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  • 1.
    Mattsson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Microalgal solutions in Nordic conditions: industries transition toward resource recovery?2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microalgal solutions can through photosynthesis recover greenhouse gas (CO2) and nutrients from industrial waste, reducing climate footprint and eutrophication. An added value to the process is algal biomass containing lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates with commercial potential for biofuel, feed, and fertilizer. Microalgal cultivation in Nordic conditions is challenged by strong seasonality in light and temperature that can compromise biomass stability. To make microalgal cultivation sustainable and competitive with conventional feedstock, large-scale outdoor cultivation using waste streams is necessary but limits control over seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions. In this thesis, I used a polyculture approach in outdoor large-scale cultivations with industrial waste resources, to study biomass production and quality in an annual, seasonal, and diurnal perspective. Research focused on the biomass potential for nutrient recovery and carbon capture from industries, year around stability and quality. Production was tested in the South Baltic Region using a brackish water polyculture grown for five years in a green wall panel (GWP) fed with cement industry flue gas (CO2 source). In a second setup, a freshwater polyculture was cultivated seasonally in raceway ponds (RWP), with an additional waste resource from landfill leachate water (nitrogen source).  Stable biomass performance and CO2 recovery up to 10 g m-2 d-1 was achieved for five years over seasons in the GWP with high protein in autumn and winter, whereas lipids remained stable throughout the annual cycle. Laboratory experiments confirmed naturally occurring diurnal shifts in temperature as superior lipid boosters compared to conventional nitrogen limitation. Stability of overall performance could be explained by flue gas recirculation mode, lack of contamination and polyculture complementarity of the two green algal strains that dominated throughout the five years. The use of multiple waste streams in the RWP added complexity to the cultivation as leachate water composition varied, resulting in a diverse green algal polyculture. Seasonality in nitrogen recovery rate was explained by total nitrogen and light. Results indicate stability of biomass and resource recovery in Nordic conditions using local polycultures in large-scale outdoor cultivation and periods of lower biomass production can be compensated by high quality metabolites such as proteins and lipids. 

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  • 2.
    Thomas, Jes Mary
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The effect of mixotrophic growth on the nutrient removal efficiency and species composition of attached and suspended microalgal consortia2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Simultaneous biomass production and wastewater treatment through algal cultivation holds great potential in ameliorating nutrient pollution and eutrophication. However, it is not widely feasible in higher latitudes due to low light and temperature conditions affecting productivity and removal efficiency. These issues could potentially be offset by the mixotrophic growth of algae, as it reduces dependency on light availability. This could allow year-round operation for nutrient removal as well as biomass production, which can be used as biofuels or feedstock. The present study compares the use of local agal consortia under mixotrophic and phototrophic growth in open systems in terms of algal biomass production and nutrient removal from landfill leachate. It also explored the bacterial and algal species present in the suspended culture and associated biofilm under both modes of growth. The mixotrophic and photoautotrophic systems had similar nutrient removal rates and were highly efficient at ammonium removal (over 75% in all systems with a maximum of 99.6%). The biomass produced by the mixotrophic system was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the photoautotrophic system. The dominating algal species identified was Desmodesmus armatus in both treatments. The dominating bacteria phyla were Myxococcota, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteriota in both systems. The results indicate that mixotrophic growth produces higher biomass than photoautotrophic growth.  This implies that in the combined biomass production and wastewater treatment system utilization of mixotrophic algal growth can potentially facilitate better algal biomass production in higher latitudes than photoautotrophic growth, without loss in nutrient removal efficiency.

  • 3.
    Brodén, Kerstin (Curator)
    Linnaeus University, The University Library.
    Dahlgren, Christina (Curator)
    Linnaeus University, The University Library.
    Lorentzon, Tove (Curator)
    Linnaeus University, The University Library.
    Aagesson, Jennie (Curator)
    Linnaeus University, The University Library.
    Jansson, Richard (Designer)
    Linnaeus University, The University Library.
    Legrand, Catherine (Researcher)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Svensson, Fredrik (Contributor)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mikroalger: – vår tids miljöhjältar2020Artistic output (Unrefereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microalgae – our environmental heroes showed the research of ALGOLAND, a project within Linnaeus University's prominent research environment in ecology and evolutionary science. Within ALGOLAND, researchers are investigating the potential of microalgae to clean the air and water coming from industries. The project combines marine ecology research with expertise from industry to achieve innovative, sustainable solutions that reduce carbon dioxide and nutrient emissions. At the same time, important products such as animal feed and biofuels are produced. The approach has the potential to contribute to reduced greenhouse gas emissions in the future. The aim of the exhibition was to raise awareness of the ability of microalgae to clean air and water and to contribute to a better understanding of water in general. The target groups were current and prospective students, staff at Linnaeus University, the general public and school children.

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  • 4.
    Rosenlund, Joacim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The Circular Economy Business Model of Algoland2019In: Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE), ISSN 2079-2115, E-ISSN 2079-2123, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 33-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Algoland project, microalgae are used to clean water and air from industry. This is built on a long standing collaboration between research, industry and society. In this way Algoland supports the transition to a circular economy by turning pollution into biomass and potential products. This paper evaluates the potential for microalgae as an ecosystem service in industries from a circular economy perspective. The business model canvas was used in a workshop with stakeholders and researchers to discuss the challenges and opportunities for an industrial platform. Results showed that the established canvas model needs to be complemented by circular models; in order to be able to include ecosystem services. In this paper a circular canvas model is developed to be used in similar approaches.

  • 5.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    ALGOLAND – Recovery: avfall används för att producera en värdefull produkt - algbiomassa2018In: Presented at the Algoland 2030 Workshop, Kalmar, Sweden, April 24, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Rosenlund, Joacim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Algoland 2030 -Affärsmodellering2018In: Presented at: Algoland 2030 Workshop, 24 April 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Algoland: industry and ecology together2018In: Presented at the 1st Nordic Algae Symposium 2018 (NAS18), Helsinki, Finland, January 31, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    ALGOLAND: Industry and Ecology Together2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Algoland Workshop: business models2018In: Algoland 2030 Workshop, Kalmar, Sweden, April 24, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    ALGOLAND återvinner näring och CO2 från industriutsläpp för att producera en värdefull produkt, mikroalger2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Rosenlund, Joacim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The circular economy business model of Algoland2018In: Book of abstracts: Linnaeus ECO-TECH '18, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Andreas, Bendroth
    Östra Småland.
    Legrand, Catherine (Contributor)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Algblomningens positiva sidor lyftes fram2017In: Östra Småland, no 31 Aug, p. 6-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Olofsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    ALGOLAND – Recovery: Avfall används för att producera en värdefull produkt - algbiomassa2017In: Linnaeus Technical Centre (LTC) och Linnaeus Innovation Design Lab (Lidlab), May 8th 2017, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Baltic Sea Future: Algoland2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Svahn, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii obtain nutrients from co-occurring phytoplankton Rhinomonas nottbecki (cryptophyte) through allelopathy2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii have become more frequent in shallow coastal regions of the Baltic Sea and are associated with high concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Importance of DON is known for several dinoflagellates but unknown for A. ostenfeldii nutrition. Effects of A. ostenfeldii allelopathy (production of substances harmful to surrounding biota) have been shown to a variable extent, against several target organisms. Here, allelopathy as a mechanism to obtain nutrients, e.g. DON and ammonium (NH4+), from co-occurring phytoplankton was studied by considering 1) lytic activity of A. ostenfeldii strain AOF 0919 (in cultivation since 2009) against cryptophyte Rhinomonas nottbecki strain Crypto 07B3, 2) A. ostenfeldii uptake of cryptophyte derived nutrients (N), and 3) bacterial influence on the uptake. An EC50 assay was applied to assess allelopathic activity and revealed maintenance of a high lytic activity of A. ostenfeldii strain AOF 0919. The concentration of A. ostenfeldii causing 50 % decline in target cell concentration, i.e. EC50, was 260 cells ml-1. Uptake of cryptophyte derived N-substrates by A. ostenfeldii was confirmed in an uptake assay using 15N tracers (heavier N-isotope) and the prokaryotic inhibitor chloramphenicol (CAP). Uptake rates in CAP absence (577.3 ± 211.2 fmol N cell-1 h-1) were similar to the uptake rates in presence of CAP (384.4 ± 94.7 fmol N cell-1 h-1). Bacteria might affect conversion of DON but were not crucial for A. ostenfeldii uptake of cryptophyte derived N. The present study highlights a process (i.e. allelopathy as a mechanism to obtain nutrients) that is likely to occur under natural conditions since ecologically relevant cell concentrations were used.

  • 16.
    Shenhong, Ma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Life-cycle assessment and life-cycle cost analysis of microalgal biomass production using innovative and traditional methods2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although microalgae cultivation has been seen as a new solution of CO2 fixation and producing valuable biomass, a sustainable microalgae cultivation system with low environmental impact and high cost efficiency has not been achieved. In order to develop a sustainable cultivation system, this project evaluated two microalgae cultivation methods under three cultivation scales by using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costs analysis (LCC) as approach. Tradition scenarios cultivated microalgae by using fertilizer and industrial grade CO2 while industrial waste (flue gas and dairy wastewater) was used in Algoland scenarios. Five models at 100m2, 1-ha and 100-ha cultivation scales were built and evaluated from the perspective of environmental impact and cost efficiency of biomass production. The LCA showed that the cultivation process, including energy consumption, utilization of fertilizer and wastewater treatment contributed to the most environmental impact. Algoland scenarios and large production scale (1-ha and 100-ha) had notably less environmental impact. The results of LCC showed that the production cost was reduced from 53.74 unit/kg in 100m2 scale to 1 unit/kg in 100-ha Algoland scenario. The production cost was also reduced in Algoland scenario with approximately 30% compared with Traditional scenarios of corresponding scale. Sensitivity analysis for production cost efficiency was also employed and the results showed that productivity was the most sensitive parameter with the impact of approximately 10% on production cost in all scenarios. The outcomes of this study suggested that 100-ha Algoland scenarios had the highest sustainable performance. This study not only proved that the innovative cultivation method had higher sustainable performance, but also provides suggestions for future development of microalgae production intended for the algal technology sector and policy makers. 

  • 17.
    Berglöf, Kimberly
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Optimal harvest time of farmed Mytilus edulis in southwestern Baltic Sea2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is the most severe treat against good ecological status in the Baltic Proper. Mussel farming could be a way to reduce eutrophication in coastal areas. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are filter feeders and can therefore clean the water by taking up particles in it, when harvested nutrients will be removed; this is a treatment that the Baltic Sea could greatly benefit from. Blue mussel aquaculture in the Baltic Sea is a relatively new field with large knowledge gaps. The low salinity leads to dwarfism in Baltic mussels making them unsuitable for human consumption and previously uninteresting for farming. However small mussels could still be used for nutrient mitigation and the harvest could potentially be used for animal feed or fertilizers. In this study the optimal harvest time for maximum biomass and nutrient removal was investigated in a coastal mussel farm in Kalmar sound (southwest Baltic Sea/western Baltic Proper). The study ran between May 2016 and May 2017. Monthly mussel sampling was performed, including assessment of condition indices, biomass quantity and gonad development status. Weekly water analysis on the mussel farm and at a close-by reference site was performed to see if the farm had an impact on the water quality. A Principal component analysis showed no indication of direct effects from the mussel farm compared to a close by reference site. The percentages of dry meat varied between 11.01±2.36 and 20.053±0.65% and were significantly higher in spring compared to other seasons. The highest meat yield coincided with maximum gonad ripeness. A drop in meat yield of almost 7% was seen in April when gonads went from ripe to spawning. Spawning took place at water temperature of 6.5°C and the optimal harvest time was proposed to be at water temperatures of 5-5.5°C. This makes it possible for the mussels to utilise the spring bloom (3.5°C) and leaves a window of six weeks for cleaning the nets and having them back in the water before settling. Laboratory experiments showed that one-year-old mussels had higher filtration rates without increased sedimentation compared to two-year-old mussels. Therefore, the study proposes annual harvest frequency, which would also reduce the risk of biomass loss and the accumulation of algal toxins and pollutants. A standard sized mussel farm of 1 ha in the Hagby location, with annual harvest, could retrieve 600-900 kg of nitrogen and 60-90 kg of phosphorus per year. This study provides important knowledge for the optimization of mussel farming as a measure against coastal eutrophication in the Baltic Sea.

  • 18. Rathi, Akshat
    Olofsson, Martin (Contributor)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The revolutionary technology pushing Sweden toward the seemingly impossible goal of zero emissions: The cure for emissions: algae2017In: Quartz, no 21 JuneArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19. Anonym, .
    Alger sprids med vinden2016In: Barometern, no 11 Juli, p. 12-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Algoland kick-off: alger och musslor- klimat och övergödningssänkor med stor potential2016In: Presented at the Algoland Kick-off Conference 2016, Kalmar, Sweden, September 9, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Hirwa, Maurice
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Effect of microalgal harvesting methods on the biomass quality2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Microalgae are a potential source of different commercial products thanks to their metabolic products. However, the use of microalgae is hampered by high production cost, especially microalgal harvesting. Different microalgal harvesting methods have been developed in an attempt to cut down the harvesting cost. However, these methods have focused more on the quantity of microalgal biomass harvested and on lipid content. This study aimed at investigating the effect of harvesting methods on the content of microalgal lipids but also on other products such as proteins and carbohydrates. Moreover, the effects of microalgal harvesting methods on the environment were assessed using Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach. Natural community of microalgal biomass was harvested by four different methods, namely centrifugation, chemical flocculation, pH flocculation and Tangential flow Filtration (TFF). Flocculation methods and TFF were combined with centrifugation for further dewatering of microalgal biomass. Total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates were extracted from microalgal dried biomass and quantified. The results revealed that centrifugation and TFF do not affect microalgal products whereas chemical flocculation and pH flocculation significantly decrease microalgal lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. The least efficient harveting method  was pH flocculation which decreased TL, TP, and TC up to 47%, 67% and 50 % respectively. Microalgal products were potentially reduced due to a combination of oxidative stress and centrifugal forces. The negative effects of harvesting methods on the environment included mainly fossils depletion, climate change, human toxicity and they are associated with the electricity used during centrifugation and flocculants used.  This study gives insights into the effects of harvesting methods on the quality of the biomass and the environment. Efficient harvesting of good quality biomass is a step forward for valorisation and sustainable production of microalgal biomass.

  • 22.
    Mattsson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Effects of changes in environmental conditions on neutral lipid content in natural microalgal communities from the Baltic Sea2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Microalgae have potential to mitigate eutrophication, CO2 emissions as well as the lack of resources for the growing world population. Neutral microalgal lipids are of interest as a raw material for renewable biofuels. Previous investigations using monospecific cultures of commercial strains have shown an accumulation of neutral lipids under environmental stress, such as changes in light, temperature and nutrient conditions. However, these responses are not explored in natural communities that are of interest for large-scale microalgal cultivation in Scandinavia.

    The current study investigated light (high/low intensity), nitrogen condition (N:P 5:1 and 16:1), temperature (18°C and 12°C) and diurnal temperature shifts (18-6°C and 12-6°C)  effects on the lipid content of a natural community from the Baltic Sea (from the ALGOLAND photobioreactor at Cementa AB) in laboratory experiments. Further, an in situ latitudinal spring bloom gradient from the Baltic Proper to the Bothnian Bay was sampled to investigate natural processes of lipid accumulation. Neutral lipids were stained using a fluorescent marker (BODIPY) and analyzed with microscopy and flow cytometry.

    In the laboratory experiments, diurnal temperature shifts caused the highest accumulation of neutral lipid content followed by nitrogen limitation that compensated for loss of lipids in low temperature. Light and temperature had less impact on the content of neutral lipids. Along the latitudinal spring bloom gradient microalgae biomass showed a concave pattern due to post-bloom conditions at low latitudes (station 1) and pre-bloom conditions at high latitudes (station 6). On the other hand, lipid content increased with increasing latitude. In station 2-6 high lipid content was associated with diatoms while in station 1 with dinoflagellates, indicating the potential of these microalgal groups for biofuel production.

    This study highlights the effect of changes in environmental conditions on accumulation of neutral lipids in natural microalgal communities. The results could be applied to increase biomass lipid content in large-scale cultivation system during unfavourable conditions. Nitrogen limitation could compensate for the low temperature during the Scandinavian winter and spring, while diurnal shifts occur as a natural agent during autumn. 

  • 23.
    Theulen, Jan
    et al.
    r Global Environmental Sustainability, HeidelbergCement Group, Germany .
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Harvesting CO2 from cement kiln flue gas using micro-algae: valuable biomass production in Sweden2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Andersson, Mats
    Barometern.
    Miljöfrågor engagerar många2016In: Barometern, no 31 AugustiArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för miljö- och hållbarhetsfrågor ökar snabbt. När Linnéuniversitetet och Kalmar kommun bjöd in till Hållbarhetssafari anmälde sig 400 personer, dubbelt så många som arrangörerna hade hoppats på.

  • 25.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    ALGOLAND – industry and ecology together working to reduce the impact of climate change and eutrophication2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Olofsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Frick, Brage
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Svensson, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Baltic Sea microalgae transform cement flue gas into valuable biomass2015In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 11, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show high feasibility of using cement industrial flue gas as CO2 source for microalgal cultivation. The toxicity of cement flue gas (12-15% CO2) on algal biomass production and composition (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates) was tested using monocultures (Tetraselmis sp., green algae, Skeletonema marinoi, diatom) and natural brackish communities. The performance of a natural microalgal community dominated by spring diatoms was compared to a highly productive diatom monoculture S. marinoi fed with flue gas or air-CO2 mixture. Flue gas was not toxic to any of the microalgae tested. Instead we show high quality of microalgal biomass (lipids 20-30% DW, proteins 20-28% DW, carbohydrates 15-30% DW) and high production when cultivated with flue gas addition compared to CO2-air. Brackish Baltic Sea microalgal communities performed equally or better in terms of biomass quality and production than documented monocultures of diatom and green algae, often used in algal research and development. Hence, we conclude that microalgae should be included in biological solutions to transform waste into renewable resources in coastal waters. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • 27.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Microalgae: future bioresource of the sea?2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unicellular microalgae are a renewable bioresource that can meet the challenge forfood and energy in a growing world population. Using sunlight, CO2, nutrients,and water, algal cells produce biomass in the form of sugars, proteins and oils, allof which carry commercial value as food, feed and bioenergy. Flue gas CO2 andwastewater nutrients are inexpensive sources of carbon and fertilizers. Microalgaecan mitigate CO2 emissions and reduce nutrients from waste streams whileproducing valuable biomass.My focus was on some of the challenging aspects of cultivating microalgae ascrop: the response of biomass production and quality to seasonality, nutrients andbiological interactions. Approach spans from laboratory experiments to large-scaleoutdoor cultivation, using single microalgal strains and natural communities insouthern (Portugal) and northern (Sweden) Europe.Half of the seasonal variation in algal oil content was due to changes in light andtemperature in outdoor large-scale cultures of a commercial strain (Nannochloropsisoculata). Seasonal changes also influence algal oil composition with more neutrallipids stored in cells during high light and temperature. Nitrogen (N) stress usuallyenhances lipid storage but suppresses biomass production. Our manipulationshowed that N stress produced more lipids while retaining biomass. Thus,projecting annual biomass and oil yields requires accounting for both seasonalchanges and N stress to optimize lipid production in commercial applications.Baltic Sea microalgae proved to be a potential biological solution to reduce CO2emissions from cement flue gas with valuable biomass production. A multi-speciescultivation approach rather than single-species revealed that natural or constructedcommunities of microalgae can produce equivalent biomass quality. Diversecommunities of microalgae can offer resilience and stability due to more efficientresource utilization with less risk of contamination, less work and cost for culturemaintenance.Stable algal biomass production (annual basis) was achieved in outdoor pilot-scale(1600 L) cultivation of Baltic Sea natural communities using cement flue gas as aCO2 source. Results indicate favorable algal oil content at northern Europeanlatitudes compared to southern European latitudes.My thesis establishes the potential of cultivating microalgae as a bioresource inScandinavia, and using a community approach may be one step towardssustainable algal technology.

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  • 28.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Think About Our Environment2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Landin, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Övergödning i Röttleån: Förändringar av näringstillförseln över tiden, relaterad till omgivningen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are vital substances that occur in nature. They belong to the substances that plants have the greatest need off. In recent decades, humans have brought large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus to the ground, for instance to get a greater return from agriculture. Humans has also affected the agricultural landscape through ditching, straightened and deepened by rivers. This has led to the nutrients more easily been able to get to the lakes and rivers.

     Röttleån is located in the East Vätterbranterna. The rivers environment is dominated mainly by agricultural landscape. In Röttle river basin are also many houses located that have individual sewage leading to further leaching of nutrients into the river. Depending on how the catchment area looks, the relative importances of different sources of phosphorus to total phosphorus flux vary widely between different river basins. Thus, phosphorus is very site specific. This also applies to nitrogen.

     In recent decades, more and more action has been taken to reduce emissions of phosphorus and nitrogen from the surrounding soils, earlier studies show that there is a decrease in levels of phosphorus and nitrogen in rivers in other places in Sweden.

     The purpose of this study was to find out how the situation looks in Röttleån, if there have been reductions of substances in the watercourse. To my help, i used Länsstyrelsen I Jönköpings läns water samples from Röttleåns outflow, as they have been taken each month since the 1970s. So far länsstyrelsen has never lookt closer to the values of phosphorus and nitrogen. I also examined how well SMHI modeled values from the S-hype for the same basin is consistent with the real sampling values. If it is really advisable to rely on these instead of real values surveys.

    The results of the survey showed that there is a significant reduction of phosphorus in both transport and content, but not of nitrogen in Röttleån. It was also found that there is a small flow dependent errors in the s-hype model.

     

     

     

     

  • 30.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Algae in Småland and the islands: High value products and waste-to-energy conversion solutions2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Algae in Småland and the islands: high value products and waste-to-energy conversion solutions2014In: Presented at CementaHeidelberg, Burglengenfeld, Germany, October 2-3, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Mattsson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ammonium reduction of leachate water by microalgae2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient loading as a result of industrial discharge is a large contributor to the eutrophication of aquatic environments. Industries managing landfills are one of the largest sources for water contamination since the leachate water often contains high levels of ammonium (NH4+) and other substances that cost a lot, both environmentally and economically, to clean. Therefore, biological cleaning by microalgae has been proposed to provide efficient biofiltration of nutrients and production of a valuable resource in the form of raw material for biofuels and biomaterial. Kalmarsundsregionens renhållare (KSRR) is a landfill industry battling harmful levels of NH4+ in their leachate water released to the recipient. In parallel, the leachate water has a low phosphorus level that prevents high production in existing ponds and wetlands. Were a phosphorus source introduced, the reduction of NH4+ by microalgae could be a complement to KSRRs cleaning efforts. This study focuses on identifying which phytoplankton species are suitable to reduce NH4+ from the NH4+ rich leachate water and if a natural community is more efficient than cultured ones. Since temperature is one of the most influential abiotic factors, the impact of temperature on NH4+ reduction efficiency will also be studied. The results revealed that the autochthonous community in pond D3 in KSRRs Moskogen and the NC1 natural community from Kalmar Dämme had the highest growth rates. Community D3 showed the highest NH4+ reduction efficiency at both 8 °C and 16 °C but overall, NH4+ reduction efficiency was highest at the lower temperature. The Moskogen D3community consisted of various small green algae phytoplankton species. The strongest selective force in terms of community composition seemed to be NH4+ with interference of optimal growth conditions in the lab. Ultimately, when including the seasonal factor of algal cultivation, a broad estimate of a reduction of 2 tons NH4+ year-1 could be reached in a 1.8-2 m3 culture volume. This would make it easier to stay within the 1 ton NH4+ year-1 threshold of the last pond connected to the recipient. Therefore, with the introduction of a phosphorus source, algal biofiltration could be the solution to high NH4+ levels in wastewater from many industries such as KSRR. 

  • 33.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Briggen Tre Kronor: Algoland2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Olofsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lamela, Teresa
    Necton SA, Olhao, Portugal.
    Nilsson, Emmelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergé, Jean-Pascal
    IFREMER, Nantes, France.
    del Pino, Victória
    Necton SA, Olhao, Portugal.
    Uronen, Pauliina
    Neste Oil, Ctr Technol, Porvoo, Finland.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Combined Effects of Nitrogen Concentration and Seasonal Changes on the Production of Lipids in Nannochloropsis oculata 2014In: Marine Drugs, ISSN 1660-3397, E-ISSN 1660-3397, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 1891-1910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Instead of sole nutrient starvation to boost algal lipid production, we addressed nutrient limitation at two different seasons (autumn and spring) during outdoor cultivation in flat panel photobioreactors. Lipid accumulation, biomass and lipid productivity and changes in fatty acid composition of Nannochloropsis oculata were investigated under nitrogen (N) limitation (nitrate:phosphate N:P 5, N:P 2.5 molar ratio). N. oculata was able to maintain a high biomass productivity under N-limitation compared to N-sufficiency (N:P 20) at both seasons, which in spring resulted in nearly double lipid productivity under N-limited conditions (0.21 g L−1 day−1) compared to N-sufficiency (0.11 g L−1 day−1). Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased from 76% to nearly 90% of total fatty acids in N-limited cultures. Higher biomass and lipid productivity in spring could, partly, be explained by higher irradiance, partly by greater harvesting rate (~30%). Our results indicate the potential for the production of algal high value products (i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acids) during both N-sufficiency and N-limitation. To meet the sustainability challenges of algal biomass production, we propose a dual-system process: Closed photobioreactors producing biomass for high value products and inoculum for larger raceway ponds recycling waste/exhaust streams to produce bulk chemicals for fuel, feed and industrial material.

  • 35.
    Svensson, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Effects of flue gas on algal biomass production and composition in Skeletonema marinoi and a natural community from the Baltic Sea.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Flue gas from industries as a source of CO2 has in earlier studies showed a positive effect on microalgae growth. By microalgae carbon sequestration industries can reduce the amount of CO2 released into the air by fixating the carbon into algal biomass. Biomass produced can further be used as food, feed, fuel and chemicals. This study investigates effects of flue gas from a cement factory fed to Skeletonema marinoi and a diatom dominated natural community from the Baltic Sea in terms of algal biomass and high value products; lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Cultures were grown in a high nutrient media and treated with air, CO2 and flue gas additions. There was no significant difference in biomass yield between the treatments and communities, nor between high value products comparing to air treatments, concluding that flue gas from the cement factory could be used for carbon sequestration with the potential of using a more resilient natural community or a polyculture rather than a monoculture.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Kajsa
    Barometern OT.
    Svensson, Fredrik (Contributor)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forskningsprojekt: Alger ska rena utsläpp: "Algerna är en resurs som vi knappt använder"2014In: Baromtern, no 9 augustiArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mikroalgers potential inom biofiltering av industriell rökgas och processvatten2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Legrand, Catherine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mikroalgers potential inom biofiltering av industriell rökgas och processvatten2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Östersjön - ett hav av möjligheter2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Björk Rengbrandt, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Diversity and production of biomass in a Baltic Sea diatom dominated spring bloom community treated with flue gas from a cement industry2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Large scale cultivation of phytoplankton could be a part of the solution to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from industries thanks to their capacity to assimilate carbon. The algal biomass produced can be used for biofuels and other valuable products. Most research has focused on species cultured in monocultures. In ecology, diversity is a well-studied subject, where most studies have shown that diversity can enhance productivity. In this study, the species diversity in terms of evenness in a phytoplankton community was manipulated to investigate how diversity affects biomass production, and to identify which initial communities that lead to higher productivity. A gradient with six levels of diversity was created by manipulating the abundance of five common diatom species in a diatom dominated spring bloom from the Baltic Sea. The communities were grown in high nutrient levels and were supplied daily with flue gas, the effluent gas from burning of fuels from a Cement industry. Our results show that diversity considering evenness does not have an effect on productivity in terms of growth rate and yield when resources are unlimited. The findings also revealed that Cement flue gas was not harmful to the algae and can be used as a source of carbon in cultivation of Baltic phytoplankton communities. The initial abundance and species-specific traits i.e. the individual species tolerance to high pH was the two most important factors governing community composition and diversity.

  • 41.
    Henriksson, Natalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Effects of carbon dioxide on biomass and species composition of a natural Baltic Sea spring bloom community2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions contribute to an increased mean temperature of the Earth and ocean acidification. The environmental changes give great concern for biodiversity and future environmental sustainability. Microalgae can possibly be used to recycle CO2 emissions and the biomass could be used for production of high value products like, healthy human food or biofuels. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of carbon dioxide on algae biomass production and species composition of a natural spring bloom community (NC) from the Baltic Sea. Spring blooms are dominated by diatoms which could be a good candidate for CO2 assimilation. The NC was exposed to CO2 gas and compared with NC without added CO2 sources (Air control). The NC was cultivated under controlled laboratory conditions with daily sampling for chlorophyll a and pH measurement. Species composition was investigated by microscope. Low pH reduced CO2 assimilation of the NC but was compensated for since no effect of CO2 could be seen on biomass production. Additionally CO2 had no effect on species composition indicating the species in the NC to be resistant to pH fluctuations. A clear shift in species composition could be seen over time. The diatoms dominated at experiment end confirming that they could potentially be used for algae cultivation to recycle CO2

  • 42.
    Vader-Kok, Fiona Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mikroalgers betydelse och möjligheter som klimatförbättringsåtgärd i syfte att reducera koldioxidutsläpp från cementindustrin2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Cementtillverkning ger upphov till rökgaser som bland annat innehåller koldioxid, CO2, svaveloxider, SOx och kväveoxider, NOx. Koldioxidutsläpp påverkar det globala klimatet och bidrar till att den globala medeltemperaturen stiger.

    Via fotosyntesprocessen kan en odling av mikroalger ta upp CO2 från cementtillverkningens rökgaser i en mikroalgodlingsanläggning. Därmed reducerar verksamheten sina CO2 utsläpp, en ekonomisk- och miljövinst. Mikroalgbiomassa kan användas inom den egna verksamheten eller säljas som råvara. Syrgas, O2 som mikroalgerna producerar under fotosyntesprocessen förväntas kunna föras tillbaka i verksamheten inom ”oxy-fuel combustion” tekniken.

    Sveriges geografiska läge har begränsningar i form av både ljusinstrålningens intensitet och temperatur jämfört med länder närmare ekvatorn, vilket leder till en kortare tillväxtsäsong för fotosyntetiserande organismer. Vinterns snö- och isbildning ger ytterligare en begränsning i val av odlingsanläggning.

    Tillväxtsäsongen kan förlängas i slutna algodlingsanläggningar via en artificiell ljuskälla och reglering av temperaturen. Under sommarmånaderna kan ett kylbehov av odlingsmediet kräva energiinsatser.

    Användning av lokalt förekommande arter och dess naturliga vatten i nära anslutning till cementtillverkningsfabrikens faciliteter ger mikroalgarter som redan är anpassade efter svenska förhållanden och inga transporter med vatten till odlingen behöver ske. Undvik av transporter i kombination med en livscykelanalys passar in i en hållbar teknik utveckling.

    Fosfor är en ändlig resurs och ett näringsämne som mikroalger behöver. Fosfor ur hushållsavloppsvatten eller dräneringsvatten från jordbrukssektorn kan användas.

    Via verktyget livscykelkostnader kan information fås om de ekonomiska kostnaderna under algodlingsanläggningens hela livscykel.

    Min slutsats är att odling av mikroalger särskilt i direkt anslutning till cementtillverkningens faciliteter är en lämplig koldioxidreduceringsmetod för verksamhetens rökgaser. Metoden har i kombination med en genomfört och ur miljö-, hälsa- och resursutnyttjande perspektiv godkänd livscykelanalys stor potential i arbetet för en hållbar teknisk utveckling där biomassa, produkter och O2 kan tas om hand och tillföra mervärde för verksamheten och cementindustrin såväl nationellt som internationellt.

  • 43.
    Frick, Brage
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Effects of Flue Gas from a Cement Factory on Algal Growth in the Southern Baltic2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Microalgae are an interesting alternative in renewable energy production and for carbon dioxide capturing and cleaning of flue gas from power, cement, or steel plants. The low CO2 partial pressure of the atmosphere can be compensated by using industrial flue gas, thereby increasing algal growth and decreasing flue gas pollution. Flue gas is a mixture of toxic and non-toxic gases, such as CO2 and different particles. Prior to establishing a flue-gas treated algae culture, the effect of flue gas constituents on algal production needs to be tested. A tubular photobioreactor, TPBR, was designed to compare the effects of flue gas from Cementa AB Degerhamn, (Heidelberg Cement) in the South of Öland (SE Sweden), to air controls and a synthetic AGA prepared CO2/air mixture (13.5 % CO2) on the green alga Tetraselmis sp. (KAC 21), isolated from the Baltic Sea. Batch cultures of Tetraselmis sp. received flue gas and synthetic AGA gas in separate runs with air controls in triplicates. Flue gas and synthetic AGA gas was injected to the TPBR every 24 hours during a period of 10 days. During the 10 day period all cultures depleted the nutrient concentration to more than 98 %. Flue gas had a positive effect on algal growth, despite the potentially toxic substances. Dry weight, cell density, optical density, growth rate and productivity were higher compared to the air control. These results demonstrate that neither nitrogen oxides (NOx) nor sulfur oxides (SOx) contained in the cement flue gas were toxic to the algae. Tetraselmis sp. exposed to flue gas reached average maximum growth rates of 1.10 doublings day-1, with productivity reaching 0.057 g dry weight L-1 day-1. The algal growth rate and productivity were however most likely underestimated as the TPBR suffered from random bio-fouling, thus diminishing the yield.

  • 44.
    Olofsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lamela, Teresa
    Nilsson, Emmelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bergé, Jean Pascal
    del Pino, Victória
    Uronen, Pauliina
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Seasonal variation of lipids and fatty acids of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata grown in outdoor large-scale photobioreactors2012In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1577-1592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While focus in oil-producing microalgae is normally on nutrient deficiency, we

    addressed the seasonal variations of lipid content and composition in large-scale

    cultivation. Lipid content, fatty acid profiles and mono- di- and triglycerides (MAGs,

    DAGs, and TAGs) were analyzed during May 2007–May 2009 in Nannochloropsis oculata

    grown outdoors in closed vertical flat panels photobioreactors. Total lipids (TL) ranged

    from 11% of dry weight (DW) in winter to 30% of DW in autumn. 50% of the variation in

    TL could be explained by light and temperature. As the highest lipid content was recorded

    during autumn indicating an optimal, non-linear, response to light and temperature we

    hypothesize that enhanced thylakoid stacking under reduced light conditions resulted in

    more structural lipids, concomitantly with the increase in glycerides due to released

    photo-oxidative stress. The relative amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)

    increased during autumn. This suggested a synthesis, either of structural fatty acids as

    MUFA, or a relative increase of C16:1 incorporated into TAGs and DAGs. Our results

    emphasize the significant role of environmental conditions governing lipid content and 

    composition in microalgae that have to be considered for correct estimation of algal oil

    yields in biodiesel production.

  • 45.
    Olofsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Del Pino, Victoria
    NECTON Company, Portugal.
    Lamela, Teresa
    NECTON Company, Portugal.
    Bergé, Jean Pascal
    Ifremer Nantes, France.
    Nilsson, Emmelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Are algal oil yield estimations dependent on seasonal variation?2011In: Algae: The sustainable biomass for the future. Perspectives from the submariner project algae cooperation event Trelleborg, Sweden - September 28-29, 2011 / [ed] Cecilia Torres, Berlin, Germany: s.Pro-sustainable projects GmbH , 2011, p. 44-45Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Legrand, Catherine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Growing algae in Scandinavia: utopia or opportunity?2011In: Algae: The sustainable biomass for the future.: Perspectives from the submariner project algae cooperation event Trelleborg, Sweden - September 28-29, 2011., Berlin, Germany: s.Pro sustainable projects GmbH , 2011, p. 16-17Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mattsson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Svensson, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Performance and biomass stability of 5-year outdoor microalgal cultivation for CO2 removal from cement flue gasManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Mattsson, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hirwa, Maurice
    Olofsson, Martin
    Svensson, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Halmstad University.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Seasonal nitrogen removal in an outdoor polyculture at Nordic conditionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 48 of 48
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