studies aimed at elucidating factors that influence molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) formation and ligand recognition. To this end, a series of computational techniques, in particular chemometrics and molecular dynamics (MD) in conjunction with polymer synthesis and physical characterization studies have been employed.

     

    In Paper I, the multivariate analysis method principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the role of incubation media on polymer-ligand recognition, and results highlighted the importance of several solvent parameters on recognition. In Paper II, all-component MD simulations were used to examine the role of polymerization mixture stoichiometry on MIP-template recognition. Correlations between nature and extent of template complexation and recognition were observed. The influence of the acidic functionality of the methacrylic acid used in these polymers on polymer-template recognition and morphology was examined in Paper III. PCA was then used in Paper IV to identify relationships between interactions in the pre-polymerization mixture, polymer functionality, recognition and morphology using the polymers described in Paper II and III.

  • 28.
    Hedberg, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Göteborgs universitet.
    Idrotten sätter agendan: En studie av Riksidrottsgymasietränares handlande utifrån sitt dubbla uppdrag2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to describe and analyse the actions of the school coaches at the National sport upper secondary schools in light of the conditions that govern and shape the activities at those schools.

    The theoretical standpoints are based on Lave and Wengers' (1991) theoretical concept community of practice, and as an explanatory theoretical framework Scott's (2008) interpretation of new institutional theory is used. In the analysis of the coaches’ space for actions given the current conditions, Berg's (2014) free space theory is used.

    The study has a qualitative approach and the design is based on four case studies, where interviews and document analyses have been used to produce the data.

    The main findings can be summarized in that the cultural-cognitive conditions are very strong, whereas the regulatory and normative conditions play a less significant role. The coaches belong to a community of practice, where the sport’s inherent culture becomes the reference point for how the practice will be run, even though they are part of the school.

  • 29.
    Jeansson, John
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    In search of information systems value: a case study of the EHR benefits realisation efforts of three Swedish hospitals2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish public health care organisation could very well be undergoing its most significant change since its specialisation during the late 19th and early 20th century. At the heart of this change is a move from using manual patient journals to electronic health records (EHR). EHR are complex integrated organisational wide information systems (IS) that promise great benefits and value as well as presenting great challenges to the organisation. The Swedish public health care is not the first organisation to implement integrated IS, and by no means alone in their quest for realising the potential benefits and value that it has to offer. As organisations invest in IS they embark on a journey of value-creation and capture. A journey where a cost-based approach towards their IS-investments is replaced with a value-centric focus, and where the main challenges lie in the practical day-to-day task of finding ways to intertwine technology, people and business processes. This has however proven to be a problematic task. The problematic situation arises from a shift of perspective regarding how to manage IS in order to gain value. This is a shift from technology delivery to benefits delivery; from an IS-implementation plan to a change management plan. The shift gives rise to challenges related to the inability of IS and the elusiveness of value. As a response to these challenges the field of IS-benefits management has emerged offering a framework and a process in order to better understand and formalise benefits realisation activities. In this thesis the benefits realisation efforts of three Swedish hospitals within the same county council are studied. The thesis focuses on the participants of benefits analysis projects; their perceptions, judgments, negotiations and descriptions of potential benefits. The purpose is to address the process where organisations seek to identify which potential IS-benefits to pursue and realise, this in order to better understand what affects the process, so that realisation actions of potential IS-benefits could be supported. 

    A qualitative case study research design is adopted and provides a framework for sample selection, data collection, and data analysis. It also provides a framework for discussions of validity, reliability and generalizability. Findings displayed a benefits fluctuation, which showed that participants’ perception of what constituted potential benefits and value changed throughout the formal benefits management process. Issues like structure, knowledge, expectation and experience affected perception differently, and this in the end changed the amount and composition of potential benefits and value. Five dimensions of benefits judgment were identified and used by participants when finding accommodations of potential benefits and value to pursue. Identified dimensions affected participants’ perceptions, which in turn affected the amount and composition of potential benefits. During the formal benefits management process participants shifted between judgment dimensions. These movements emerged through debates and interactions between participants. Judgments based on what was perceived as expected due to one’s role and perceived best for the organisation as a whole were the two dominant benefits judgment dimensions. A benefits negotiation was identified. Negotiations were divided into two main categories, rational and irrational, depending on participants’ drive when initiating and participating in negotiations. In each category three different types of negotiations were identified having different characteristics and generating different outcomes. There was also a benefits negotiation process identified that displayed management challenges corresponding to its five phases. A discrepancy was also found between how IS-benefits are spoken of and how actions of IS benefits realisation are understood. This was a discrepancy between an evaluation and a realisation focus towards IS value creation. An evaluation focus described IS-benefits as well-defined and measurable effects and a realisation focus spoke of establishing and managing an on-going place of value creation. The notion of valuescape was introduced in order to describe and support the understanding of IS value creation. Valuescape corresponded to a realisation focus and outlined a value configuration consisting of activities, logic, structure, drivers and role of IS.

  • 30.
    Ahlgren, Thorbjörn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Institutionalisering på hemmaplan: En idés resa i den sociala barnavården2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes and analyses in three substudies how home-based measures for children are expanding and why an open care idea are established as part of the Swedish child welfare. The first substudy describes the national increment of what today can be considered as a treatment policy – non-institutional care in child welfare. The results are analysed with Kingdon's agenda setting theory and shows that the factors of what Kingdon describes as problems-, politics- and policyflow influenced the national increment. Significant mechanisms have primarily been, the profession, the society's concerns for socially disadvantaged children, negative experiences of institutionalisation and a political position to deinstitutionalise all care. The second substudy focuses on how knowledge and research contributes to ideological, professional, and organizational change in child welfare by analysis of Research & Developments reports and articles from the professional journal Socionomen. Based on the neo-institutional concepts of organisational fields and isoformism the study's results shows that a consequence of adaptation strategies and "rationalized myths" are a number of similarities in how home-based measures are organized and which measures that are used. The third substudy, a case study, analyses how we can understand a local development of ideas in social services for children with concepts from neo institutional theory. Interviews and municipal documents are analysed and shows that the local translation of an open care idea is characterized by discretion, personal preferences and action and affects the choice of method and organization. The study also shows a political mistrust of institutional care while there is at the same time political confidence in the individual social worker's ability to find solutions that allow non-institutional measures to be an alternative to institutional care.

    An overall conclusion of the thesis is that there is now a treatment policy in social services for the children, which involves extensive efforts at home and it has led to that more children receive support from social services. One result of non-institutional care increment is that it led to increased costs for municipalities for intervention for children and young people when out-of-home care has not decreased. Another general conclusion is that translation and adaptation of ideas to local contexts is something that generally fits street-level bureaucrats need for discretion.

     

     

     

  • 31.
    Skoglund, Astrid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Kommunikativa strategier i texter om tobaksavvänjning: Innehåll, argumentation och modelläsare2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to examine the content and communicative strategies in texts used in a project on tobacco policy delegated by the Swedish government to the National Institute of Public Health (“The National Tobacco Assignment 2008–2010”). The study uses communicative strategies as an umbrella term for the way the texts fulfil the political assignment through adaptation to suit different receivers in a discursive practice with set guidelines for communication between experts and users, and how these strategies are visible in the studied texts.

    The material consists of six guides for care personnel and ten brochures for smokers. The study is a text-focused critical discourse analysis combining methodological tools from different linguistic traditions. These are chiefly taken from critical text linguistics, new rhetoric, and sociosemiotics. The main question posed in the study is how the public authority’s assignment to influence people through the texts is combined with ideas about smokers’ empowerment. The investigation problematizes how the content and form of the texts relates to the authority’s assignment to exert influence, and to motivational interviewing as a discursive practice with an empowerment perspective on lifestyle changes.

    The analyses show that controlling ideas and notions about smokers’ empowerment exist in parallel in the government texts about smoking cessation. Controlling elements are most prominent in the sections of the guides about groups who, in the encounter with care personnel, do not show any interest or desire to quit smoking. In the studied brochures the controlling elements are most prominent in those aimed at operation ­patients, adolescents, and parents-to-be. Both groups of material – the guides and the brochures – nevertheless give the impression of being designed to be compatible with a patient-cent­red discursive practice. This is noticeable, for example, in the occurrence of associative and dissociative argumentation strategies which legitimize or tone down controlling elements.

     

     

  • 32.
    Elmersjö, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kompetensfrågan inom äldreomsorgen: Hur uppfattningar om kompetens formar omsorgsarbetet, omsorgsbehoven och omsorgsrelationen2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines how perceptions of competence affect the care of older persons, and the values ​​and vocational conceptions of care work and care recipients that are tied to the perceptions of what skills that are needed and why. Competence is defined by three parts with relevance for the content of care work: what knowledge the care workers should have, what tasks they should perform and how they should respond to care recipients. The aim of this dissertation is to analyse how the care managers' and care workers' perceptions of competence form the direction of the care work and how that direction relates to the care recipients’ perceptions of and expectations on the care work.

     

    The care work is characterised by what is analysed as an activation of the recipients - that the recipients themselves should perform as much of the care work as possible. The activation aims at managing the decay of the aging body and is motivated by a vocational conception of the care recipients as different from others, with designations as grateful and passive. This conception is analysed as generation character based on an idea among the care managers and care workers that the society in which the recipients grew up gave them certain cognitive prerequisites that have to be managed in the practical care work.

     

    The care recipients in the study have opposing conceptions and perceptions of care work compared with the care managers and care workers. The recipients’ central objective with the care work is to prevent what has been interpreted as the disrepair of the home. The care recipients’ position in the organisation raises the problem of loyalty towards the care workers and in some sense the care managers. Their loyalty reduces their ability to complain and to influence their situation to the better.

     

    Keywords: care of older persons, care needs, care work, care relationship, care receivers, care workers, care managers, competence, technologies, activation, generation character

  • 33.
    Shukia, Richard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Learning and Teaching to Read in Kiswahili in Pre-Primary Classes in Tanzania: Teachers' Beliefs and Instructional Practices2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers’ beliefs have the potential to influence teachers’ instructional decisions and or even accept, resist or renegotiate the mandated curriculum intentions. Knowledge about these relations in pre-primary education in Tanzania is largely lacking.  The purpose of this study is to investigate pre-primary teachers’ beliefs about learning and teaching to read Kiswahili in Tanzania, and then examine how these beliefs are related to instructional practices and curriculum intentions. Knowledge about teachers’ beliefs in relation to instructional practices and curriculum intentions is a gateway to improving pre-primary reading instructional practices, curriculum and learning to read early. The study was inspired by Vygotskian socio-cultural framework and its allied activity theory.

    Twenty one pre-primary teachers participated in the study. Of these, 3 were males and 18 were females. Of the participants, six had primary teacher education background whereas two had attended a 1 year pre-school training course. Other participants were ‘little’ trained through experiences as they had no formal teacher education background. Empirical materials were generated over a period of six months through semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, post observation video-stimulated interviews, and content analysis of lesson plans and curriculum. Abductive analytical approach and hermeneutic phenomenology informed data analysis and interpretations, respectively.

    Findings reveal that teachers’ beliefs about learning and teaching reading revolve around direct and systematic phonics-syllabic/bottom-up instruction accompanied with repeated practices, songs, use of pictures, look-and-say, and integration of reading and writing activities. Findings also show that teachers believe that most children can learn to read, only a few experience difficulties due to a number of factors outside teachers’ realm: mental impairment, immaturity, mother tongue, lack of parents’ involvement, and scarcity of teaching-learning materials. To help pupils with such experiences teachers cited strategies like supplemental instruction, within-class mixing, retention, and ability grouping. Though there were concerns, teachers have a feeling of on-going and summative assessment of reading progress. Moreover, the findings indicate that teachers’ beliefs and day-to-day instructional practices are reciprocally informing and are influenced to a large extent by teachers’ own experiences, and the classroom conditions. The findings further suggest that, teacher’s beliefs were not wholly consistent with their instructional practices and the curriculum intentions. The inconsistencies could be attributed to teachers’ beliefs and socio-contextual factors within and outside classroom context such as time constraints, large classes, lack/inadequate professional training, limited curriculum guidance, and school inspectors and parents’ expectations.

    The study recommends for on-going teacher in-service training to provide teachers with the opportunities to reflect on their beliefs and practices in relation to curriculum intentions. The study also indicates a need to review the curriculum intentions, supportive environment and efforts aiming at addressing contextual factors which interrupt teaching. The review might seek to harmonise teachers’ beliefs, curriculum intentions, and insights discussed in this study as effective in promoting early reading skills.

  • 34.
    Gunnarsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Lärande i arbetslivets övergångar2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the course of the last few decades, work-life has changed and now includes a higher degree of instability and insecurity. This thesis takes this change as its starting point, aiming to understand the ways in which individuals manage involuntary work-life transitions at the workplace, in terms of learning.

    The study has a longitudinal focus, based on interviews of twelve people who used to work at the same plant. Seven of the interviewees were laid off during the financial crisis of 2008, five of them were not laid off, but continued their employment throughout the crisis. Theoretically, the approach is a combination of a pragmatic learning perspective, through which learning is seen as a kind of problem-solving activity, and a narrative perspective that provides tools with which to view stories as carriers of meaning.

    The results show that insecurity is accepted by many as a non-negotiable part of work-life. Work-life is in many aspects affected by market globalisation the discourse of employability, where the individual bears the responsibility for their personal work-life. By preparing as best they can to be financially, socially and employability-wise well equipped, the interviewees do what they can to minimize the negative effects of the bad times that are bound to come at some point. Across time, many of the interviewees are moving between different approaches to dealing with the insecurity of work-life. In the process of making meaningful strategic choices, they are involved in learning. Experience and future plans play a role in which choices are made, and thereby also form the route that is constructed by each individual as they navigate between different points in their work-life.

    The final discussion aims at pointing out the effects an insecure work-life impose on people. People tell stories of acceptance towards the instability of work-life, not because they find work-life satisfying or well-functioning, but because they need to. In order to match the qualifications of an employable individual, they cannot oppose it. In doing so they would automatically define themselves as not so flexible, not so employable. This is a result of learning in work-life transitions.

  • 35.
    Bredmar, Anna-Carin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Göteborgs universitet.
    Lärares arbetsglädje: Betydelsen av emotionell närvaro i det pedagogiska arbetet2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to explore teachers’ ‘work enjoyment’ and thereby deepening our understanding of teachers’ work and professionality. Positive emotions in teachers’ work are an underestimated and under-researched dimension of teacher practise and professionality. Through interviews that have generated the empirical material, the work enjoyment of nineteen teachers is focused on and analyzed from a phenomenological lifeworld approach. The results are presented in two parts; the first one consists of descriptions of teachers’ work enjoyment that reveal seven themes of meanings that signify joy in teachers’ work. The themes include Supporting meanings, which are mood, power source and presence awareness, as well as Widening meanings, which are context and connectedness, rhythm and balance, opening and after heat. In the second part of the result the meanings of the phenomenon are interpreted further and conclusions are drawn. The conclusions highlight the importance of the relation between lived experiences and teachers’ work enjoyment. These themes are To be present, To feel a rhythm, To be “occupied” by work, To be both personal and professional and Teachers’ work as a tapestry of life. Enjoyment of work is fundamental; i.e. like a safe floor to stand on. The experience of joy also means opening and involves an expectant foreshadowing. Based on a safe floor, teachers can open up to different options of how to be or to act. Joy as opening extends across time and space through the longing and hope that it is connected to. In times of struggle, joy enables teachers to find their way back to what is meaningful in their work. Teachers’ work enjoyment is related to the involvement in children’s development and learning. The result shows how work enjoyment provides emotional presence in teachers’ work, both letting oneself be involved by work and involving oneself in the work. Emotional responsiveness is enjoyment of work; it makes the teachers relate to their work with openness and insight. Such responsiveness contributes with sensitivity to the whole classroom situation and towards what is essential in their work, and shows how the emotional and the rational are intertwined. This study provides an understanding of the meanings of teachers’ work enjoyment and what lived experiences of joy can imply for ordinary schoolwork. Given the results of this study it is problematic that positive emotional dimensions of teachers’ work are a relatively unexplored area. The study indicates that work enjoyment is of fundamental importance to teachers’ work.

  • 36.
    Karlsson, Tom S.
    Lund University.
    Manager and civil servant: exploring actors' taken-for-granted assumptions in public administration2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manager and Civil Servant is an exploration of actors' taken-for-granted assumptions that govern perceptions concerning how public administration should be undertaken within contemporary welfare states. It is argued that more than 30 years of continuous reforms directed towards public administration have caused dilemmas to arise. These dilemmas have resulted in a shifting of balances regarding the underpinning pillars of public administration. These reforms have furthermore resulted in an emergence of challenging social systems, entailing new beliefs and practices. The question posited is "how do actors engaged in public administration make sense of the dilemma(s) they face". Theoretically, this dissertation entails institutional theory as well as Structuration Theory. These are combined in a framework, wherein agency and structure are used in order to characterise manifestations of taken-for-granted assumptions. The framework is furthermore elaborated through conceptual perspectives concerning Management as well as Civil Service in order to model a framework for public administration. Empirically, this dissertation entails a use of qualitative as well as quantitative methods. Open-ended interviews are combined with self-administered surveys, statistical analysis, and focus groups. Two important contributions are highlighted. Firstly, actors engaged in public administration reject the idea of polarisation concerning inherent public administrative activities and that the dilemma being accentuated within public administration. As such, instances of making sense are reduced due to an unconscious enactment of meanings and sanctions that reject the presence of dilemmas. Secondly, actors' ability to reject polarisation, and thus dilemma, can be explained through compartmentalising interdependent perspectives. On the one hand actors enact an internal perspective wherein instances of Management make sense. On the other hand actors enact an external perspective wherein instances of Civil Service make sense. The separation and compartmentalisation of these perspectives not only enable actors to reject dilemma, they are enabled to enact seemingly different roles at once. They become both Managers and Civil Servants.

  • 37.
    de Sa Salomao, Andre Luis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Rio de Janeiro State University.
    Occurrence and ecotoxicity of endocrine disruptor chemicals in aquatic environment and sewage treatment systems2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The applicability of one selected method for indirect measurement of vitellogenin (Vtg) in fish plasma based on the quantification of alkali-labile phosphates (ALP method) to assess estrogenicity in water was investigated. The ALP method applied in this investigation was originally developed with Carassius carassius (Crucian carps). This thesis describes the first attempt of using this method with Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia). In a first part of the investigation, laboratory studies were conducted with water spiked with 17a-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17b-estradiol (E2), and estrone (E1) in order to assess the method sensitivity. The effects of these estrogens were investigated on the basis of both load and concentration, using experimental units with two different volumes (2 L and 130 L). After validation of the method, the estrogenicity of the following contaminated waters was assessed: (i) affluent and effluent of one large conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and one small decentralized wastewater treatment plant (Decentralized Engineered Ecosystem-DEE); (ii) surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) obtained from a gasoline-contaminated marshland; (iii) samples from a urban lagoon (LRF) located in Rio de Janeiro city with high density population and clandestine sewage discharge. An additional goal of the thesis was to assess the effect (other than endocrine disruption) caused by EE2, E2 and E1 to microalgae. Assays with single and mixed estrogens and single and combined cultures (S+) of the green microalgae P. subcapitata and D. subspicatus were carried out. The results have shown that EE2 and E2 were more estrogenic and toxic than E1 to the fishes and to the microalgae respectively. Mixed solutions of estrogens (E+) in equal proportions (EE2:E2:E1) resulted in additive effect on O. niloticus and P. subcapitata and less-than-additive effect on D. subspicatus and S+ measured as ALP (for fish) and EC50 (for microalgae). Combined cultivation of both algae species and longer exposure time (96 h) resulted in attenuation of the toxic effects caused by single (EE2, E2 or E1) and mixed (E+) estrogens according to EC50 (T0h 0.07, 0.09, 0.18, and 0.06 µg mL-1; and T96h 1.29, 1.87, 5.58, and 4.61 µg mL-1, respectively). The decentralized engineered ecosystem was more efficient than the conventional WWTP regarding estrogenicity removal from the final effluent. Estrogenicity was detected in some samples of the urban lagoon (LRF) and the surface (SW) and groundwater (GW) of the gasoline-contaminated marshland. Therefore, the investigations suggested that interactions (additive and less-than additive effect) take place when different estrogens are present in the water environment and interactions also occur between algae species, which affect the final toxicity. Additionally, the study highlighted the importance of taking into account not only concentration and dose regime but also the mass load and therefore, the volume used in the experimental units, which are rarely addressed in ecotoxicity assays. Considering the good sensitivity of O. niloticus exposed to relatively low concentrations of estrogens, the combination of the ALP method with auxiliary biomarkers (particularly micronucleus-MN) can be a suitable protocol for estrogenicity and genotoxicity detection in different contaminated waters as part of water environmental monitoring programs.

     

  • 38.
    Sandberg, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    On Board the Global Workplace: Coordination and Uncertainty on Merchant Ships2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze how work and social life are coordinated on board merchant ships. The merchant ship is a global workplace where people from different nationalities come together to work and live for an extended period of time.

    The study is based on ethnographic field work on board merchant ships. The core of the study is field work on two Swedish-flagged RoRo-ships with ethnically mixed crews coming from Sweden, the Philippines and Eastern Europe. Participant observation and interviews are the two methods that have been used to generate the material.

    The empirical material shows that although the ships have a formal organization, the ships with mixed ethnic crews are in a disorderly state, a state of dissonance. The dissonance is due to a conflict between two evaluative principles. One principle refers to the Swedes’ way of doing things, which involves a flattened hierarchy and autonomous workers. The other principle refers to the Filipinos’ way of doing things, a formalized relationship between officers and crew and respect for the chain of command. These two principles sometimes come into conflict in the coordination of work tasks. The analysis also shows that social life on board is coordinated by ethnic networks, i.e. the seafarers spend their free time segregated by ethnicity. Furthermore, the results show that these two evaluative principles are in a hierarchical relationship. They form a hierarchy of worth where the Swedes’ way of doing things is seen as superior.

  • 39.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pollen-based quantitative reconstruction of land-cover change in Europe from 11,500 years ago until present - A dataset suitable for climate modelling2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The major objective of this thesis was to produce descriptions of the land vegetation-cover in Europe for selected time windows of the Holocene (6000, 3000, 500, 200, and 50 calendar years before present (BP=1950)) that can be used in climate modelling. Land vegetation is part of the climate system; its changes influence climate through biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes. Land use such as deforestation is one of the external forcings of climate change.  Reliable descriptions of vegetation cover in the past are needed to study land cover-climate interactions and understand the possible effects of present and future land-use changes on future climate.

    We tested and applied the REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites) model to estimate past vegetation in percentage cover over Europe using pollen records from lake sediments and peat bogs. The model corrects for the biases of pollen data due to intraspecific differences in pollen productivity and pollen dispersion and deposition in lakes and bogs. For the land-cover reconstructions in Europe and the Baltic Sea catchment we used 636 (grouped by 1˚x1˚ grid cells) and 339 (grouped by biogeographical regions) pollen records, respectively. The REVEALS reconstructions were performed for 25 tree, shrub and herb taxa. The grid-based REVEALS reconstructions were then interpolated using a set of statistical spatial models.

    We show that the choice of input parameters for the REVEALS application does not affect the ranking of the REVEALS estimates significantly, except when entomophilous taxa are included. We demonstrate that pollen data from multiple small sites provide REVEALS estimates that are comparable to those obtained with pollen data from large lakes, however with larger error estimates. The distance between the small sites does not influence the results significantly as long as the sites are at a sufficient distance from vegetation zone boundaries. The REVEALS estimates of open land for Europe and the Baltic Sea catchment indicate that the degree of landscape openness during the Holocene was significantly higher than previously interpreted from pollen percentages. The relationship between Pinus and Picea and between evergreen and summer-green taxa may also differ strongly whether it is based on REVEALS percentage cover or pollen percentages. These results provide entirely new insights on Holocene vegetation history and help understanding questions related to resource management by humans and biodiversity in the past. The statistical spatial models provide for the first time pollen-based descriptions of past land cover that can be used in climate modelling and studies of land cover-climate interactions in the past.

  • 40.
    Evertsson, Kim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Protein expression and modifications in denervated atrophic and hypertrophic skeletal muscle2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeletal muscle comprises about 45% of the total body weight. It is the largest tissue in the body, vital for maintaining posture, produce locomotion, breathing but also functions as a large reservoir of proteins. Regulation and maintenance of muscle mass is a delicate process and is determined by the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Following denervation skeletal muscles change their functional and structural properties. Most muscles start to lose weight due to the inactivity caused by denervation and become atrophic, whereas the hemidiaphragm initially increases in weight the first 6-10 days and becomes hypertrophic, followed by a decrease in weight. The aim of this thesis was to examine the expression and phosphorylation of factors potentially involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in denervated atrophic hind-limb muscles and in denervated hypertrophic hemidiaphragm muscles in mice. Another aim was to identify markers that could be linked to lysosomal and autophagic activities in denervated muscle.Factors of the Akt/mTOR pathway were studied and results indicative of increased protein synthesis were obtained in both denervated atrophic and hypertrophic muscles. This suggests that skeletal muscle atrophy following denervation is more likely to depend on increased protein degradation rather than an overall decrease in protein synthesis (paper I). A differential response of MK2 Thr317 phosphorylation in denervated atrophic and hypertrophic muscles was confirmed, without corresponding changes in phosphorylation of p38, indicating that other factors than p38 are responsible for this differential response, possibly Hsp70. Factors other than MK2 may be responsible for the phosphorylation of Hsp25, since increased levels of phosphorylated Hsp25 were seen in all denervated muscles studied (paper II). Results also suggested FoxO1 and MuRF1 to have potential roles in tissue remodeling that occurs after denervation (paper III). Immunoreactivity for the lysosomal marker Lamp1 and for the autophagic marker protein Lc3 was observed in characteristic ring-like structures in transverse sections of denervated muscle fibers (paper IV).  

  • 41.
    Elmlund, Louise
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    QCM-based sensing using biological and biomimetic interfaces2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis was to explore novel approaches for studying molecular recognition at biological and biomimetic surfaces using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor technique. The first two papers focused on the synthesis and study of biotin selective polymer films prepared using the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) technique. Control over polymer structure is of importance for sensor reproducibility and sensitivity, and was addressed in Paper I where a simple strategy for fabricating uniform thin biotin imprinted polymer films was employed. In Paper II the binding of biotin moieties to thin (3-5 nm) biomimetic polymer films was examined and consequences for sensor performance discussed. The potential for using QCM as a tool for assessing the binding of small peptides derived from phage display screening was presented Paper III. Here, screening of a phage peptide library against immobilized adenine resulted in candidate peptides that were studied using this technique. In Paper IV a whole cell-based biosensor was developed for studying interactions with cell membrane-incorporated targets. Epithelial cancer cells, SKOV3, were attached to QCM sensor chips and the binding of the monoclonal antibody HerceptinTM was studied. This approach demonstrates the potential of using QCM to study binding to membrane-incorporated targets, an alternative to assays based upon immobilized receptor structures lacking their natural context.

  • 42.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
    Risk of spontaneous fires at temporary storages sites for organic material, waste fuels and recyclables: Quantification and mitigation2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic and environmental constraints have created increasing demand for (material and energy recovery) and recycling of waste generated from households, commercial and industrial activities. A wide variety of materials waiting for sorting, recovery, recycling and disposal are stored at temporary storage sites (TSS) where physical, biotic and abiotic processes can lead the stored material to spontaneous ignition. Spontaneous fires at TSS are associated with severe social health economic and environmental implications.

    The objective of the present thesis was to access, quantify and mitigate the risk of spontaneous fires at temporary storage sites. It was found that during the period from 2000 to 2010, spontaneous fires have caused losses of about 49 million SEK (about 5 million Euros) to the Swedish waste and recycling industry. A comparison of two groups of waste operators (non-seasonal storage sites at private companies and seasonal storage sites at municipality owned companies) showed that the number of fire incidents per storage site was higher for the former one.

    Furthermore, it was found that there is a need to improve the behavior of environmental managers related to safety issues as a group of managers was found to be under the influence of optimism, attribution and availability biases. The managers under the influence of optimism bias preferred to follow low cost risk averting strategies and fire incidents were more frequently reported at their storage sites.

    The ArcGIS spatial analysis using Boolean and Weighted Linear Combination approach and open burn/open detonation model was used to provide the screening level guidelines for siting new storage sites with a due consideration given to potential off-site consequences of spontaneous fires on downwind population. Furthermore, experiments were conducted to investigate the combustion characteristics of MSW bales. The data suggested that the unwrapped bales might pose higher hazards for adjacently stored material to catch fire than bales wrapped with low density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic sheets. For future, interdisciplinary research with focus on technical solutions (e.g. development of performance based design using fire simulations and methods for early detection and extinction of fires) and economic, political and organizational solutions that ensure risk of spontaneous fires not to be trivialized is recommended.

    Keywords: temporary storage, risk of fires, spontaneous ignition, biofuels, recyclables, waste fuels

  • 43.
    Scaramuzzino, Gabriella
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sexsäljares och sexköpares kollektiva handlande på internet: En svensk "fuckförening"?2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to understand and explain the importance that prostitution forums have for the exercise of power and influence in the area of prostitution. It also seeks to clarify how these forums developed and were able to occur within a Swedish context. Sweden was the first country to legislate to criminalise only the buying, but not the sale, of sexual services. Social work provisions aims to get people out of prostitution. The thesis is based on an ethnographic study of the three largest Swedish prostitution forums during a two-year period. The empirical material consists of both quantitative participant and content analysis and field notes from observation of the interactions on the forums. The theoretical framework is based mainly on A Theory of Fields by Neil Fligstein and Doug McAdam. It focuses on the collective action on - and between - fields and how institutions are reproduced and changed.

     

    The results show that most of the content was published by a smaller group of actors. The interaction can be divided into the following subjects: social shims; information; negotiations and rules; advice and support; viewpoints on the forum as well as discussion on prostitution and its regulation. Moreover, the study shows that the forums enabled both sex service providers and sex clients to meet collectively, pursue common interests and discuss which rules should prevail in the prostitution market. Providers also pursued self-organised harm reduction social measures. This form of self-help was also sanctioned by a municipal prostitution unit, which can be interpreted as if it acted in a contrary direction to the government’s prostitution policy. The actors in the forums perceived themselves to be stigmatised by society, where sex service providers to a greater extent than sex clients, described a form of stigma. In the forums they could, however, feel a sense of belonging. The actors perceived themselves to be monitored by the Swedish state and they collectively self-regulated the interaction. Sex service providers and sex clients also co-operated, on occasions, with the Swedish state in order to jointly combat child prostitution, human trafficking and organised crime.

  • 44.
    Fjällström, Ann-Kristin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Signaling factors related to atrophy and hypertrophy in denervated skeletal muscle2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The human body consists of about 40 % skeletal muscles which control the body’s movement, ability to stand up, force generation, locomotion, heat production and are also the body’s protein reservoir. Muscle mass is controlled by the relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation. Atrophy, a decrease in muscle mass, can be trigged by disuse, immobilization, inflammation and cancer. Hypertrophy, an increase in muscle mass, can occur after increased mechanical load, high usage and/or anabolic stimulation. The aim of this thesis was to investigate changes in expression and post translational modifications of some factors involved in the regulation of protein synthesis and protein degradation in 6-days denervated atrophic hind-limb muscles (anterior tibial and pooled gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) and in 6-days denervated hypertrophic hemidiaphragm muscle in mice. Protein expression and post translational modifications were studied semi-quantitatively using Western blots with whole muscle homogenates and separated nuclear and cytosolic fractions from both innervated and denervated muscles.  An increase in protein synthesis after denervation in both atrophic and hypertrophic muscles was suggested after studies of factors downstream of mTOR (paper I).  Other results suggest that FoxO1 and MuRF1 (paper II) participate in the tissue remodeling that occurs after denervation. A differential response of MK2 phosphorylation in denervated hypertrophic and atrophic muscles was confirmed (paper III). An increase in phosphorylation of the MK2 substrate Hsp 25 in all denervated muscles studied (paper III) indicates that other factors than MK2 are involved in regulating this phosphorylation. eIF4G phosphorylation at S1108 was investigated (paper IV) and a decrease was observed in atrophic muscle but an increase in hypertrophic muscle. The results in this thesis suggest that there are several factors that control protein degradation and protein synthesis in denervated atrophic and hypertrophic skeletal muscles. This is an intricate labyrinth with many different cell signaling factors, the function of which are still far from fully understood.

  • 45.
    Nilsson, Lina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Social challenges when implementing Information Systems in a Swedish healthcare organization2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When the Swedish National IT Strategy for Health and Social Care was introduced in 2006, intensive work started in implementing Information Systems (IS) in Swedish healthcare organizations. To follow up on the requests for more research with a combined socio-technical focus on challenges, the overall aim of this thesis was to identify social challenges when implementing IS in a Swedish healthcare organization. Furthermore, the aim was to understand the impact of identified social challenges when implementing IS in this context by putting them in an interdisciplinary Applied Health Technology theoretical framework. Institutional ethnography and phenomenological hermeneutics influenced the study design. Study 1 aimed to investigate different meanings of accessibility when implementing Health Information Technology in everyday work practice. The results indicate that accessibility depends on working routines, social structures and patient relationship. When an IT strategy and interaction in everyday work use the same word in different ways there will be consequences. Study 2 sets out to describe experience-based reflections on discharge planning as narrated by nursing staff in primary healthcare, along with their concerns about how the introduction of video conferencing might influence the discharge planning situation. It was found that there is a need for improvement in communication and understanding between nursing staff at the hospital and in primary healthcare. The aim of study 3 was to explore social challenges when implementing IS in everyday work in a nursing context. Power (changing the existing hierarchy, alienation), Professional identity (calling on hold, expert becomes novice, changed routines), and Encounter (ignorant introductions, preconceived notions) were categories presented in the findings. The aim of study 4 was to explore and obtain a deeper understanding of how identified social challenges have an influence on the implementation process of IS, based on healthcare staff’s experiences on micro, meso and macro levels of Swedish Healthcare organizations. It was found that the challenges were related to the steps of putting into practice, making IS a part of everyday work routine and establishing an identity in the implementation process. In the thesis’s discussion, social challenges when implementing IS in Swedish healthcare organizations and how they might be met and dealt with constructively are further reflected upon in relation to the interdisciplinary theoretical framework and as possible consequences of the modernity-era. This thesis contributes to the starting up of a discussion of how ingrained professional characteristics are important to feel secure of being part of an established profession. If the characteristics are questioned, the whole professional performance is threatened. One consequence of this insight is the reinforcement of the realization that a basic understanding of IS and IS implementation processes in healthcare organizations needs to be integrated in to the construction of professional identity of nurses already from the start in nursing education.

  • 46.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    SP Wood Technology, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Videum Science Park, SE-351 96 Växjö.
    Strength grading of structural timber and EWP laminations of Norway spruce - Development potentials and industrial applications2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine strength grading of structural timber is a sawmill process by which considerable value is added to sawn products. The principle of such grading is that the strength of a timber member is predicted on the basis of a so called indicating property (IP) which, in general, represents an averaged value of the modulus of elasticity (MOE) measured over a board length of about one meter or more.

    A limitation of today’s grading methods is that the accuracy of strength predictions is often rather poor, which results in a low degree of utilization as regards structural potential of sawn timber. However, it has for many years been well known to researchers that much better strength predictions can be made by using localized MOE values, determined over a very short length, as IP. Still, the determination of such values in a sawmill production environment has been technically very difficult to achieve.

    In the research presented in this thesis, dot laser scanning with high resolution was utilized for detection of local fibre orientation on the surfaces of timber members. Since wood is an orthotropic material with superior structural performance in the longitudinal fibre direction, information about fibre orientation was, in combination with beam theory and measured wood material properties, used to determine the bending MOE variation along boards. By application of an IP defined as the lowest MOE found along a board, more accurate strength predictions than what is obtained by common commercial grading techniques was attained.

    The thesis also involves flatwise wet gluing of Norway spruce side boards into laminated beams. As side boards, being cut from the outer parts of a log, have excellent structural properties it was not surprising to find that the beams had high strength and stiffness, even when laminations of sawfalling quality were used. The possibility of grading boards in a wet state by means of axial dynamic excitation was investigated with a positive result and application of simple grading rules resulted in considerable improvement of beam bending strength. Finally, bending MOE variation determined on the basis of laser scanned fibre directions was used for identification of weak sections in laminations. Elimination of such sections by means of finger jointing showed that average lamination strength of a board sample could be improved by more than 35 percent.

  • 47.
    Lindberg, Elisabeth
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Högskolan i Borås.
    Tid för vårdande möten: Att vidmakthålla och utveckla vårdandet med patientperspektivet i fokus2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim is to examine how a patient perspective, grounded in caring science, can be preserved and developed in the context of hospital care.

     

    Methods: The first study examines attitudes towards caring science in a clinical practice. Data were collected through focus group interviews with seven nurses, three head nurses and four senior preceptors. An interpretive approach guided the study. The results called for collaboration between clinical praxis and the academy, according to how caring science can be preserved and developed. Study II–III functioned in accordance with this goal and were conducted in collaboration with a hospital ward for people over seventy-five years of age. In an attempt to develop care the patients were invited to attend a team meeting. The data in these studies were collected using interviews and observations. Fifteen patients (study II) and nine nurses (study III) who had experienced patient participation in a team meeting participated. In these studies, a reflective lifeworld approach guided the research process. Study IV is presented as a general structure and philosophical examination in the light of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty’s philosophies.

     

    Main Findings: To preserve and develop a patient perspective is strongly connected to existential issues, such as lived time, intersubjectivity and a meaningful existence. For the patients, vulnerability is exposed and increased when the need for hospital care arises. The team meeting is experienced as an emotional situation where existential dimensions need to be recognized. The nurses desire to develop caring is challenged by organizational and economic demands. Time presents both a possibility for an encounter as well as a threat to excellent care.

     

    Conclusions: There is a need to challenge narrow processes in modern health care that value the staffs’ work and the patients’ vulnerability in quantifiable measures of efficiency. The challenge is to take into account something that is invaluable - human existence.

  • 48.
    Larsson, Margaretha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Tonårsflickors hälsa: att stödja och stärka2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER GENERATED BY WOOD-BASED DRY INDUSTRIES: ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES & ELECTROCOAGULATION2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is a material with an enormous number of applications. For decades, the development of wastewater treatment technologies tailored for the wood sector has focused on those industries that have water as an integral part of the industrial production, such as paper and pulp. However, there is a large and potentially growing sector that has been neglected, which is formed by industries in which water is not part of their production line, as for example, the wood floor and furniture industries (named wood-based dry industries). These industries still produces relatively low volumes of highly polluted wastewaters, with COD up to 30,000 mg/L, due to cleaning/washing procedure (named cleaning wastewaters). These cleaning wastewaters are often sent to the municipal wastewater treatment plant after dilution with potable water. Once there, recalcitrant pollutants are diluted and discharged into recipient water bodies or trapped in the municipal wastewater sludge. Another type of contaminated water these “dry industries” often generate in high volumes, and which is usually discharged with no previous treatment, is storm-water containing contaminants that have leached from large wood storage areas. The overall aim of this thesis was to increase the level of knowledge and competence and to present on-site wastewater treatment options for wood-based dry industries using the wood floor industry as a case-study, with a focus on combined treatment methods and solutions applicable to both the cleaning wastewater and storm-water. Among the treatment technologies investigated, electrocoagulation was studied both as a standalone treatment and combined with sorption using activated carbon. The combined treatment achieved a COD reduction of approximately 70%. Some advanced oxidation processes (AOP) were also studied: a COD reduction of approximately 70% was achieved by photo-Fenton, but the most successful AOP was ozone combined with UV light, were a COD reduction around 90% was achieved, with additional improvement in the biodegradability of the treated effluent. Ozone also proved to be effective in degrading organic compounds (approximately 70% COD reduction) and enhanced the biodegradability of the storm-water runoff from wood storage areas. The results have shown that the application of ozone can be considered an option for treatment of cleaning wastewaters and possibly for storm-water biodegradation enhancement.

  • 50.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) : a maritime information service or traffic control system?: understanding everyday performance and resilience in a socio-technical system under change2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) is a shore-side maritime assistance service that supports bridge teams in their safe navigation of port approaches and other areas that present navigational difficulties. The VTS is implemented in national waters and provides vessels with information through transmissions and broadcasts on Very High Frequency (VHF) radio. With a continued growth in the number, size and cargo volumes of merchant vessels, the role of the VTS has recently become a matter of discussion, and it has been argued that changes, such as implementing an aviation-like control system, would be of an enormous benefit for stakeholders and guarantee safe and efficient traffic movements in the future. The complexity of processes in safety-critical domains, such as maritime traffic management, is increasing due to continuing technical, organisational and environmental developments. The VTS is currently undergoing drastic changes, primarily driven by strategies and projects focusing on increasing the overall efficiency of the maritime transportation system through advanced technology. To reduce the risk of unforeseen consequences, it is important to study and understand the service and its contribution to traffic management before changes are implemented. The purpose of this thesis has been to increase the overall understanding of everyday performance of the VTS system and identify ways of modelling the performance of the service, as a contribution to the ongoing debate on the future needs of maritime traffic management. The VTS is described as socio-technical system that controls and manages maritime traffic in port approaches and other areas that pose navigational difficulties for bridge teams. Field data collected through semi-structured interviews, observations and focus groups have been analysed with the aid of concepts derived from Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) and Resilience Engineering (RE) to understand how the VTS actively contributes to safety through monitoring, responding to and anticipating changes in traffic patterns in the VTS area. The data have also been used to model performance variability in everyday operation with the aid of the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM). Performance variability is necessary for a system to be adaptive, and is therefore essential for the system’s functioning. By using the FRAM, a new angle of the VTS system has been explored to understand how variability in its functional units affects the overall system performance. The thesis demonstrates the importance of understanding how performance in a socio-technical system can vary and the consequences this may have. The FRAM can be used to analyse the functional design of a socio-technical system, and therefore help to identify and assess ways in which performance variability can be monitored and managed. By understanding the functional design of the VTS system and the complexity of everyday operation, stakeholders will be able to identify advantages and disadvantages of current system design and use this to consider how future demands can best be met.

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