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  • 1.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    A laser drilling technique to improve impregnability of spruce and fir2016Ingår i: 3rd BASF Wolman Conference, 14 September 2016, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 2.
    Schweigler, Michael
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Hochreiner, Georg
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    A Novel Approach for the Load-Displacement Behavior of Single-Dowel Connections in Laminated Veneer Lumber2016Ingår i: 17th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Rhodes, Greece, July 3-7, 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The load-to-grain orientation dependence of the mechanical behavior of single-dowel connections is discussed in this contribution. The effect of the anisotropy of wood was experimentally assessed by means of a novel biaxial test set-up. Thus, lateral reaction forces in addition to forces parallel to the prescribed displacement direction could be quantified. Material properties of the components, namely the steel dowel and the Laminated Veneer Lumber were measured as well. This comprehensive experimental dataset was further exploited in an engineering model for single-dowel connections.

  • 3.
    Subramanian, Narayanan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sallnäs, Ola
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Adaptation of Forest Management Regimes in Southern Sweden to Increased Risks Associated with Climate Change2016Ingår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 7, nr 1, 8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the growth rates of most tree species in Sweden is expected to increase in the near future as a result of climate change, increased risks of damage by storms and various pests and pathogens, notably root rot and bark beetles, may also occur. Thus, forest management practices such as changes to thinning regimes, reductions in rotation lengths, and switching to other species (native or exotic) may represent adaptive management strategies to increase the resistance and resilience of Swedish forests to climate change. Clearly, thorough analyses examining the effects of anticipated climatic changes on damage levels, and the potentially relieving effects of possible management adaptations are needed before implementing such changes. In this study, damage caused by storms, root rot and bark beetles (single and in various combinations) under selected climate and management scenarios were simulated in Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) stands. The results indicate that reductions in thinning intensity and rotation lengths could improve both volume production and profitability in southern Sweden. In addition, cultivation of rapidly growing species, such as hybrid larch (Larix × marschlinsii Coaz.) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.), could be as profitable as Norway spruce cultivation, or even more profitable. However, slow-growing species, such as Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) indicated low economic output in terms of Land Expectation Value.

  • 4.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Felton, Adam
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Berlin, Mats
    Uppsala Science Park.
    Axelsson, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ring, Eva
    Uppsala Science Park.
    Agren, Anneli
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Boberg, Johanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Adaptation to Climate Change in Swedish Forestry2016Ingår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 7, nr 2, 28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to climate change in forestry has become a growing concern, in part due to the impact of storms and other events that have raised the awareness of such risks amongst forest owners. Sweden is one of Europe's most densely-forested countries, with this sector playing a major role economically. However adaptation has, to a large extent, been limited to the provision of recommendations to forest managers, most of which have only been partially implemented. This paper summarizes research with direct implications for adaptation to climate change within the forestry sector in Sweden. The focus is based in particular on providing examples of adaptations that illustrate the specific Swedish orientation to adaptation, in line with its relatively intensive forest management system. The paper thus illustrates a specific Swedish orientation to adaptation through active management, which can be contrasted with approaches to adaptation in other forestry systems, in particular those with limited management or management based on maintaining natural forests in particular.

  • 5.
    Schweigler, Michael
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Hochreiner, Georg
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    An Engineering Modeling Approach for the Non-Linear Load-Displacement Behavior of Single Dowel Connections: Parameter Study2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2016 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), Vienna University of Technology, Austria , 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A beam on non-linear elastic foundation model for consistent determination of the non-linear loaddisplacement behavior of single dowel connections is presented. The influence of certain parameters, like the load-tograin direction or the side member thickness on the connection behavior is demonstrated by means of a parameter study and compared to experimental findings.

  • 6.
    Hu, Min
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Serrano, Erik
    Lund University.
    Assessment of a Three-Dimensional Fiber Orientation Model for Timber2016Ingår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 48, nr 4, 271-290 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is an orthotropic material with very different properties along and across fibers, and every board has its own pattern of knots and fiber deviations. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the three-dimensional (3D) fiber orientation of individual boards would enable more accurate assessment of properties such as stiffness, strength, and shape stability. This paper presents a method for modeling 3D fiber orientation of side boards of Norway spruce. The method is based on dot laser scanning and utilization of the tracheid effect, and it is verified by a comparison between strain fields calculated on the basis of the fiber orientation model and corresponding strains determined using digital image correlation (DIC) technique. By means of the method, it is possible to identify knots and to reproduce the fiber orientation in clear wood in the vicinity of knots. Fiber orientation models of side boards including traversing edge knots were established and integrated in finite element models of boards used for simulation of four-point bending tests. The same boards were also tested in laboratory and displacement fields of the wide faces were recorded at different load levels using DIC technique. Comparisons of strain fields from measurements and simulations showed close agreement, regarding both strain patterns and strain levels. Local strain concentrations caused by very small defects were detected using the models and also found from the laboratory test results. The modeling approach may be used both to achieve improved accuracy of existing machine strength grading methods and, after further development, also for more advanced analysis of eg crack propagation and strength of timber.

  • 7.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Kans, Mirka
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för maskinteknik (MT).
    Automation Practices in Wood Product Industries: Lessons learned, current Practices and Future Perspectives2016Ingår i: The 7th Swedish Production Symposium SPS, 25-27 October, 2016, Lund, Sweden, Lund, Sweden: Lund University , 2016, , 9 s.E1Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood product industries are a cornerstone of the Swedish industry and contribute vastly to the total Swedish export value. Wood as material itself has a promising perspective of becoming one of the most valuable resources. Sweden in particular has a long tradition and the knowledge of how to cultivate forests. In comparison to the highly automated forest industries, production systems of Swedish wood products industries are mostly characterized by a low degree of automation, tough manual labour and a relative low competency of the workforce. Facing fiercer competition on a global market, Swedish wood product industries are starting to lose touch with wood working industries in other industrialized European countries. Based upon established literature, this paper systematizes the status of automation practices in wood processing industries. The outcome of this study also outlines the expected effects and the future perspectives of digitalization and robotic automation for wood processing industries in high-1are not ready to implement the necessary standards to enter Industry 4.0. Not only are the technical prerequisites not fulfilled, but also a lack of appropriate production organization, logistics and economic basis is affecting negatively.

  • 8.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    et al.
    ATEA Logistics.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för maskinteknik (MT).
    Flinkman, Matti
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Changes in Industry Structure and Concentration?: Welfare Loss due to Perfect Competition in the Swedish Industry for Wooden Single-Family Houses2016Ingår i: 70th Forest Products Society annual convention - new horizons for the forest products industry, June 27-29, 2016, Portland, Madison: Forest Products Society, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As studies based on data from 2012 show, the Swedish market for wooden single-family houses is highly competitive, with many firms offering relatively homogeneous products or services. In order to serve the demand on that market, only 38 % of the existing firms actually were needed. Thus, an uneven distribution of resource utilization let to welfare losses. Yet since 2012, the demand on the market increased by more than 35 %, which potentially had an effect on resource utilization.

    This study is aiming at describing the development of the structure and concentration in the Swedish industry for wooden single-family houses, for a five year period from 2010 to 2014. This could help to understand, if and how market demand affects structure, concentration rate and consequently welfare loss due to resource utilization. The required data were collected from the annual reports of the 52 relevant firms in the industry. By means of the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and the Herfindahl-Hershamann Number Equivalent, industry structure and concentration rate was calculated.

    The results will show how the industry structure and concentration rate developed from 2010 to 2015, the distribution of resource for welfare purposes and thus, how many firms there actually were needed to serve the market.

  • 9.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fahlvik, Nils
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Comparison of carbon balances between continuous-cover and clear-cut forestry in Sweden2016Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr supplement 2, S203-S213 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous-cover forestry (CCF) has been recognized for the production of multiple ecosystem services, and is seen as an alternative to clear-cut forestry (CF). Despite the increasing interest, it is still not well described how CCF would affect the carbon balance and the resulting climate benefit from the forest in relation to CF. This study compares carbon balances of CF and CCF, applied as two alternative land-use strategies for a heterogeneous Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand. We use a set of models to analyze the long-term effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and carbon stock changes. The results show that biomass growth and yield is more important than the choice of silvicultural system per se. When comparing CF and CCF assuming similar growth, extraction and product use, only minor differences in long-term climate benefit were found between the two principally different silvicultural systems.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Josefin A.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Customer requirements on solid wood material: A birch roundwood case-study2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 12th meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE): Wood Science and engineering - a key factor on the transition to Bioeconomy / [ed] Bruno Andersons and Arnis Kokorevics, Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry , 2016, 22-28 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today a majority of the pre-commercial thinning (PCT) cut birch stems in Sweden are retained on the site for biodegradation, since their market value is lower than the cost of harvesting. Some stems are removed as firewood. The uses of the PCT material can be difficult to find, and the costly PCT is carried out in expectation of greater returns later in the forest rotation. There is a growing body of literature that recognises the possibility of using low value wooden material for furniture and interior purposes. While some research has been carried out on character-marked wood, there have been few investigations on utilization of small-dimensioned roundwood. However, proper utilisation of this material requires appropriate matching of the material attributes with the end-user’s expectations on furniture or joinery products. The aim of this work is to understand challenges and possibilities for the utilization of small-dimensioned roundwood birch in furniture and joinery products. The study synthesizes literature on customers’ demands on hardwood and important material properties. A case-study approach was used to evaluate how a bench, made out of small-dimensioned roundwood birch, can meet the requirements from customers and manufacturing industries. The results demonstrate that opportunities exist within the customer segment appealed by naturalistic furniture design. Proposals are made for future research needed for successful use of small-dimensioned roundwood birch for furniture applications.

  • 11.
    Bastani, Alireza
    et al.
    George-August University, Germany.
    Militz, Holger
    George-August University, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Rohumaa, Anti
    Alto University School of Chemical Technology, Finland.
    Development of bonding strength of modified birch veneers during adhesive curing2016Ingår i: Wood research, ISSN 1336-4561, Vol. 61, nr 2, 205-214 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the bonding strength development of furfurylated, N-methylolmelamine (NMM) modified and thermally treated birch veneers glued with hot curing phenolformaldehyde (PF) adhesive in different pressing (20, 160 s) and open assembly times (20 s, 10min). For testing, the automated bonding evaluation system ABES was used with 2 N.mm-2applied pressure at 130°C. The bonding strength of both modified and unmodified samplesincreased significantly by prolongation of the pressing time from 20 to 160 s in all cases andfor both open assembly times. A deviation was observed for the samples treated at 220°C andat 20 s open assembly time. With the exception of NMM modified veneers, bonding strengthdid not change significantly by increasing the assembly time in the case of 20 s pressing forboth modified and unmodified samples. At 160 s pressing time, extension of the assembly timedeveloped a better bonding for controls, NMM modified and thermally treated veneers at 180°C.The combination of 10 min assembly time and 160 s pressing time proved as the optimal bondingcondition for controls, NMM modified and thermally treated veneers at 180°C while the highestbonding strength was noted in 20 assembly time and 160 s pressing time for furfurylated veneers.In most of the cases modification affected negatively the bonding performance of the veneers, inparticular for furfurylated and NMM modified samples.

  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Does quality matter?2016Ingår i: Implementation of wood science in woodworking sector: proceedings / [ed] Ivica Grbac, Zagreb: University of Zagreb, Faculty of Forestry , 2016, 263-270 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Dynamic vapour sorption of wood and holocellulose modified with thermosetting resins2016Ingår i: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, nr 1, 165-178 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro-veneers of wood and holocellulose (HC) were modified with the thermosetting resins phenol formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde. The dynamic water vapour sorption of the modified and untreated veneers was studied in a dynamic vapour sorption apparatus to assess the effects of resin modification. The adsorption of wood and HC as well as the desorption of wood was little affected by the modification in the low relative humidity (RH) range but decreased in the RH range above 60–70 %. The desorption isotherm of HC, however, was increased in the RH range of 15–80 % due to modification. Resin modification gradually decreased the EMC ratio of wood and HC and also influenced the moisture increment, equilibrium time and sorption rate in RH range above 50–60 % RH for wood and above 70–80 % RH for HC. HC exhibited a clearly lower hysteresis than wood. Modification of wood slightly reduced hysteresis compared to untreated wood, but modification of HC clearly increased hysteresis about to the same extent as that of wood. This indicates that the stiffening effect of lignin and thermosetting resins reduces the flexibility of the HC matrix, which results in increased hysteresis.

  • 14.
    Wang, Xiaodong Alice
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Björnberg, Jonathan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ahmed, Sheikh Ali
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Wan, Hui
    Mississippi State University, USA.
    Niemz, Peter
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland.
    Effect of Low Temperatures on the Block Shear Strength of Norway Spruce Glulam Joints2016Ingår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, nr 4, 9638-9648 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The block shear strength of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) glulam joints was tested under low temperature. Glulam samples were glued with the three of the most common outdoor structural adhesives. The cold temperatures tested were 20, −20, −30, −40, -50 and −60 °C. Within the temperature test range, the block shear strength of the glulam joints was resistant to the effect of temperature. As the temperature decreased, the joints’ block shear strength did not show any significant change. In most cases, phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF) adhesive yielded the strongest block shear strength, while melamine-formaldehyde (MF) adhesive yielded the weakest block shear strength. Melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) adhesive yielded similar results to those of MF adhesives for all temperatures tested. The block shear strengths of the glulam joints with PRF, MUF and MF adhesives were not sensitive to temperature change. The results indicated that PRF, MUF and MF adhesives are stable for outdoor structural engineered wood construction in cold climate. The results also suggest that the SS-EN 14080 (2013) standard for the block shear method may not be the proper standard for testing differences in shear strength at different temperatures. The EN 302-1 (2011) standard could be more suitable for this purpose.

  • 15.
    Soltani, Abolfazl
    et al.
    Shahid Rajee Teacher Training University, Iran.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Taghiyari, Hamid R.
    Shahid Rajee Teacher Training University, Iran.
    Ghaffari, Ehsan
    Shahid Rajee Teacher Training University, Iran.
    Effects of heat-treatment and nano-wollastonite impregnation on fire properties of solid wood2016Ingår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, nr 4, 8953-8967 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of nano-wollastonite (NW) suspension impregnation on the fire-retarding properties of heat-treated solid wood of three species (beech, poplar, fir) were studied. Heat treatment was performed at two temperatures of 180 °C and 200 °C. Impregnation was carried out at a pressure of 3 bars for 30 min. The fire properties included ignition time, glowing time, back-darkening, back-splitting, back-firing, and length and width of the burnt area. Both impregnation with NW and heat-treatment generally improved all fire-retarding properties, although not always to a significant level. As a mineral material, NW acted like a physical shield against fire penetration into the texture of wood specimens, thus improving fire properties. Moreover, the high thermal conductivity coefficient of wollastonite increased the thermal conductivity of wood, therefore preventing the accumulation of heat at the point nearest to a piloted flame and contributing to the improvement of fire properties. The chemical degradation of wood cell components caused by heat-treatment further improved the fire properties. Cluster analysis indicated the significant effect of species on fire properties. Significant R-square values were found amongst fire properties related to the spread of fire on the surface of specimens. The combination of thermal modification and impregnation with NW provides suitable fire properties for solid wood.

  • 16.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    et al.
    ATEA Logistics.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för maskinteknik (MT).
    Flinkman, Matti
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Evaluating profitability of Firms in the Swedish Industry for Wooden Single-Family Houses2016Ingår i: The 70th Forest Products Society annual convention - new horizons for the forest products industry, June 27-29, 2016, Portland, Madison: Forest Products Society, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The market for Swedish wooden single-family house producers is characterized by perfect competition, i.e. products are highly substitutional and firms mainly compete by prices. Variance in net profit margins, as a key number for profitability, for firms in this industry ranges by 60 %. As net profit margin is defined as net profit divided by revenue, these latter two directly affect net profit margin. Yet, leaving the obvious determining mathematical explanations aside, other factors might affect the profitability of the firms, showing, what distinguishes successful firms from less successful ones.

    This study is aiming at exploring the factors affecting the profitability of Swedish firms producing wooden single-family houses. By means of those factors, variances in net profit margins might be explained more thoroughly. Data from annual reports were collected from 52 firms in the industry and a correlation analysis performed.

    The results will show if there are factors that correlate with net profit margins and if yes, what explanatory power these factors have. This in turn might serve as an input for the firms’ strategic development towards a higher profitability of their businesses.

  • 17.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY). Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Schweigler, Michael
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Hochreiner, Georg
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Serrano, Erik
    Lund University.
    Dorn, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Experimental Assessment of the Load Distribution in Multi-Dowel Timber Connections2016Ingår i: 17th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Rhodes, Greece, July 3-7, 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An integrative, hierarchically organized testing procedure for the quantification of the load distribution in multi-dowel timber connections is presented herein. The use of contactless deformation measurement systems allowed the combination of test data from single dowel and multi-dowel connections, which gave access to the loads acting on each dowel over the full loading history. As a consequence of the anisotropic material behavior of wood, a nonuniform and progressively changing load distribution among the dowels was found.

  • 18.
    Lederer, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY). Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Muszyński, Lech
    Oregon State University, USA.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Exploring a Multi-modal Experimental Approach to Investigation of Local Embedment Behaviour of Wood under Steel Dowels2016Ingår i: Strain, ISSN 0039-2103, E-ISSN 1475-1305, Vol. 52, nr 6, 531-547 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-modal experimental approach for analysing the embedment behaviour of timber connections with steel dowels is proposed in this study. In this approach, a standard mechanical embedment test on single-dowel connections is combined with an optical measurement of surface deformations of the connection based on digital image correlation principle and an X-ray micro-computed tomography examination of the deformations in the dowel-wood interface. The latter is conducted on cylindrical cores including the dowel hole, physically extracted from the loaded specimen at three characteristic points of the load-deformation curves. The major challenge of this procedure is disrupted load transfer between the cylindrical core specimens and the external material they were plugged in for further analysis. Despite its challenges and limitations, the method revealed a potential for an unprecedented insight into the micromechanics of dowel connections and for effective correlation of the micro-level observations with the external macroscopic load-deformation characteristics.

  • 19.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Extraction of logging residues for bioenergy: effects of operational methods on fuel quality and biomass losses in the forest2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogen och dess produkter har en nyckelroll i omställningen till ett framtida hållbart samhälle eftersom användande av träråvara har en positiv effekt på klimatet, t.ex. genom träbyggande eller att fossila bränslen ersätts med bioenergi. Men för att kunna ta tillvara mer skogsbränsle i form av grenar och toppar (grot) från bestånd dominerade av gran (Picea abies (L.) Karst) är det viktigt att förstå hur hanteringen påverkar såväl bränslekvalitet som bortförsel av näringsämnen från skogen. Denna avhandling belyser hanteringens effekter på bränslekvalitet och näringsförluster genom att jämföra den traditionella metoden (skotning av torkad grot, ”brunrisskotning”), med den ”nya” och till viss del ifrågasatta skotningen av färsk grot (”grönrisskotning”).

    Resultatet visar att ett normalt grot-uttag kommer att lämna minst 20 % av groten kvar på hygget, helt i linje med Skogsstyrelsens rekommendationer. Däremot uppfylls inte rekommendationerna med avseende på att lämna merparten av barren väl spridda på hygget, detta trots att det är ambitionen med den traditionella hyggestorkningen av grot. Hur mycket grot (och således näringsämne) som lämnas kvar på hygget påverkas i själva verket mer av hur avverkningen utförs, än när groten skotas ihop. Resultatet visar också en skillnad i bränslekvalitet mellan de båda beskrivna hanteringsmetoderna. Denna skillnad är dock så liten att andra faktorer sannolikt påverkar mer än hanteringsmetoden. Hyggestorkad grot från ett enskilt hygge i södra Sverige, kan i verkligheten ofta vara ganska likt färskskotad grot från ett annat hygge. Grot som har lagrats över sommaren kan alltså förväntas ha torkat tillräckligt, samt ha en barrandel på ca 5–10 % oavsett hanteringsmetod. Det verkar också finnas ett klart samband mellan torkning och att barren släpper från kvisten, men det betyder inte nödvändigtvis att barren blir kvar i skogen. Hur som helst, barrens färg (gröna eller bruna) är inte en rättvisande indikator på avbarrning.

    Om skotning av färsk grot accepteras ger det möjligheter för utveckling av ny teknik, effektivare användning av maskinresurser över hela året, minskade kostnader, kortare ledtider, samt möjligt ökat grot-uttag från enskilda hyggen. Detta beror främst på att det skulle vara möjligt att utföra grot-uttaget när det passar bäst ur ett logistiskt, ekonomiskt och/eller skogligt perspektiv.

    Skriven på engelska, men med sammanfattning och slutsatser på svenska

  • 20.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Forest management scenarios and their effects on ecosystem services: some analytical results from Sweden2016Ingår i: Society’s steering systems: a Friend book to Inga Carlman / [ed] Erik Grönlund, Anna Longueville, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2016, 149-169 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has just more than 23 million hectares of productive forest, which has been actively managed for more than 100 years. This has led to one of the recognized forest products exporting country. Despite the vital role of forests in providing forest products in sustaining various human needs, there is an increasing demand for the inclusion of ecosystem services in forest planning decision making. Today, methods in conventional assessments on forest growth, yield and harvest are facing changes due to extended interests in the assessments on overall forestry systems effects on ecosystem services including carbon balance of the system. Recently, integrated approaches that have concepts of forest science, wood material science, energy science and cleaner productions have been used in the field of forestry to assess the important role of forestry in reducing carbon emissions. This paper uses a system analysis approach to perform a model based analysis that includes forest management and their effects on different indicators of ecosystem services in Swedish forest landscape.

  • 21.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences ; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Forsell, Nicklas
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Lundström, Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Korosuo, Anu
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Havlik, Petr
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Frank, Stefan
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Fricko, Oliver
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Impacts of global climate change mitigation scenarios on forests and harvesting in Sweden2016Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 46, nr 12, 1427-1438 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Under climate change, the importance of biomass resources is likely to increase and new approaches are needed to analyze future material and energy use of biomass globally and locally. Using Sweden as an example, we present an approach that combines global and national land-use and forest models to analyze impacts of climate change mitigation ambitions on forest management and harvesting in a specific country. National forest impact analyses in Sweden have traditionally focused on supply potential with little reference to international market developments. In this study, we use the global greenhouse gas concentration scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change to estimate global biomass demand and assess potential implications on harvesting and biodiversity in Sweden. The results show that the short-term demand for wood is close to the full harvesting potential in Sweden in all scenarios. Under high bioenergy demand, harvest levels are projected to stay high over a longer time and particularly impact the harvest levels of pulpwood. The area of old forest in the managed landscape may decrease. This study highlights the importance of global scenarios when discussing national-level analysis and pinpoints trade-offs that policy making in Sweden may need to tackle in the near future.

  • 22.
    Sjökvist, Tinh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Influence of some wood characteristics on the variation of moisture content in outdoor exposed coated Norway spruce panels2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A field test of coated spruce was exposed outdoors during three years, measuring the influence of wood characteristics on the variation of moisture content in coated panels. Wood samples had following characteristics: fast-grown or slow-grown wood, heartwood or sapwood. Three different film-forming coatings were tested and all samples were exposed above ground on racks. The measured moisture contents were evaluated using the statistical method Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The moisture content of the coated samples was clearly influenced by wood characteristics; fast-grown wood had higher moisture content and higher moisture fluctuation than slow-grown wood in each respective coating system. The choice of coating system also affects the wood moisture content. The result indicates that in order to achieve low moisture content- excluding the effectiveness of coatings, wood characteristics should also be considered.

  • 23.
    Kumar, Anuj
    et al.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic ; University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings of Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Ryparová, Pavla
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Škapin, Andrijana Sever
    Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Slovenia.
    Humar, Miha
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Pavlič, Matjaž
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Tywoniak, Jan
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic ; University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings of Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Petr, Hajek
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic ; University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings of Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Žigon, Jure
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Petrič, Marko
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Influence of surface modification of wood with octadecyltrichlorosilane on its dimensional stability and resistance against Coniophora puteana and molds2016Ingår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, 3249-3263 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A relatively new approach for wood protection against fungal decay is based on hydrophobization of wood and on lowering its moisture content. Water repellence of wood can be increased by polymerization of hydrophobic monomers in wood cell walls. It was found that Norway spruce wood after treatment with octadecyltrichlorosilane exhibited reduced water uptake by the wood cell walls, lowered water vapour sorption, and significantly increased dimensional stability of wood in terms of anti-swelling efficiency. Hydrophobicity and lower equilibrium moisture content were shown to cause increased resistance of the treated samples against brown-rot decay and molds.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Blomqvist, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Nilson, Henrietta
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Influencing factors to enable automation of wood furniture production2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 12th meeting of the Northern European Networkfor Wood Science and Engineering (WSE): Wood science andengineering – a key factor on the transition to Bioeconomy / [ed] Bruno Andersons and Arnis Kokorevics, Riga, Latvia: Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry , 2016, 208-213 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The wood furniture industry in Sweden has an identified need of technological development in order to stay competitive. Especially the necessity to focus on automation has been identified. In the industry there are often needs to handle large levels of customization at the same time as keeping the production effective. This requires flexible automation solutions, often described as automated equipment that can rapidly be reconfigured for new products.Before automated applications are implemented in an industry there are issues to solve related to organisational, human and technological aspects. Based on this, the project - Flexible automation in manufacturing of laminated veneer products was initiated. The project is running since January 1, 2016 and is a two year national Swedish project. The aim of the project is to investigate challenges concerning automation in the wood furniture industry and especially focusing on bended laminated veneer products.In the project a case-study with the aim of identifying factors important for successful automation implementation in an involved wood manufacturing industry was performed. Key persons and staff of the company were asked to tell their life stories and a process mapping of the production was conducted.The results indicate a problematic relation between the management and the production staff, which partly can be referred to the shift from a family business to a private owned firm. Based on the process mapping, internal transport and handling are identified improvement areas. Productivity is disturbed by stops caused by processing residues and poorly defined materials. There is potential for improvement by adapting a process-oriented approach and defining the materials used.The case–study confirms the need to consider organizational and human aspects in production before initiating production. The study concludes the need to consider the special aspects of the wood material in production development.

  • 25.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Laminated Veneer Products: Shape Stability and Effect of Enhanced Formability on Bond-Line Strength2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling berör två områden inom tillverkning av plan- och formpressade fanerprodukter. Det första avser formstabiliteten hos dessa och om det är möjligt att förbättra densamma. Det andra har sin utgångspunkt i modifiering av faner för ökad formbarhet och huruvida dessa modifieringar påverkar limfogens styrka.

    Plan och formpressade fanerprodukter består av faner som sammanfogats med lim till en förutbestämd form. Metoden används främst för tillverkning av möbler och inredningar. Avvikelse från avsedd form hos produkterna är ett stort problem för både tillverkare och kunder. Orsakerna till avvikelser i form kan relateras till både materialet och processen men också till hur produkten används. Studier har genomförts för att utvärdera inverkan av olika material- och processparametrar på formstabiliteten hos några utvalda produkter. De undersökta parametrarna var träslag (rödbok och björk), limsystem (baserade på urea- formaldehyd), limspridning, klimat, jämviktsfuktkvot, fiberorintering hos faner samt orienteringen av faner i den specifika produkten.

    För att kunden till skiktlimmade produkter ska erhålla en formstabil vara krävs att tillverkarna tar hänsyn till grundläggande fakta om trä. Detta material avger och tar upp fukt i förhållande till omgivande klimat, vilket innebär att trä krymper och sväller. Detta sker dessutom med varierande magnitud i olika riktningar av träet. Denna variation är även träslagsspecifik. Att ha en förståelse för detta beteende är grunden för tillverkning av formstabila träprodukter.

    Symmetri definieras i denna avhandling med att faneregenskaperna är balanserade i laminatet. Detta innebär att det motsatta faneret på vardera sidan av det mittersta faneret i laminatet har liknande egenskaper. Om faneren sammanläggs och pressas på ett asymmetriskt sätt blir produkterna skeva eller kupade. Avvikelsen från önskad form kan vara liten direkt efter pressningen men kan öka avsevärt i samband med fuktkvotsvariationer. Asymmetri kan uppstå genom att faner med avvikande fiberorientering ingår i sammanläggningen eller att faneren läggs asymmetriskt. Det kan även uppstå om faner med olika jämviktsfuktkvot sammanlimmas på ett icke symmetriskt sätt. En försvårande faktor är att även de sprickor som uppstår när faneren tillverkas genom svarvning eller knivskärning inverkar på formstabiliteten. I en korsvis limmad tre-lagers plywood ska fanerens sida med sprickor vara orienterad åt samma håll för hög formstabilitet.

    För att uppnå formstabila produkter bör faneren vara konditionerade till en enhetlig jämviktsfuktkvot och vara rätfibriga, dvs. att fiberriktningen sammanfaller parallellt med ytornas kanter. Som nämnts tidigare bör även fanerets sida med sprickor beaktas. Slutanvändarens, det vill säga kundens, klimat bör styra fanerens måljämviktsfuktkvot som tillsammans med tillförd fukt från limmet påverkar produktens jämviktsfuktkvot i tillverkningsprocessen. Dessutom ska läggningen vara symmetrisk.

    Vid formpressning kan faneren utsättas för sådana sträckningar, dvs. töjningar, att bristningar uppkommer. Därför finns det olika sätt att förstärka faneren främst i transversell riktning där faneren är som svagast. Detta kan ske genom olika bearbetningar och/eller pålimningar. Dessa förbehandlingar av faner för förbättrad formbarhet kan dock hindra limmet från att tränga in i träytan vilket tester visat. Därför är det viktigt att kontrollera att förbehandlingen inte påverkar limfogens styrka. 

  • 26.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Schweigler, Michael
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Hochreiner, Georg
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Load Distribution in Multi-Dowel Timber Connections under Moment Loading: Integrative Evaluation of Multiscale Experiments2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2016 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) / [ed] J. Eberhardsteiner, W. Winter, A. Fadai, M. Pöll, Vienna University of Technology, Austria , 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The load distribution in multi-dowel timber connections under bending moments was investigated by means of an integrative evaluation of a hierarchically organized test program, which encompassed component tests as well as single dowel and multi-dowel connection tests. It was demonstrated that the anisotropic material behaviour of LVL, and consequently of wood in general, leads to a non-uniform distribution among the dowels.

  • 27.
    Schweigler, Michael
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Hochreiner, Georg
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Unger, Gerhard
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Load-to-grain angle dependence of the embedment behavior of dowel-type fasteners in laminated veneer lumber2016Ingår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 126, 1020-1033 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Load-to-grain angle dependence of the embedment behavior of steel dowels in laminated veneer lumber, as a consequence of the anisotropic material behavior of wood, is experimentally investigated in this study. As a novel issue, in addition to the stress dependence, the displacement path of the dowel depend- ing on the load-to-grain angle, is discussed. Full-hole embedment tests of screw-reinforced LVL speci- mens up to dowel displacements of two times the dowel diameter and thus, representative for highly ductile dowel connections were conducted. Tests were performed with unconstrained lateral displace- ment boundary conditions of steel dowels with a diameter of 12 mm and 16 mm. Surface deformations were monitored with a full-field deformation measurement system. Increasing the load-to-grain angle caused reduced quasi-elastic limits and loading stiffness. However, for load-to-grain angles of 60 and higher, a pronounced displacement-hardening effect, leading to high embedment stresses at large dowel displacements, was observed. For the investigated dowel diameters, surface strains and plastic deforma- tions around the dowel indicate an almost dowel diameter independent load bearing area, which might explain higher nominal embedment stresses and consequently a more pronounced hardening effect of the smaller dowel diameter. Dowel displacements perpendicular to the initial loading direction, i.e., non- linear displacement paths of the dowel, were related to the anisotropic stiffness of wood and densifica- tion effects close to the dowel. The established experimental dataset was compared to current European timber engineering design equations and could serve as input to analytical and numerical models of dowel connections. 

  • 28.
    Olofsson, Erika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Vallin Rosell, Monika
    Lyckas skogsägare med ekonomiskt intresse bättre med biologisk mångfald?: En uppföljning av landsbygdsprogrammets ädellövsplanteringar2016Ingår i: Västra Sveriges Skogsvårdsförbund, Årskrift 2018, , 2 s.22-23 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 29.
    Hochreiner, Georg
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Schweigler, Michael
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Riedl, Christian
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Matrix Failure of Multi-Dowel Type Connections Engineering Modelling and Parameter Study2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2016 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), Vienna University of Technology, Austria , 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A simplified numerical engineering model for the design of the surrounding timber matrix of dowel groups, developed within the framework of a commercial structural analysis software, is presented herein. This model was applied to highlight and reflect various dowel arrangements in timber to steel connections from building practice subjected to arbitrary sets of internal forces against the background of both the real mechanical behavior and the present practice of design. A parameter study revealed the interdependence of stresses in the timber matrix and geometrical and mechanical properties of dowel groups.

  • 30.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Georg-August-University Göttingen.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University Göttingen.
    Mode of action of brown rot decay resistance in phenol-formaldehyde-modified wood: resistance to Fenton’s reagent2016Ingår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 70, nr 3, 253-259 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mode of action of phenol-formaldehyde (PF)-modified wood has been investigated with respect to its resistance to brown rot decay. The Fenton reaction is assumed to play a key role in the initial brown rot decay. Pine microveneers were modified to various weight percent gains (WPG) with low molecular weight PF and exposed to a solution containing Fenton’s reagent. The mass loss (ML) and tensile strength loss (TSL) as well as the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the incubation time decreased with the increasing WPG of the veneers. Incubation of untreated and PF-modified veneers in acetate buffer containing ferric ions without H2O2 revealed that the modification strongly reduces the uptake of iron by the wood cell wall. Further studies indicated that lignin promotes the decay of wood by Fenton’s reagent. The reason for the enhanced resistance of modified wood to the Fenton reaction is attributable to the impeded diffusion of iron ions into the cell wall rather than to the blocking of free phenolic sites of lignin, which accelerate redox cycling of iron.

  • 31.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Georg-August-University Göttingen.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University Göttingen.
    Mode of action of brown rot decay resistance of acetylated wood: resistance to Fenton’s reagent2016Ingår i: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, nr 2, 413-426 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Acetylation is known to enhance the resistance of wood to brown rot fungi. As initial decay by some brown rot fungi is assumed to be caused by the Fenton reaction, pine micro-veneers acetylated to various weight percent gains (WPG) were exposed in a solution containing iron ions and hydrogen peroxide, i.e., Fenton’s reagent. Mass loss and tensile strength loss as well as the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the incubation time decreased with increasing WPG of the veneers. Incubation of untreated and acetylated veneers in acetate buffer containing ferric ions without H2O2 revealed that the modification strongly reduced the uptake of Fe ions by the wood cell wall. FT-IR analysis indicated oxidation of the unmodified control veneers but did not show predominant decay of specific cell wall components. Spectra of acetylated veneers did not reveal any significant changes induced by Fenton’s reagent. It was concluded that one possible reason for the enhanced resistance of acetylated wood to the Fenton reaction could be the reduced or almost completely prevented uptake of Fe ions by the wood cell wall.

  • 32.
    Dorn, Michael
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Non-Linear Connection Models in Timber Engineering2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2016 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) / [ed] J. Eberhardsteiner, W. Winter, A. Fadai, M. Pöll, Vienna University of Technology, Austria , 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution, a numerical model for connections in engineered timber structures, using specially designed connection elements, is presented. The model considers the non-linear load-displacement relation typical for many types of connections on different levels and is presented on the example of dowel-type connections. The structural levels investigated herein are a) the embedment behaviour of a dowel into wood; b) the behaviour of a singledowel connection; and c) a multi-dowel connection under a general load case typical for structural applications. A special characteristic considered in the formulation of the connector elements is the unloading behaviour, which is characterized by an initial high unloading stiffness but a very low stiffness when the load is fully removed. The latter is due to remaining permanent deformations in the wood as well as in the metal connector. The modelling approach was found to correlate well with experimental data and gave new insight in the behaviour of dowel connections, particularly as regards the unloading and reloading behaviour with alternating load directions on the single-dowel connection scale.

  • 33.
    Nilsson, Josefin A.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Potential of utilizing small-dimensioned roundwood birch2016Ingår i: The 70th Forest Products Society annual convention - new horizons for the forest products industry, June 27-29, 2016, Portland, Madison: Forest Products Society, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Nordic countries, birch wood has gained interest in furniture and interior applications due to its very unique aesthetic qualities. A significant share (33%) of the small-dimensioned (diameter at breast-height smaller than 9 cm) standing tree volumes in the Swedish productive forest land consists of silver and downy birch (Betula pendula and Betula pubescens). In today’s forest industry, the small-dimensioned material from pre-commercial thinning operations of birch and Norway spruce mixed forests is normally left in the forest if not used as fire-wood. For the furniture industries these fractions may be a new source of raw materials’ supply. However, a proper utilization of this material requires a better knowledge of its properties. This paper presents a review on the utilization aspects of solid wood from small-dimensioned timber as well as some useful concepts for successful material selection in product design. Therefore, based on customer requirement concepts, it is analyzed which wood material properties are important for furniture or joinery applications from hardwoods and how small-dimensioned roundwood birch could meet the requirements. Proposals are made for future research needed to fully explore the potential of using small-dimensioned roundwood birch for furniture applications.

  • 34.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Karageorgos, Anthony
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Rapti, Elli
    Center for Research and Technology – Hellas (CERTH), Greece .
    Birbilis, Dimitris
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Predicting the Properties of Corrugated Base Papers Using Multiple Linear Regression and  Artificial Neural Networks2016Ingår i: Drewno, ISSN 1644-3985, Vol. 59, nr 198, 61-72 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The difficulty in predicting the properties and behaviour of paper products produced using heterogeneous raw materials with high percentages of recovered fibres poses restrictions on their efficient and effective use as corrugated packaging materials. This work presents predictive models for the mechanical properties of corrugated base papers (liner and fluting-medium) from fibre and physical property data using multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks. The most significant results were obtained for the prediction of the tensile strength of liners in the cross direction from the origin (wood type, pulp method) of the fibres using linear regression, and the prediction of the compressive strength of fluting-medium in the longitudinal (machine) direction, according to the short-span test, using a neural network with one hidden layer with 6 neurons, with coefficients of determination at 95.14% and 99.28%, respectively

  • 35.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Säll, Harald
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sjöberg, Samuel
    Relationship between ultrasonic velocity and spiral grain in standing hybrid aspen trees2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the Hardwood Conference, Eco-efficient Resource Wood with Special Focus on Hardwoods, 8-9 September, 2016, Sopron, Sopron: University of West Hungary Press , 2016, 22-23 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 36.
    Felton, Adam
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk, Uppsala.
    Felton, Annika M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ahlström, Martin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Boberg, Johanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Drossler, Lars
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fahlvik, Nils
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gong, Peichen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Holmström, Emma
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umea University.
    Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Niklasson, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Lulea Univ Technol.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stens, Anna
    Umea University.
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden2016Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, S124-S139 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures.

  • 37.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Robotic Automation in Swedish Wood Product Industries2016Ingår i: Presented at Young Researchers Challenge - Marcus Wallenberg Prize, 10-13 October, 2016, Stockholm, Sweden, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Felton, Adam
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stens, Anna
    Umeå University.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Granstrom, Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Widemo, Fredrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk, Uppsala.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Socio-ecological implications of modifying rotation lengths in forestry2016Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr Supplement 2, S109-S123 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rotation length is a key component of even-aged forest management systems. Using Fennoscandian forestry as a case, we review the socioecological implications of modifying rotation lengths relative to current practice by evaluating effects on a range of ecosystem services and on biodiversity conservation. The effects of shortening rotations on provisioning services are expected to be mostly negative to neutral (e.g. production of wood, bilberries, reindeer forage), while those of extending rotations would be more varied. Shortening rotations may help limit damage by some of today's major damaging agents (e.g. root rot, cambium-feeding insects), but may also increase other damage types (e.g. regeneration pests) and impede climate mitigation. Supporting (water, soil nutrients) and cultural (aesthetics, cultural heritage) ecosystem services would generally be affected negatively by shortened rotations and positively by extended rotations, as would most biodiversity indicators. Several effect modifiers, such as changes to thinning regimes, could alter these patterns.

  • 39.
    Trischler, Johann
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Strategic raw material supply for the particleboard-producing industry in Europe: Problems and challenges2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Particleboard was invented to increase the utilization of wood and it soon became an important core material for furniture production. Nowadays, other industries such as the pulp and papermaking industry and the thermal energy recovery industry claim the same type of raw material. This leads to increasing competition and higher prices than in the past when that kind of wood raw material was widely available and of low price. The particleboard-producing industry is therefore seeking opportunities to reduce the competition and ensure the future supply of lignocellulosic raw material for their products.

    The purpose of the work summarised in this thesis was to investigate the strategic supply of lignocellulosic raw materials for particleboard production and to evaluate alternatives for the supply of lignocellulosic raw material for particleboard production.

    To encompass the complex field of strategic raw material supply, several publications have considered different stages along the supply chain. These papers range from empirical studies to practical tests on a laboratory scale. In this thesis, some of the papers are linked together, building the base for the overall results.

    The results show that the task of increasing the supply of lignocellulosic raw material as primary raw material source is limited by several factors, but that improved product design coupled with a suitable recycling concept can greatly increase the availability of lignocellulosic raw material as a secondary source. Alternatively, the use of non-wood plants might be an opportunity to substitute wood as raw material but there are still some problems relating to the particle properties which must be overcome first.

  • 40.
    Petersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Ormarsson, Sigurdur
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Strength grading of structural timber based on buckling analysis and scanning techniques2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2016 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) / [ed] J. Eberhardsteiner, W. Winter, A. Fadai, M. Pöll, Vienna University of Technology, Austria , 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses the potential of grading of structural timber by use of in-plane buckling analysis combined with scanning, employing post processing of both ordinary photo images and images of wood surfaces illuminated by a large number of laser point sources. The results appear very promising in providing accurate predictions of structural strength. Finite element modelling is applied in the buckling analysis and obtained results are compared with experimental results from timber boards tested in accordance to the European standard EN 408 by four point bending tests.

  • 41.
    Bastani, Alireza
    et al.
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Koddenberg, Tim
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Militz, Holger
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Study of adhesive bondlines in modified wood with fluorescence microscopy and X-ray micro-computed tomography2016Ingår i: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 68, 351-358 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantitative penetration of three coldset wood adhesives [one-component polyurethane (PU), emulsion polymer isocyanate (EPI), poly (vinyl acetate) (PVAc)] under hydraulic pressure into different types of modified wood was studied using fluorescence microscopy and the results were compared to these of a previous study without pressure on adjacent wood samples. The effective penetration (EP) of PU was negatively affected by furfurlylation and NMM modification when pressure was applied. For PVAc, 30% NMM treatment and heat treatment of Scots pine and beech at 210 °C had a negative effect on its EP, but against this the EP of this adhesive increased after heat treatment of beech at 195 °C. In the case of furfurylation, the depth of penetration of all adhesives was less into wood treated with higher concentration of furfuryl alcohol. PU showed a much deeper penetration into NMM-modified and heat-treated wood than the other adhesives with the exception of heat-treated beech at 195 °C. Application of pressure led to rather different results as compared to the EP data when no pressure was applied. The three-dimensional (3D) visualisation of the penetration of PU adhesive into heat-treated Scots pine was also examined by X-ray micro-computed tomography (XµCT). The 3D flow pattern of PU adhesive into heat-treated Scots pine was clearly depicted by XµCT.

  • 42.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Pfriem, Alexander
    Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Germany.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Temporary buildings in reusable lightweight material design2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2016 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology , 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing need and market for temporary buildings for various purposes, including largeconstruction projects in the tourism and events sectors or in civil protection. This paper gives an overview about the useof reusable lightweight materials in temporary buildings. Based on a project proposal submitted to the 7th framework, anew concept of temporary buildings is proposed. This concept combines the advantages of the premanufacturing of asmall number of parts and wooden components and a flexible and modular erection of the temporary building. Thefocus is on fast establishment with a maximum of three persons. A flexible and modular extension is possible.Assembling and disassembling the individual components with novel connect systems, adapted from the furnitureindustry, is proposed.This project aims to bring these concepts into new temporary buildings with new, reusable, and flexible lightweightdesign.

  • 43.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för maskinteknik (MT).
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    ATEA Logistics.
    Flinkman, Matti
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    The Development of Equity Ratios for Firms in the Swedish Industry for Wooden Single-Family Houses2016Ingår i: The 70th Forest Products Society annual convention - new horizons for the forest products industry, June 27-29, 2016, Portland, Madison: Forest Products Society, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    On the Swedish market for single-family houses, wood traditionally dominates with around 90 % market share. Due to the economic crisis, the number of prefabricated wooden single-family houses decreased from about 12 100 units in 2007 to 4 800 units in 2012. Firms in the industry struggled with a 60 % decrease of order intake. These firms compete with relatively low margins, and many faced economic losses. Such losses negatively affect the firms’ equity ratio, describing the share of assets that are financed by own capital. This negative effect defines the firms’ long-term ability to pay its depths. The longer such an effect lasts, the more it threatens the firms’ future, potentially leading to bankruptcy.

    This study is aiming at describing the development of the equity ratio from 2010 to 2014 for 52 Swedish firms producing wooden single-family houses. This will be done by collecting and analyzing those firms’ annual reports and the required financial numbers.

    The results show on the one hand how an average equity ratio for the whole industry developed within the chosen five-year period. On the other hand, the development of each firm’s equity ratio within that period is mapped, indicating, which firms potentially might face problems if no appropriate actions will be taken.

  • 44.
    Sjökvist, Tinh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    The impact of heartwood and sapwood on biological discoloration of a painted surface2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 12th meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE): Wood science and engineering - a key factor on the transition to Bioeconomy. September 12-13, 2016, Riga, Latvia / [ed] Bruno Andersons, Arnis Kokorevics, Riga: Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry , 2016, 137-142 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood material has advantages, it comes from a renewable source and it is easy to manage. But one disadvantage when used outdoors is biological discoloration of the material. Some impact on the discoloration is the presence of moisture and nutrients, necessary components for the microorganisms to grow and start a colonisation. Samples made of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) heartwood or sapwood coated with two different film forming paints was studied. The paints had a binder formula made of alkyd or acrylate. Additional parameters related to study the influence of moisture content on discoloration were high and low density material, with and without impregnation oil. Outdoor exposure was made during five years in the southern part of Sweden. The samples were hung with 45 degree inclination, facing south direction. Visual differences in biological surface discoloration were observed for samples within the same paint, which could be explained by differences in heartwood and sapwood.

  • 45.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Pettersson, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för matematik (MA).
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Nylinder, Mats
    The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    The importance of accurate measurement of comminuted logging residues’ moisture contents for small-scale forest owners2016Ingår i: Drewno, ISSN 1644-3985, Vol. 59, nr 198, 99-110 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy from logging residues is an important contributor to Swedish energysupplies. Thus, accurate measurements of delivered logging residues’ energycontents are very important for both sellers and buyers. Deliveries’ energycontents are highly correlated with their moisture contents, and thus aredetermined in southern Sweden (and elsewhere) by measuring their masses andmoisture contents. There is insufficient knowledge, however, about the variation inmoisture content within and between deliveries, and hence the minimum numberof samples needed to obtain the required precision. Thus, these variations wereexamined in detail in the presented study. Nested analysis of the variance of theacquired data shows that at least nine samples are required to obtain estimates ofa delivery’s moisture content with a 3% margin of error. For high volume trade,such as that between forest companies and the energy-conversion industry,current measurement practices are sufficiently accurate. For private forest ownersmaking single deliveries, however, higher precision is required as inaccuratemeasurements can strongly affect prices.

  • 46.
    Wagner, Leopold
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Almkvist, Gunnar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences .
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY). Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    Uppsala University.
    Rautkari, Lauri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    Uppsala University.
    The influence of chemical degradation and polyethylene glycol on moisture-dependent cell wall properties of archeological wooden objects: a case study of the Vasa shipwreck2016Ingår i: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, nr 6, 1103-1123 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell wall measures allow for direct assessment of wood modification without the adverse effect of varying density and microstructure. In this study, cell wall properties of recent and archeological oak wood from the Vasa shipwreck were investigated for cell wall stiffness, hardness and creep with respect to effects of chemical degradation, impregnation with a preservation agent, namely polyethylene glycol, and moisture. For this purpose, nanoindentation tests were performed at varying relative humidity, leading to different moisture contents in the wood samples. Concurrently, microstructural and chemical characterization of the mate- rial was conducted. Impregnated and untreated recent oak wood showed a softening effect of both moisture and preservation agent at the wood cell wall level. On the contrary, increased stiffness was found for non-impregnated Vasa oak, which can be explained by aging-related modifications in cell wall components. These effects were counteracted by the softening effect of polyethylene glycol in the impregnated Vasa material, where a lower overall stiffness was measured. The reverse effect of the preservation agent and moisture, namely increased indentation creep of the cell wall material, was revealed. The loss of acetyl groups in the hemicelluloses explained the decreased hygroscopicity of the Vasa oak. In the impregnated Vasa oak, this effect seemed to be partly counteracted by the presence of low-molecular polyethylene glycol contributing to higher hygroscopicity of the cell wall. Thus, the higher overall sorptive capacity of the impregnated Vasa material, with respect to the non-impregnated material, was detected, which has resulted in a sorptive behavior similar to that of recent oak wood. The proposed approach requires only small amounts of material, making it especially suitable for application to precious historical wooden artifacts. 

  • 47. Schweigler, Michael
    et al.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    The influence of displacement boundary conditions on the embedment behavior of dowel-type fasteners2016Ingår i: Presented at 33nd Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, Portorož, Slovenia, 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Salim, Roaa
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    The influence of raw material on the wood product manufacturing2016Ingår i: 49th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, CIRP-CMS 2016; Commundo Tagungs Hotel Stuttgart, Germany, 25 May 2016 through 27 May 2016 / [ed] Bauernhansl T.,Westkamper E, Stuttgart: Elsevier, 2016, nr 57, 764-768 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the later part of the wood processing chain in wood industry: the wood product manufacturing. Wood product manufacturers are facing many challenges e.g. due to the high variability of the raw material. Waste and rework are prevalent, resulting in high manufacturing costs. Each processing step in the manufacturing affects material utilization and cost efficiency. The proportion of the material cost and waste in most wood products are high. The challenge for wood product manufacturers is to make profit and remain competitive when on one side they need to execute the processes at the lowest cost and within shortest time and on the other side deal with a highly variable raw material. Therefore, wood product manufacturers need to consider their manufacturing process with emphasizes on the raw material consumed. The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct –and indirect influences of the material on the wood product manufacturing process in terms of productivity and efficiency. The direct influences aims at examining the impact of consuming raw material with different properties on the manufacturing process, while the indirect influences examine process-related aspects affecting the material's influence on the manufacturing process. This paper is based on a case study at a Swedish interior wood product manufacturer. The first phase of the study compares between two wooden panels with different material properties. Results show that solid, knotty raw material with higher moisture content results in lower efficiency than finger-jointed, knot free material with lower moisture content. The second phase of the study examines the indirect influences and shows that material handling is one of the key process-related aspects that need to be considered.

  • 49.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Three-dimensional modelling of knots and pith location in Norway spruce boards using tracheid-effect scanning2016Ingår i: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 74, nr 5, 725-739 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knots and the orientation of fibres in timber are decisive for the stiffness and strength of boards. Due to large property variations between members, strength grading is necessary. High resolution information of the orientation of fibres, both on surfaces and within members, would enable development of more accurate grading methods than those available today. A step towards three-dimensional (3D) models of the fibre orientation of the entire board volume is the establishment of 3D knot models based on scanning. The light from a dot laser illuminating the surface of a softwood board will, due to the tracheid effect, spread more along the fibres than across resulting in the dot entering an elliptical shape. In this investigation both the shape of the ellipse and the direction of its major axis were used to estimate the 3D fibre orientation on board surfaces. Knot surfaces were identified where the angle between the estimated 3D fibre direction and an approximated direction of the board’s pith exceeded a threshold value. By means of algorithms based on polar coordinates, knot surfaces which belonged to the same physical knot visible on different sides of the board were identified and as a result the position, orientation and volume of each knot were determined. Based on this information, a more accurate position of the board’s pith along the board was calculated. The established models showed good agreement with physical boards. The models constitute a promising starting point for further development of strength grading methods based on tracheid-effect scanning.

  • 50.
    Hochreiner, Georg
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Schweigler, Michael
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Timber Matrix Failure Modes in Multi-Dowel Connections2016Ingår i: 17th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Rhodes, Greece, July 3-7, 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The engineering design of dowel type steel-to-timber connections is comprehensive and shall also include the surrounding timber matrix, as required by the principles specified in Eurocode 5. As one part of a hierarchically structured research program, the loading and failure modes of multi-dowel connections has been investigated, including both the elastic as well as the cracked domain of the load history. Depending on the presence of local reinforcement, in order to prevent premature brittle failure and to insure local ductile dowel behavior, the global response became more or less ductile. The monitoring of surface deformations of the timber by means of a contact free displacement measurement system (DIC) supported the identification of stepwise changing structural systems. This data constitutes a valuable basement for the completion resp. improvement of the present design procedures with respect to consistency and effectiveness.

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