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• 1.
Tampere University, Finland.
Ammattilaisbyrokratiat tehokkuuden aikakaudella: tasa­painoilua asiantuntijaeetoksen ja tehokkuuspaineiden välillä2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

In this doctoral thesis, knowledge-intensive organizations – especially publicly administered Finnish universities and hospitals – are scrutinized in a situation where pressures, originating mainly outside these organizations, force them to adopt an efficiency orientation. The point of departure for the study is the notion that universities and hospitals resemble each other in several essential aspects. Consequently, in Mintzberg’s (1979) classic typology, these organizations have been perceived as the ideal examples of a structural configuration called professional bureaucracy. When applying the term “professional bureaucracy” in this thesis, it refers to publicly owned universities and hospitals unless otherwise specified. This compilation thesis consists of two parts: the latter consists of five peer-reviewed and previously published articles, while the first part – the synthesis – theoretically recapitulates these individual articles and builds the overall argumentation of the thesis. Whereas all the five articles have their respective research questions and purposes, the synthesis presents the following three aggregate research questions:

i) How have professional bureaucracies been able to adopt an efficiency orientation?

ii) Why is the adoption of an efficiency orientation difficult in professional bureaucracies?

iii) What would the adoption of an efficiency orientation in professional bureaucracies require?

It is suggested in the thesis that the adoption of an efficiency orientation in university- and hospital organizations is highly challenging. This is due to the fact that efficiency orientation, at least in the way it is perceived in the New Public Management (NPM) doctrine, has traditionally belonged neither to the operational logic of professional bureaucracies nor to the professional ethos of their expert workers. Moreover, given the challenge in defining efficiency in the case of professional bureaucracies, it is suggested in the thesis that university- and hospital organizations end up adopting solutions, structures and practices that ceremonially express efficiency rather than actually changing their traditional policies in practice. This is particularly evident in operational-level expert work.

The analysis suggests that the difficulties in adopting an efficiency orientation in professional bureaucracies are due to some institutionalized characteristics of expert work. The imperative to change these characteristics is not only questionable, but moreover would involve a lengthy and demanding process. University and hospital personnel themselves are mostly quite critical with regard to implementing efficiency factors in their expert work. However, especially in the case of hospital organizations, the goal of developing general organizational efficiency is accepted among personnel. As shown in the thesis, physicians working in hospital organizations feel particularly threatened by the prospect of losing their traditional power over hospital administration to professional managers, who are not members of the medical profession. In contrast, the main concern of scholars working in research and/or teaching roles in universities is the threat that an efficiency orientation will turn the management-by-results doctrine – in itself a questionable framework for steering universities – into management-by-quantity. In management-by-quantity, the numbers play the lead role. Worst of all, it makes no difference what is being produced; it is just essential to produce a lot and fast.

It is suggested in the thesis that a genuine adoption – in contrast to ceremonial adoption – of efficiency orientation in universities and hospitals would require a change in the professional identities and ethos of expert workers, physicians and scholars. Moreover, the genuine adoption of an efficiency orientation would also require a change in institutional logics of these professional organizations. Importantly, due to the change in institutional logics, public hospitals and universities would no longer manifest the traditional professional bureaucracy archetype, but instead some other, possibly thus far unknown, professional organization archetype.

For the time being, the efficiency pressures that public universities and hospitals face have led to changes mostly in aspects such as administration, decision-making and careers. It is suggested in the thesis that the above-mentioned changes manifest a tran-sition towards an increasing market orientation. However, it can also be interpreted that these changes are due to an evolution of the very organizational field where public universities and hospitals operate, rather than an actual change in the organizations’ institutional logic. Thus far, the changes in the operational level of professional bureaucracies have remained minor compared to those in their administration. This is important given that when it comes to operation-level expert work in professional bureaucracies, the operational core is the key part of the organization and the professionals that populate it have traditionally possessed more power than the managers at the strategic apex. Consequently, in practice, it is still the professionals and not the formally appointed managers that possess the actual power in professional bureaucracies.

However, even though the professionals still possess significant power, it is also inevitable that managerialism has curtailed collegiality and democratic decision-making, especially in universities. Moreover, changes in the managerial practices of professional bureaucracies have led to the emergence of a kind of double criteria. On the one hand, professional bureaucracies are still defined by the professions’ traditional criteria for operational productivity and quality. On the other hand, the adoption of the management-by-results doctrine has led to other kinds of criteria devised by non-professionals. It seems that the general trend is towards defining the productivity and quality of professional bureaucracies based on the criteria set by financing institutions and less by individual professionals and their professional associations.

From the perspective of professional bureaucracies’ efficiency, the practical implications of the thesis can be summarized as follows: unlike the case of professional personnel working in hospitals, the professional personnel of universities do not perceive the efficiency pressures facing their organizations as legitimate. The shortcomings of practices, procedures and legislation aimed at increasing efficiency in universities and hospitals are the consequences of legislators’, politicians’ and administrators’ inadequate understanding of the operational logic of professional bureaucracies. As a result, the endeavors to increase efficiency often result in perverse outcomes. Therefore, the operation of professional bureaucracies has become seemingly more effective, while, in practice, from the perspective of the core operations, potentially less effective. The doctrines and means used to steer professional bureaucracies should be re-evaluated. It should thus be critically assessed how suitable, in the first place, these doctrines and means are in steering expert work that is typically defined by intrinsic motivations and professional ethos. In general, due to their special nature, professional bureaucracies cannot be led top-down like most other organizations, even though this is exactly what the recent adoption of managerialistic practices is aiming towards.

• 2.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
Amning och existens: Moderskap, sårbarhet och ömsesidigt beroende vid inledande amning2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Aim: The overall aim of the thesis is to create knowledge about what it means for women to initiate breastfeeding and what consequences these meanings have from an existential perspective.

Approach and method: A lifeworld approach based on the epistemology of phenomenology and hermeneutics was used. Lifeworld interviews and meaningoriented analysis in accordance with the chosen lifeworld approach were performed. A synthesis and a philosophical analysis were carried out that facilitates an understanding of the existential meaning of initial breastfeeding and its consequences as a whole.

Main findings: Initiating breastfeeding, when it functions well, entails an existential challenge, a movement from a bodily performance to an embodied relationship with the infant and with oneself as a mother. When breastfeeding is experienced as being severely difficult, it entails an existential lostness as a mother, forcing her into a constant fight with herself, the infant, and others in order to find her way into motherhood. Severe breastfeeding difficulties can evoke existential vulnerability, forcing the mother to continue breastfeeding despite the difficulties, while hoping to be confirmed as a good mother; a fear of breastfeeding may be a consequence. Existential security is a necessary condition for continued breastfeeding whilst insecurity and fear of breastfeeding can lead to ceased attempts to breastfeed when experiencing severe initial difficulties. Initial breastfeeding and motherhood are intertwined in a way that affects the woman’s existence as a mother.

Conclusions: Initial breastfeeding is a complex phenomenon that is more than just a biological adaptation or a cultural issue; it touches on and evokes existential aspects of being a woman and a mother. Though anchored in both biology and culture, breastfeeding cannot be reduced to one or the other: it is both. There is a struggle between biology and culture that has existential consequences for women’s experiences of breastfeeding, the breastfeeding decision, and the women’s existence as a mother. There is a need for health professionals to look beyond the statistics of breastfeeding and consider the existential dimensions of breastfeeding-as-lived when encountering mothers wanting to breastfeed.

• 3.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
Att bli polis: Från utbildningens förväntningar till gatans norm2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

As the principal user of legitimate force, the police play an important role in any society. The most obvious and important task is to guarantee that rules and laws will be respected, thereby preventing society from falling into chaos. Yet another task is to safeguard the democratic rights assigned to each and every member of society by the constitution. In order to carry out its task, special powers are vested in the police. However, precisely because of the far-reaching authority given to the police, any democratic society must restrict the use of police powers in order to prevent the police from becoming too independent.

In this dissertation, the discussion of legitimate authority revolves around potential areas of conflict. For example, the need to act within the law implies the weighing of the rule of law against quick and concrete results. Second, the authority of hierarchies is challenged when an officer breaks the law. The autonomous officer typically chooses not to report the bad behavior of colleagues, while transgressions should be reported to supervisors according to the legalistic perspective.

The process and factors that come to shape the recruits’ perceptions of the police role – i.e. the idea of the purpose of police work and how those tasks are best carried out in practice – are examined by utilizing both longitudinal survey data and qualitative panel data. The first study covers two cohorts of Swedish police recruits, while the interview-study follows 24 recruits during their academy years and their initial years as sworn officers. Both studies show stable support for the legalistic perspective during academy training. However, during on-the-job training, the recruits become more positive towards non-legalistic practices. There is, for example, some effect of age and gender: young male recruits are somewhat more prone to adopt Dirty Harry-inspired measures – that is, achieving essential ends by tarnished means.

• 4.
Stockholm University.
Att samtala om texter : från träteknik och svetsteori till antikens myter: Textsamtalets möjligheter som närmaste zon för läsutveckling i en klass på gymnasiets industritekniska program2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

This doctoral dissertation reports on results from case studies of how text-talks in a Swedish upper secondary school vocational programme, function as a zone of proximal development for reading. The aim was to investigate how text-talks function as a basis for discussion about the text content and thereby have a potential for developing understanding for the subject-specific text content in the subjects of Carpentry Technology, Welding Technology and Swedish in one class in the first year of the Industrial Technology Programme. The study is qualitative with an explorative approach (Burns 2011). Ordinary teaching and learning contexts were observed. The theorectical frame work is based on sociocultural (Säljö 2000) and sociosemiotic perspectives (Halliday 1978), a hermeneutical frame consisting mainly of the concepts of the zone of proximal development (Vygotskij 1934/2001), scaffolding (Wood, Bruner & Ross 1976), dialogicity (Bachtin 1986), and pedagogical codes (Bernstein 2000), as well as an analytical frame deriving from systemic-functional linguistics (Halliday & Matthiessen 2004) and reception theory (Langer 1995, 2011a, 2011b). Three research questions were posed: How do the teachers organise and conduct the text-talks? What linguistic connections with the text are constructed when text content is introduced and developed in the text-talk? In what ways does movement in the text manifest in the text-talk? Data were collected through class-room observations and interviews. Field notes and recordings were made of eight text-talks, and three teacher interviews. Analyses of intertextual cohesion (Eggins 2004), and activity sequences (Martin & Rose 2007) were conducted. Analyses of text-based, associative and interactive text-movability (Liberg et al. 2012b) show the collaborative meeting with the text as expressed in the text-talk. The results indicate that built-out cohesion and progressive text-movability can widen the discourse around the text and thereby scaffold reading development.

• 5.
Karolinska Institutet.
Being secure in insecurity: Aspects of caring in the ambulance service2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Ambulance care focuses foremost on medical care and treatment. On the one hand the ambulance service encounters persons suffering acute and severe physical illness or injuries; conversely ambulance patients are described, as being vulnerable to more than just their illness or injury. Ambulance care is provided in an insecure environment and ambulance clinicians have to be prepared for the unexpected. The overall aim of this thesis was to gain understandings of relationships and knowledge in caring, within the ambulance service.Four studies have formed the foundation of this thesis. Three different methods were used; phenomenological hermeneutics (I-II) with individual interviews, qualitative content analysis (III) with focus group conversations and finally a Delphi method (IV). Study I aimed to elucidate the meaning of the relationship with ambulance clinicians as experienced by patients. This was to surrender in dependence of another, being secure in the hands of the ambulance clinician. The situation developed from being lonely before the arrival of the ambulance, to being cared for by the ambulance clinicians and finally being lonely again when transferred to the Emergency Department. Study II aimed to elucidate the meaning of the relationship with the ambulance clinician as experienced by significant others. This was to be lonely together and secure while sharing their lonely struggle for the affected person with the ambulance clinician. At the same time the ambulance clinician’s focus was on the affected person leaving the significant others deserted and lonely. Study III aimed to elucidate ambulance clinicians’ experiences of relationships with patients and significant others. This was encapsulated in the main category; ‘To be personal in a professional role’. Being both personal and professional were found to be intertwined aspects of the relationship. The ambulance clinicians focus on the patient and are involved in creating comfort, having a professional mission to handle their own and the patient’s safety as a priority of the care. Study IV aimed to identify and estimate desired knowledge among Swedish ambulance clinicians from the perspective of ambulance care managers. This embraced a wide spectrum, including both medical and caring knowledge. The highest ranked desirable knowledge areas were; ‘Knowledge to assess the patient’s situation from a holistic perspective’, ‘Medical knowledge to assess and care for different diseases’ and ‘Knowledge to able to care for critically ill patients’. In conclusion, the thesis unfolds a complex understanding of caring in the ambulance service, being secure in insecurity. The patients and significant others are secure in the ambulance clinicians’ presence, but insecure when lonely and powerless. Caring in the ambulance service focuses on the physical disorder, but is understood from the body’s inseparable connection to the lifeworld. Care is fixed in time and often short. The ambulance clinicians have to care for patients and significant others while simultaneously handling an insecure environment. This calls for ambulance clinicians to adopt a holistic approach to care for both patients and significant others, and to acknowledge the whole person.

• 6.
Lund University.
Breathing Life into a Standard: The configuration of resuscitation in practices of informing2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

The study inquires into how a specific piece of standardised information, namely the standard for bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), is configured in the practices of lifesaving and bystander CPR-training. Standardisation is commonly thought of as leading to uniformity and order, while practices are dynamic. They evolve and change through repeated enactments. The aim of this thesis is to explore what happens in the meeting of these two apparently conflicting phenomena, practices and standards. The study’s analytical framework is primarily based on theories of practice, previous studies of standards and a foucauldian governmentality perspective. In order to attain the aim the CPR standard is followed ethnographically and a few specific incidents of its enactment are examined in detail. The material the study is based on has been compiled by observing bystander CPR classes, interviews with participants in CPR training and documents from some of the central actors involved in this practice which develop, update and distribute guidelines. The study demonstrates how the standard in the pursuits of making CPR an intervention to be carried out by the lay public is linked to and associated with technologies, hopes and aspirations. As these diverse elements are connected to each other, additional configurations of lifesaving and resuscitation than that delineated by the standard appear. The ways in which information features and informing happens in these pursuits are diverse and shown to have implications for the shaping of a particular kind of subjects, lay rescuers. This study consequently raises questions about how standardised information is configured in practices and how diverse ways in which informing happens in practice are associated with different forms of governance.

• 7.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
Complexity and Ambivalence in Ship Safety Inspection: The view of Swedish Port state control officers2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

Despite an extensive system of Port state controls (PSC) on ships, inspection loopholes in European control functions have been reported. Furthermore, risk factors associated with fatigue, stress and a poorly developed safety culture on board ships have been identified in earlier research. These combined risk factors may pose a serious threat to maritime safety.

With this as a point of departure, this thesis aims to investigate the perceived work situation for Swedish inspectors from an inspector’s point of view concerning professional challenges, status and identity for inspectors and the perceived quality of Paris MoU inspection system and the Swedish inspection organization.

In this study, the activities of Swedish PSC inspectors are viewed as a profession and the inspectors are viewed as bureaucrats. One of the principals for bureaucracy is that its servants should exercise their authority according to the common good, be autonomous, rational, reliable and responsible. The results indicate that organizational and management reforms have put the PSC bureaucrat under pressure to become more market oriented. Due to the responsibilities inherent in the profession of inspector within the complex structure of shipping, these organizational and management reforms conflict with the PSC inspector’s autonomy and professional role.

Inspectors perceive that their expertise and integrity are vital for the success of their work. They also consider the high degree of control that the Swedish inspection organization exercises on the inspectors’ work as limiting to their autonomy and ability to make professional decisions. Some level of control may fulfil a need of support from the Swedish inspection organization, but too much control hampers the professional self-sufficiency and freedom of action. The inspectors in this study reveal considerable ambivalence towards the quality and complexity of ship safety inspections carried out in Sweden and within the Paris MoU system.

• 8.
University of Latvia, Latvia.
CONTAMINATION REMEDIATION WITH SOIL AMENDMENTS BY IMMOBILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
• 9.
Contributions to High–Dimensional Analysis under Kolmogorov Condition2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

This thesis is about high–dimensional problems considered under the so{called Kolmogorov condition. Hence, we consider research questions related to random matrices with p rows (corresponding to the parameters) and n columns (corresponding to the sample size), where p > n, assuming that the ratio $\small\frac{p}{n}$ converges when the number of parameters and the sample size increase.

We focus on the eigenvalue distribution of the considered matrices, since it is a well–known information–carrying object. The spectral distribution with compact support is fully characterized by its moments, i.e., by the normalized expectation of the trace of powers of the matrices. Moreover, such an expectation can be seen as a free moment in the non–commutative space of random matrices of size p x p equipped with the functional $\small \frac{1}{p}E[Tr\{\cdot\}]$. Here, the connections with free probability theory arise. In the relation to that eld we investigate the closed form of the asymptotic spectral distribution for the sum of the quadratic forms. Moreover, we put a free cumulant–moment relation formula that is based on the summation over partitions of the number. This formula is an alternative to the free cumulant{moment relation given through non{crossing partitions ofthe set.

Furthermore, we investigate the normalized $\small E[\prod_{i=1}^k Tr\{W^{m_i}\}]$ and derive, using the dierentiation with respect to some symmetric matrix, a recursive formula for that expectation. That allows us to re–establish moments of the Marcenko–Pastur distribution, and hence the recursive relation for the Catalan numbers.

In this thesis we also prove that the $\small \prod_{i=1}^k Tr\{W^{m_i}\}$, where $\small W\sim\mathcal{W}_p(I_p,n)$, is a consistent estimator of the $\small E[\prod_{i=1}^k Tr\{W^{m_i}\}]$. We consider

$\small Y_t=\sqrt{np}\big(\frac{1}{p}Tr\big\{\big(\frac{1}{n}W\big)^t\big\}-m^{(t)}_1 (n,p)\big),$,

where $\small m^{(t)}_1 (n,p)=E\big[\frac{1}{p}Tr\big\{\big(\frac{1}{n}W\big)^t\big\}\big]$, which is proven to be normally distributed. Moreover, we propose, based on these random variables, a test for the identity of the covariance matrix using a goodness{of{t approach. The test performs very well regarding the power of the test compared to some presented alternatives for both the high–dimensional data (p > n) and the multivariate data (p ≤ n).

• 10.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
Decision Algebra: A General Approach to Learning and Using Classifiers2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

Processing decision information is a vital part of Computer Science fields in which pattern recognition problems arise. Decision information can be generalized as alternative decisions (or classes), attributes and attribute values, which are the basis for classification. Different classification approaches exist, such as decision trees, decision tables and Naïve Bayesian classifiers, which capture and manipulate decision information in order to construct a specific decision model (or classifier). These approaches are often tightly coupled to learning strategies, special data structures and the special characteristics of the decision information captured, etc. The approaches are also connected to the way of how certain problems are addressed, e.g., memory consumption, low accuracy, etc. This situation causes problems for a simple choice, comparison, combination and manipulation of different decision models learned over the same or different samples of decision information. The choice and comparison of decision models are not merely the choice of a model with a higher prediction accuracy and a comparison of prediction accuracies, respectively. We also need to take into account that a decision model, when used in a certain application, often has an impact on the application's performance. Often, the combination and manipulation of different decision models are implementation- or application-specific, thus, lacking the generality that leads to the construction of decision models with combined or modified decision information. They also become difficult to transfer from one application domain to another. In order to unify different approaches, we define Decision Algebra, a theoretical framework that presents decision models as higher order decision functions that abstract from their implementation details. Decision Algebra defines the operations necessary to decide, combine, approximate, and manipulate decision functions along with operation signatures and general algebraic laws. Due to its algebraic completeness (i.e., a complete algebraic semantics of operations and its implementation efficiency), defining and developing decision models is simple as such instances require implementing just one core operation based on which other operations can be derived. Another advantage of Decision Algebra is composability: it allows for combination of decision models constructed using different approaches. The accuracy and learning convergence properties of the combined model can be proven regardless of the actual approach. In addition, the applications that process decision information can be defined using Decision Algebra regardless of the different classification approaches. For example, we use Decision Algebra in a context-aware composition domain, where we showed that context-aware applications improve performance when using Decision Algebra. In addition, we suggest an approach to integrate this context-aware component into legacy applications.

• 11.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
Den regionala transformationsprocessens sociala dimension: Karlskrona 1989-20022015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

How can we understand places and their development processes from a social perspective? The aim of this case study is to understand the emergence of an IT-industry in Karlskrona between 1989-2002 from a social capital perspective. Historically, the production and the form of life of the population in Karlskrona, has been characterized by the fact that Karlskrona is a naval city, which for several centuries has had a naval base and a naval ship yard. Karlskrona is also an interesting case to study because of the stagnation in the economy and the insignificant prospects for industrial renewal in the late 1980s. Despite these conditions, something happens that for a short period of time changes the local structure both in terms of production and population. How can we understand the social dimension of such a change?

In a narrated form this case study highlights how the transformation of Karlskrona contain both bridging and bonding forms of social relations. The main purpose of this dissertation is accordingly to understand which networks of relations the key participants of the study are a part of and get resources from. The study also aim to highlight structures for action around the development of the IT-industry in relation to the ties that bind in the already established industrial specialization in Karlskrona, in other words the lasting relationships tied to the naval base, the navy and the naval yard. From this viewpoint questions are asked regarding what kind of social relations appear, both in the new and the old Karlskrona, and what it is in particular that characterizes the new social capital that makes up the key participants room to manoeuvre in the process of transformation for Karlskrona.

The phenomenon where the place Karlskrona appears as socially divided between exchanges within the context of the new and the already established industry, is illustrated as two pillars of social capital. The pillars are assumed to be separated at the beginning of the transformation, and then they change as people live their lives and are included in new types of exchanges with each other. From the case specific study of the transformation of Karlskrona between 1989-2002, other, more general analytical connections are made in the discussion about how the dynamics of the transformation could be made possible, and why it stopped. From the theoretical viewpoint of social capital the dissertation follows a discussion about the lessons which can be learnt regarding the question how we can view places and their transformation processes. The conclusions particularly emphasize the importance of how newcomers can contribute as well as the crucial role held by border crossers when it comes to

create linking social capital of the place.

• 12.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
Diffuse emissions from goods: influences on some societal end products2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

End products of society (e.g. sewage sludge and incineration ashes) can be used as indicators of the use of chemicals in consumer goods. Through upstream work the sources of substances released from goods may be identified before the emissions reach the end products.

This thesis is a result of five studies, of which four were conducted using substance flow analyses (SFA) for silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi) and copper (Cu) reaching sewage sludge. The fifth is an SFA that explores the implications of the presence of As (from CCA-treated wood) in ashes. These studies helped fulfil the specific and overall aims of the thesis; to contribute to the general knowledge on diffuse emissions reflected in end products, by examining emissions of some heavy metals from various societal goods and the implications for end products, in this case sewage sludge and, to some extent, ashes.

The results from the studies, of which four had Stockholm as a study object, show the urban flows and accumulated amounts (stocks) of the heavy metals. The largest sources of the metals Ag, Bi and Cu in sewage sludge were identified to be textiles (Ag), cosmetics (Bi) and brake linings (Cu). For As (in CCA-treated wood) and Cu updated SFAs were performed and compared with earlier studies in order to follow the development and changes in flows over time.

The current use of the heavy metals studied can also be seen as a loss of resources, and as the metals should ideally be recovered as a part of a circular economy, urban and landfill mining as well as recycling are alternatives that need further exploring. The legislation of chemicals in consumer goods was identified as an important step in handling corresponding diffuse emissions.

• 13.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Essays on discrimination in the marketplace2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

This thesis is composed of four self-contained papers and focuses on discrimination in themarket place.

Essay 1: “Disability Discrimination in the Rental Housing Market – A Field Experiment onBlind Tenants.” Although discrimination against disabled people has been investigated inthe labor market, the housing market has received less attention in this regard. This paperfocuses on the latter market and investigates whether blind tenants assisted by guide dogsare discriminated against in the rental housing market. The data are collected through afield experiment in which written applications were sent in response to onlineadvertisements posted by different types of advertisers. I find statistically significantevidence that one type of online advertiser, that is, the apartment owner (i.e., a person whoadvertises and rents out his/her own apartment(s) on his/her own), discriminates againstblind tenants, because of the presence of the guide dog, not because of the disability.According to the legislation, this behavior qualifies as illegal discrimination.

Essay 2: “Does the design of correspondence studies influence the measurement of discrimination?”(co-authored with Carlsson and Rooth). Correspondence studies can identify the extent ofdiscrimination in hiring as typically defined by the law, which includes discriminationagainst ethnic minorities and females. However, as Heckman and Siegelman (1993) show,if employers act upon a group difference in the variance of unobserved variables, thismeasure of discrimination may not be very informative. This issue has essentially beenignored in the empirical literature until the recent methodological development byNeumark (2012). We apply Neumark’s method to a number of already publishedcorrespondence studies. We find the Heckman and Siegelman critique relevant forempirical work and give suggestions on how future correspondence studies may address thiscritique.

Essay 3: “Does Labor Market Tightness Affect Ethnic Discrimination in Hiring?” (co-authoredwith Carlsson and Rooth). In this study, we investigate whether ethnic discriminationdepends on labor market tightness. While ranking models predict a negative relationship,the prediction of screening models is ambiguous about the direction of the relationship.Thus, the direction of the relationship is purely an empirical issue. We utilize three (butcombine into two) correspondence studies of the Swedish labor market and two distinctlydifferent measures of labor market tightness. These different measures produce very similarresults, showing that a one percent increase in labor market tightness increases ethnicdiscrimination in hiring by 0.5-0.7 percent, which is consistent with a screening model.This result stands in sharp contrast to the only previous study on this matter, Baert et al.(forthcoming), which finds evidence that supports a ranking model.

Essay 4: “Relative Age Effect on Labor Market Outcomes for High Skilled Workers – Evidencefrom Soccer.” In sports and education contexts, children are divided into age groups that arearbitrary constructions based on admission dates. This age-group system is thought todetermine differences in maturity between pupils within the same group, that is, relative904627 Luca Furmaco_inl.indd 5 2015-02-24 16:58age (RA). In turn, these within-age-group maturity differences produce performance gaps,that is, relative age effects (RAEs), which might persist and affect labor market outcomes. Ianalyze the RAE on labor market outcomes using a unique dataset of a particular group ofhigh-skilled workers: soccer players in the Italian major soccer league. In line with previousstudies, evidence on the existence of an RAE in terms of representativeness is found,meaning that players born relatively early in an age group are over-represented, whileplayers born relatively late are under-represented, even accounting for specific populationtrends. Moreover, players born relatively late in an age group receive lower gross wages thanplayers born relatively early. This wage gap seems to increase with age and in the quantileof the wage distribution.

• 14.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Essays on Segregation, Gender Economics, and Self-employment2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

This thesis consists of four empirical essays on the topics of ethnic segregation, gender economics, and self-employment.

Essay I investigates how the residential mobility of Sweden's native population contributes to ethnic segregation, by applying regression discontinuity methods. The results show that the growth in the native population in a neighbourhood discontinuously drops as the share of non-European immigrants exceeds the tipping point. Tipping is driven by the departure of natives and their avoidance of tipped neighbourhoods. Tipping behaviour is selective in the sense that highly educated and high earning natives are more likely to leave neighbourhoods that have tipped.

Essay II studies the relationship between the childhood neighbourhood's ethnic composition and economic outcomes in adulthood for second-generation immigrant sand natives. The results reveal that a high concentration of immigrants in aneighbourhood is associated with a lower probability of second-generation immigrants continuing to higher education. Natives' earnings and educational attainment are negatively correlated with, and the probability of social assistance and unemployment are positively associated with a high immigrant concentration. Among non-Nordic second-generation immigrants, reliance on social assistance and unemployment are negatively correlated with the share of co-ethnics and positively associated with the proportion of other ethnic groups.

Essay III explores the role of social norms and attitudes about gender for labour market outcomes of immigrant men and women in Sweden. The results show that immigrants originating from countries with large gender disparities in labour force participation also have large gender gaps in labour force participation within their immigrant group on the Swedish labour market. In contrast, source country gender differences in earnings are not correlated with gender gaps in earnings within immigrant groups in Sweden. In addition, gender gaps in labour force participation among immigrants assimilate towards the corresponding gap among natives as time inSweden increases.

Essay IV empirically tests the Jack-of-all-trades theory, which states that individuals who are more balanced in their abilities are more suitable for self-employment. Using Swedish Military Enlistment data, a measure of balance in endowed abilities is constructed and this balance measure is, in relation to previous research, less likely tobe endogenous. The results support the Jack-of-all-trades theory, in the sense that propensity for being or becoming self-employed is greater for individuals with abalanced set of abilities. In addition, earnings from self-employment tend to be higher among individuals with a balanced set of skills.

• 15.
Malmö university, Sweden.
Fotboll från Mielke till Merkel: Kontinuitet, brott och förändring i supporterkultur i östra Tyskland2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

Football from Mielke to Merkel. Continuity, Discontinuity and Alteration in Fan Culture in East(ern) Germany The objective of the thesis is to examine the dialectical relationship between identity formation among football fans in East(ern) Germany on the one hand and the political, social and political changes in the GDR and Germany from 1965 to 2015 on the other. In the thesis I examine how various dichotomies and paradoxes such as unity and division, east and west, empowerment and disempowerment and success and failure on the football field have influenced identification with football clubs. The thesis rests on two foundations. The first one is the historical and social context, which football fan culture is part of: East(ern) Germany before and after the German re-unification. The second foundation, and arguably the most important one, is the voices of the interviewed football fans and their narratives on the importance of football. The thesis is based on empirical data from interviews and participating observations carried out with football fans of BFC Dynamo, FC Erzgebirge Aue, 1. FC Magdeburg and 1. FC Union Berlin. In the thesis I argue that identity formation can be understood in the light of three different narrative levels. The first level is linked to hegemonic discourses that emanate from state, ideologies and economic, social and political structures. The second level deals with narratives of local or regional communities, such as a football club and its connection to place. The third level, finally, is the individual narrative and its relation to the first and second levels. In the thesis I make use of discourse theories to demonstrate how intimately linked identity formation and narratives are and how hegemonic discourses both circumscribe and render identities possible. Since changes in East(ern) Germany serve as a background for analysing identity formation in fan culture, nation and power are used as analytical tools to distinguish different discourses and structures which influence identities and narratives. The study demonstrates how football fan culture in the GDR was characterized by a certain amount of freedom. To some extent this was both tolerated and encouraged by the GDR authorities. However, from the 1970’s football fans were quite often positioned as troublesome by the GDR-regime. Hence football stadiums have been looked upon as venues for political protests that paved the way for the demise of the GDR and German re-unification. Admittedly, the narratives of the fans confirm that the crowds occasionally articulated discontent with the GDR. The interviewees, however, also claim that football did not have the political function that the Evangelical Church or Neues Forum had. The narratives reveal that football lost its importance during die Wende. New structures and hegemonic discourses challenged established social practices and structures of East(ern) Germany. The merger of the two German football associations resulted in a subordinate position for the former GDR clubs and their fans. As a result, the issues of both nation and power became important aspects of fan culture. The study reveals East(ern) Germany identities that did not exist in the GDR. The remaining inequality between clubs from east and west and reactions to west German prejudices on football fans from East(ern) Germany are examples of how East(ern) German identities have come to the fore after 1990. Although the narratives reveal different and changing identifications with East(ern) Germany they still emphasize an appreciation of being part of a unified Germany. Football fan culture in East(ern) German is a rare cultural phenomenon that constructs coherent narratives, connecting the GDR with the Federal Republic. By studying how these narratives are constructed one avoids interpreting the GDR as an anomaly in German history. Thus, the thesis contributes with new knowledge regarding fan culture as well as the German re-unification from an East(ern) German perspective.

• 16.
Uppsala University.
Frihetens rike: Wikipedianer om sin praktik, sitt produktionssätt och kapitalismen2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

This study is about voluntary productive activities in digital networks and on digital platforms that often are described as pleasur­able. The aim of the study is to relate the peer producers’ perceptions of their activities on a micro level in terms of play, game, work and labour, to their views on Wikipedia’s relation to capitalism on a macro level, to compare the identified ideological formations on both levels and how they relate to each other, and finally compare the identi­fied ideological formations with contemporary Marxist theory on cognitive capitalism. The intention is to perform a critical evaluation of the economic role of peer production in society.Qualitative and semi-structured interviews with eight Wikipedians active within the Swedish language version of Wikipedia con­stitute the empirical base of the study together with one public lecture by a Wikipedian on the encyclopaedia and a selection of pages in the encyclopaedia that are text analysed. The transcribed interviews have been analysed using a version of ideological analysis as it has been developed by the Gothenburg School. The views on the peer producing activities on the micro level has been analysed in a dialecti­cal way but is also grounded in a specific field model.Six ideological formations are identified in the empirical material. On the micro level: the peripheral, bottom-up- and top-down-formation, on the macro level: the Californian alikeness ideology, communism of capital and capitalism of communism. Communism of capital has two sides to it: one stresses the synergies and the other the conflicts between the two phenomena. The formations on the macro level conform broadly to contemporary Marxist theory, but there are important differ­ences as well. The study results in a hypothesis that the critical side of communism of capital and the peripheral and bottom-up-formation could help to further a more sustainable capitalism of communism, and counteract a deeper integra­tion of the top-down-formation with Californian alikeness ideology. The latter is the main risk of capitalist co-optation of the peer produc­tion that is underway as the manifestly dominant formations on the macro level are Californian alikeness ideology and communism of capital.

• 17.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
Hur gick det sen?: Om tidigare bidragsmottagare ur ett livsloppsperspektiv2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

The aim of this dissertation is to shed light on how life can turn out for individuals with long term social assistance and afterwards when it has ceased. The primary objective of the dissertation is to study the changes that have occurred during the life course and the impact of those changes on the life course at large. A key question of this dissertation is the development of selfsufficiency and work-life patterns in a longitudinal perspective.

The dissertation consists of a longitudinal study based on qualitative interviews with an interval of 20 years. The empirical data is composed of interviews with 11 recipients of social assistance – seven of which have been interviewed again in 2008/2009. A life course perspective is employed in the data analysis as a comprehensive approach and analytical tool. Other analytical approaches are related to the impact of the welfare state on the life course and to the term marginality.

The situation of the interviewed group regarding self-sufficiency, employment and social conditions is viewed from a one-year perspective, a 20- year perspective and a life course perspective. The different time perspectives generated widely diverse pictures and nowledge. Not everyone worked at the point of the last interview but all were in a better social and economical position. No one remained on social assistance. One conclusion is that the notion of social problems being reinforced and exacerbated over time is simplistic. Another conclusion is that it appears that social assistance and social services have little importance from a life course perspective. A concluding result is that cross-sectional studies of individuals in a vulnerable situation are of limited value. A brief look at a person’s life does not say much of what the rest of his or her life will look like.

Keywords: Life course, long term social assistance, social welfare services, human agency, timing, social integration, notions of social problems, welfare state, marginality.

• 18.
Högskolan Väst.
Improved CWM platform for modelling welding procedures and their effects on structural behaviour2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

A welding procedure specification is the document describing how a weld joint should be constructed. Arc weld processes are characterized by transient thermal behavior, leading to rapid changes in material properties and dynamic interaction between weld and base material. The objective of the project is to explore how the use of an improved CWM-platform affects representative stress and strain fields in order to assess welding procedure qualification records. Forthis project, the accumulated thermal and mechanical influences from the first run to the final run are brought forward, in one and the same meshed geometrical model. Both the thermal and mechanical material model of the platform are designed to be used for modelling of the base- and weld material,promoting the simulation of the intricate combination of the thermal, elastic,and plastic strains on the plastic strain hardening and the formation of residual stress fields. The output of the simulation is mainly weld cooling times, residual stresses, and deformations. This analysis is taken further by examining how residual stresses influence crack driving force under elastic and plastic loading. In addition, the output from the simulations can be used to assess the realism of the proposed welding parameters. The main experimental welding procedure examined comes from the IIW RSDP Round Robin Phase II benchmark project, where the main aim was to benchmark residual stress simulations. This work was found to contain many applicable challenges of a CWM-analysis project.

• 19.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.

The efficiency of business incubators is disputed, but they have attracted significant attention from policy-makers and are a part of economic policies worldwide. To ensure their efficiency, it has been suggested that more involvement in the ventures by the incubator management would be beneficial. The purpose of this thesis was to inquire into the relationship between entrepreneurial processes and managerial practices in business incubation. Drawing upon research about entrepreneurial processes and the management of entrepreneurship and creativity in other organizational contexts, the thesis problematizes the suggestions of increased managerial interventions in entrepreneurial processes in business incubation.

The purpose was achieved through an analysis of entrepreneurial narratives from two Swedish incubators with different levels of managerial involvement in their ventures. The theoretical frame of reference used for the narrative analysis was based on Mikhail Bakhtin’s concepts for studying varying possibilities and groundings for becoming in narratives. Entrepreneurship is understood as a creative process characterized by dialogue, polyphony and carnival, which has implications for our understanding of business incubation as a phenomenon.

The narrative analysis generated four genres of entrepreneurial narratives and two models of incubation with different conceptualizations of entrepreneurship, the role of the incubator management and the incubation process. The result from the analysis of the incubator management from a creative process view was that the managerial approaches to coaching and clustering favored by the two incubators had different implications for entrepreneurship by providing varying possibilities for creativity due to aspects such as control, standardization and specialization. This study shows that business incubation, regardless of the model, includes a larger variety of entrepreneurial processes than previously recognized.

This study contributes to our understanding of how managerial involvement in business incubation is conducted in practice and how it is understood from the entrepreneur’s perspective. The theoretical contribution of this study is a Bakhtinian framework, which allows us to observe and to understand business incubation differently. The study shows how the Bakhtinian concepts can be adapted and be made useful in studying the relationship between entrepreneurship and management in business incubation by emphasizing entrepreneurship as the product of social interaction.

• 20.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
Interaction between biomaterials and innate immunity with clinical implications2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Today there is an increasing clinical demand and expectation of patients for biomaterials, which underscores the importance of discovering the correlations between biomaterials and biological systems, especially blood. When an artificial material makes contact with blood, the first event is a rapid adsorption of plasma protein on the material surface, on top of which the innate immune system is triggered, with potentially detrimental consequences. The work presented in this thesis, reported in four papers, was designed to investigate complications associated with (a) biomaterial-induced immune systems, including activation mechanisms and crosstalk between cascades on the biomaterial surface, and with (b) clinical investigations.

In Paper I and Paper II, a series of studies led to the development of a direct prediction of the subsequent biological events based on the pattern of initially bound proteins. A reciprocal relationship was demonstrated between activation of the contact system and the complement system when they were induced on artificial material surfaces. Based on these studies, a robust and simple method for biocompatibility testing was proposed and validated, yielding high specificity and sensitivity when compared to today’s gold standard. Paper III investigated biomaterial-induced activation of complement and leukocytes in dialysis treatment-related conditions. The results suggested that citrate is more biocompatible than the conventionally used acetate. This reduction in activation could be further enhanced with higher citrate concentrations, suggesting that dialysis fluid containing citrate is a promising alternative to acetate dialysis fluid. Paper IV investigated complement initiation mechanisms with clinical implications. An experimental system was set up to revisit the initiation of the complement alternative pathway, and correlations were found between chaotropic or nucleophilic agents and iC3 generation under physiologically relevant conditions. A clinical study of hepatic encephalopathy patients indicated a direct correlation between elevated plasma ammonia and iC3 formation, as well as with complement activation in vivo

Taken together, these studies have provided a model for a robust biomaterial test and have investigated biomaterial-induced complications in the fluid phase in clinically related conditions; furthermore, the basic mechanisms of complement activation have been dissected in relation to disease symptoms.

Keywords: Complement system, contact system, blood, biomaterials, biocompatibility, in vitro screening, iC3, dialysis

• 21.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
Kultur och utbildning: – en tolkning av två grundskolors mångkulturella kontexter2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

This dissertation deals with the sort of culture that forms the organization of education and its contents of two multicultural nine-year compulsory schools. The analysis is based on ethnographic work on the municipal school Tallskolan and the free independent Muslim school Jibrilskolan. To illustrate the sorts of social integration offered by Tallskolan and Jibrilskolan and explain whence they came, I have used Alexander’s (2006) conception of incorporation and civilsphere. In relation to the concepts, landscapes of meaning and systems of meaning (Reed, 2011) I ask what they can tell us about the expectations which members of society direct towards themselves, and in particular pupils with an immigrant background and the multicultural schools which they expect to help them into society.The result shows that the prioritizing of Tallskolan's school heads and the municipality changes at the same rate as that of the social geography of the residential district. School politics have tried in different ways to desegregatethe pupils through closing down the intermediate school stage and offeringschool attendance at other schools, but have failed due to parental protest.Overall changes that have been realised during the latter period is a drive to give further educational training to teachers of Swedish as a second language. When looked at through the theoretic concepts of the dissertation these priorities mirror an adaptation to society's main cultural practice. The result for Jibrilskolan shows that the school prioritizes the development of the pupils' Muslim identity and their self-confidence. The school consists of teachers with both Swedish and Muslim backgrounds. The actual teaching activates different opinions as to the degree that religion influences the teaching. Divergent opinions are overruled, however, as teachers with a Swedish background see that Islam can also be used as a resource. The Muslim teachers help the teachers with a Swedish background to explain and convince the Muslim parents to let their children participate in activities which they otherwise would probably not have done. Based on the theoretic concepts of the dissertation the prioritizing mirrors a great variety of different perspectives on knowledge, values and norms.

• 22.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
Magnetic solotronics near the surface of a semiconductor and a topological insulator2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Technology where a solitary dopant acts as the active component of an opto-electronic device is an emerging  field known as solotronics, and bears the promise to revolutionize the way in which information is stored, processed and transmitted. Magnetic doped semiconductors and in particular (Ga, Mn)As, the archetype of dilute magnetic semiconductors, and topological insulators (TIs), a new phase of quantum matter with unconventional characteristics, are two classes of quantum materials that have the potential to advance spin-electronics technology. The quest to understand and control, at the atomic level, how a few magnetic atoms precisely positioned in a complex environment respond to external stimuli, is the red thread that connects these two quantum materials in the research presented here.

The goal of the thesis is in part to elucidate the properties of transition metal (TM) impurities near the surface of GaAs semiconductors with focus on their response to local magnetic and electric fields, as well as to investigate the real-time dynamics of their localized spins. Our theoretical analysis, based on density functional theory (DFT) and using tight-binding (TB) models, addresses the mid-gap electronic structure, the local density of states (LDOS) and the magnetic anisotropy energy of individual Mn and Fe impurities near the (110) surface of GaAs. We investigate the effect of a magnetic field on the Mn acceptor LDOS measured in cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy, and provide an explanation of why the experimental LDOS images depend weakly on the field direction despite the strongly anisotropic nature of the Mn acceptor wavefunction. We also investigate the effects of a local electrostatic field generated by nearby charged As vacancies, on individual and pairs of ferromagnetically coupled magnetic dopants near the surface of GaAs, providing a means to control electrically the exchange interaction of Mn pairs. Finally, using the mixed quantum-classical scheme for spin dynamics, we calculate explicitly the time evolution of the Mn spin and its bound acceptor, and analyze the dynamic interaction between pairs of ferromagnetically coupled magnetic impurities in a nanoscaled semiconductor.

The second part of the thesis deals with the theoretical investigation of a single substitutional Mn impurity and its associated acceptor state on the (111) surface of Bi2Se3 TI, using an approach that combines DFT and TB calculations. Our analysis clarifies the crucial role played by the spatial overlap and the quasi-resonant coupling between the Mn-acceptor and the topological surface states inside the Bi2Se3 band gap, in the opening of a gap at the Dirac point. Strong electronic correlations are also found to contribute significantly to the mechanism leading to the gap, since they control the hybridization between the p orbitals of nearest-neighbor Se atoms and the acceptor spin-polarization. Our results explain the effects of inversion-symmetry and time-reversal symmetry breaking on the electronic states in the vicinity of the Dirac point, and contribute to clarifying the origin of surface-ferromagnetism in TIs. The promising potential of magnetic-doped TIs accentuates the importance of our contribution to the understanding of the interplay between magnetic order and topological protected surface states.

• 23.
University of Gothenburg.
"Me voy pal Norte": La configuración del sujeto migrante indocumentado en ocho novelas hispanoamericanas actuales (1992-2009)2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

This study explores the representation of the undocumented migrant in the contemporary Latin American novel. Clandestine crossings have long been a theme in Mexican and Chicano literature, often narrated from a highly nationalistic working-class stance, but it is here argued that recent literary production on this problematic is significantly more heterogeneous.

The aim of the present work is to examine, compare and systematize the configuration of the migrant subject in a corpus of eight novels published in the 1990s and the 2000s, which focus on the current phenomenon of unauthorized Latin American migration to the United States. The study’s main concern is to scrutinize how this subject is depicted and how the different elements that comprise the affiliated identity formation suffer from transformation as the rendered characters move from one cultural setting to another. In order to achieve this, a second aim in effect becomes to inductively establish a methodology for the narrative study of the shaping of the migrant subject in and by movement as such.

Drawing on the decentering of the human subject as well as positional, relational and intersectional approaches to identity in recent postcolonial and feminist theory, a model is elaborated for the study of the geographic figurations of identity and subjectivity in the novels according to four analytic stages of the process of migration: the anticipatory moment in the South; the crossings of material and metaphorical borders; the intercultural contact with the North; and the contrast between the experiences of migration and the mnemonic processes linked by close bonds to the homeland.

The ensuing analyses demonstrate that there is not one migrant subject represented in the texts, but a plurality of different subjects that acquire coherence and historical continuity by being inserted into the metanarrative of the Promised Land. Situated in a dialogic exchange between continuity and change, three main directions crystallize among the novels: the tendency of a return to roots, the tendency of a rupture with the past, and the exaltation of hybridity. The stress of the material aspect of the border and the subjective accounts of the human consequences of the undocumented condition as an extended liminal position are identified as the main constituents of this literature. A tension between pro-immigrant sympathies and a ludic sensibility toward stereotyped representations of Hispanics and Anglo Americans is also displayed.

• 24.
Lund University.
Medierande verktyg i körledarpraktik: en studie av arbetssätt och handling i körledning med barn och unga2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

In Sweden, approximately 5 % of the population sing in a choir or a singing group which means that about 500 000 people plus a number of choral conductors regularly meet in choir related practices. The aim of the present study is to describe, verbalize and make visible the mediating tools used by choir directors working with children and youth. The study is qualitative in character: four choir directors were observed closely while working with their children and youth choirs. They also took part in semi-structured interviews. The empirical data material consists of observation notes, reflective writing, individual interviews, focus conversations, videotapes and stimulated recall interviews.The results demonstrate that the role of the choir director is complex. When working with a choir, choir directors often use several aspects of their professional role. Analysed from a sociocultural perspective, the result points at eight categories of working approaches: (a) A listening attitude towards the choir, with the music in focus; (b) a variation in ways of working with the choir; (c) the use of musical routines; (d) the choir director acting as a role model in shaping musical expression with the group; (e) a concentrated cooperation with the choir through short and expressive commands and instructions; (f) reflection in practice by planning and self-evaluation; (g) storytelling, which results in memory training, stimulation of the imagination and the sharing of common experience, and (h) the use of target images expressed as visions, goals or jointly stated, communicated targets. These categories are generated through the analysis of the choir directors’ actions and activities in their work with the choirs. This is situated in choir singing as a social and cultural practice. The participants display great individual variation in their choices of strategies for communication and in their decision-making when working with children’s and youth choirs. A large variety of cultural and mediating tools are used. The working approaches and mediating tools become available in a social, situated and cultural practice. In conclusion, choral conducting with children and youth involves a great variety of negotiations and renegotiations of working approaches and mediating tools.

• 25.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
Microalgae - future bioresource of the sea?2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Unicellular microalgae are a renewable bioresource that can meet the challenge forfood and energy in a growing world population. Using sunlight, CO2, nutrients,and water, algal cells produce biomass in the form of sugars, proteins and oils, allof which carry commercial value as food, feed and bioenergy. Flue gas CO2 andwastewater nutrients are inexpensive sources of carbon and fertilizers. Microalgaecan mitigate CO2 emissions and reduce nutrients from waste streams whileproducing valuable biomass.My focus was on some of the challenging aspects of cultivating microalgae ascrop: the response of biomass production and quality to seasonality, nutrients andbiological interactions. Approach spans from laboratory experiments to large-scaleoutdoor cultivation, using single microalgal strains and natural communities insouthern (Portugal) and northern (Sweden) Europe.Half of the seasonal variation in algal oil content was due to changes in light andtemperature in outdoor large-scale cultures of a commercial strain (Nannochloropsisoculata). Seasonal changes also influence algal oil composition with more neutrallipids stored in cells during high light and temperature. Nitrogen (N) stress usuallyenhances lipid storage but suppresses biomass production. Our manipulationshowed that N stress produced more lipids while retaining biomass. Thus,projecting annual biomass and oil yields requires accounting for both seasonalchanges and N stress to optimize lipid production in commercial applications.Baltic Sea microalgae proved to be a potential biological solution to reduce CO2emissions from cement flue gas with valuable biomass production. A multi-speciescultivation approach rather than single-species revealed that natural or constructedcommunities of microalgae can produce equivalent biomass quality. Diversecommunities of microalgae can offer resilience and stability due to more efficientresource utilization with less risk of contamination, less work and cost for culturemaintenance.Stable algal biomass production (annual basis) was achieved in outdoor pilot-scale(1600 L) cultivation of Baltic Sea natural communities using cement flue gas as aCO2 source. Results indicate favorable algal oil content at northern Europeanlatitudes compared to southern European latitudes.My thesis establishes the potential of cultivating microalgae as a bioresource inScandinavia, and using a community approach may be one step towardssustainable algal technology.

• 26.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
Migratory behaviour and adaptive divergence in life-history traits of pike (Esox lucius)2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Population divergence shaped by natural selection is central to evolutionary ecology research and has been in focus since Darwin formulated “The origin of species”. Still, the process of adaptive divergence among sympatric populations is poorly understood. In this thesis I studied patterns of adaptive divergence among subpopulations of pike (Esox lucius) that are sympatric in the Baltic Sea but become short-term allopatric during spawning and initial juvenile growth in freshwater streams. I also examined causes and consequences of phenotypic variation among individuals within subpopulations to evaluate the contribution of natural selection to population divergence.

I first investigated homing behaviour and population structures of pike to assess the potential for adaptive divergence among sympatric pike that migrate to spawn in different streams. Mark-recapture data suggested that migrating pike displayed homing behaviour and repeatedly returned to the same stream. Analyses of microsatellite data revealed partial reproductive isolation among subpopulations spawning in different streams. These subpopulations, however, were truly sympatric during the life-stage spent in the Baltic Sea.

To address whether short-term allopatry has resulted in adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations I combined observational, experimental and molecular approaches. Observational data showed that subpopulations differed in morphological and life-history traits and common-garden experiments suggested that differences were, at least in part, genetically based. Moreover, QST-FST comparisons indicated that genetically based phenotypic differences has been driven by divergent selection, and a reciprocal translocation experiment showed that phenotypic variation represented local adaptations to spawning habitats. Finally, longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons among individuals revealed associations between phenotypes, performance and fitness components.

In conclusion, my thesis illustrates how short-term allopatry due to migratory behaviour can result in adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations. These findings advance the understanding of evolutionary processes at the finest spatiotemporal scale and illustrate that local adaptations can arise in environments with high connectivity.  The results also emphasise that fine spatial scale population structures must be taken into consideration in management and conservation of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

• 27.
Uppsala University.
Mind the gap: organizational factors related to transfers of older people between nursing homes and hospital care2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

The overall aim of the present thesis was to study factors related to transfers of older people between nursing homes, emergency department and hospital care.

The thesis was based on four studies and used three methods: focus group discussions, structured review of electronic healthcare records, semi-structured interviews with registered nurses and general practitioners.

Study I: nursing home nurses found it difficult to decide whether older residents should be referred to hospital from the nursing home. Hospital registered nurses reported often trying to stop premature discharges or having to carry out the discharge although it had not been fully prepared. Study II: transfer rate to ED was 594 over 9 months among a total of 431 residents (M 1.37 each). 25% were caused by falls and/or injuries, 63% resulted in hospitalization (M 7.12 days). The transfer rate was 0.00-1.03 transfers/bed; it was higher for private for-profit providers than for public/private non-profit providers. Study III: nursing homes with high transfer rates had fewer updated advance care plans than did nursing homes with lower transfer rates. More nurses from nursing homes with low transfer rates had a specialist education and training in dementia care and had worked longer in eldercare. Study IV: general practitioners perceived registered nurses’ continuity, competence and collaboration with family members as important to quality of care in nursing homes; inadequate staffing, lack of medical equipment and less-than-optimal IT systems for electronic healthcare records are impediments to patient safety.

The findings indicate that organizational factors could explain differences in transfer rates between nursing homes. The studies highlight the importance of advance care planning together with residents and family members in facilitating future medical decisions. Registered nurses’ continuity and competence are perceived as crucial to quality of care. To meet increasing demands for more complex medical treatment at nursing homes and to provide high-quality palliative care several changes should be made: Nursing homes should be equipped with suitable medical equipment and registered nurse staff should be matched accordingly; importantly, registered nurses and general practitioners should be able to access each other’s healthcare record systems.

• 28.
University of Gothenburg.

The starting point of the doctoral project Minnesrörelser (Movements of Memory) is a documentary material, based on interviews, archival documents, letters, diaries and more, from Germany and Sweden from the 1930's to present time, focusing on childhood, upbringing, eugenics, bilingualism. The family as a place for historical writing, family stories inevitably connected with political history, and how they can be passed on or kept secret makes up the main subject matter, where questions of memory and postmemory, heritage and transgenerational consequences of terror, war and guilt, as well as the role of silence, speaking and translation, are investigated. The way the project has developed and come to a preliminary end, that is, this dissertation, is in itself a story, an open end narrative, where the roles of the author and the reader are focused on. The well-known statement by Roland Barthes that "the birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the author" is used an impulse, along with Novalis' view on reading and writing as an ever continuing literary dissemination process.

• 29.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
Nya rum för socialt medborgarskap: Om vetenskap och politik i "Zigenarundersökningen" - en socialmedicinsk studie av svenska romer 1962-19652015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

This thesis investigates Zigenarundersökningen [the Gypsy study] – a socio-medical study of Swedish Roma conducted in 1962-1965. The Study was financed by the National Labour Market Board, which sought scientific information on every adult Roma citizen in order to plan for targeted authority interventions. The socio-medical team used a number of different medical and social techniques, drawing together different kinds of data – from the molecular to the social level – and adding “objective” records from public institutions, which resulted in the creation of detailed and voluminous individual case files. On the basis of these files, the public health specialist John Takman in charge of the socio-medical examinations formulated a professional opinion on each individual and family. During the execution of the study, new scientific and social questions were articulated, resulting in that the originally limited investigation concerning only a smaller group of Roma citizens evolved into a comprehensive research project covering all people identified as Swedish Roma. In this thesis, this expansion is analysed using methodological tools from Science and Technology Studies that focus on the reflexivity between the goals of scientific actors, and the social conditions and problematisations that surround them. In this way, science and policy mutually influence each other in situated practices, which also involves the drawing of scientific boundaries that serve to establish epistemic authority.

Departing from Engin F. Isin’s theory on social citizenship, and its alterities, as constituted in contingent and contextualised social practices, and from Franca Iacovetta’s study of Canadian gatekeepers’ work in cold-war Canada, the thesis investigates how the, with time, increasing and more comprehensive activities of experts and professionals created new dimensions of citizenship. Against this background, the thesis draws the conclusion that the scientific-political examinations of problematised citizenship and citizens in Sweden in the 1960’s, while defining deviance, also defined normality. This implies, furthermore, that scientific measurements and classifications of alterity contributed to constituting those measuring and classifying – the experts and professionals – as virtuous citizens, in accordance with contemporary norms of professionalism and expertise, while the Roma were continually constructed as problematic citizens. Hence, scientific-political activities concerning Swedish Roma in the 1960’s created new spaces of social citizenship, where the contents of both normality and deviance were nuanced and (re)defined.

• 30.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. extern doktorand.
Nämnda ting men glömda: Ortnamn, landskap och rättsutövning2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

The dissertation describes the names related to justice and places in the landscape where justice was administered, applying an interdisciplinary perspective with place names as the chief source material.

One aim is to collect and describe place names in Skåne designating or indirectly associated with meeting places and districts of the court, and to study the named places. The study covers many different periods, but especially the Middle Ages and the transition from the Late Iron Age to the Middle Ages. The analysis raises questions such as: Was there continuity in judicial sites between prehistoric and historic times? How old are the hundreds (härader)? Is there a spatial link between judicial sites and other central functions such as cult, markets, or rulers’ estates?

The work is permeated by material-based onomastic research in combination with current perspectives in text research, historical geography, and archaeology. Nine case studies are conducted to describe the interaction between place, linguistic expression, and meaning.

The study demonstrates the existence of a large corpus of names reflecting the early administration of justice. Most of the many field names which contain ting ‘court’ and galge ‘gallows’ can be related to the actual administration of justice. The medieval sites where courts assembled and people were executed stand out in particular, but in many cases these have prehistoric roots. Both unbroken continuity and the reuse of earlier places of assembly may be assumed. Close to sites with names indicating the administration of justice there are also landscape features with names that grant epic and mythical status to the locale. The special quality of these places was handed down, incorporated in larger narratives, based on changing ideas and circumstances in different periods.

The landscape of the hundred courts (häradsting) is archaic, magnificent and mythical, and shared, qualities that contributed to the maintenance and legitimation of judicial practice. A division into a general, public judicial sphere and a more limited and exclusive sphere can be seen. In the medieval exercise of justice this division is manifested in two different judicial districts – härad and birk – but the phenomenon can be traced back to the Late Iron Age. The study also problematizes a traditional image of the names of the hundreds.

• 31.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
När kunskap ska styra: Om organisatoriska och professionella villkor för kunskapsstyrning inom missbruksvården2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

This thesis focuses on the changed governance of the public sector and what it can entail for professional work in substance abuse treatment. The point of departure is one of these new forms of governing, namely ‘knowledge governance’, which refers to a policy-driven process for promoting the use of evidence-based practice.  The overall aim is to contribute to understanding and knowledge of the meaning and the conditions for knowledge governance in substance abuse treatment. The thesis studies how knowledge is interpreted by professionals and adapted to local practice in relation to organizational and professional conditions. The thesis also highlights the implications that   these conditions may have for knowledge development on a professional and organizational level. The empirical material comprises three studies. Study 1 included a document analysis and a literature review. The document analysis examines how knowledge governance is described in official documents, while the focus of the literature review is on the concept of knowledge management. In Studies 2 and 3 focus group interviews were conducted with professionals who participated in a specific project, and professionals who use structured interview methods in their work (Addiction Severity Index, ASI, or Documentation of clients, DOC). The theoretical perspectives used in the thesis are neo-institutional theory, professional theory and perspectives on workplace learning.

The results of Study 1 showed that knowledge governance embodies a steering of organizations, in comparison with knowledge management as a means for steering in organizations. The analyses from the focus group interviews demonstrate that knowledge governance becomes the subject of translations and edits to a local context. This process was affected by both organizational and professional conditions. The thesis is concluded with a discussion of the conditions that must be present if knowledge governance can lead to development of knowledge. The main result is that strategies must be tailored to each organization's specific condition and must be anchored throughout the organization.

• 32.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. University of Borås, Sweden.
När vårdande och lärande sammanfaller: Patienters, studenters och handledares erfarenheter av möten på en utbildningsvårdavdelning inom psykiatrisk vård2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

When students learn caring during clinical practice, the usual point of departure is thatcaring and learning coexist, as separate and parallel phenomena. There is, however, a needto study how caring and learning relate to one another, as well as when and how theyconverge. The aim of this dissertation is to describe how caring and learning converge inthe encounters between students and patients, in a dedicated educational unit withinpsychiatric care, as experienced by students, patients, and supervisors. Describing howsupervisory support can facilitate this is another aim. A reflective lifeworld approach basedon phenomenological philosophy has been applied. Data were collected through interviews,participant observations with follow-up interviews, and narrative diaries.The result shows that caring and learning converge in those encounters between studentsand patients which are characterized by reciprocity, wherein the patient’s narrative is thepoint of departure, complemented by the student’s listening and inquiring attitude. It ishere, that the desire for and pursuit of health and understanding, give the reciprocalinteraction power. The common desire of those involved to know, to become accustomedto the new and unfamiliar, as well as the presence of a feeling of responsibility for oneanother, create questions which in turn create opportunities wherein students and patientsare available to one another.The dissertation shows that learning in a caring context can be complex. Despite theirbeing prerequisites for one another, competition and conflicts can occur when the caringand learning perspectives are not equally attended to. When they are placed counter to oneanother, there is a risk that reciprocal interaction is hindered, which can cause loneliness forall involved. For convergence to occur most propitiously, those involved must exist in acaring and learning togetherness. Responsible and present supervisors are needed, whocreate possibilities for the perspectives to converge through maintenance and monitoring, sothat caring and learning receive equal space.A didactic concept has been developed based on the dissertation’s result, focusing on themeaning of creating forums where students’, patients’, and supervisors’ caringconsiderations and reflections can intertwine.

• 33.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
Origin and mobility of major and key trace elements (Cs, YREEs) in fracture groundwater in the upper 1.2 kilometres of coastal granitoids - Implications for future repositories of spent nuclear fuel2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

This thesis focuses on the chemical and isotopic features of groundwater residing in the upper 1.2 km of sparsely fractured crystalline bedrock of the Baltic Shield. The work is based on previous understanding of the groundwater origin and its evolution in the fractured bedrock of the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (underground tunnel and facilities) and in two candidate coastal areas (Laxemar and Forsmark) investigated by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for future construction of a nuclear waste repository. In order to assess the origin and the apparent mobility of major elements and key trace elements (Cs and YREEs) in this difficult-to-reach deep environment, new (and previously published) data of SKBs hydrogeochemical monitoring programme was iteratively characterised and integrated in phenomenological models. The overall aim was to improve the integration between groundwater mixing and in situ water-rock interaction processes in deep coastal crystalline bedrock under natural and/or disturbed (i.e., dynamic) flow conditions induced by the presence of a tunnel system.

The multiple origins (glacial, marine, meteoric and allochthonous) of the fracture groundwater resulted in a large range of concentrations for dissolved major and trace elements in the studied bedrock. Dependent on the current flow conditions, the apparent mobility of dissolved elements was generally challenging to identify in the deep fractured bedrock under natural flow conditions. There, the relatively long residence time of most of the various groundwater types prevented to clearly differentiate the (apparent) fast retention processes from slow but active processes on a long-term perspective. Both processes alter the primary hydrochemical composition mainly imposed by the mixing between the dominant sources of groundwater. Nevertheless, in the particular case of YREEs, their generally low natural concentrations and predominant binding to organic colloids in most palaeo- (and modern meteoric) groundwaters (independently of the flow conditions) indicated strong active sorption onto minerals and physical filtration of organic colloids in the fractures. Together, these properties tend to minimise the mobility of dissolved YREEs and to stabilise their concentrations and fractionation patterns during the long residence time of the groundwaters.

At the Äspö HRL, an analogue (in a broad sense) of future repositories for high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes, changes in groundwater origin and salinity took place rapidly in subvertical fracture zones and progressively within the sparsely fractured deep rock domains. The changes resulted either from partial-to-substantial replacement of palaeo-groundwater by modern surface/shallow ground-water or induced dynamic up-flow of deep-lying saline groundwater. The hydrogeochemical instability near the underground facility during excavation to operational phase helped to assess qualitatively – and in some case differentiate quantitatively – the combined role of mixing, short-term and long-term reactions on the chemical composition of groundwater and the mobility of major elements and Cs within fracture zones and the sparsely fractured rock domains.

Collectively, the findings of the individual studies showed that the composition of intruded past or modern marine groundwater was likely to affect the natural retention properties/reactivity of the bedrock towards dissolved species at repository depth. For instance, the intrusion of modern seawater induced a desorption process of some dissolved species originally present on the exchange sites of the clayish fault gouge material in the fractures. This contributed to an apparent increase of the abundance level of dissolved cations naturally occurring in relatively moderate (i.e., K and Mg) and trace (i.e., Cs) concentrations in the fracture groundwaters.

The general understanding of the current hydrogeochemical conditions in deep crystalline bedrock is crucial when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry (i.e., climatic cycles), which in turn might be of relevance to the long-term integrity of the KBS-3 repository method developed for isolating the nuclear waste from the surficial environment and biosphere.

• 34.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
Osäkra möten: Perspektiv på metodbildning för det konstnärliga högskolefältet2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

The dissertation’s background consists of a conceptual and ideohistorical il-lumination of contrasting relationships, distinction, and partition of work between science, art, design, and architecture, both as concept, field, and acti-vities. Simultaneously it consists of an investigation of whether these contra-sting relationships are possible to displace in connection to the artistic field of research. The dissertation is defined to inquire what artistic research can be but most of all how it can be formed. The scientific method has by tradition been a delimination between science and other investigations and experiments. Nevertheless it has been customary within the artistic field of university educa-tion to adopt scientific methods of identity and unity making from other di-sciplines in report on project- and Diploma work. In the light of current ap-prehensions within large parts of the artistic field of university education to-wards subordination of artisticly created project work to traditionally scientific methods when making a report is a method for investigation developed with the capacity: to bring out the significance of the subject in the formulation of the work procedure; to establish relations between personal experiences and conventional statements; and also to remain in singular events instead of exce-eding them towards theoretical generality. The method of inquiry “Uncertain Meetings” relates to ideas of creating, or producing, difference through the set up of meetings between: theory and practice; form and content; discoursive and intuitive knowledge. These meetings will be most fruitful when allowed to take place in uncertainty. Since the scientist or student within artistic rese-arch on the artisticly creative area’s own terms are to be considered both as theorists, who practise their ideas, and as practicians, who generate new theo-ries, the method of investigation will be tested in an artisticly explorative pro-ject work. The method of investigation is used as a means to create space. Simultaneously the creation of space is equated with textual media’s ability to make, intermediate, and communicate information, that neither contradicts the thought of functionality or meaning, the facticity of material or form nor its emotional and associative effects. The method of investigation has obvious applicability within the artistic field of university education for postgraduate and doctoral studies in design and architecture. This is due to  that the method enables open and uncertain meetings between scientific investigations and research, whose primary ambition is to produce knowledge, and artistic development work, whose primary ambition is to promote change. “Uncertain meetings” makes it possible to try and find different artisticly creative solu-tions and change complex relationships as well as produce anexact knowledge.

• 35.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
Perceptions of intensive forestry and multi-storey wood frames among Swedish actors2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Implementation of intensive forestry (fertilization, cultivation of non-native tree species, and clone cultivation) on part of the forested land area in Sweden and an increased construction of wood-framed multi-storey buildings can contribute to reduce the net carbon dioxide emissions of the built environment. This thesis evaluates the acceptance of and interest in intensive forestry and multi-storey wood frames among different actors, and some of the underlying reasons for their approach. The results of quantitative and qualitative studies among members of the general public, private forest owners, architects, and contracts managers in Sweden are presented in six different papers. Both intensive forestry and multi-storey wood frames lack sufficient acceptance and compliance with relevant institutions such as priorities, norms, and regulations in the eyes of the studied actors. The acceptance of intensive forestry would be larger among members of the general public if they would perceive such practices to have less negative environmental effects and perceive a greater need to increase forest growth. Among the private forest owners, the interest to cultivate non-native tree species would be larger if there were more positive attitudes towards the economic consequences. Architects and contracts managers associate multistorey wood frames with several disadvantages and uncertainties, primarily with respect to fire safety, stability, durability, and sound proofing. The contracts managers’ perceptions have stronger implications for the prospects for wood frames, than the architects’ perceptions do. Promotional activities aimed to change such perceptions may improve the prospects for more wood framed multi-storey buildings in Sweden. The path dependency of Swedish multi-storey construction however implies that such activities are not enough for multi-storey wood frames to diffuse to greater extent. Broader changes to the wider context of the decisions taken in construction projects, e.g. to policy or economic environments, which change the priorities of the construction industry actors, are needed.

• 36.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Psychology of Sport Injury: Prediction, Prevention and Rehabilitation in Swedish Team Sport Athletes2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

The dissertation consists of five separate studies that all have focused on different aspects of the relationship between psychological factors and sport injuries.

In the first study the aim was to investigate female elite soccer players’ experiences of the time prior to the occurrence of an ACL injury. In the result three themes of player experiences was identified: fatigue, life stress, and worry. The players interpreted these three themes as risk factors for ACL-injury.

The second study aimed to investigate whether personality, stress, and coping predicted injury occurrence in an elite soccer population. The result showed that an interaction between psychological variables (i.e. trait anxiety, negative life event stress and daily hassles, ineffective coping) could explain 24 % of the variance in injury occurrence. Moreover, the result showed that negative life event stress was found to have an indirect effect on injury occurrence through daily hassles.

In the third study the aim was to investigate whether individual level and changes in hassle and uplift levels over a 10-week period could predict injury outcome in an elite junior soccer population. The results showed that both initial level as well as change in hassle influenced injury risk. More specific, both high initial level as well as slow decrease in hassle was associated with an increased risk of injury.

The fourth study aimed to investigate the extent to which a mindfulness and acceptance based intervention program could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of soccer players. The result showed no statistically significant differences in injury rates between the two groups, but there was a medium effect size (adjusted Cohen´s d = - 0.59).

In the fifth study the aim was to investigate an athletic injury as a career transition through the narrative expression of successful and less successful injury experiences of a former elite handball player. The participant’s narratives made possible to identify four phases (i.e., pre-injury, injury and first reactions, diagnosis and treatment, rehabilitation and consequences) in the injury transition with distinct psychological content (e.g., demands, resources, barriers, and coping strategies) relevant to each phase

• 37.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
Redox reactions and structure - properties relations in mixed alkali/alkaline earth glasses: - The role of antimony oxides during the fining process- A structural study of copper(I) and copper(II)2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

It is important to optimize glass compositions for their specific purpose but also for the efficiency of the production process, the manufacturing of glass. This will be beneficial economically and environmentally. Today many processes and glass compositions are already optimized, but due to more strict legislation on toxic elements and substances there must be changes in many glass compositions. One of these elements is antimony; the oxide is used as fining agent to obtain a bubble free glass within a reasonable process time. One aim with this thesis is to obtain a deeper understanding of the fining mechanism in 20R2O-10MO-70SiO2 (R=Na and/or K, M = Ca and/or Ba, Mg, Sr) glasses in order to minimise the amount of Sb2O3. Another intention is to study the structure of 20R2O-10CaO-70SiO2 (R = Na, K) with Cu2+ as probe ion and thus get a deeper knowledge of the surrounding glass matrix.  The optical basicity scale is used to determine the acid/base character of the different glass compositions.

Fining efficiency results showed a remarkable increase of the number of remaining bubbles when the glass contains either approximately equal amounts of Na and K or Ca and Ba, Mg or Sr. The much higher number of bubbles in the potassium containing glasses compared to the sodium containing is explained by the increase in viscosity, the increase in optical basicity and thus lower oxygen activity. The differences in the fining efficiency when altering alkaline earth ions cannot be explained by the optical basicity values, it seems to be a more complicated situation.

This thesis also reports maximum in Vickers hardness and packing density as well as minimum in glass transition temperature for the mixed alkali glasses. The mixed alkaline earth glasses do not exhibit any clear nonlinear behaviour. Raman spectroscopy measurements showed a variation in the network connectivity which has a clear relation to the optical basicity of the different glass compositions. The combination of UV-Vis-NIR and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements showed that the coordination sphere for Cu(II) is a tetragonal distorted octahedron with two elongated Cu-O bonds along the z axis. There were no trends in the degree of tetragonal distortion, thus it was about the same for all the investigated glass compositions. Cu(I) is found to be coordinated by two oxygen ligands in mainly linear coordination sphere, evidenced from X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

• 38.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
Relationen styrning och utvärdering: Hur en europeisk utvärderingsidé översätts i Sverige2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

Evaluation is an institutionalized practice in the western public sector with several applications and uses. At the same time, the effectiveness and use of evaluation is seldom demonstrated. This evaluation paradox is due to the fact that evaluation is constrained and shaped in relation to, among others, a political context.  In this dissertation, the political context is examined from the assumption that governance shapes evaluation. The aim is to analyze the relationship between governance and evaluation, by studying the translation (i.e. inter­pretation) of the European Union evaluation approach ongoing evaluation in Sweden, in the context of Cohesion policy 2007-2013, which in Sweden aims at reinforcing competitiveness and employment. The relation­ship is examined through documents and interviews on a European union and a Swedish level, and in the translation process in between. With key concepts such as steering logics, participatory evaluation and translation through framing, the formation of evaluation in relation to governance has been mapped. This is particularly interesting in Sweden where the approach puts forth ideals of learning and interaction that seem to depart from ongoing evaluation.

Results show that governance cannot fully explain the shape of evaluation. Instead, Swedish agencies and other implementing actors have promoted their evaluation norms while at the same time fulfilling the Swedish ministries’ learning frame. It is an actor perspective comple­menting the relation­­ship between gover­nance and evaluation previously presented. The evaluation approach in Sweden has been translated to a practical participatory evaluation approach within a larger group of collabora­tive inquiry.

In conclusion, evaluation on both levels has functioned as a relatively un­critical supportive resource for decision making within predetermined boundaries, more connected to the object of evaluation than to a larger gover­nance context. Evaluation in Sweden is being separated from questions of accounta­bility, and participation in evaluation is for goal fulfillment rather than for critical examination of basic assumptions underpinning projects and programs. Results made possible through the lens of trans­lation show that the Swedish approach was made possible by the vague borders of the field of evaluation, the rhetorical use of evaluation terminology in translation, skilled institutional entrepreneurs using legitimizing strategies, and the framing by the Commission and state ministries that opens up for national variation.

• 39.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
Reverse genetic studies of Enterovirus replication2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Enteroviruses belong to the Picornaviridae family and are small icosahedral viruses with RNA genomes of positive polarity, containing a single open reading frame. They mostly cause mild or asymptomatic infections, but also a wide array of diseases including: poliomyelitis, encephalitis, gastroenteritis, aseptic meningitis, myocarditis, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, hepatitis and respiratory diseases, ranging from severe infections to the common cold. The projects described in this thesis have been carried out through reverse genetic studies of Enterovirus B and Rhinovirus C.

In Papers I and II, a cassette vector was used to study recombination and translation of the RNA genome. It was found that the non-structural coding region could replicate when combined with the structural protein-coding region of other viruses of the same species. Furthermore, the genome could be translated and replicated without the presence of the structural protein-coding region. Moreover, it was found that when two additional nucleotides were introduced, shifting the reading frame, the virus could revert to the original reading frame, restoring efficient replication. In Paper III, a vector containing the genome of echovirus 5 was altered to produce an authentic 5’end of the in vitro transcribed RNA, which increased efficiency of replication initiation 20 times. This result is important, as it may lead to more efficient oncolytic virotherapy. An authentic 5’end was further used in Paper IV, where replication of Rhinovirus C in cell lines was attempted. Although passaging of the virus was unsuccessful, the genome was replicated and cytopathic effect induced after transfection. The restriction of efficient replication was therefore hypothesized to lie in the attachment and entry stages of the replication cycle. In Paper V, a cytolytic virus was found to have almost 10 times larger impact on gene expression of the host cell than a non-cytolytic variant. Furthermore, the lytic virus was found to build up inside the host cell, while the non-cytolytic virus was efficiently released.

As a whole, this thesis has contributed to a deeper understanding of replication of enteroviruses, which may prove important in development of novel vaccines, antiviral agents and oncolytic virotherapies.

• 40.
Lund University.

Marketing has traditionally been understood from the perspective of marketing management. This causes problems when we study marketing practices because the normative discourse of marketing management is not particularly useful for describing the day-to-day work of marketing practitioners. This calls for marketing research from new perspectives. Rhetorical business – A study of marketing work in the spirit of contradiction investigates marketing work in professional service organizations from a rhetorical perspective. The overall research question – What do marketers do when they do marketing work? – is explored empirically through conversations, observations and daily interaction and argumentation with professionals involved in the marketing of consulting services. The rhetorical theory applied in the analysis builds on the assumption that every reasonable argument can be met with an equally reasonable counterargument, which is not only how we argue but also a representation of how we gain knowledge of the world – namely, by contradicting it. The analysis is organized in three themes – situation, strategy and subject – that address questions such as Where and when do marketers argue for business purposes? What rhetorical strategies are used?, and How can the subjects of marketing work be portrayed? This is followed by a discussion of the analysis under the two headings persuasive marketing talk and marketing work “in-between”. This book concludes that marketing work is accomplished by self-reflexive marketers who argue for business purposes in, through and in-between meetings as they employ versatile and expansive language and enact contradictory selves. In so concluding the book contributes a multifaceted account of marketing work beyond the framework of normative marketing management. It also shows how rhetorical theory can be used in marketing research to analyse aspects of marketing practice that would otherwise have been poorly accounted for. Finally, the book is written as a “confessional tale” by an author with long experience of marketing work, in the hope that it may encourage self-reflexive inquires among professionals involved in marketing.

• 41.
Halmstad University ; University of Gothenburg.
Service Logic in Digitalized Product Platforms: A Study of Digital Service Innovation in the Vehicle Industry2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

The digitalization of products has become an important driver for service innovation in manufacturing firms. The embedding of digital technology in previously non-digital products creates digitalized product platforms that enable digital service innovation. Digital service innovation offers new business opportunities for manufacturing industries, as well as challenges established premises for value creation.  While digital service innovation can be found in many manufacturing industries, this thesis studies service logic in digitalized product platforms in the vehicle industry.

Existing Information Systems (IS) literature presents challenges in digital service innovation relating to value, architecture, and generativity. The design of the architecture of digitalized product platforms requires the identification and combination of digital and non-digital assets. Understanding the architectural aspects is useful in digital service innovation. Moreover, with growing instances of generative digital technologies, it is challenging to develop strategies to leverage generativity for service design in digitalized product platforms. While digital technologies are embedded in products, the role of technology-embeddedness in value creation of digital services is relatively unexplored. Drawing on these challenges, this thesis describes and conceptualizes the underlying premises brought by the architecture and generativity to the value creation of services in digitalized product platforms. The research question addressed in this thesis is: What are the underlying premises for services in digitalized product platforms?

To address the question, an interpretive qualitative research approach was adopted in a collaborative research project concerning services enabled by digitalization of vehicles. Drawing on digital innovation and service literature, this thesis presents a theoretical perspective on the role of the architecture and generativity of digitalized product platforms for value creation of digital services. This perspective is conceptualized as underlying premises for this specific class of services. The premises frame the service logic in digitalized product platforms and provide a ground for understanding services in digitalized product platforms in relation to value dimensions, architecture and generativity. The premises are based on five concepts: value-in-architecture, value-in-connectivity, fundamental asset for value creation, mutual dependence of modular and layered modular assets, and re-evaluation of value propositions. The proposed premises offer a basis for understanding value creation of this class of services, and guidance for manufacturing firms designing digitalized product platforms.

• 42.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
Snacka om (o)synlighet: Familjeföretagarens nästa drag2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

The aim of this thesis is to identify and understand the phenomena of invisibility and visibility ((in)visibility) in families' situation in family business. As (in)visibility are phenomena that surrounds us in our every day life and the consciousness about them is limited, a critical perspective is embraced. By questioning the taken for granted in family business research, where only a female gender perspective on the phenomena is represented, this study involves 3 families - in total 11 individuals.

The empirical material is collected from every family member´s life story furthermore platforms are created where the individual can change her/his consciousness about the phenomena. In the process, language creation builds up a vocabulary for expressing how (in)visibility influence feelings as well as actions. Inspired by Paulo Freire and interactive method the phenomena are discussed in 2 dialogues with the aim of reaching a critical stance and action. A mutual knowledge production occurs between the researcher and the family members. In an abductive way Johan Asplund serves as inspiration for identifying (in)visibility in the life stories, which discusses with the family members in dialogue (1).  In dialogue (2) discusses the impact of the study process from the attendants' perspective. Finally roles in and outside the business in connection to (in)visibility are interpreted with support from Erving Goffman´s theories.

The study contributes theoretically and methodologically to the family business field by showing that (in)visibility has an impact on all family members and influences feelings, actions and the will to commit to the family firm, furthermore how sensitive topics can be researched in the future and how new subjectivities are created in the research process that up til now have been hidden. Outside the field of family business a contribution to entrepreneurship is made by seeing (in)visibility as a coping strategy moreover by developing a framework for identifying the phenomena an empirical contribution to social theory about (in)visibility comes through.

• 43.
Stockholm University.
Sorgens avtryck: Erfarenheter av medverkan som sörjande i journalistik om brott och olyckor2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

The aim of the thesis is to investigate the experiences of mourners of participating in news reports about grief in connection with crime and accidents. There are two overarching research questions. How do the bereaved experience their encounters with, and treatment by, journalists - what do they think of journalists’ motives, strategies, methods and ethics? How do the bereaved use journalism, i.e. what are their motives and strategies for participation, and how do they perceive their relations with journalists and the consequences of having been interviewed?

The theoretical underpinnings are provided by scholarship on source relations, (encounters with and negotiations between journalists and news sources), news constructions (narrative components and patterns in grief journalism) and journalistic ethics, with a particular focus on an ethics of proximity, i.e. the ethical dimensions of people’s relations and encounters.

The empirical material is comprised of qualitative interviews with 22 respondents who featured, in their capacity as mourners, in Swedish news reports of deaths connected with crime and accidents. A strategic sample was made with the aim of attaining as much variation as possible among respondents above all in their relationship to the deceased and cause of death, but also in terms of the attention given to the event in the media, the number of contacts with journalists, and how contact was made.

The perception of the respondents is that journalists wanted to talk to them because the event had news value and was of general interest. In dramatic cases, the victim’s next of kin, in particular, felt that journalists also had commercial motives. As the respondents see it, the strategies used by journalists can involve trying to persuade the bereaved to participate, and steering them so that the news interview and text can be shaped in accordance with established narratives of grief journalism. Some respondents said journalists had shown them respect, while others felt they had been treated with a lack of consideration. The findings are ambivalent in that journalists’ methods were experienced positively by some respondents and negatively by others. Involvement in news reporting can offer redress, giving respondents a chance to pay tribute to the deceased. It can also provide comfort, as it can be incorporated into the mourning process and make it possible to share one’s grief both with people one knows and with strangers. The study also found that respondents have strategies of their own. In their dealings with journalists, they can negotiate for control by insisting on reading the text before publication or favouring journalists they perceive as more sympathetic and resisting those they dislike. Respondents’ relations with and perceptions of journalists can be conflictual or consensual, and characterized by a passive or active attitude. Journalists can be seen as allies and potential assets, or as enemies and a source of insecurity. If the death was dramatic and attracted considerable media attention, relations become more conflictual, with respondents who feel cornered liable to ‘attack’ journalists. This can be triggered by shock. However, shock can also numb close relatives emotionally, making them indifferent and their attitude one of passive acceptance.

• 44.
Örebro University.
Straffbar oaktsamhet2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
• 45.
Lund University.
Surrounded by Sound: Experienced Orchestral Harpists’ Professional Knowledge and Learning2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

Orchestral playing is a central practice within Western European classical music. Previous research in the field of orchestral musicians’ learning and knowledge has mainly focused on students’ learning orchestral playing. Working conditions and work-related problems were also emphasized in previous studies. This thesis, however, focuses on professional orchestral musicians’ knowledge and learning. The method to investigate these issues was to let musicians verbally describe their professional experiences and orchestral practice. Interviews with a low degree of structure were conducted with four orchestral harpists from renowned orchestras. In the analysis and interpretation a hermeneutical approach was used. This approach also offered guidelines for considering the researcher’s role and pre-understanding. The findings showed that skilled musicians developed their knowledge throughout their careers. Knowledge of orchestral playing was contextually based, and based on experience. All skills used by the musicians when playing in an orchestra had to be contextually adapted. A main finding was how musicians were able to create, by their knowledge, a space for musical freedom and personal interpretation when playing in the orchestra. There were also knowledge issues that always had to be maintained and others that constantly had to be developed within practice. In conclusion, there are major contradictions that are important elements of the profession of orchestral musicians. The musicians should have a personal musical expression as well as a highly developed ensemble skill. They should focus on the extreme detail and the totality of the performed musical piece at the same time. They have to be able to express themselves musically within a restricted framework. This framework, and the interspace between the frames, can be negotiated by knowledge, skills and the choices of the musician.

• 46.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
The Hodrick-Prescott Filter: Functional aspects and statistical estimation.2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
• 47.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
The spatial manifestation of inequality: Residential segregation in Sweden and its causes2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

The thesis examines the relationship between income inequality and residential segregation in Swedish cities. In recent years, in Sweden, much attention has been given to the direction of causality from residential segregation to income inequality. Residential segregation is considered to lead to a differentiation of opportunities between neighbourhoods and, therefore, to be a contributing factor to or even a major cause of income inequality in cities. The thesis focuses on the opposite direction of causality, from income inequality to residential segregation. In fact, residential segregation can also be seen as the spatial manifestation of existing disparities in income distribution, since residential location choices are always (although not exclusively) made within a predetermined framework of economic constraints.

Specifically, two research questions are addressed in this thesis. What institutional factors, in the Swedish context, favour the transformation of the social divide between specific population subgroups into a spatial divide between those groups? To what extent and in what ways does income inequality contribute to the development of residential segregation in Swedish cities?

The first part of the thesis explains why Swedish cities are characterized by higher levels of residential segregation than cities of other countries characterized by higher levels of income inequality. The historical and comparative analyses developed in the first two studies indicate that it is not so much the magnitude of immigration that accounts for this difference between Swedish cities and their more unequal counterparts in other countries but, rather, the institutional factors influencing the modes of incorporation of immigrants into cities.

The second part of the thesis analyses how, in recent decades, the increase in income inequality has influenced residential segregation patterns in Malmö and in the three major Swedish metropolitan areas. The third and the fourth study show that, during the studied period, the widening of income disparities between neighbourhoods mirrored the general upward trend in income inequality in the population. The growth of the immigrant population contributed only slightly to this trend and income inequality was primarily driven by changes in the distribution of market incomes. During the late study period, however, income sorting processes have played a steadily more important role in contributing to economic residential segregation. Therefore, neighbourhood-based urban policies have not succeeded to reverse, or even just impede, the trend towards an increased spatial clustering of poverty and wealth in Swedish cities.

• 48.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy. Jönköping Academy, School of Health Sciences Jönköping.
Towards the creation of learning improvement practices: Studies of pedagogical conditions when change is negotiated in contemporary healthcare practices2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

In the early 2010s, competitive market logic was introduced into healthcare systems so as to achieve rapid improvements. This took place as improvement policies began to emphasize the notion of collaboration as a method of ensuring patient safety across organizational boundaries. This thesis addresses how staff, in their practical improvement work, balance economic values, on the one hand, against meaningful solutions for the patient, on the other. The research interest focuses on the particular interpretations about improvements that emerge in negotiations about change. These interpretations are foundational to the learning that simultaneously takes place. The aim of the thesis is to analyse and explain the pedagogical conditions that take place in improvement practices in a healthcare system in the 2010s.

The thesis takes its theoretical point of departure in a pedagogical theory that describes how contextual conditions influence learning processes in a specific practice where communication is foundational for learning. The thesis uses critical discourse analysis as a methodological point of departure and builds on a model of improvement work, namely, the clinical microsystem. The first study consists of a literature review of the microsystem framework. Subsequently, three case studies were conducted at Jönköping county council, Sweden. Discussions of improvements at clinical meetings and improvement coaches’ reflections over their pedagogical approaches provide the empirical data for the case studies.

The findings show that market logic gives rise to a number of displacement effects with respect to learning processes. Short-term profits are shown to supersede goals of a more profound development of knowledge. The composition of an improvement practice is of critical importance to the nature of the negotiation that takes place, and thus how the practice comes to successfully challenge things that are taken for granted and the power structures that exist within the practice. Improvement coaches themselves become pedagogical prerequisites under the influence of the prevailing conditions, as they promote different learning organizations. This thesis develops the conceptual framework that is instantiated by the clinical microsystem, and it also contributes to the social constructionist field of improvement science by establishing pedagogical and discursive perspectives on improvement and change.

• 49.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
Transit i samhällsvården: När unga utreds på särskilda ungdomshem2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

This thesis is about assessments of young people in secure accommodations. Institutional assessments relate to the paradox in child welfare of combining control and care. The procedure raises questions about their implications for young people, their caseworkers and evolving care trajectories. Although institutional assessments of young people have a historical heritage, research about their implications is lacking. The aim of the thesis is to explore young people’s and their caseworkers’ experiences of assessments in secure accommodations and their implications for young people’s care trajectories. Methods used are primarily repeated interviews with 16 young people during a period of two years and one interview with their caseworkers. Surveys about 85 youths, participatory observations and written assessments are also included. This thesis takes an interactionist approach and the material has been analysed with the main concept of care trajectory along with the concepts of self-presentation, total institution, institutional identity and texts as coordinators.

The results are presented in four papers. The concluding analysis shows that assessments in secure accommodations can be divided into three elements: the practice, the text and the placement. These three elements have different implications for the young people and the caseworkers. For the young people the practice and the placement converge into an assessment universe that, with the text, intensifies their shaping of self-identity. The young people’s experiences are characterised by lack of control over their self-presentations, the present and the future. For the caseworkers, the practice has implications for their understanding of the young people’s individual troubles, the text for negotiating with other actors and the placement in their efforts to achieve change in the young people’s troublesome situations. The assessments’ implications for stability and foreseeability in the young people’s further care trajectories are limited. Moreover, the procedure of assessing young people in itself contains instability through involving several professionals in different parts of the assessment and decision-making process. Despite lack of stability, the thesis reveals that some young people experience the assessment as a place for self-development and where the course of the care trajectory changes to the better.

• 50.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
Ungas samspel i sociala medier: Att balansera mellan ansvar och positionering2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

The growing communication that takes place between young people today causes concern. The purpose of this study is to develop in – depth knowledge of the interaction that young people engage in online. The pedagogic interest is based on an investigation of conditions for social learning and social integration that exist in practice, which unfolds in virtual spaces created by social media. The technology referred to in this thesis is considered to be a social construction, which entails that values circulate between people, technology, and society. The theoretical point of departure is based on a pedagogic theory, which proposes that people develop their ability to cooperate, their social identity, and their understanding of the world through interaction with others. This dissertation includes three studies. The first study investigates support and harassment online (for example, insults). The second study is conducted for the purpose of revealing the discursive patterns in young people’s argumentation, based on a series of interviews. Finally, a text analysis of Facebook’s policy document was performed, with focus on the democratic values that are mediated via this document. The overall result is that considerably more young people feel that they are supported in social media, than those who are harassed. Both a supportive culture and a harassing culture can be defined however. The more often young people support their friends, the more often they find themselves to be the recipient of support. The same relationship pertains for harassing communication. Reciprocity, respect, and being responsible are dominant themes in a close circle of friends. In interaction with friends who are not members of the close circle of friends, communication is characterised by asymmetry and control. The imposition of discipline takes place as a function of both gender and status. The risk of being subject to reprisals is great, if the prevailing system of norms is violated. Young people’s social interaction in virtual spaces tends to be dominated by marketization where strategic behaviour, which primarily is a function of the individual’s social position and profit interest, is observed.

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