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  • 1.
    Iftikhar, Muhammad Usman
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science. Faculty of Engineering Science, Department of Computer Science, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    A Model-Based Approach to Engineer Self-Adaptive Systems with Guarantees2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern software systems are increasingly characterized by uncertainties in the operating context and user requirements. These uncertainties are difficult to predict at design time. Achieving the quality goals of such systems depends on the ability of the software to deal with these uncertainties at runtime. A self-adaptive system employs a feedback loop to continuously monitor and adapt itself to achieve particular quality goals (i.e., adaptation goals) regardless of uncertainties. Current research applies formal techniques to provide guarantees for adaptation goals, typically using exhaustive verification techniques. Although these techniques offer strong guarantees for the goals, they suffer from well-known state explosion problem. In this thesis, we take a broader perspective and focus on two types of guarantees: (1) functional correctness of the feedback loop, and (2) guaranteeing the adaptation goals in an efficient manner. To that end, we present ActivFORMS (Active FORmal Models for Self-adaptation), a formally founded model-driven approach for engineering self-adaptive systems with guarantees. ActivFORMS achieves functional correctness by direct execution of formally verified models of the feedback loop using a reusable virtual machine. To efficiently provide guarantees for the adaptation goals with a required level of confidence, ActivFORMS applies statistical model checking at runtime. ActivFORMS supports on the fly changes of adaptation goals and updates of the verified feedback loop models that meet the changed goals. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the approach, we applied ActivFORMS in several domains: warehouse transportation, oceanic surveillance, tele assistance, and IoT building security monitoring.

  • 2.
    Bunse, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bacterioplankton in the light of seasonality and environmental drivers2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterioplankton are keystone organisms in marine ecosystems. They are important for element cycles, by transforming dissolved organic carbon and other nutrients. Bacterioplankton community composition and productivity rates change in surface waters over spatial and temporal scales. Yet, many underlying biological processes determining when, why and how bacterioplankton react to changes in environmental conditions are poorly understood. Here, I used experiments with model bacteria and natural assemblages as well as field studies to determine molecular, physiological and ecological responses allowing marine bacteria to adapt to their environment.

    Experiments with the flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. MED134 aimed to determine how the metabolism of bacteria is influenced by light and different organic matter. Under light exposure, Dokdonia sp. MED134 expressed proteorhodopsin and adjusted its metabolism to use resources more efficiently when growing with lower-quality organic matter. Similar expression patterns were found in oceanic datasets, implying a global importance of photoheterotrophic metabolisms for the ecology of bacterioplankton.

    Further, I investigated how the composition and physiology of bacterial assemblages are affected by elevated CO2 concentrations and inorganic nutrients. In a large-scale experiment, bacterioplankton could keep productivity and community structure unaltered by adapting the gene expression under CO2 stress. To maintain pH homeostasis, bacteria induced higher expression of genes related to respiration, membrane transport and light acquisition under low-nutrient conditions. Under high-nutrient conditions with phytoplankton blooms, such regulatory mechanisms were not necessary. These findings indicate that open ocean systems are more vulnerable to ocean acidification than coastal waters.

    Lastly, I used field studies to resolve how bacterioplankton is influenced by environmental changes, and how this leads to seasonal succession of marine bacteria. Using high frequency sampling over three years, we uncovered notable variability both between and within years in several biological features that rapidly changed over short time scales. These included potential phytoplankton-bacteria linkages, substrate uptake rates, and shifts in bacterial community structure. Thus, high resolution time series can provide important insights into the mechanisms controlling microbial communities.

    Overall, this thesis highlights the advantages of combining molecular and traditional oceanographic methodological approaches to study ecosystems at high resolution for improving our understanding of the physiology and ecology of microbial communities and, ultimately, how they influence biogeochemical processes.

  • 3.
    Eckert, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Contributing to develop contributions: - a metaphor for teaching in the reform mathematics classroom2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims at contributing to the theoretical research discourse on teaching mathematics. More precise, to explore a teacher’s role and actions while negotiating meaning of mathematical objects in discursive transformative practices in mathematics. The focus is to highlight the teacher as an active contributor to the classroom mathematical discourse, having an important role in shaping the mathematics. At the same time, the teacher is acknowledged as an individual who learns and develops as a lesson and semester progress.

    Three research papers illustrate the state, at that time, of an inductive analysis of three teachers, teaching a series of lessons based on probability theory at two Swedish primary schools. The teachers worked together with the students to explore an unknown sample space, made up out of an opaque bottle with coloured marbles within that showed one marble at each turn of the bottle. They had to construct mathematical tools together to help them solve the mystery. The analysis focused on teacher–student interactions during this exploration, revealing complex connections in the process of teaching.

    The three papers presented the development of a theoretical framework named Contributing to Develop Contributions (CDC). The frameworks’ fundamental idea is that teachers learn as they teach, using the teaching metaphor learning to develop learning. That metaphor was developed, in light of the ongoing empirical analysis, into CDC by drawing on a theoretical idea that learning can be viewed as contributing to the collaborative meaning making in the classroom. Teaching and teacher learning are described and understood as reflexive processes in relation to in-the-moment teacher-student interaction.

    Contributing to develop contributions consists of three different ways of contributing. The analytical categories illustrate how students’ opportunities to contribute to the negotiation of mathematical meaning are closely linked to teachers’ different ways of contributing. The different ways are Contributing one’s own interpretations of mathematical objects, Contributing with others’ interpretations of mathematical objects, and Contributing by eliciting contributions. Each way of contributing was found to have the attributes Transparency, Role-taking and Authority. Together, these six categories show teacher– student interaction as a complex dynamical system where they draw on each other and together negotiate meaning of mathematical objects in the classroom.

    This thesis reveals how the teaching process can be viewed in terms of learning on different levels. Learning as thought of in terms of contributing to the negotiation of meaning in the moment-to-moment interaction in the classroom. By contributing you influence the collective’s understanding as well as your own. A teacher exercises and develops ways of contributing to the negotiation of meaning of mathematical objects, in order to develop students’ contributions. In a wider perspective, the analysis showed development over time in terms of transformation. The teachers were found to have transformed their understanding of classroom situations in light of the present interactions. Contributing to the negotiation of meaning in the classroom was understood as a process in such transformation, in the ever ongoing becoming of a mathematics teacher. 

  • 4.
    Årestedt, Liselott
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Den ombokade resan: att leva som familj med kronisk sjukdom2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim was to generate deepened knowledge and understanding about families’ experiences of living as a family with chronic illness. The four studies aimed to: illuminate the meaning of living as a family in the midst of chronic illness (I), illuminate illness beliefs in those families (II), illuminate the meaning of place for family well-being (III) and describe the experiences of encounters with health care in families living with chronic illness (IV).

    Methods: All studies had qualitative designs and a Family Systems Nursing perspective. Data was collected through family interviews with families where an adult family member had lived with chronic illness for more than two years. The used analyses were phenomenological hermeneutic (I,III), hermeneutic (II) and content analysis (IV).

    Results: Living as a family with chronic illness was a continuously ongoing process where families co-created a context for living with illness and alternative ways for everyday life (I). Core and secondary beliefs within and across families about illness, family, and health care were revealed and showed for how families responded to and managed situations due to illness (II). Further, the meaning of place for family well-being was described as “a shared respite”, i.e. a place for relief, reflection and re-creation. It seemed to be important for families to be in secure places to enhance well-being (III). Living with chronic illness also includes frequent encounters with health care professionals and having an accompanying member constituted a great power. It helped families to get opportunities to collaborate, and receiving confirmation in the encounters (IV).

    Conclusions: Living as a family with chronic illness is a continuously ongoing process where family members constitute support for each other. Families have a common desire to handle challenges and changes due to illness and to co-create new patterns for everyday living. Therefore, if nurses adopt a Family Nursing Perspective and involve families in health care, families’ strengths and resources can be facilitated. Then, family well-being can be strengthened.

  • 5.
    Djukanovic, Ingrid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Depression in late life-prevalence and preventive intervention2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Depression in older people often goes undetected but has severe consequences on physical health, functioning and quality of life. As the aging population is growing, mental ill-health already is and will continue to be an important public health problem. There is a need for adequate strategies to meet this challenge.

    Aims

    (1) To investigate the prevalence of and the association between depressive symptoms and loneliness in relation to age and sex in a random Swedish sample in the age group 65-80 years, and to investigate to what extent those scoring ≥ 8 in the depression dimension of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) had visited health care professionals and/ or used antidepressive medication.

    (2) To evaluate the effect of group discussions, in which structured reminiscence and a Problem Based Method (PBM) were used, on depressive symptoms, Quality of Life (QoL) and Self-Rated Health (SRH) among older people.

    (3) To describe the individual´s experiences of the year before and the time after retirement.

    (4) To evaluate the factorial structure of the HAD in a general older population 65-80 years and to examine the possible presence of differential item functioning (DIF) related to sex.

    Result

    More men than women reported depressive symptoms, few were offered psychological treatment and a quarter used antidepressant medication. Depressive symptoms were associated with loneliness and this association decreased with increasing age.  

    Participation in group discussions resulted in a decrease in depressive symptoms and an increase in QoL and SRH. Both expectations and fears were experienced the year before and the time after retirement.

    The psychometric evaluation of the HAD showed a two-factorial structure and invariance regarding sex.

    Conclusion

    The result highlights the importance of detecting depressive symptoms and loneliness in older people and offer adequate treatment. Transition into retirement should receive more attention both from a health care and organizational perspective. Group discussions with structured reminiscence and PBM as a nursing intervention, seem to be a promising method to prevent depressive symptoms in older people, but further research is needed. The HAD can be recommended to assess anxiety and depression among a general population 65-80 years old.  

  • 6.
    Holst, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Det lärande utrymmet: lärande och vårdande möten mellan patienter, studentpar och handledare vid Utvecklande och Lärande Vårdenheter2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim is to create knowledge about how nursing students’ learning in pairs can be supported in order to create prerequisites for encounters that provide caring and learning support during clinical practice.

    Approach and method: A reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach founded on the epistemology of phenomenology and hermeneutics was used. Based on interviews, diary entries and observations with patients, students and supervisors, descriptive and interpretive analysis in accordance with the RLR approach was performed.

    Main findings: Students’ learning in pairs is based on encountering and caring for the patients together. The responsibility of caring for the patients, which is given to the students by their supervisors, is based on supportive relationships that are characterized by movements between independence and cooperation. Supporting students learning in pairs is characterized by a reflective approach focusing on learning in togetherness, where the individual student is also reached and seen, providing opportunities for developing important abilities for learning and caring. Depending on the ability to show respect and to take responsibility a more or less supportive relationship between the patients, the students and the supervisors is created within the learning space.

    Conclusions: Supporting students’ learning in pairs is complex due to it taking place in a caring context, where respect must be given towards the patients, the students, the supervisors and other participants who are closely connected to the learning space. Since learning in pairs affects and interweaves learning and caring environments, a reduction to either one of them, learning or caring, is not possible but instead the learning space must be understood as a whole. Optimal conditions for learning in pairs are based on dynamic movements, which require a reflective supervising approach. If these conditions are missing, there is a risk of creating both fragmented caring and learning, where the patients ́ vulnerability and safety needs to be taken into account.

    Keywords: caring science; clinical practice; learning space; learning support; pairs of nursing students; reflective lifeworld approach 

  • 7.
    Rosenlund, Joacim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Environmental research collaboration: Cross-sector knowledge production in environmental science2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased interaction between science and society is recognised as one of the characteristics of contemporary science. Solving the complex environmental problems of our day also necessitate such interactions. In this thesis, theories of knowledge production and innovation, including the triple helix and Mode 2, were used to analyse and assess environmental science critically. The triple helix model claims that interaction between university, industry, and government, is essential for innovation development. The Mode 2 of science emphasises the social embeddedness of science. These theories of knowledge production are situated on a macro level. Most studies carried out about this have disregarded the interactions in practice between science and society. The aim of the thesis was to explore how these theories manifest themselves in practice. Further, the aim was to contribute to knowledge about cross-sector interactions in environmental research collaboration. Interactive research was conducted in three environmental research projects. One survey was also conducted on a national level. Results are distributed in five research papers. Firstly, the results showed that the triple helix became somethings else on a project level. Further, when working in a triple helix-based collaboration participants encountered boundaries and which could be crossed using boundary-spanning means. The use of dialogue arenas in interactive research, meaning research oriented workshops and seminars, aided both participants and the researcher to cross disciplinary and cross-sector boundaries. Solving environmental problems, using cross-sector research collaboration, necessitated the recognition of the collaborative process itself. An abstract environmental idea such as the circular economy was also found to contribute to bridging the gaps between research and society. Lastly, the research showed that environmental scientists reflect upon the relevance of their research. The scientists felt the need to provide society with relevant research and adjust their research choices due to this. This thesis ends up with a discussion about a Mode 3 of knowledge production where the democratisation of research is crucial. Here a fourth helix represents the further inclusion of society in general. A fifth helix includes the natural environment as a driver for collaboration, forming a quintuple helix which incorporates the environmental relevance into collaboration. This thesis contributes to knowledge about theories of knowledge production, cross-sector research collaboration and the role of environmental science in society.

  • 8.
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Essays on Self-employment, Happiness and International Trade2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of three empirical essays on the topics of self-employment, happiness and international trade.

    Essay 1 studies how immigrant self-employment entry is affected by the local business cycle in Sweden. Using the unemployment rate at the local labour market level as a proxy for the local business cycle, our study shows that the self-employment entry behaviour for native men and immigrant men is negatively affected by the unemployment rate, except for immigrants from Middle East. However, such a negative effect is quantitatively weaker among the non-European immigrants. Further, the result shows that immigrants from the Middle East are positively affected by the unemployment rate, meaning they are more likely to be pushed into self-employment in recessions. For women, we also find the unemployment rate has a negative impact on the self-employment decision of native women and immigrant women, except for the Middle East group. However, compared with men, the quantitative size of the unemployment rate effect on self-employment is smaller among women, implying the less important role of business cycle in determining females’ entry into self-employment.

    Essay 2 investigates the non-pecuniary return of self-employment in China. The results show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men; the life satisfaction of self-employed women is not statistically significant different from that of wage-employed women. Moreover, we show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men in the informal sector is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. The life satisfaction of wage-employed men in the informal sector is not significantly different from that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. For women, we find that there is no significant life satisfaction disparity between workers in the formal and informal sector. Finally, our job satisfaction data also concludes that self-employment in China is not inferior to wage employment.

    Essay 3 evaluates how Swedish manufacturing employment is affected by the increasing import competition from China. The results show that the growth of manufacturing employment is not statistically significant affected by the increasing import competition from China. Moreover, in general, the increasing import exposure from China does not significantly affect the employment growth of non-manufacturing sector either. Regarding the earnings, the analysis shows that the low wage earners in the manufacturing sector is not significantly affected by the increasing import penetration from China while median and high wage earners are positively affected.

  • 9.
    Snodgrass, Eric
    Malmö University.
    Executions: Power and Expression in Networked and Computational Media2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research looks at questions of power and expression as they are composed in various ways within networked and computationally-informed situations of the present. Drawing from the term as it is originally invoked in practices of computing, the research puts forward execution as a central conceptual framework for its investigations. In a computer program, a program becomes executable when it is able to execute a set of procedures within a designated set of relations and affordances. Similarly, the concept of execution developed here looks at the ongoing negotiations of various formative relations and affordances (technical, cultural, material, political) in practices of execution, describing certain notable techniques applied towards the task of making things executable.

    The examples looked at include several dominant media and technology practices of the present, as well as several alternative practices that point to other possible modes of execution. In doing so, the research highlights certain politically-orientated issues involved in questions of execution, working to further develop specific approaches aimed at describing, questioning and intervening into practices of execution as they occur in the world.

  • 10.
    Bossér, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Exploring the complexities of integrating socioscientific issues in science teaching2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Socioscientific issues, SSI, can briefly be described as societal issues in which science plays a role. Dealing with SSI in science education is a means to prepare and empower students for active and responsible participation in a complex, democratic society. The implementation of SSI-based teaching calls for classroom practices in which scientific evidence alongside for example social and ethical perspectives are considered. Discourse-based teaching activities are emphasized as a means to provide opportunities for students to practice negotiations of SSI and explore diverse viewpoints on the issues. Dealing with SSI in science teaching is recognized as a challenging task for science teachers. This thesis aims to provide knowledge to support the implementation of SSI-based science teaching. Three studies involving two upper secondary school science teachers are performed to achieve this aim. The first study makes use of video-stimulated discussions to investigate the two teachers’reflections on their classroom practices while they implement SSI throughout an academic year. The second study utilizes the concept positioning as a tool to identify and describe the ways in which one teacher’s interactions with students during group work make available different parts for the students to play as participants, when dealing with SSI in the classroom. The third study makes use of the concept communicative approach to investigate how the two teachers’ management of classroom discussions sets conditions for the consideration of multiple perspectives relevant to SSI, including the students’ viewpoints. The results provide knowledge useful when making considerations about the design and enactment of teaching activities in relation to specific educational goals. The results suggest that a specific challenge with designing and enacting SSI-based teaching activities is to balance between controlling and directing the teaching activities to promote specific learning goals and providing space for students’ participation and perspectives. The results of employing the analytical tools elucidate how this challenge can play out in classroom practice and contribute with knowledge of the ways in which teachers’ discursive practices play a role in addressing this challenge. Strategies to support teachers’ implementation of SSI-based teaching that take account of teachers’ existing practices are discussed.

  • 11.
    Möllerberg, Marie-Louise
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Families' life situation when living with cancer: aspects of health and family sense of coherence2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate families’ perceived life situation when living with cancer, with a focus on health and family sense of coherence.

    Methods: Study I is a population-based register study that explored how cancer influenced the health of cohabitating partners of persons with cancer in Sweden by examining the onset of new diagnoses, health care use, and health care costs among the partners. Study II focused on familial interaction patterns for families living with cancer in a palliative phase, based on family interviews, and analysed using Gadamerian hermeneutics. In study III, Family Sense of Coherence scale (S-FSOC-S) was culturally adapted and evaluated for reliability and validity, using psychometric analyses. Study IV explored associations between family sense of coherence and hope, anxiety, and symptoms of depression using descriptive statistics and nested linear regression.

    Results: Study I showed that the partners of persons with cancer had significantly increased health care use and health care costs both one and two years after the cancer diagnosis, and that use patterns and costs varied according to the type of cancer that had been diagnosed. Study II revealed that the familial interaction patterns were adjusted in response to changes in family life - changes which encompassed three different, but interrelated, patterns: power dynamics in the family, the “secret game” in the family, and multifaceted closeness and distance in the family. Study III suggested that S-FSOC-S is useful for assessing familial coherence and shows satisfactory reliability and validity. Study IV showed that stronger family sense of coherence was associated with higher hope and lower anxiety and symptoms of depression levels in both persons with cancer and their family members.

    Conclusions: Families’ life situation was affected by the cancer diagnosis, which had an impact on both individual family members and the family as a unit. The type of cancer may help to determine partners’ risk of ill health. The changed familial interaction patterns increased the families’ ability to deal with family life without hurting each other. The S-FSOC-S is a useful instrument for assessing family sense of coherence and can help identify families with weak family sense of coherence, who may need professional support.

  • 12.
    Holmér, Gunnel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Flaskor på löpande band: Arbete och arbetskraftsrekrytering vid Surte glasbruk 1943-19782017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation considers how the transition from craft manufacture to mechanized glass production affected the organization of work and the consequences for the recruitment of labour. Based on gender and ethnicity, the dissertation studies the composition of the workforce, the significance of qualifications, and differences in career paths and length of stay have been investigated at Surte glassworks 1943–1978. Charles Tilly’s theory of durable inequality is applied to analyse whether primarily gender and ethnicity had any effect on the assignment of tasks and on discrimination. In conclusion, the results from Surte are compared with conditions at Kosta glassworks. Whereas Surte’s specialty was machine-made bottles, Kosta was geared to craft production of utility glass and art glass.

    After mechanization at Surte, machine-tenders were counted among the most qualified category, instead of the glass-blowers who had previously been in demand. Manufacture at a pace regulated by machines led to more routine chores such as inspection and packaging. At Kosta, with its focus on craft, glass-blowers still had the highest positions and had learned glass-blowing in the traditional way through practical exercise. At neither Surte nor Kosta did women have any opportunity to receive comparable training.

    After the Second World War there was a growing need for labour at both Surte and Kosta, and to keep production going the main alternative was foreign labour. The peak was reached in the 1960s, and of roughly 660 collectively employed workers at Surte in November 1964, almost 40% were immigrants, chiefly from Finland. Kosta at the same time, with just under 330 employees, had slightly under 10% foreign workers, mainly from Greece. Kosta attracted a number of skilled glass-workers from abroad, but the majority of immigrants there, and all those at Surte, lacked experience of glass manufacture

    At neither Surte nor Kosta, with their different production methods, is there any evidence of durable inequality based on ethnicity. The assignment of tasks was guided rather by the functions in demand at the companies and by the applicants’ qualifications. Internal training and career opportunities were open to all male workers, regardless of which country they came from. On the other hand, the gender division of labour at both glassworks created durable inequality for all women regardless of nationality. 

  • 13.
    Carlsson, Catharina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hästunderstött socialt arbete - ett samtalsrum med potentiella möjligheter för ungdomar med självskadebeteenden och deras personal2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis examines, through qualitative methods, the role of the horse in equine-assisted social work (EASW) as well as what facilitates or constrains the role of the horse. Specifically, should interaction be understood in the same manner regardless of which individuals that participate? The thesis is based on empirical data collected throughinterviews with eight staff members and nine female self-harming clients, aged 15–21 years, in a residential treatment facility. In addition, video recordings of the human-horse interaction of three staff members and four clients were analyzed, resulting in the additional issues addressed in a second interview. Critical dialogues between patterns and fragmentations in the narratives and video-recordings, as well as a dialogue with participants, while they were viewing videos of their own EASW sessions, led to the conclusion that adding a horse could qualitatively change therapeutic relationships. 

    The results are presented in four articles that provide an image of the complexity of EASW. The summary chapters focus on a synthesized analysis, based on Goffman’sdramaturgical perspective and Hochschild’s emotional rules in which the concepts were applied: backstage, frontstage, impression management, stigma, emotional management, deep acting and surface acting. The analysis demonstrated that defense mechanisms are reduced when the horse is perceived as non-judgmental and therefore less intimidating. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that it is crucial that the horse is regarded as a subject, a transitional object, which can silence the inner critic and create a ‘moment of silence’ that contradicts stigmas and enablesadolescents to regulate their emotions. This leads to possibilities to be more authentic and the relationship between staff and adolescents to be perceived as more authentic. 

    In summary, the work presented in this thesis contributes to increased knowledge about the role of the horse in opposing impression management and surface acting, depending on the high demands on staff to reach outcomes regarding communication, self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-image. The different triads consist of different liaisons, giving rise to unique combinations and the potential to avoid emotional dissonance. The quality of the relationships seems to depend on staff and clients’ attachment orientations. 

    Keywords: Authentic, Emotional work, Equine-assisted social work, Impression management, Moment of silence, Self-harming adolescents, Stigmatization

     

     

  • 14.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Individualized treatment and control of bacterial infections2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Infectious diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality, exacerbated by increasing antibiotic resistance. In critically ill patients, recent studies indicate a substantial variability in β-lactam antibiotic levels when standardized dosing is applied. New methods for characterizing nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial infections are needed to limit transmission. The goals of this thesis were to investigate new strategies towards individualized treatment and control of bacterial infections. 

    In Paper I we confirmed high variability in β-lactam antibiotic levels among intensive care unit (ICU) patients from southeastern Sweden, where 45 % failed to reach treatment targets (100 % fT>MIC). Augmented renal clearance and establishing the minimum inhibitory concentration of the bacteria were important for evaluating the risk of not attaining adequate drug levels. In Paper II a rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of 11 commonly used antibiotics was developed and tested in clinical samples. Performance goals (CV<15%) were reached. A microbiological method for quantification of β-lactam antibiotics in serum was developed in Paper III. The method could be important for hospitals without access to an LC-MS method. Paper IV and Paper V investigated ligation-mediated qPCR with high resolution melt analysis (LMqPCR HRMA), for transmission investigation of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and other common bacterial pathogens. Results comparable to the reference method (PFGE) could be achieved within one day in a closed system and confirmed a nosocomial outbreak in Kalmar County. In Paper VI whole genome sequencing followed by bioinformatic analysis resolved transmission links within a nosocomial outbreak due to improved discriminatory power compared to LMqPCR HRMA.

    The high proportion of ICU patients with insufficient β-lactam drug levels emphasizes the need for individualized treatment by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). TDM is enabled by a highly sensitive method, such as UPLC-MS/MS, but if unavailable, also by a microbial method. Molecular typing methods used for transmission investigation can detect nosocomial outbreaks. LMqPCR HRMA can be used for screening purposes. For enhanced resolution, whole genome sequencing should be used, but always together with a rigorous epidemiological investigation. 

  • 15.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Information and Communication Technology - mediated support for working carers of older people2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a growing awareness of the importance of support for carers who combine paid work with care of an older relative, so called ‘working carers’, there remains a lack of empirical knowledge about more innovative ways to support this largest group of carers of older people. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are becoming more readily available. As a result, ICTs have made it feasible to offer working carers more targeted forms of support.

    This thesis aimed to gain an understanding about support for working carers of older people via the use of ICT.

    An integrative literature review was conducted to explore and evaluate the current evidence base concerning the use of ICT-mediated support for working carers (I). Content analysis of qualitative data was used to describe nursing and support staff’s experiences of using web-based ICTs for information, e-learning and support of working carers (II). Content analysis was also used to describe working carers’ experiences of having access to a web-based family care support network provided by the municipality (III). Descriptive statistical methods were used to analyse survey data which focused on the types of support received and how they were valued by working carers, with a focus on ICT support (IV).

    Findings highlighted that ICT mediated support provided working carers with the means to manage their caring situation, via the provision of information, e-learning and education, in addition to practical assistance and emotional and/or physical respite from caregiving. In this way, working carers felt empowered in their caring situation by feeling more competent and prepared in their caring role and by strengthening their self-efficacy and positive self-appraisal of their situation. Carers were provided channels to share their frustrations and burdens via forums for emotional and social support between working carers, caring professionals, and other peer carers. This led to working carers feeling less burdened by their caregiving role and it helped promote their wellbeing. Further, carers were helped in some instances to balance work and care. As a result caregiving activities conflicting with work obligations were then lessened.

    In contrast, when ICT mediated support was neither provided in a timely fashion or in accordance with individual carers’ needs and preferences, then it was perceived by them to be unimportant. Cross-sectional data revealed that take-up of support services was low suggesting that unmet support needs may be inflated by work-care conflicts. For carers with lower digital skills, the additional time needed to learn to use ICTs was a further barrier.

    Overall, ICT mediated support acted as a complementary form of support for working carers. Measures to overcome dis-empowering aspects of this innovative from of support are needed to avoid working carers’ deprioritizing their own support needs and also to avoid possible digital exclusion from the current information society.

  • 16.
    Klasson, Torgny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Informationsteknik och avvägningar mellan individens frihet och statsmakt: - En analys av svenska riksdagsdebatter2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main question in this thesis is what kind of considerations political parties in the Swedish parliament have made between individual freedoms and state power in matters concerning information technology. Hence, it relates to a central and never ending debate about the proper relationship between the individual rights of citizens and protection of their personal integrity vis-à-vis state power and the interest of society in general, and in particular how this is affected by the rapid development of information technology.

    Four cases of legislative processes about information technology are analyzed. These cases concern parliamentary debates regarding the secrecy act (sekretesslagen) in 1980 (first debate), three debates concerning the personal data act (personuppgiftslagen) in 1998-99, three debates concerning the surveillance and crime prevention act (lag om hemlig rumsavlyssning & åtgärder för att förhindra vissa särskilt allvarliga brott med mera) in 2006-07 and three debates concerning the national defence radio establishment act (FRA & lag om signalspaning) in 2007-09.

    An analytical model is developed that includes two ideal types, individual freedom and state power, for the study and categorization of the parties and their positions in each debate. Thus, parties are categorized according to their proximity to the ideal types. The study illustrates that the majority of parties have a tendency to compromise between values constituting the two ideal types; they choose a so called hybrid position in between individual freedom and state power. The exception to this pattern is the Green Party and the Left Party that tend to choose a position close to individual freedom.

    Three hypotheses are tested. The first implies that parties tend to position themselves in-between the ideal type positions of individual freedom and state power (hybrid positions). This hypothesis gets strong support as hybrid positions are the most common outcome. The second hypothesis infers that a party has a tendency to support state power when in government, but individual freedom when in opposition. This hypothesis also gets empirical support, as parties, when in government, tend increasingly to support values related to state power, but support is somewhat weaker than for the first hypothesis. Finally, the third hypothesis implies that September 11 2001 was a critical moment in relation to how parties deal with values related to individual freedom and state power, i.e. parties were expected generally to be more disposed to support state power after than before September 11. This gets some support as most parties show this tendency. In parliamentary debates after September 11 the Social Democrats, the Moderate Party and the Liberal Party have been more disposed to position themselves close to the value of state power. On the other hand, the Green Party and the Left Party have not changed their positons. One reason could be that neither of these two parties were in government during the studied years

  • 17.
    Vogt, Bettina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Just assessment in school: - a context-sensitive comparative study of pupils' conceptions in Sweden and Germany2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines pupils’ justice conceptions regarding educational assessment. Due to the context-dependency of norms and values as well as of assessment, the study compares the justice conceptions of pupils in two different’socio-educational’ contexts: Sweden and Germany. The main interest of the study is to understand and to reconstruct pupils’ own relevance structures and what just assessment means from a pupils’ point of view. Here, the study aims to reach beyond the level of mere description by providing theoretical conceptualisations of pupils’ justice conceptions regarding assessment. Thus, the study´s methodological foundation is characterised by a combination of a context-sensitive comparative approach on the one hand, and on the other hand a pragmatist Grounded Theory approach. Data were mainly generated through focus group interviews with pupils attending the last year of the lower secondary level in the Swedish comprehensive school as well as in different school types in the German school system. In total, the sample consists of 95 pupils, who were interviewed in 21 focus group interviews. In addition, other sources of data were included, such as regulations and guidelines that supported a context-sensitive analysis of pupils’ conceptions. The theoretical conceptualisation that explains pupils’ justice conceptions is ‘meta-assessment’. ‘Meta-assessment’ refers to pupils’ evaluation of the assessment they experience in terms of justice and represents the shared, abductively derived and overlying analytical category regarding pupils’ conceptions. Pupils’ ‘meta-assessment’ is based on normative justice conceptions as well as on justice conceptions that are related to pupils’ situation and context-bound experiences with assessment. The first ones are about the ethico-moral character of pupils’ justice conceptions. The second shed light on the contextual conditions and consequences of the logics and practices underlying educational assessment as experienced by pupils on an everyday basis. This implies that just assessment from a pupils’ perspective needs to be understood in its wider contextual embedment; and in relation to teaching and learning in order to understand the complex interrelations of what just assessment ‘is’, and ‘should be’ from the perspective of those, who are mainly affected by it.

  • 18.
    Hiltunen, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Lagom perfekt: Erfarenheter av ohälsa bland unga tjejer och killar2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pursuit of restrained perfection: Experiences of ill health among adolescent girls and boys

    Rates of self-reported mental health problems among young people in Sweden are alarmingly high. Despite several contributions to the literature, knowledge about the subjective health of adolescents is still scarce; specifically, little is known about their experiences of subjective ill health. The aim of this thesis is therefore to study how young people themselves understand the root causes of ill health – or the risk of suffering from ill health – and how they perceive their own ability to cope with these challenges. The thesis also aims to increase our understanding of the fact that girls persistently report higher levels of ill health than boys. Theoretically, the thesis is mainly inspired by symbolic interactionism, but it also relates to, and employs concepts from, the fields of social inequalities in health, research on gender and health, educational research on health, and the sociology of emotions. The thesis applies a mixed-methods approach, and so the conclusions are drawn from a combination of quantitative and qualitative data. The statistical analyses are based on a survey of 497 adolescents, and the qualitative studies build on essays written by the same adolescents, describing their experiences of ill health. I also conducted interviews as a complementary source. The empirical findings are presented in five chapters. The statistical analyses described in the first of these chapters show that the level of ill health in my sample corresponds well with previous studies, whereas the regression analyses reveal that variations in ill health depend on adolescents’ experiences of social relations and status. I also find that these measures interact systematically with gender. The qualitative analyses of the essays and interviews in the following chapters provide more detailed insights into the daily lives of adolescents. A significant finding in these chapters is that ill health is rooted in adolescents’ striving for perfection in several spheres in everyday life. Furthermore, the gender analysis shows that girls, to a greater extent than boys, adhere to norms of behaviour concerning social competition, social relations, and schoolwork. I argue that this “gender regime” helps explain why girls report higher levels of ill health than boys. The results described in the final empirical chapter show that most adolescents employ proactive and reactive strategies to cope with ill health. Still, the resources needed to formulate successful strategies are highly unequally distributed. Notably, adolescents who experience social exclusion appear to have very limited prospects of coping with their situation. 

  • 19.
    Aho, Anna Carin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Living with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy: affected young adults’ and parents’ perspectives, studied througha salutogenic framework2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis, using a salutogenic framework, was to develop knowledge about experiences and perceptions of living with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and its influences on health, from the affected young adults’ and their parents’ perspectives.

    Methods: A qualitative explorative and descriptive study design was used. Semi-structured interviews were held with 14 young adults diagnosed with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, aged 20–0 years, and 19 parents. Data analyses were conducted using content analysis (I, II, III) and phenomenography (IV). In order to mirror the interview data, the participants also answered the 13-item sense of coherence questionnaire.

    Findings: Recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy has a major impact on the affected young adults’ and their parents’ lives as the disease progresses. Health described in terms of well-being was thus perceived to be influenced, not only by physical, emotional and social consequences due to the disease and worry about disease progression but also by external factors, such as accessibility to support provided by society and other people’s attitudes. There was, however, a determination among the participants to try to make the best of the situation. The importance of being able to mobilize internal resources, having social support, meaningful daily activities, adapted environment, the young adult being seen as a person and having support from concerned professionals, including personal assistance when needed, was thereby described. Self-rated sense of coherence scores varied. Those who scored above or the same as median among the young adults (≥56) and the parents (≥68) expressed greater extent satisfaction regarding social relations, daily activities and external support than those who scored less than median.

    Conclusion: This thesis highlights the importance of early identification of personal perceptions and needs to enable timely health-promoting interventions. Through dialogue, not only support needed for the person to comprehend, manage and find meaning in everyday life can be identified, but also internal and external resources available to enhance health and well-being, taking into account the person’s social context as well as medical aspects.

  • 20.
    Tinnert, Jon
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Microevolution in pygmy grasshoppers2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of how spatiotemporal environmental variation impacts ecological and evolutionary processes and contributes to genetic and phenotypic diversity of natural populations is key to understanding and protecting biological diversity. In this thesis I used pygmy grasshoppers to study how environmental conditions, population dynamics, dispersal and admixture may influence genetic structure and diversity, and to evaluate how functionally important variation may affect the ability of populations to cope with novel and changing habitats.

    Analyses of AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) markers in Tetrix subulata individuals from 20 sampling locations in Sweden showed significant genetic structure and restricted gene flow among populations. Genetic diversity increased with population size and proportion of long-winged dispersive phenotypes on the island of Öland, but not on the mainland.

    A contrasting environment comparative approach (CECA) applied to 20 T. undulata populations suggested that processes associated with environmental change differently influence functional and neutral diversity. Long-winged phenotypes were more common in disturbed than in stable habitats, indicative of recent establishment. Color morph diversity was higher in disturbed environments consistent with the notion that polymorphism promotes establishment success. Conversely, neutral diversity (AFLP) was lower in disturbed habitats, pointing to a stronger eroding effect of genetic drift in disturbed compared to stable habitats.

    I compared genetic and morphological variation between sympatric populations of the two species. Populations of the generally dispersive T. subulata were genetically less differentiated compared with the more sedentary T. undulata, suggesting that the latter species has been less influenced by the homogenizing effects of gene flow. Non-parallel body size differences pointed to species-specific drivers of morphological change.

    Finally, comparisons of reproductive output of T. subulata females that had been experimentally mated with males from the same or from a different population suggested that responses to interbreeding and genetic admixture can differ in direction and magnitude even between populations within a species, and thus influence whether dispersal translates into gene flow.

    My thesis emphasizes the complexity of microevolution and illustrates how the effects of different ecological and evolutionary processes can vary according to disturbance regimes and geographic areas, and differ between closely related sympatric species.

  • 21. Helmefalk, Miralem
    Multi-sensory cues in interplay and congruency in a retail store context: Consumer emotions and purchase behaviors2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While research has shown the positive impact of sensory cues and cue- congruency on emotion and behavior in retail store atmospheres, these cues have primarily been investigated in isolation or in pairs. Consequently, little is known on how multi-sensory cues in interplay impact on consumer emotions and purchase behaviors. In addition, research has not yet provided any clear conceptualization of congruency in marketing when designing retail store atmospheres, other than stating that some cues are expected to match, therefore become pleasantly perceived. Thus, the main purpose of this research is to examine and show how multi-sensory cues in interplay and congruency can be utilized in creating a retail store atmosphere to enhance consumer emotions and purchase behaviors.

    To address the purpose, a sequential method was adopted with four essays. The first essay explores multi-sensory interplay in marketing contexts with a literature review that forms the basis for a research agenda. The second essay employs focus groups to highlight the congruency between cues, products and the retail setting, and identifies which category of cues is in need of investigation. The third essay uses field experiments to investigate two congruent visual, auditory and olfactory cues (six cues in total) in a retail setting, and their impact on consumer emotion and purchase behavior. The final essay, also use field experiments to examine and duplicate one cue from each sense, and employs these together in interplay, to show how multi-sensory cues in interplay impacts emotions and purchase behaviors.

    This research concludes that multi-sensory cues in interplay in a retail store atmosphere have a greater impact on consumer emotions and purchase behaviors than single visual, auditory and olfactory setting-congruent sensory cues. Among single sensory cues, those perceived as complementary in the atmosphere, specifically auditory and olfactory in an already visual dominated atmosphere, have the largest impact on consumer emotions and purchase behaviors. Overall, this research signifies that congruent multi-sensory cues in interplay emerge as reliable predictors for the influence on consumer arousal, valence, time spent, touching, browsing and purchasing Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. 

  • 22.
    Deliang, Dai
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    On high-dimensional Mahalanobis distance2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of three empirical essays on the topics of self-employment, happiness and international trade.

    Essay 1 studies how immigrant self-employment entry is affected by the local business cycle in Sweden. Using the unemployment rate at the local labour market level as a proxy for the local business cycle, our study shows that the self-employment entry behaviour for native men and immigrant men is negatively affected by the unemployment rate, except for immigrants from Middle East. However, such a negative effect is quantitatively weaker among the non-European immigrants. Further, the result shows that immigrants from the Middle East are positively affected by the unemployment rate, meaning they are more likely to be pushed into self-employment in recessions. For women, we also find the unemployment rate has a negative impact on the self-employment decision of native women and immigrant women, except for the Middle East group. However, compared with men, the quantitative size of the unemployment rate effect on self-employment is smaller among women, implying the less important role of business cycle in determining females’ entry into self-employment.

    Essay 2 investigates the non-pecuniary return of self-employment in China. The results show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men; the life satisfaction of self-employed women is not statistically significant different from that of wage-employed women. Moreover, we show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men in the informal sector is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. The life satisfaction of wage-employed men in the informal sector is not significantly different from that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. For women, we find that there is no significant life satisfaction disparity between workers in the formal and informal sector. Finally, our job satisfaction data also concludes that self-employment in China is not inferior to wage employment.

    Essay 3 evaluates how Swedish manufacturing employment is affected by the increasing import competition from China. The results show that the growth of manufacturing employment is not statistically significant affected by the increasing import competition from China. Moreover, in general, the increasing import exposure from China does not significantly affect the employment growth of non-manufacturing sector either. Regarding the earnings, the analysis shows that the low wage earners in the manufacturing sector is not significantly affected by the increasing import penetration from China while median and high wage earners are positively affected.

  • 23.
    Marchand, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and trace elements2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid urbanization and industrialization has led to an increase of disposal petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and trace elements (TE) into the environment. These pollutants are considered as the most toxic contaminants in the world due to their persistence in the environment, and the long range of toxicological effects for living beings.

    Recent concerns regarding the environmental contamination have initiated the development of several remediation technologies, including physical, chemical, and biological approaches. In this thesis, gentle soil remediation options (GRO) were investigated at different scales for the reclamation of PHC and TE co-contaminated soil. In the first part of this thesis, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize PHC and TE contaminated soil as well as the indigenous microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) present inside these contaminated soil. It was found that the studied aged contaminated soil had a negative effect on earthworm’s development and L. sativum biomass. Moreover, a high respiration of microorganisms attributed to the transformation/ mineralization of organic matter or/and organic pollutants was observed. This presence of viable microorganisms suggested an adaptation of microorganisms to the contaminant. Further results showed that the long-term exposure of soil microorganisms to high PHC concentration and the type of isolation culture media did not influence the ability of isolates to effectively degrade PHC. However, phylogenic affiliation had a strong on PHC biodegradation. In the second part of this thesis, preliminary studies in greenhouse were assessed to investigate the ability of M. sativa assisted by compost in the greenhouse aided-phytoremediation of PHC and TE. It was found that compost incorporation into the soil promoted PHC degradation, M. sativa growth and survival, and phytoextraction of TE. Residual risk assessment after the phytoremediation trial also showed a positive effect of compost amendment on plant growth and earthworm development. Pilot scale ecopile experiment carried out in the third part of this thesis allow a reduction of up to 80% of PHC and 20% of metals after 17 months. This research demonstrated that M. sativa and H. annus were suitable for phytodegradation of PHC and phytoextraction of TE.  Results from this thesis are helpful for further full-scale phytoremediation studies. 

  • 24.
    Malmqvist, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Planting and survivability of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in Sweden: Questions of seedling storability, site preparation, bud burst timing and freezing tolerance2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The non-native Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) has been grown to a limited extent in the southern part of Sweden since the early 1900s. A more extensive use has probably been curtailed by its known susceptibility to damage by frost, pine weevil and other pests. Limited access to vital seedlings of suitable provenances has also restricted its more widespread growth. The need for valuable species that will grow well through ongoing climate change has increased the interest for Douglas fir in Sweden.

    This thesis addresses a number of important questions relating to the planting of Douglas fir in Sweden: seedling storability, freezing tolerance, timing of bud burst, frost damage and seedling response to site preparation. Seven Douglas fir provenances originating from British Columbia, Canada were used in the experiments and where applicable, compared with a local provenance of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The early bud burst of interior Douglas fir provenances, observed both in greenhouse tests and in the field, results in a high risk of damage by late spring frost. This type of damage does not seem, however, to be fatal and does not obviously retard the early growth of seedlings. The difference in growth between coastal and interior provenances was insignificant, but survival was greater for interior than for coastal provenances. All the provenances of Douglas fir studied showed a later development of freezing tolerance of shoots and roots in the autumn than Norway spruce, with the coastal provenances developing such tolerance even later than interior provenances. This could be a contributory cause for the severe damage by winter desiccation observed on seedlings of coastal origin. A thorough site preparation proved to be an effective way to increase survival and root growth. Interior provenances of Douglas fir became ready for storage earlier in autumn than coastal provenances. When freezing tolerance of shoots had increased sufficiently, Douglas fir seedlings could safely be kept in frozen storage using the same procedures used for Norway spruce. The results emphasise the need to gain further knowledge about how the remaining obstacles to establishment of Douglas fir could be reduced with different silviculture methods.

  • 25.
    Vainik, Anne-Lie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Polisanmälningar i grundskolan2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about police reports concerning school violence in Sweden involving children below the age of criminal responsibility. Police reports about incidents caused by pupils in Swedish compulsory schools have increased since at least the 1980s. In research on violent, threatening and insulting acts among children in schools, incidence and causes are often studied in terms of bullying and degrading treatment. Criminological studies on children's violent acts, in schools, is mainly based on information on children aged 15 and over. Research on why police reports are filed about younger children in compulsory schools is limited. The aim of this thesis is to describe and analyse school-related police reports, in relation to children’s unwanted actions in compulsory schools with the goal of understanding the intentionality in every day practice.

    The empirical material consists of four studies of which three have been conducted using qualitative methods through analysing legal documents, using content analysis of texts in school-related police reports and interviews with Principals. The fourth study has been carried out with statistical analysis of school-related police reports. The results of the studies are presented in four papers. This thesis takes the approach from modern sociology which is used both as perspectives and theory. The perspectives concern modernity, social control and cultural sensitivity. The theoretical framework is based on theory of systems and lifeworld.

    The concluding analysis shows local differences in the assessments on which action will be reported to the police. It is mainly Principals who make reports to the police but also parents. Principals’ police reports are based on social commitment and early intervention and parents report concern about repeated school bullying of their children. Despite diverse local practices certain patterns appear. Boys in the 13-14 years age group are the ones most often seen as perpetrators in the police reports. Two particularly prominent patterns become visible at the school level. Most police reports are related to schools with low grades and to so-called resource schools. This indicates that the unwanted actions of disadvantaged children are more often reported to the police than the actions of other children. The filing of police reports can be understood as a result of difficulties among adults to reach common understanding on how children’s problems should be handled in school systems everyday practice.

  • 26.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Primary energy use of residential buildings: implications of materials, modelling and design approaches2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings can play an essential role in the transition to a sustainable society. Different strategies, including improved energy efficiency in buildings, substitution of carbon intensive materials and fuels, efficient energy supply among others can be employed for this purpose. In this thesis, the implications of different insulation materials, modelling and design strategies on primary energy use of residential buildings are studied using life cycle and system perspective. Specifically, the effects of different insulation materials on production primary energy and CO2 emission of buildings with different energy performance are analysed. The results show that application of extra insulation materials to building envelope components reduces the operating primary energy use but more primary energy is required for the insulation material production. This also slightly increases the CO2 emissions from material production. The increases in primary energy use and CO2 emissions are mainly due to the variations in the quantities, types and manufacturing processes of the insulation materials. Thus, choice of renewable based materials with energy efficient manufacturing is important to reduce primary energy use and GHG emissions for building material production.

    Uncertainties related to building modelling input parameters and assumptions and how they influence energy balance calculations of residential buildings are explored. The implications on energy savings of different energy efficiency measures are also studied. The results show that input data and assumptions used for energy balance simulations of buildings vary widely in the Swedish context giving significant differences in calculated energy demand for buildings. Among the considered parameters, indoor air temperature, internal heat gains and efficiency of ventilation heat recovery (VHR) have significant impacts on the simulated building energy performance as well as on the energy efficiency measures. The impact of parameter interactions on calculated space heating of buildings is rather small but increases with more parameter combinations and more energy efficient buildings. Detailed energy characterisation of household equipment and technical installations used in a building is essential to accurately calculate the energy demand, particularly for a low energy building.

    The design and construction of new buildings present many possibilities to minimise both heating and cooling demands over the lifecycle of buildings, and also in the context of climate change. Various design strategies and measures are analysed for buildings with different energy performance under different climate scenarios. These include household equipment and technical installations based on best available technology, bypassing the VHR unit, solar shading of windows, combinations of window u- and g-values, different proportions of glazed window areas and façade orientations and mechanical cooling. The results show that space heating and cooling demands vary significantly with the energy performance of buildings as well as climate scenarios. Space heating demand decreases while space cooling demand and the risk of overheating increase considerably with warmer climate. The space cooling demand and overheating risk are more significant for buildings with higher energy performance. Significant reductions are achieved in the operation final energy demands and overheating is avoided or greatly reduced when different design strategies and measures are implemented cumulatively under different climate change scenarios.

    The primary energy efficiency of heat supply systems depends on the heat production technology and type of fuel use. Analysis of the interaction between different design strategies and heat supply options shows that the combination of design strategies giving the lowest primary energy use for space heating and cooling varies between heat supply from district heating with combined heat and power (CHP) and heat only boilers (HOB). The primary energy use for space heating is significantly lower when the heat supply is from CHP rather than HOB. Operation primary energy use is significantly reduced with slight increase in production primary energy when the design strategies are implemented. The results suggest that significant primary energy reductions are achievable under climate change, if new buildings are designed with appropriate strategies.

  • 27.
    Johansson, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Region Kronoberg.
    Reflektion, Insikt och Ansvar: Lärandet i att leva med diabetes2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    The overall aim is to develop knowledge about learning to live with diabetes.

     

    Methods:

    All four studies have been carried out within the caring science and using a life-world phenomenological approach. Study (I): data was collected through written narratives from seven patients with insulin treatment. Studies (II and III): data was collected through interviews with twelve patients with diabetes. Study (IV): Data was collected from four groups and two individual interviews with sixteen diabetes nurses. The method for the analysis can be described as a dialectic process, beginning with the whole, analyzing its parts, and then reconstructing the whole in order to understand the essence of the phenomenon.

     

    Main Findings:

    The result showed that patients’ experiences of the most obvious meanings of the phenomenon of being stricken by diabetes (I) are the fight against becoming your illness, a wish that everything would be as usual and that the new situation should only be natural. Furthermore, after having been diagnosed with the illness, the results demonstrated two themes that were particularly important in learning to live with diabetes. These were your own responsibility for gaining knowledge in order to incorporate the illness into your life and to find a balance between fear and control (II). 

    As support for the learning (III), reflection over the learning and experiences has a crucial role for a new understanding of health processes. Insight into your own responsibility was a key factor for this reflection. To be able to give support (1V), the diabetes nurse must adopt a reflecting, self-critical attitude with an insight that the responsibility for learning lies with the patient and that the role for the diabetes nurse is to encourage and challenge the patient to self-reflection and taking responsibility on the basis of individual goals and pre-requisites.

    To give support in this way, the diabetes nurse must downplay the medical requirements for control and make more use of his/her medical competence to ask reflection-triggering questions based on a life-world perspective.

     

    Conclusion:

    Based on the patient’s life-world, an understanding is created that supports learning, which thereby can reduce the influence of the illness on the patient's life. 

    This understanding makes it possible to incorporate the illness into the patient's life and create a balance between fear and control. 

  • 28.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Self-concepts and psychological health among children and adolescents with reading disabilities and the influence of assistive technology2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis includes three empirical studies that have all aimed to increase the understanding of the interactions and connections between self-concepts, reading impairment, psychological health and Assistive Technology (AT). The use of applications in tablets as assistive technology to facilitate reading and compensate for reading impairment and its impact on the participants’ self-concepts and psychological health as well as on their reading abilities was also of interest.

    The first study included 67 pupils in school years 4-9. They were assessed by the Beck Youth Inventory (BYI) regarding self-image, anxiety and depression. The results showed no deviance from age-equivalent norm group scores. The second study included 35 pupils in school years 4-6. This study aimed at investigating the transfer effects on decoding and general reading ability after 20 intervention sessions where AT (applications in tablets) were used. Results showed that the decoding ability had progressed at the same rate as that of the norm group. The results also showed that using AT increased motivations to learn, as well as independence and improved family climate. The third study was a randomized control study (RCT) with 137 participants in school years 4, 8 and high school. The results showed that reading impaired children and adolescents to a great extent, but not completely unanimously, did not depict any different self-image or self-esteem than peers with an expected reading ability of the same age. Self-esteem was investigated by the Cultural Free Self Esteem Inventory (CFSEI-3). The CFSEI-3 scores showed no effect by interventions with AT. The results also showed that there were no signs of depression, assessed by BYI, in the investigated groups, but somewhat inconclusive results regarding anxiety where the school-year 4 group depicted higher levels of anxiety.

    The results generally showed a more positive depiction than what previous studies within the field have presented, which was interpreted as being due to the development of efficient pedagogical strategies and supportive attitudes in the school context, as well as among family members or peers. 

  • 29.
    Salomonsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    "Skeendet på stället": Röster och samtidigheter i tre verk av Sara Lidman2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how cultural encounters and asymmetrical power relationships are depicted in three works by Sara Lidman (1923–2004): Hjortronlandet (“Cloudberry Land”) from 1955, Med fem diamanter (“With Five Diamonds”) from 1964 and Samtal i Hanoi (“Conversations in Hanoi”) from 1966. They are set in three very different colonial contexts, northern Sweden in the early 20th century, Kenya in the early 1960’s and Vietnam in 1965, and take place in a time of transition when an agricultural, local way of life is challenged by a Eurocentric understanding of modernity and knowledge. In accordance with the postcolonial perspective the notions of modernity and colonialism are intimately intertwined in this analysis. Dichotomies such as centre and periphery, coloniser and colonised are problematised in the texts, and this study explores further the complexities that emerge in the encounters described. In terms of identity this also implicates ambivalence, individually as well as groupwise. In all three titles the ambivalence is shown at different levels of the texts, both thematically, narratologically and stylistically. I suggest that the literary reportage Samtal i Hanoi contains many aesthetic features similar to those found in the two novels, despite the difference in genres due to their relation to reality. Consequently, this implies that there is not a sharp distinction between Lidman as an author of novels and of documentary writing. The thesis also discusses the problem of representing the other’s voice, in a political sense as well as in the sense of literary writing, and the continual striving to do so as respectfully as possible. Regarding Lidman’s dialogic aestehics, this ambition is manifested for instance in a subversive use of language, of intertextuality and of hegemonic symbols and metaphors. By studying the dialogic tensions of concurrent, and sometimes opposing, voices in the texts, I show that the subversive literary strategies in Lidman’s works often create a certain discursive space which problematises not only the conceptions of Eurocentric modernity and knowledge but also contains an ethical appeal which reaches far beyond the text.

  • 30.
    Hartzén, Ann-Christine
    Lund University.
    The European Social Dialogue in Perspective: Its future potential as an autopoietic system and lessons from the global maritime system of industrial relations2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are three starting points for this thesis. First, there is the system of ESD, which is criticised for lacking capacity to improve the working conditions within the EU. Secondly, there is the system developed through the global ITF FOC campaign, which is considered to have capacity to improve working conditions for seafarers at a global level. Thirdly, there is the theory on self-referential autopoietic systems, which is a useful tool for analysing systems of industrial relations and their functions. The purpose of this thesis is to deepen the understanding of the function of the ESD in relation to the development of EU legislation and policy with the aim of trying to find a model for providing a holistic analysis of regulatory systems for the labour market. The research questions are: ‘How can the significant differences and similarities between the ESD and the global ITF FOC campaign be understood?’ and ‘Why is the ESD generally regarded as lacking the capacity needed for producing results that improve working conditions, while the ITF FOC is considered to have such capacity?’ The theoretical framework used for the analysis is Luhmann’s theory on autopoietic systems. Since the thesis has a normative core I have applied a methodological model that consists of a two-layer analysis at both the empirical and theoretical level. Firstly an analysis of positivistic values has been carried out and secondly an analysis of hermeneutic values. The empirical material consists of documents and texts that can be considered part of or reflecting the communication of the studied systems. The main conclusion is that whereas the ITF FOC system is a traditional system of industrial relations based on the binary code of negotiable or non-negotiable between collective actors the ESD is a system of industrial relations based on a less clear binary code of discussable or non-discussable. The ESD is also subject to less developed communicative structures that negatively affect the system’s capacity both to produce results and to secure the efficient implementation and application of these results. This makes the ESD as a system more sensitive to hermeneutic values framing the programming of structurally coupled systems causing difficulties for the ESD to challenge such hermeneutic values.

  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Theoretical modeling of scanning tunneling microscopy2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main body of this thesis describes how to calculate scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images from first-principles methods. The theory is based on localized orbital density functional theory (DFT), whose limitations for large-vacuum STM models are resolved by propagating localized-basis wave functions close to the surface into the vacuum region in real space. A finite difference approximation is used to define the vacuum Hamiltonian, from which accurate vacuum wave functions are calculated using equations based on standard single-particle Green’s function techniques, and ultimately used to compute the conductance. By averaging over the lateral reciprocal space, the theory is compared to a series of high-quality experiments in the low- bias limit, concerning copper surfaces with adsorbed carbon monoxide (CO) species and adsorbate atoms, scanned by pure and CO-functionalized copper tips. The theory compares well to the experiments, and allows for further insights into the elastic tunneling regime.

    A second significant project in this thesis concerns first-principles calculations of a simple chemical reaction of a hydroxyl (oxygen-deuterium) monomer adsorbed on a copper surface. The reaction mechanism is provided by tunneling electrons that, via a finite electron-vibration coupling, trigger the deuterium atom to flip between two nearly identical configurational states along a frustrated rotational motion. The theory suggests that the reaction primarily occurs via nuclear tunneling for the deuterium atom through the estimated reaction barrier, and that over-barrier ladder climbing processes are unlikely. 

  • 32.
    Ström, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Utredning inleds: Språk, genredrag och ansvar i barnavårdsutredningar2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to acquire a deeper knowledge of Swedish social services’ written child welfare investigations. These investigations are conducted and documented by social workers at social welfare offices, and the investigations sometimes have a major impact on the lives of individuals. The research material consists of 50 written child welfare investigations, social workers’ answers to interviews and questionnaires and also steering documents regulating the child welfare practice of the social services, but the study focuses on the written investigations.

    Drawing on genre analysis theory and critical discourse analysis, patterns of linguistic features in the investigations are highlighted and considered as genre-specific features. Overall the investigations as written documents are considered both as discursive tools in a professional setting and as social authorities’ texts with great power in an asymmetrical power relation between authorities and individuals. This inherent duality implies different communicative purposes which are difficult to merge in the same document. The study includes a variety of empirical data and analytical tools deriving from genre analysis, critical discourse analysis, corpus linguistics and linguistic stylistics. In the study both quantitative and qualitative approaches are combined, creating methodological triangulation.

    The results show that all the investigations are alike in terms of communicative purposes, indicating that the concept of genre is rigid concerning the text sample. In other respects all the investigations are characterized by variation, in both linguistic and more content-oriented aspects. In some sections of the texts the language is formal and in others it is casual. This can be understood as a consequence of different purposes coexisting in the same text. The results also show that different text participants are constructed differently concerning responsibility for affecting other participants. The authorities’ impact through processes is often hidden in passive clauses. Another result indicates that pseudo-nominalization is a functional linguistic tool in the discourse, which might be a reason to reevaluate plain language recommendations regarding this grammatical construct.

  • 33.
    Bylund, Ami
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    "Wait for us to catch up": Aspects of family functioning after gastric bypass surgery2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate aspects of family functioning when a family member has undergone Gastric Bypass surgery (GBP).

    Methods: Study I explored experiences of family functioning three months after GBP, based on nine family interviews, analyzed using Gadamerian hermeneutics. Using Classic grounded theory, Study II focused on how families resolve their primary concerns after GBP, through interviews with 16 families. Study III evaluated the reliability and validity of the General Functioning Scale (GFS) based on 163 self-reported questionnaires, and used psychometric analyses. Study IV explored associations between family functioning, weight loss, sex and Health Related-Quality of Life (HR-QoL), based on self-reported questionnaires from 153 participants and utilized descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression.

    Results: Study I revealed a process of three intertwined changes in family functioning three months after GBP: Living in ambiguous relationship, rewriting family patterns and strengthening family cohesion. Study II showed that families shared a main concern of unexpected change after GBP, resulting in the theory Stabilizing family life, explained as a social process to decrease uncertainty and find stability and well-being in family interactions. This resulted in attaining unity, returning to old family patterns or disconnecting. Study III suggested GFS as a promising tool for assessing family functioning in a Swedish bariatric sample, showing satisfactory reliability and validity. Study IV showed associations between family functioning and the mental dimensions of HR-QoL, two years after GBP. Percent weight loss was associated with the physical dimension. Sex showed no associations to HR-QoL.

    Conclusion: Families experienced unexpected challenges after GBP affecting family functioning. Mutual remodeling of family life to incorporate changes was seen. Families underwent a social process, indicating that families may represent a resource in bariatric nursing care. A family-system nursing perspective as complement to standard care may be beneficial. As family functioning influence HR-QoL identifying available family resources and giving tailored information to support self-care strategies after GBP, may result in sustainable family functioning and individual health. Studies aimed at identify families that may benefit from family-system nursing interventions are suggested for future inquiry. 

  • 34.
    Rask, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Women receiving notification of an abnormal Pap smear result: - experiences and impact on health-related quality of life2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this thesis was to investigate experiences of receiving notification of an abnormal Pap smear result and its impact on women’s health-related quality of life as well as to investigate women’s awareness of human papillomavirus.

     

    Methods: In total, 176 women and 20 healthcare professionals participated. Data were collected through individual interviews (I, II) and a questionnaire (IV) including the instrument Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy – Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). For the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the FACIT-CD, and for evaluation of its linguistic validity and reliability, cognitive debriefing interviews and a questionnaire consisting of the Swedish instrument FACIT-CD was used. Data were analysed by content analysis (I, II) and by using statistical analysis (III, IV), while one part (III) was analysed according to FACIT translation methodology.  

     

    Results: Women receiving notification of an abnormal Pap smear result have good overall HRQoL; they become anxious but not depressed. Reasons for anxiety were mainly that women misinterpreted the result as cancer, which could lead to lower attendance for further investigation, treatment and follow-up. To cope with the anxiety, women sought emotional support and information. They primarily used the Internet for information but also turned to healthcare professionals for information needs. Moreover, women had low awareness of HPV, its sexually transmitted nature, and its relationship to abnormal Pap smear results and cervical cancer. An awareness of HPV as a sexually transmitted infection did not lead to higher level of anxiety or more depression symptoms or worse HRQoL, compared to not being aware. Finally, the Swedish FACIT-CD is equivalent to the English version and linguistically valid and exhibited good internal consistency reliability.

     

    Conclusion: Women have low awareness of HPV and abnormal Pap smear results, whereupon they misinterpret their test result as cancer. It is of importance that women understand their test result, in order to minimise anxiety as well as to maintain high attendance for investigation, treatment and follow-up of abnormalities.

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