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  • 1.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Occupational safety and health for service crew on passenger ships2020In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 121, p. 403-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The service crew is a vital part of the customer experience on board passenger ships, but also has important duties in the safety organization in case of emergencies. Yet, they are not always recognized as seafarers and have received less attention in research that addresses occupational safety and health in the maritime domain.

    This study explores the occupational safety and health for the service crew working on Swedish passenger ships.The purpose is to analyze causes of work-related ill-health, investigate and identify important aspects of the physical, organizational and social working conditions. The study has adopted a mixed methods approach, including survey questionnaires, register data on reported long-term sick leave, and field visits on board.

    Key findings show that service crew on passenger ships report the highest levels of perceived exertion. They also have the highest rates of long-term sick leave lasting 60 days or more. Most diagnoses are related to musculoskeletal and psychological disorders. Important factors in the shipboard work environment include high physical load and strenuous working postures, poor workplace design, long working hours, limited time for recovery, and the perceived mental and emotional load that comes with unclear boundaries between work and recreation and the social interaction with customers and colleagues. The most prominent health promotive factors to reduce the perceived exertion are appropriate manning, time to rest, working with managers that attend to problems and experiencing good working relations with other departments on board.

  • 2.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sandberg, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Towards Autonomous Shipping: Exploring Potential Threats and Opportunities in Future Maritime Operations2020In: Advances in Human Factors of Transportation: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation, July 24-28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA / [ed] Neville Stanton, Springer, 2020, p. 633-644Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents findings from an ongoing research project aiming to study the future of shipping operations with a specific focus on issues related to human roles, responsibilities and the organization of work. A focus group with representatives for the Swedish shipping cluster (n = 6) and academia (n = 2) has been conducted to explore potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) with the developments towards autonomous shipping. The results show an overall concern for how to realize the transition between today’s maritime traffic and a future setting where vessels may be operated from shore. Technology to automate navigational tasks and increase the degree of autonomy in shipping are developing, but more attention needs to be paid to the transition of work that may accompany the ongoing developments. Clear roles, responsibili- ties and a definition of potential operator competences need to be formulated to ensure a human-centered development for safer shipping.

  • 3.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Lund University.
    Frohm, Jörgen
    Trafikverket.
    Glimne, Susanne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hägg, Göran M.
    ErgoMusic.
    Janzon, Olle
    SSAB Europe.
    Pettersson, Per Johan
    MeridentOptergo AB.
    Stavervik, Mathias
    SHL Group AB.
    Ahlin, Jane
    Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society (EHSS).
    Conceptual and Practical Strategy Work to Promote Ergonomics/Human Factors in Sweden2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018) / [ed] Bagnara S., Tartaglia R., Albolino S., Alexander T., Fujita Y., Cham: Springer, 2019, Vol. 4, p. 320-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the results of the conceptual and practical strategy work performed by the Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society (EHSS) today. The rationale of EHSS is to strengthen the quality of ergonomics/human factors knowledge and practice in Sweden and form a multidisciplinary platform across disciplines and professions for collaboration and for knowledge sharing. EHSS gathers about 350 members, representing different occupations in industry, academia and the public sector. Together,EHSS members hold knowledge and experience in physical, cognitive andorganizational ergonomics and its application in working life and society. The overall aim of this paper is to inspire related societies and stakeholders to initiate discussions about strategies and future projects that allow for collaborationa nd knowledge sharing. Proposedly follow the EHSS model where we have formed a multidisciplinary platform for collaboration across disciplinesand professions. The activities initiated and supported by EHSS are one steptowards broadening the knowledge and application of HFE in Sweden, and to comprise new arenas of specialization. By participating in the key areas in society such as teaching, standardization, product development and occupationalsafety and health, the work of EHSS is one piece of the puzzle to improvehuman activities in the future. The vision is that together, we can improve safety, efficiency and well-being for all.

  • 4.
    Glimne, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Eye symptoms and reading abilities of computer users subjected to visually impaired direct glare2019In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 72, p. 173-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer work is a visually demanding task associated with adverse eye symptoms. Frequent use of digitaldisplays is known to cause a deterioration of the so-called binocular control. Direct glare further reduces thecapacity for binocular coordination during computer work, leading to reduced reading ability and increased eyesymptoms.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different luminance levels of direct glare on binoculareye movement control and reading ability in a computer work environment.Sixteen participants with normal binocular vision performed equal reading tasks in a balanced study. Threecontrolled lighting conditions of direct glare (2000, 4000 and 6000 cd/m2) were tested, in addition to no glare.After each trial, the participants answered survey questionnaires regarding their understanding of the text, aswell as their subjective experience of workload and perceived vision. Horizontal fixation disparity (FD) wasmeasured before and after the reading tasks to evaluate binocular eye movement control.When comparing the responses of visual experience, a significant difference in reported eye symptoms wasfound between lighting conditions. Based on the variation (SD), a significant difference was found within meanvalues of repeated measurements of horizontal FD and a significantly higher variation in a comparison of initialFD values measured during lighting conditions of no glare, to final measured values in all three glare conditions.Reading ability was found to be significantly negative affected with the adversity of lighting conditions.This study supports the contention that binocular eye movement control is reduced caused by direct glare.Even lower degree of disability glare caused eye symptoms. The results establish the argument that working withflat screens raises visual demands.

  • 5.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Have a Healthy Lifestyle or Organize Work: Creating Healthy Shipboard Work Environments2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VI: Transport Ergonomics and Human Factors (TEHF), Aerospace Human Factors and Ergonomics / [ed] Bagnara S., Tartaglia R., Albolino S., Alexander T., Fujita Y., Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 455-464Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a study concerning the work environment on board Swedish passenger vessels. The study explored workrelated experiences of personnel in the service department (hotel, restaurant, catering, shops) based on individual and group interviews, observations, survey data and social insurance statistics concerning sick leave longer than 60 days. The results of this paper are based on ten semi-structured individual and group interviews with 16 respondents. The respondents were HR personnel from six shipping companies and crewmembers working onboard. The results show that in the HR personnel’s perception, healthy work environments are often associated to individual personal health activities, such as access to a gym or healthcare, lectures or other measures directed towards the individual seafarer. Aspects of the organizational and social work environments were barely mentioned as stressors or as contributing factors to an increasing number of sick absences. The interviewed crewmembers, however, highlighted the need for both organizational and social measures to foster healthy work environments. The need for employee participation within the organizational design and decision-making processes, including methods on how to conduct risk assessments prior to physical and organizational changes and follow up their consequences were emphasized. Thus, to create safe and sustainable work environments on board, more attention needs to be directed towards including shipboard personnel in the physical and organizational design of their own work environment rather than promoting a healthy lifestyle through measures directed towards the individual worker.

  • 6.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sandberg, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    On the Future of Maritime Transport - Discussing Terminology and Timeframes2019In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 269-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers an analytical discussion on the terminology and timeframes related to the future of shipping. The discussion is based on issues that have surfaced within the Swedish research project Autonomy and responsibility. The paper argues that the concept 'autonomous ships' has become an indicator of that seafarers soon will become obsolete - which may have negative consequences for the supply of maritime competence in coming years - and that the proper definition of the term 'autonomous' describes something that will never apply to a ship. Ships can be given the possibility, but hardly the full right or condition of self-government. It is argued that 'smart ships', or perhaps 'intelligent ships', are more appropriate, since these terms describe the current and future state of technology without predicting how humans will prefer to use it. The estimated timeframes for implementation of unmanned ships suggest no threat to the seafaring occupation for coming generation. The content of the occupation will of course change due to the phase of implementation of degree of digitalization, but there will always be a need for maritime knowledge and understanding.

  • 7.
    Herrmann, Christof
    et al.
    gency for Environment, Nature Conservation, and Geology of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany .
    Bregnballe, Thomas
    Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Leivits, Meelis
    Estonian Environment Agency, Estonia.
    Rusanen, Pekka
    Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Finland.
    Population Development of Baltic Bird Species: Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)2019Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 19th century, the Great Cormorant was exterminated as a breeding bird in several Baltic countries. The persecution continued until the mid of the 20th century, and in the early 1960s the European breeding population of the continental subspecies sinensis had declined to 4,000 breeding pairs (bp) only, of which Germany and Poland hosted more than the half. During the following two decades, the population development apparently has also been affected by the harmful effects of DDT and PCB.

    As a result of protection measures, and seemingly also due to the ban of DDT and PCB, breeding pair numbers started to increase during the second half of the 1970s. During the 1980s, the Cormorant started to expand its range towards the northern and eastern parts of the Baltic. Currently, the species is present in the whole Baltic Sea area, including the northern parts of the Gulf of Bothnia.

    Baltic-wide surveys in 2006, 2009 and 2012 showed that the Baltic population had stabilized at a level of 155,000 – 170,000 bp during that period. However, after 2012 breeding pair numbers have still increased in the eastern and northern Baltic. Hence, the current population is estimated at 190,000-210,000 bp.

    The highest population densities are found around the highly eutrophic estuaries of the southern Baltic (Odra-, Vistula-, and Curonian lagoon).

  • 8.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Thern, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Predicting dynamic fuel oil consumption on ships with automated machine learning2019In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018) / [ed] Prof. J.Yanab, Prof. H.Yang, cDr. H.Lid, Dr. X.Chene, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, p. 6126-6131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates a method for predicting the dynamic fuel consumption on board ships using automated machine learning algorithms, fed only with data for larger time intervals from 12 hours up to 96 hours. The machine learning algorithm trained on dynamic data from shorter time intervals of the engine features together with longer time interval data for the fuel consumption. To give the operator and ship owner real-time energy efficiency statistics, it is essential to be able to predict the dynamic fuel oil consumption. The conventional approach to getting these data is by installing additional mass flow meters, but these come with added cost and complexity. In this study, we propose a machine learning approach using auto machine learning optimisation, with already available data from the machinery logging system.

  • 9.
    Aspers, Patrik
    et al.
    Univ St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Sandberg, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sailing together from different shores: labour markets and inequality on board merchant ships2019In: Global Networks, ISSN 1470-2266, E-ISSN 1471-0374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyse the consequences of the conditions of the labour-market contracts for working on board merchant ships. More specifically, we examine how seafarers hired on different contracts work together. Seafarers' conditions of work differ considerably: some, mainly workers in the West, have permanent contracts with a shipping company, are paid a relatively high monthly wage and can go ashore every second month, whereas others performing the same tasks may have to stay at sea for more than six months at a time, and work for less money on temporary contracts. Drawing on the economic sociology of markets and institutional theory, in this article we present the institutional conditions of globalized labour markets for seafarers and analyse unique data derived from observations and interviews on board merchant ships. We argue that the notion of market is a key explanatory factor for how the work is conducted on board. Theoretically, our elaboration on markets allows us to conceptualize and address global and transnational markets.

  • 10.
    Glimne, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Brautaset, Rune
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Visual Ergonomics in Control Room Environments: A Case Study from a Swedish Paper Mill2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018) / [ed] Bagnara S., Tartaglia R., Albolino S., Alexander T., Fujita Y., Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 180-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from a case study at a Swedish papermill. The study is part of a larger ongoing research project aiming to investigatevisual ergonomics in control room environments. Visual conditions were measuredand evaluated in five control rooms, and nine process operators answeredquestions about perceived workload and visual experience.The participating operators rated their mental workload as being the highest,but also mentioned a high physical load and time pressure. Six operators indicatedthat they had work-related eye problems and experienced pronounced eyefatigue, as well as eye discomfort, sore eyes and blurred vision.In one of the visited control rooms, where the operators indicated that theyoften experienced eye problems, the operators were clearly subjected to glare.Light was reflected within the field of view from a steel plate outside the controlroom windows. Compared to recommendations for office workplaces, the illuminancelevels were low in all control rooms except one, causing contrast glaresince computer screens generally had a higher luminance. Low contrasts werealso identified in the computer screens between background and characters. In conclusion, the measured visual conditions could be related to an increasedvisual load, leading to visual discomfort. This may lead to pain in the neck, shoulders, and contribute towards an unnecessary high mental load. Recommendations are suggested of how lighting conditions van be improved.

  • 11.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Thern, Marcus
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Auto Machine Learning for predicting Ship Fuel Consumption2018In: Proceedings of ECOS 2018 - the 31st International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Guimarães, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, machine learning has evolved in a fast pace as both algorithms and computing power are constantly improving. In this study, a machine learning model for predicting the fuel oil consumption from engine data has been developed for a cruise ship operating in the Baltic Sea. The cruise ship is equipped with legacy volume flow meters and newly installed mass flow meters, as well as an extensive set of logged time series data from the machinery logging system. The model is developed using state-of-the-art Auto Machine Learning tools, which optimises both the model hyper parameters and the model selection by using genetic algorithms. To further increase the model accuracy, a pipeline of different models and pre-processing algorithms is evaluated. An extensive model trained for a certain system can be used for optimisation simulation, as well as online energy efficiency prediction. As the models automatically adapt to noisy sensor data and thus function as a watermark of the machinery system, these algorithms show a potential in predicting ship energy efficiency without installation of additional mass flow meters. All tools used in this study are Open Source tools written in Python and can be applied on board. The study shows great potential for utilising large amounts of already available sensor data for improving the accuracy of the predicted ship energy consumption.

  • 12.
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Breaking the ice: a work domain analysis of icebreaker operations2018In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 443-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Icebreakers are special-purpose ships designed to operate in different ice-covered waters, either independently or duringassistance of weaker ships. In the Baltic Sea, as well as elsewhere, they are essential for maintaining continuous sea transportservices during wintertime. Icebreaker operations are complex, and every situation in which a vessel requires assistanceis unique, due to, e.g. changing ice and weather conditions, geographical location or language proficiency of the crew onboard the icebreaker or assisted vessel. The icebreaker crew has considerable freedom to adapt to each situation, yet, forsafe operations, there are constraints to which the crew has to conform. The study presented in this paper aims at identifyingthe constraints on nautical officers on board icebreakers during operations, as well as special situations that increasecognitive load. A work domain analysis based on a group interview with nautical icebreaker officers shows the multitudeof tasks performed on board icebreakers. Furthermore, it identifies constraints specific to icebreaker operations such as iceassessment and direct icebreaking, but also generic constraints such as language and communication skills. At times, safetyand efficiency come into conflict, resulting in a trade-off between the two. When that happens, safety gets priority, and theoperation stops until the situation has been evaluated. In addition, several situations that increase cognitive load are identified,with the common denominator that they add elements of uncertainty, e.g. severe weather and technical malfunctions.Finally, further research within the area of icebreaker operations is recommended, with a continued focus on the systemconstraints, and their potential for system improvement.

  • 13.
    Baldi, Francesco
    et al.
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Nguyen, Tuong-Van
    Polytechnic School-University of São Paulo, Brazil;Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Thern, Marcus
    Lund University.
    Andersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Energy and exergy analysis of a cruise ship2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 1-41, article id 2508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the International Maritime Organization agreed on aiming to reduce shipping’s greenhouse gas emissions by 50% with respect to 2009 levels. Meanwhile, cruise ship tourism is growing at a fast pace, making the challenge of achieving this goal even harder. The complexity of the energy system of these ships makes them of particular interest from an energy systems perspective. To illustrate this, we analyzed the energy and exergy flow rates of a cruise ship sailing in the Baltic Sea based on measurements from one year of the ship’s operations. The energy analysis allows identifying propulsion as the main energy user (46% of the total) followed by heat (27%) and electric power (27%) generation; the exergy analysis allowed instead identifying the main inefficiencies of the system: while exergy is primarily destroyed in all processes involving combustion (76% of the total), the other main causes of exergy destruction are the turbochargers, the heat recovery steam generators, the steam heaters, the preheater in the accommodation heating systems, the sea water coolers, and the electric generators; the main exergy losses take place in the exhaust gas of the engines not equipped with heat recovery devices. The application of clustering of the ship’s operations based on the concept of typical operational days suggests that the use of five typical days provides a good approximation of the yearly ship’s operations and can hence be used for the design and optimization of the energy systems of the ship.

  • 14.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Thern, Marcus
    Lund University.
    Genrup, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Energy integration of organic rankine cycle, exhaust gas recirculation and scrubber2018In: Trends and challenges in maritime energy management / [ed] Aykut I. Ölçer, Momoko Kitada, Dimitrios Dalaklis & Fabio Ballini, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, p. 157-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast majority of ships trafficking the oceans are fuelled by residual oil with high content of sulphur, which produces sulphur oxides (SOx) when combusted. Additionally, the high pressures and temperatures in modern diesel engines also produce nitrogen oxides (NOx). These emissions are both a hazard to health and the local environment, and regulations enforced by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) are driving the maritime sector towards the use of either distillate fuels containing less sulphur, or the use of exhaust gas cleaning devices.TwocommontechniquesforremovingSOx andlimitingNOx aretheopen loop wet scrubber and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). A scrubber and EGR installation reduces the overall efficiency of the system as it needs significant pumping power, which means that the exhaust gases are cleaner but at the expense of higher CO2 emissions. In this paper we propose a method to integrate an exhaust gas cleaning device for both NOx and SOx with an organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery, thereby enhancing the system efficiency. We investigate three ORC configurations, integrated with the energy flows from both an existing state-of-the-art EGR system and an additional open loop wet scrubber.

  • 15.
    Israelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Department of Cardiology, Kalmar County Council, Kalmar ; Linköping University.
    Thylén, Ingela
    Linköping University.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University.
    Bremer, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Division of Emergency Medical Services, Kalmar County Council, Kalmar.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. The Research Section, Kalmar County Council, Kalmar.
    Factors associated with health status and psychological distress among cardiac arrest survivors treated with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator2018In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 130, no s1, p. e85-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Israelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Kalmar County Council;Linköping university.
    Thylén, Ingela
    Linköping university.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping university.
    Bremer, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Council.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Council.
    Factors associated with health-related quality of life among cardiac arrest survivors treated with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator2018In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 132, p. 78-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To explore factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among cardiac arrest (CA) survivors treated with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in relation to gender, and to compare their HRQoL with a general population.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study included 990 adults treated with an ICD after suffering CA. All participants received a questionnaire including demographics, comorbidities and instruments to measure HRQoL (EQ-5D-3L and HADS), ICD-related concerns (ICDC), perceived control (CAS), and type D personality (DS-14). HRQoL (EQ-5D-3L) was compared to a general Swedish population, matched for age and gender. Linear regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with HRQoL.

    Results

    The CA survivors reported better HRQoL in EQ index and less pain/discomfort compared to the general population (p < 0.001). In contrast, they reported more problems in mobility and usual activities (p < 0.01). Problems with anxiety and depression were reported by 15.5% and 7.4% respectively. The following factors were independently associated with all aspects of worse HRQoL: being unemployed, suffering more comorbidity, perceiving less control, and having a type D personality. Further, being female and suffering ICD-related concerns were independently associated with worse HRQoL in three of the four final regression models.

    Conclusions

    This extensive population-based study showed that most CA survivors living with an ICD rate their HRQoL as acceptable. In addition, their HRQoL is similar to a general population. Women reported worse HRQoL compared to men. Several factors associated with HRQoL were identified, and might be used when screening patients for health problems and when developing health promoting interventions.

  • 17.
    Stevenson-Ågren, Jean
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Sheffield, UK.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Kalmar County Hospital ; Linköping University.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Bath, Peter
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Factors influencing the quality of vital signs data in electronic health records: a qualitative study2018In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 27, no 5-6, p. 1276-1286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives

    To investigate reasons for inadequate documentation of vital signs in an electronic health record.

    Background

    Monitoring vital signs is crucial to detecting and responding to patient deterioration. The ways in which vital signs are documented in electronic health records have received limited attention in the research literature. A previous study revealed that vital signs in an electronic health record were incomplete and inconsistent.

    Design

    Qualitative study.

    Methods

    Qualitative study. Data were collected by observing (68 hr) and interviewing nurses (n = 11) and doctors (n = 3), and analysed by thematic analysis to examine processes for measuring, documenting and retrieving vital signs in four clinical settings in a 353-bed hospital.

    Results

    We identified two central reasons for inadequate vital sign documentation. First, there was an absence of firm guidelines for observing patients’ vital signs, resulting in inconsistencies in the ways vital signs were recorded. Second, there was a lack of adequate facilities in the electronic health record for recording vital signs. This led to poor presentation of vital signs in the electronic health record and to staff creating paper “workarounds.”

    Conclusions

    This study demonstrated inadequate routines and poor facilities for vital sign documentation in an electronic health record, and makes an important contribution to knowledge by identifying problems and barriers that may occur. Further, it has demonstrated the need for improved facilities for electronic documentation of vital signs.

    Relevance to clinical practice

    Patient safety may have been compromised because of poor presentation of vital signs. Thus, our results emphasised the need for standardised routines for monitoring patients. In addition, designers should consult the clinical end-users to optimise facilities for electronic documentation of vital signs. This could have a positive impact on clinical practice and thus improve patient safety.

  • 18.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Karlsson, Pär
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Fartygstrafik i och nära skyddade och känsliga havsområden runt Gotland och Öland2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den internationella fartygstrafiken i Östersjön och inte minst i havsområdet runt Gotland och Öland är mycket intensiv och förväntas öka i omfattning under kommande år. Sjöfarten behöver tillgång till utrymme på havet i form av ändamålsenliga och säkra fartygsrutter. Intensiv fartygstrafik medför dock påverkan på havsmiljön på grund av driftsrelaterade utsläpp till luft och vatten. Intensiv trafik medför även risker för kollisioner, grundstötningar och andra fartygsolyckor som kan ge upphov till mycket stor miljöpåverkan.

     

    Sverige har liksom de flesta av världens länder i enlighet med internationella konventioner ett uppdrag att skydda minst 10 % av havet. Införandet av marina reservat och nationalparker innanför svensk territorialgräns, och av marina Natura 2000-områden innanför territorialgräns och i svensk ekonomisk zon enligt nationell lagstiftning och EU-direktiv, är ett led i uppdraget. Andra internationella konventioner reglerar vilka åtgärder som kan vidtas för att styra fartygstrafik eller för att rekommendera sjöfarten att undvika vissa havsområden.

     

    Havsplanering är ett verktyg för att styra det rumsliga nyttjandet av havet och för att reducera konflikter mellan olika samhällsintressen, t.ex. mellan behovet av sjöfart och behovet av att skydda havsmiljön och marin biologisk mångfald. För att på ett effektivt sätt kunna havsplanera och förbättra och utöka skyddet av värdefulla marina områden krävs kunskap om den påverkan som mänskliga aktiviteter, bland annat sjöfart, har på områdena. Ett första steg är att identifiera de havsområden där fartygstrafiken är mycket intensiv, där fartyg passerar genom eller nära särskilt känsliga områden, där fartyg med särskilt farlig last passerar eller där många fartyg ankrar under längre perioder.

     

    Syftet med rapporten är att sammanställa information om fartygstrafik i och nära skyddade och känsliga havsområden runt Gotland och Öland. I rapporten beskrivs först hur analyser av fartygstrafik kan genomföras med hjälp av lagrade AIS-data. Därefter beskrivs fartygstrafiken i centrala Östersjön och i särskilda fokusområden runt Gotland och Öland. Avslutningsvis diskuteras risker med fartygstrafik i känsliga havsområden och hur konflikter mellan sjöfartens behov och marint områdesskydd kan reduceras. Rapporten har producerats inom projektet ”Marina skyddsvärden runt Gotland och Öland ” som letts av Länsstyrelsen i Gotlands län.

  • 19.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Allert, Camilla
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Djukanovic, Ingrid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Schildmeijer, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Liselott
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bremer, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Health-related quality of life among in-hospital cardiac arrest survivors in working age2018In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 130, no s1, article id e18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Graziano, Armando
    et al.
    World Maritime University.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens-Uwe
    World Maritime University.
    Mejia Jr., Maximo Q.
    World Maritime University.
    Kataria, Aditi
    World Maritime University.
    It Takes Two to Tango: EU Policy Makers’ Bi-dimensional Approach to Flag State Performance2018In: Ocean Yearbook, ISSN 0191-8575, E-ISSN 2211-6001, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 477-496Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Reducing ships' fuel consumption and emissions by learning from data2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of reducing both greenhouse gases and hazardous emissions, the shipping sector faces a major challenge as it is currently responsible for 11% of the transport sector’s anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Even as emissions reductions are needed, the demand for the transport sector rises exponentially every year. This thesis aims to investigate the potential to use ships’ existing internal energy systems more efficiently. The thesis focusses on making existing ships in real operating conditions more efficient based logged machinery data. This dissertation presents results that can make ship more energy efficient by utilising waste heat recovery and machine learning tools. A significant part of this thesis is based on data from a cruise ship in the Baltic Sea, and an extensive analysis of the ship’s internal energy system was made from over a year’s worth of data. The analysis included an exergy analysis, which also considers the usability of each energy flow. In three studies, the feasibility of using the waste heat from the engines was investigated, and the results indicate that significant measures can be undertaken with organic Rankine cycle devices. The organic Rankine cycle was simulated with data from the ship operations and optimised for off-design conditions, both regarding system design and organic fluid selection. The analysis demonstrates that there are considerable differences between the real operation of a ship and what it was initially designed for. In addition, a large two-stroke marine diesel was integrated into a simulation with an organic Rankine cycle, resulting in an energy efficiency improvement of 5%. This thesis also presents new methods of employing machine learning to predict energy consumption. Machine learning algorithms are readily available and free to use, and by using only a small subset of data points from the engines and existing fuel flow meters, the fuel consumption could be predicted with good accuracy. These results demonstrate a potential to improve operational efficiency without installing additional fuel meters. The thesis presents results concerning how data from ships can be used to further analyse and improve their efficiency, by using both add-on technologies for waste heat recovery and machine learning applications.

  • 22.
    Langer, Sarka
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Strandberg, Bo
    Lund University.
    Fridén, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Riskbedömning av svenska sjömäns yrkesmässiga exponering för toxiska luftföroreningar: Mätningar och enkätundersökning2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett fartyg utgör både en arbetsmiljö och en boendemiljö och besättningen vistas ofta långa tider ombord. Ombordtjänstgöringen kan vara i veckor eller månader och kan ibland passera flera klimat­zoner. Eftersom vi tillbringar den största delen av vår tid inomhus är det där vi främst exponeras. På ett fartyg kan det vara svårt att påverka sin exponering för kemiska ämnen eftersom möjligheten att byta miljö är liten. Det är därför extra viktigt att innemiljön är god.

    Luften ombord präglas till stor del av de kemiska ämnen som har sitt ursprung i fartygets bränsle, smörjoljor och motoravgaser. Det är en komplicerad blandning som innehåller mest koldioxid, kol­monoxid, svaveldioxid, kväveoxider men också kolväten såsom bensen, toluen, xylener, och poly­cykliska aromatiska kolväten. Flera av dessa ämnen är cancerframkallande eller hälsoskadliga på annat sätt. Det finns dock få vetenskapliga studier som undersökt den personliga exponeringen för farliga luftföroreningar som de sjömän som arbetar ombord utsätts för.

    Syftet med projektet som presenteras i denna rapport var att kartlägga den personliga exponeringen för de toxiska luftföroreningarna bensen, kvävedioxid (NO2) och polycykliska aromatiska kolväten (PAH) som alla kan spåras till fartygs-bränslet och bränsleavgaser. Den uppmätta exponeringen har analyserats för att kunna identifiera eventuella skillnader mellan typ av fartyg och mellan olika avdelningar och befattningar ombord. De uppmätta halterna har jämförts med svenska lagkrav men också med internationella, icke bindande riktlinjer för innemiljöer, för att få en uppfattning om halternas storlek. Dessutom har vi undersökt hur besättningen själva upplever sin luftkvalitet ombord. Projektets övergripande mål var att utveckla en metod för riskbedömning av exponeringen som kan användas av branschen, samt att formulera praktiska råd och rekommendationer.

    Den personliga exponeringen har mätts med passiva diffusionsprovtagare som burits i andnings­zonen av personer som arbetar ombord. Totalt har vi resultat från 124 personer på 11 olika fartyg med olika typ av framdrivningsmaskineri och som går på olika bränslen. En enkät med frågor om upplevd luftkvalitet på arbetsplatsen och i hytten har delats ut till alla personer i besättningen på de besökta fartygen. Enkäten har besvarats av totalt 308 personer viket motsvarar en svarsfrekvens på 78%.

    Resultaten visar att samtliga uppmätta personliga exponeringar låg långt under Arbetsmiljöverkets hygieniska gränsvärden som också gäller svenskflaggade fartyg genom Transportstyrelsens föreskrifter. En del personer har exponerats för halter i nivå med och i vissa fall något över Världshälsoorganisationens hälsobaserade rekommenderade riktvärden för innemiljöer. Dessa riktvärden är dock satta för innemiljöer utan industriell verksamhet och med tanke på att barn, sjuka och äldre kan vistas i sådana innemiljöer under en längre tid. Även om fartyget utgör en boendemiljö för de som arbetar ombord, så kan besättningen förväntas ut­göras av friska personer i arbetsför ålder. Däremot pekar resultatet på vikten av att arbeta system­atiskt med att minimera exponeringen för farliga luftföroreningar så långt som det är möjligt. Världshälsoorganisationen menar att det inte finns säkra halter av bensen och benso(a)pyren. Därför kan de arbetsuppgifter som innebär en något högre exponering för dessa farliga ämnen behöva riskbedömas särskilt, till exempel sådana som innebär kontakt med bränslen, smörjoljor, hydrauloljor eller andra kemikalier, eller exponering för fordonsavgaser eller stekos.

    En jämförelse av hela besättningens exponering på de olika fartygen visade att det fanns skillnader både mellan fartyg och inom fartyg. Här har multivariata analyser av resultaten gett en sammansatt bild av exponeringen och bekräftar individuella ämnen. Fartygets funktion och bränsle är indikativa determinanter för exponeringens storlek. Fartyg som fraktar marint bränsle och de som drivs på tjockolja uppvisar högre exponeringsgrad än andra typer av fartyg.

    Vid en jämförelse mellan befattning och avdelning ser vi att maskinmanskap generellt har högst upp­mätta halter, följt av personal inom däcksavdelningen och intendenturen som har lägst halter. Vid en jämförelse av resultaten för befäl och manskap på alla fartyg ser vi ingen skillnad i exponering.

    Resultaten av enkätundersökningen visar att luftkvaliteten i stort upplevs som acceptabel. När vi bryter ner resultaten per avdelning ser vi att driftpersonalen, däck- och maskinavdelningarna, är mer nöjda med sin luftkvalitet än intendenturen. Skillnaden mellan avdelningarna syns också när det gäller luktens intensitet, där däck- och maskinavdelningarna upplever liten till måttlig lukt på sin arbetsplats och i sin hytt och intendenturpersonalen upplever en starkare lukt på sin arbetsplats, från måttlig till stark lukt.

    Exponering för mer än ett ämne med liknande effekt innebär en så kallad additiv, hygienisk effekt. Ett kumulativt riskindex har därför tagits fram utifrån summan av kvoterna mellan uppmätt halt för ämnena NO2, bensen, benso(a)pyren och naftalen och deras respektive hälsobaserade riktvärde fram­taget av Världshälsoorganisationen. Detta riskindex har använts för att jämföra exponeringen med normalbefolkningen i Sverige, samt för att identifiera skillnader mellan fartyg, befattningar och avdelningar. Kumulativt riskindex kan användas för riskbedömningar av arbeten och arbetsuppgifter med syfte att eliminera och minimera kända exponeringar så långt som möjligt.

    Åtgärder för att minska den personliga exponeringen kan vara både tekniska och organisatoriska. Det är viktigt att säkerställa en god allmänventilation för såväl arbetsplatser som hytter. Vissa utrymmen kan behöva särskilda utsug, såsom arbetsplatser för svetsning och maskinbearbetning, rengöring av motordelar, blandning av färg, över stekbord i köket och liknande, för att fånga upp luftföroreningar nära källan. Alternativt kan befintliga utsug behöva förbättras. Det är också viktigt att ha bra rutiner för rengöring och underhåll av arbetsutrustning och ventilationsanläggningar. Organisatoriska åtgärder kan vara att planera och fördela arbetet för att minska exponeringen för den enskilde individen genom arbetsrotation, arbetsväxling och möjligheter till paus i utrymme med lägre exponering.

    De skillnader i upplevelsen av luftens kvalitet som ses mellan avdelningarna kan dels förklaras av olika typer av arbetsuppgifter och exponeringar som personalen inom de respektive avdelningarna har men upplevelsen styrs också av psykosociala arbetsmiljöfaktorer som hög arbetsbelastning, höga krav i arbetet och liten möjlighet att själv kunna påverka sin arbetssituation, samt lågt socialt stöd och låg arbetstillfredsställelse. Här kan helt andra typer av arbetsmiljöåtgärder behöva diskuteras för att öka upplevelsen av inflytande, delaktighet och stöd i arbetet.

  • 23.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lindblad, Mats
    Sjukt kul jobb.: Servicepersonalens arbetsmiljö, sjukskrivningar och arbetstillfredsställelse på passagerarfartyg2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Stundtals tufft men ändå givande. Så skulle arbetssituationen kunna sammanfattas för de som jobbar inom intendenturen med service och försäljning till gäster på passagerarfartyg. Många arbetsmoment innebär hög fysisk och mental arbetsbelastning med liten möjlighet att själv kunna påverka sina arbetsförhållanden. Men trots att servicepersonalen är överrepresenterade bland de långa sjukskrivningarna är det en motiverad arbetsgrupp med hög arbetstillfredsställelse. I den här rapporten sammanställer vi några av de viktigaste resultaten från forskningsprojektet Intendenturpersonalens arbetsmiljö som genomfördes vid Sjöfartshögskolan, Linnéuniversitetet under åren 2015–2017. Både projektet och den här rapporten har finansierats av Stiftelsen Sveriges Sjömanshus.

  • 24.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sjöfåglars utnyttjande av havsområden runt Gotland och Öland: betydelsen av marint områdesskydd2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Marint områdesskydd, dvs. att införa särskilda bevarandeåtgärder i geografiskt definierade marina områden, är ett av flera verktyg som kan användas för att bevara hotade och sårbara populationer av sjöfåglar och annan marin fauna och flora. Havs- och kustområdena runt Gotland och Öland, inklusive de tre större utsjöbankarna i centrala Östersjön, är viktiga områden där sjöfåglar söker föda i form av bottenfauna, främst musslor, eller fisk. Flera fiskätande och bottenfaunaätande sjöfåglar befinner sig vintertid ofta i det yttre kustbandet eller långt ute till havs. Alkor, lommar och havslevande dykänder är mycket skickliga dykare och fångar föda på stora djup. Alfåglar dyker regelbundet efter musslor på djup ned till 25 meter. Alkor som sillgrissla och tordmule dyker efter fisk i den fria vattenmassan och kan fånga byten på betydligt större djup.

     

    Syftet med denna rapport är att sammanställa och tolka tidigare genomförda inventeringar av sjöfåglar i Östersjön, med särskilt fokus på fåglarnas utbredning och nyttjande av utsjöbankar och havs- och kustområden runt Gotland och Öland. Syftet är också att diskutera om och hur marint områdesskydd, havsplanering och andra generella skyddsåtgärder kan påverka olika arter sjöfåglar och särskilt de arter eller populationer som är hotade eller som Sverige har ett särskilt ansvar för.

     

    I rapporten beskrivs hur sjöfågelinventeringar till havs kan genomföras och hur resultat från inventeringar som använt olika metodik bör tolkas. Därefter följer en generell beskrivning av de bottenfaunaätande och fiskätande sjöfågelarter som regelmässigt utnyttjar havsområden runt Gotland och Öland under en betydande tid av året. I denna del beskrivs även artens status och olika hot. Sjöfågelarter eller andra kustbundna fågelarter som i huvudsak endast utnyttjar de mest strandnära vattenområdena tas inte upp i denna rapport. Efter artbeskrivningarna följer en beskrivning av förekomsten av olika arter sjöfåglar i utvalda fokusområden. Avslutningsvis diskuteras behov och prioriteringar av marint områdesskydd i de olika fokusområdena respektive behov av generella skyddsåtgärder

     

    Rapporten har producerats inom projektet ”Marina skyddsvärden runt Gotland och Öland ” som letts av Länsstyrelsen i Gotlands län. Projektet har till största del finansierats av Havs- och vattenmyndigheten genom anslag 1:11 Åtgärder i havs- och vattenmiljö samt medfinansierats av Länsstyrelsen i Gotlands län, Länsstyrelsen i Kalmar län och Linnéuniversitetet.

  • 25.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Strategies and measures to improve the work environment of service crew on board Swedish passenger vessel2018In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 587-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from three workshops focused on the physical, organizational and social work environment of service crew working on board Swedish passenger vessels. The first workshop aimed to identify underlying causes of long‐term sick leave among employees in the service department, and potential measures that can be taken to reduce ill‐health. The second and third workshop explored knowledge of available methods to identify occupational safety and health risks, and suggest health‐promotion strategies at individual, team and company levels. A total of 58 persons from the Swedish maritime cluster participated in the workshops. During the workshops, open and structured brainstorming was used to create affinity diagrams to systematically summarize the identified causes, risks and strategies. Although the results presented in this article stem from a research project focused on Swedish passenger vessels, many of the findings may be transferable to an international maritime setting towards a deeper understanding of seafarers’ work environment and working conditions.

  • 26.
    Bligård, Lars-Ola
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Berlin, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    The power of the dollhouse: Comparing the use of full-scale, 1:16-scale and virtual 3D-models for user evaluation of workstation design2018In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 68, p. 344-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits of having users evaluate product or workplace design during the development process are well known. This is often achieved by letting users interact with one or more models of the design proposal, in order to elicit feedback. The issue for product developers is to choose what type(s) of models to use (from paper drawings to physical or virtual mock-ups or fully working prototypes) and when to use them in the development process, while making optimal use of resources like time, money and personnel.

    This paper compares three types of simple three-dimensional (3D) models (1:1 scale, 1:16 scale and CAD) representing a ship bridge workstation, examining what kind of feedback they elicit in a design evaluation with representative users. Participants were asked to assess the proposed design and to compare the models' relative merits. The study found that while all three types of 3D models elicited several types of useful design feedback, there were differences in both quantity and content of the feedback elicited by each model type. The physical models elicited more feedback than the CAD model, both regarding content richness (direct and indirect design feedback) and quantity. The tangibility of the models seems to greatly influence acceptance and credibility.

  • 27.
    Djarv, T.
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden;Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, C.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Herlitz, J.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;University of Borås, Sweden.
    Stromsoe, A.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden;Linköping University, Sweden.
    Claesson, A.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;University of Borås, Sweden.
    Traumatic cardiac arrest in Sweden 1990-2016: a population-based national cohort study2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 26, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Trauma is a main cause of death among young adults worldwide. Patients experiencing a traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) certainly have a poor prognosis but population-based studies are sparse. Primarily to describe characteristics and 30-day survival following a TCA as compared with a medical out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (medical CA). Methods: A cohort study based on data from the nationwide, prospective population-based Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR), a medical cardiac arrest registry, between 1990 and 2016. The definition of a TCA in the SRCR is a patient who is unresponsive with apnoea where cardiopulmonary resuscitation and/or defibrillation have been initiated and in whom the Emergency Medical Services (EMS, mainly a nurse-based system) reported trauma as the aetiology. Outcome was overall 30-day survival. Descriptive statistics as well as multivariable logistic regression models were used. Results: In all, between 1990 and 2016, 1774 (2.4%) cases had a TCA and 72,547 had a medical CA. Overall 30-day survival gradually increased over the years, and was 3.7% for TCAs compared to 8.2% following a medical CA (p < 0.01). Among TCAs, factors associated with a higher 30-day survival were bystander witnessed and having a shockable initial rhythm (adjusted OR 2.67, 95% C.I. 1.15-6.22 and OR 8.94 95% C.I. 4.27-18.69, respectively). Discussion: Association in registry-based studies do not imply causality but TCA had short time intervals in the chain of survival as well as high rates of bystander-CPR. C onclusion: In a medical CA registry like ours, prevalence of TCAs is low and survival is poor. Registries like ours might not capture the true incidence. However, many individuals do survive and resuscitation in TCAs should not be seen futile.

  • 28.
    Al-Dury, Nooraldeen
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rawshani, Araz
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden;Linköping university, Sweden.
    Strömsöe, Anneli
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Västerås, Sweden.
    Aune, Solveig
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ravn-Fischer, Annica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden;University of Borås, Sweden.
    Characteristics and outcome among 14,933 adult cases of in-hospital cardiac arrest: A nationwide study with the emphasis on gender and age.2017In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 35, no 12, p. 1839-1844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To investigate characteristics and outcome among patients suffering in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) with the emphasis on gender and age.

    METHODS: Using the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, we analyzed associations between gender, age and co-morbidities, etiology, management, 30-day survival and cerebral function among survivors in 14,933 cases of IHCA. Age was divided into three ordered categories: young (18-49years), middle-aged (50-64years) and older (65years and above). Comparisons between men and women were age adjusted.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 72.7years and women were significantly older than men. Renal dysfunction was the most prevalent co-morbidity. Myocardial infarction/ischemia was the most common condition preceding IHCA, with men having 27% higher odds of having MI as the underlying etiology. A shockable rhythm was found in 31.8% of patients, with men having 52% higher odds of being found in VT/VF. After adjusting for various confounders, it was found that men had a 10% lower chance than women of surviving to 30days. Older individuals were managed less aggressively than younger patients. Increasing age was associated with lower 30-day survival but not with poorer cerebral function among survivors.

    CONCLUSION: When adjusting for various confounders, it was found that men had a 10% lower chance than women of surviving to 30days after in-hospital cardiac arrest. Older individuals were managed less aggressively than younger patients, despite a lower chance of survival. Higher age was, however, not associated with poorer cerebral function among survivors.

  • 29.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Effects of shipping and recurrent oil spills2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, P., Schubert, H. and Radziejewska, T. (Eds.), Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2017, p. 556-557Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Insanic, Jasmina
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH).
    Rose, Linda
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH).
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Expert user perspectives of the Ergo-Index model for analysis of work tasks2017In: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference: Joy at work / [ed] Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Mikael Blomé and Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund: Lund University , 2017, p. 313-320Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate an updated beta version of Ergo-Index, adigital tool for ergonomic risk assessments. The evaluation was performed with 15expert users who assessed type, distance, height and exposure time of certain worktasks, as well as the usability of the tool. In conclusion, the users find the presentstate of the Ergo-Index suitable as a first screening method. Assessments of liftingwork have the greatest inter-rater reliability. Further development of the digitalizedversion of the tool is needed to improve accuracy assessing input regardingpushing and pulling work tasks, and to increase usability.

  • 31.
    Sandberg, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Globalization and Organization on Swedish-flagged Merchant Ships2017In: Economic challenge and new maritime risks management: What blue growth? / [ed] Patrick Chaumette, Bilbao: Gomylex , 2017, p. 385-400Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32. Hammar, Linus
    et al.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Havsplanering kan minska konflikter och främja helhetssyn på miljön2017In: Åtgärder för att minska sjöfartens påverkan på havsmiljön, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 18-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjöfart och fiske har länge haft havet nästan för sig själva. Men på senare år har fler näringar visat intresse för att använda havet. Medan sjöfart och fiske regleras med breda penseldrag, behöver energiutvinning, vattenbruk och sandutvinning söka miljötillstånd för varje enskilt projekt. Med havsplanering finns nu möjlighet att planera för alla anspråk på en gång.

  • 33.
    Israelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden;Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, Sweden;Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Åsa B.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cronberg, Tobias
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Djärv, Therese
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ing-Marie
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lilja, Gisela
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sunnerhagen, Katharina S.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wallin, Ewa
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ågren, Susanna
    Linköping University, Sweden;County Council of Östergötland, Sweden.
    Åkerman, Eva
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden;Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Sweden;Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Health status and psychological distress among in-hospital cardiac arrest survivors in relation to gender2017In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 114, p. 27-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To describe health status and psychological distress among in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) survivors in relation to gender.

    METHODS: This national register study consists of data from follow-up registration of IHCA survivors 3-6 months post cardiac arrest (CA) in Sweden. A questionnaire was sent to the survivors, including measurements of health status (EQ-5D-5L) and psychological distress (HADS).

    RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2015, 594 IHCA survivors were included in the study. The median values for EQ-5D-5L index and EQ VAS among survivors were 0.78 (q1-q3=0.67-0.86) and 70 (q1-q3=50-80) respectively. The values were significantly lower (p&lt;0.001) in women compared to men. In addition, women reported more problems than men in all dimensions of EQ-5D-5L, except self-care. A majority of the respondents reported no problems with anxiety (85.4%) and/or symptoms of depression (87.0%). Women reported significantly more problems with anxiety (p&lt;0.001) and symptoms of depression (p&lt;0.001) compared to men. Gender was significantly associated with poorer health status and more psychological distress. No interaction effects for gender and age were found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although the majority of survivors reported acceptable health status and no psychological distress, a substantial proportion reported severe problems. Women reported worse health status and more psychological distress compared to men. Therefore, a higher proportion of women may be in need of support. Health care professionals should make efforts to identify health problems among survivors and offer individualised support when needed.

  • 34.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Improving operational safety during icebreaker operations2017In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 73-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presented in this paper aims at investigating what safety measures that can be taken to improve the operational safety during icebreaker operations in the Baltic Sea. During icebreaker operations, the icebreaker and the assisted vessel operate in close proximity to each other, a distance which can be even smaller if weather and ice conditions are severe. This poses a severe threat to the operation, since the extremely short distance between the vessels leaves no room for error. The results, which are based on data collected through individual interviews and questionnaires, indicate several possible improvements. Firstly, on a regulatory level, the introduction of an ice navigation certificate for deck officers would set a minimal level of formal competency. Secondly, on a knowledge level, more ice navigation training and better language skills work in favour for the safety. Thirdly, on a technical level, having an electronic chart with target tracking capability increases the efficiency and safety of the passage through ice. In addition to these results, this study shows a need to further research the communication and language situation during icebreaker operations.

  • 35.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lindblad, Mats
    Försäkringskassan Sjöfart.
    Intendenturpersonalens arbetsmiljö: arbetsmiljö, arbetsupplevelser, motivation och sjukskrivningar på passagerarfartyg2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här projektet undersöker arbetsmiljön för intendenturpersonalen på svenska passagerarfar-tyg. Bakgrunden till projektet ligger i upptäckten att intendenturpersonal ombord passagerar-fartyg år 2010 uppvisade en betydligt högre upplevelse av utmattning, jämfört med andra per-sonalgrupper. Utmattningsupplevelsen indikerades med ett utmattningsindex bestående av ett flertal upplevelseaspekter rörande trötthet och stress i arbetet. Passagerarfartygens intendentur-personal har även rapporterat högre ohälsotal än andra personalkategorier i svensk sjöfart.Projektet innefattar en jämförelse av svenskregistrerad sjöpersonals upplevelser av utmattning fördelat på ombordfunktioner och fartygstyp vid mellan 2010 och 2015, samt förhållandet mel-lan arbetstillfredsställelse, motivation och utmattningsupplevelse inom intendenturen år 2015. I projektet analyseras även Försäkringskassans sjukskrivningsstatistik för åren 2011–2014 med avseende på sjuktalen för långa sjukskrivningar över 60 dagar och diagnosfördelning för inten-denturpersonalen, samt om det möjligt att göra en analytisk koppling till upplevelsen av utmatt-ning. Genom intervjuer och observationer med chefer och medarbetare ombord och iland un-dersöks vilka fysiska, organisatoriska och sociala faktorer som upplevs vara av betydelse för arbetsmiljön.Det övergripande målet är att identifiera friskfaktorer för att minska risken för utmattning och ohälsa som kan leda till långa sjukskrivningar och lämna välgrundade rekommendationer för branschen.Resultaten visar att passagerarfartygens besättning rapporterar högst utmattningsupplevelse både 2010 och 2015. Intendenturpersonalen är också klart överrepresenterade i sjukskrivnings-statistiken och sjuktalen, vilket kan kopplas till upplevelsen av utmattning.Enkätundersökningen 2015 visar att intendenturpersonalen rapporterar mest negativa upplevel-ser av arbetssituation, kamratskap och ledarskap jämfört med andra avdelningar. Det är dock en generellt motiverad yrkesgrupp med hög arbetstillfredsställelse. Friskfaktorer som visat sig lindra utmattningsupplevelsen (bemanning, vila, ledarskap, relationer till andra avdelningar) stärker personalens motivation att arbeta till sjössÖkad delaktighet hos intendenturpersonalen i arbetsmiljöarbete och arbetsplatsens utformning kan minska de negativa och höja de hälsofrämjande effekterna av förändringsarbete ombord. Den sociala arbetsmiljön är en viktig del av arbetet till sjöss och omfattar även den lediga tid som tillbringas ombord. Arbetsmiljöarbete bör därför omfatta åtgärder som bryter ner gränser mellan avdelningar, skapar sammanhållning och en gemensam identitet för intendenturen och besättningen i stort.

  • 36.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Oljekatastrofer påskyndar regelverk om fartygs utsläpp2017In: Havet 1988 / [ed] Svärd, M., Johansen Lilja, T., Lundberg, F., Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 44-45Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Schmidt, Lisa
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sanne, Johan M
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Antonsson, Ann-Beth
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Preventing workplace violence and threats among professional cleaners: how not to be in the ‘wrong place at the wrong time’2017In: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference, "Joy at work": Joy at Work / [ed] Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Mikael Blomé and Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund: Lund Universitet , 2017, p. 460-467Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional cleaners work in a complex work environment, subjected to various physical and mental loads. This paper focuses on work related violence and threats and practical suggestions for its prevention and mitigation. By organizing and designing cleaning work in time and space it is possible to reduce the risk of cleaners being in the 'wrong place at the wrong time’. Cleaners need to have sufficient knowledge of how their work can be carried out as safely as possible; how to act when threatening or precarious situations occur, and feel confident in managerial support if they need to interrupt work in a threatening situation.

  • 38.
    Schildmeijer, Kristina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Semark, Birgitta
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    von Wangenheim, Burkard
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Quality of chest compressions and complaince by healthcare professionals with real-time audiovisual feedback during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation2017In: 2nd International Nursing Conference, November 1-3, 2017, Barcelona, Spain, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Semark, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköping University.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Linköping University ; Kalmar County Hospital.
    von Wangenheim, Burkard
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Schildmeijer, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Quality of chest compressions by healthcare professionals using real-time audiovisual feedback during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation2017In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 453-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: A high quality of chest compressions, e.g. sufficient depth (5-6 cm) and rate (100-120 per min), has been associated with survival. The patient's underlay affects chest compression depth. Depth and rate can be assessed by feedback systems to guide rescuers during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of chest compressions by healthcare professionals using real-time audiovisual feedback during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Method: An observational descriptive study was performed including 63 cardiac arrest events with a resuscitation attempt. Data files were recorded by Zoll AED Pro, and reviewed by RescueNet Code Review software. The events were analysed according to depth, rate, quality of chest compressions and underlay. Results: Across events, 12.7% (median) of the compressions had a depth of 5-6 cm. Compression depth of >6 cm was measured in 70.1% (median). The underlay could be identified from the electronic patient records in 54 events. The median compression depth was 4.5 cm (floor) and 6.7 cm (mattress). Across events, 57.5% (median) of the compressions were performed with a median frequency of 100-120 compressions/min and the most common problem was a compression rate of <100 (median=22.3%). Conclusions: Chest compression quality was poor according to the feedback system. However, the distribution of compression depth with regard to underlay points towards overestimation of depth when treating patients on a mattress. Audiovisual feedback devices ought to be further developed. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of their devices.

  • 40.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Thern, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Lund University.
    Genrup, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Quasi-steady state simulation of an organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery in a passenger vessel2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 185, no Special Issue Part 2, p. 1324-1335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present the quasi-steady state simulation of a regenerative organic Rankine cycle (ORC)integrated in a passenger vessel, over a standard round trip. The study case is the M/S Birka Stockholmcruise ship, which covers a daily route between Stockholm (Sweden) and Mariehamn (Finland).Experimental data of the exhaust gas temperatures, engine loads, and electricity demand on board werelogged over a period of four weeks. These data where used as inputs for a simulation model of an ORC forwaste heat recovery of the exhaust gases. A quasi-steady state simulation was carried out on an offdesignmodel, based on optimized design conditions, to estimate the average net power production ofthe ship over a round trip. The maximum net power production of the ORC during the round trip wasestimated to supply approximately 22% of the total power demand on board. The results showed apotential for ORC as a solution for the maritime transport sector to accomplish the new and morerestrictive regulations on emissions, and to reduce the total fuel consumption.

  • 41.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Eriksson, Martin
    Regler, ekonomiska styrmedel och teknik kan minska påverkan på miljön2017In: Åtgärder för att minska sjöfartens påverkan på havsmiljön. Havsmiljöinstitutets rapport 2017:2, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 4-6Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I likhet med de flesta andra transportslag har sjöfart en betydande påverkan på jordens klimat, ekosystem och människors hälsa. För att långsiktigt minska de negativa effekterna på havsmiljön krävs skarpare regelverk, ny teknik och ekonomiska styrmedel, samt en samsyn mellan alla de aktörer som påverkar sjöfartens utveckling.

  • 42.
    Israelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Kalmar County Hospital ; Linköping University.
    von Wangenheim, Burkard
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköping University.
    Semark, Birgitta
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Schildmeijer, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Sensitivity and specificity of two different automated external defibrillators2017In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 120, p. 108-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to investigate the clinical performance of two different types of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). Methods: Three investigators reviewed 2938 rhythm analyses performed by AEDs in 240 consecutive patients (median age 72, q1-q3 = 62-83) who had suffered cardiac arrest between January 2011 and March 2015. Two different AEDs were used (AED A n = 105, AED B n = 135) in-hospital (n = 91) and out-of-hospital (n = 149). Results: Among 194 shockable rhythms, 17 (8.8%) were not recognized by AED A, while AED B recognized 100% (n = 135) of shockable episodes (sensitivity 91.2 vs 100%, p < 0.01). In AED A, 8 (47.1%) of these episodes were judged to be algorithm errors while 9 (52.9%) were caused by external artifacts. Among 1039 non-shockable rhythms, AED A recommended shock in 11 (1.0%), while AED B recommended shock in 63 (4.1%) of 1523 episodes (specificity 98.9 vs 95.9, p < 0.001). In AED A, 2 (18.2%) of these episodes were judged to be algorithm errors (AED B, n = 40, 63.5%), while 9 (81.8%) were caused by external artifacts (AED B, n = 23, 36.5%). Conclusions: There were significant differences in sensitivity and specificity between the two different AEDs. A higher sensitivity of AED B was associated with a lower specificity while a higher specificity of AED A was associated with a lower sensitivity. AED manufacturers should work to improve the algorithms. In addition, AED use should always be reviewed with a routine for giving feedback, and medical personnel should be aware of the specific strengths and shortcomings of the device they are using. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    The Baltic Sea is an important wintering area for waterbirds2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, P., Schubert, H. and Radziejewska, T. (Eds.), Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2017, p. 438-439Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    The common eider, the great cormorant and the white-tailed eagle2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, P., Schubert, H. and Radziejewska, T., Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2017, p. 164-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Underlying Causes of and Potential Measures to Reduce Long-term Sick Leave Among Employees in the Service Department on Board Swedish Passenger Vessels2017In: Safety of Sea Transportation: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation (TransNav 2017), June 21-23, 2017, Gdynia, Poland / [ed] Adam Weintrit and Tomasz Neumann, Leiden: CRC Press, 2017, p. 287-293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a workshop focused on the physical, social and organizational work environment in the service department on board Swedish passenger vessels. Twentyseven maritime professionals participated to provide input to potential causes and measures for long-term sick leave. During the workshop, an affinity diagram was created to systematically order the input of the respondents. The results show a wide range of causes and potential measures across multiple organizational levels. Unclear leadership, ambiguous or high demands with limited decision latitude, as well as aspects of work organization, i.e. manning, pressure for effectiveness, and extensive working hours were identified as important contributors to long-term sick leave. Although the findings are based on a workshop with Swedish maritime professionals, the results may be transferable to the international maritime sector to gain a deeper understanding of how to create, organize and promote a safe and efficient work environment.

  • 46.
    Huzzard, Tony
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Karlsson, Jan Ch
    Karlstad University.
    Mulinari, Paula
    Malmö University.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sandberg, Åke
    Stockholm University.
    Utforska ohälsans orsaker2017In: Upsala Nya Tidning (UNT), ISSN 1104-0173, article id 2017-01-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Organisationsforskning ur arbetsperspektiv har fått sämre förutsättningar, fast den kan minska ohälsa på arbetsplatserna, skriver fem forskare.

  • 47.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Work environment challenges and participatory workplace interventions on passenger ships2017In: Proceedings of the 49th Nordic Ergonomics Society (NES) Conference Joy at Work / [ed] Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Mikael Blomé and Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund University , 2017, p. 452-459Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of a larger research project investigating working conditions for employees in the service department on board passenger ships. A mixed methods approach was adopted, and this paper focuses on the findings related to the physical work environment. The main findings show the physical factors to be largely related to high physical load and time pressure. The design of workplaces and equipment is a cornerstone for a sustainable work environment. Participatory design practices open the opportunity to foster employee engagement in workplace design, contributing towards increased employee health and well-being.

  • 48.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Administrative burdens and over-exertion in Swedish short sea shipping2016In: Maritime Policy & Management, ISSN 0308-8839, E-ISSN 1464-5254, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 569-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite significant changes in work tasks performed on board, towards more sedentary monitoring and administrative work, the incidence of occupational injuries and disorders remains high among seafarers. In order to improve safety standards, industry stakeholders increasingly require written documentation of numerous routines, procedures and tasks performed on board. These increased demands have however added to the administrative burden. Some say, to the extent that administrative work has become a safety risk in itself. This paper presents the result of a survey investigating how Swedish seafarers perceive their own level of fatigue, stress and over-exertion related to work. The material consists of 1309 respondents originating from a random selection procedure, of which 651 reported to be employed in short sea shipping. Multiple regression analysis (OLS regression), allowing adjusted effects, were applied in several steps of the analysis. The highest levels of exertion were reported by employees in the catering department, positions not generally associated with high administrative burden. Perceived high levels of administrative work do increase the level of exertion, but cannot explain the observed pattern. Future ship and trade-specific studies on physical and mental well-being and complementary studies on the catering department’s working conditions and work environment are necessary.

  • 49.
    Sandberg, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Schmidt, Lisa
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sjöström, John
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. IVL Svenska miljöinstitutet.
    DN Debatt: Ett hållbart arbetsliv kräver medbestämmande2016In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, article id 2016-03-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    REPLIK. Arbetsmiljöverket ser information som lösningen på arbetsmiljöproblemen. Och ibland räcker information, men inte när intressen är delvis motstridiga. Ska arbetslivet bli hållbart krävs stärkt inflytande för skyddsombud och de anställdas och fackets medbestämmande i frågor om sättet att organisera och styra arbetet, skriver fyra forskare.

  • 50.
    Israelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Health status and psychological distress among in-hospital cardiac arrest survivors in relation to sex2016In: Presented at EuroHeart, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 14-15, 2015, 2016, Vol. 134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated differences in characteristics and outcome between men and women in cardiac arrest (CA) populations. However, most studies have focused only on survival outcome. Knowledge about patient reported health and psychological distress among CA survivors is sparse, in particular among those suffering in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). The aim was to describe health status and psychological distress among IHCA survivors in relation to sex. Methods: This national register study presents follow-up data of IHCA survivors from 64% of the eligible hospitals in Sweden. A questionnaire was sent to the survivors, 3-6 months post CA, including measures of health status (EQ-5D) and psychological distress (HADS). Results: Between 2013 and 2015, 594 IHCA survivors were included. Women reported more problems in all dimensions of EQ-5D, except for Self-care. They also had worse health status (EQ-index) (0.75 vs 0.79, p&lt;0.001). The median value for EQ-VAS was 70 (q1-q3=50-80), significantly lower for women compared to men (65 vs 75, p&lt;0.001). A majority reported no problems with anxiety (85.4%) and/or symptoms of depression (87.0%). Women reported significantly more problems with anxiety (median 3 vs 2, p&lt;0.001) and symptoms of depression (median 3 vs 2, p&lt;0.001) compared to men. Being women was significantly associated with lower health status and more psychological distress in the regression models. No interaction effects for sex and age were found. Conclusions: Although the majority of the survivors reported acceptable health status and no psychological distress, a substantial group reported serious problems. Women reported worse health status and more psychological distress compared to men. Therefore, a higher proportion of women may be in need of support. All IHCA survivors should be screened for health problems during the post cardiac arrest follow-up, and offered support when needed.

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