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  • 1.
    Aden, Mukhtar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Libyenkrisen – en humanitär intervention?: En kvalitativ textanalys som syftar till att förklara motiven bakom NATO:s och FN:s beslut att intervenera Libyen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Humanitarian intervention is a concept that generates several problems in our time. The idea of humanitarian intervention concerns the modern norms of sovereignty and noninterventional principals. It also concerns the conventional norm, which declares that states are not allowed to interfere in other states’ internal affairs. The use of military force to implement humanitarian intervention is restricted according to international law. This is what this thesis intends to investigate. The purpose was to find out the causes behind the intervention in Libya, which was carried out by NATO. The main questions were (1) to find out if the intervention in Libya was a humanitarian intervention (2) or if there were other motives that were behind the intervention. Two classical international relations theories have been utilized for the analysis. The analysis focused on the five UN Security Council members’ statements and arguments, which have been expressed in the UN Security Council. This issue created a gap between the members of the Security Council, especially between the Western states and the Russian and Chinese authorities

  • 2. Adman, Per
    et al.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Abandoning intolerance in a tolerant society: Explaining time related change in recognition of political rights among immigrants in Sweden2016In: Presented at SWEPSA 2016: Uppsala University, Campus Gotland, October 19–21, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Abandoning intolerance in a tolerant society: the influence of length of residence on the recognition of political rights among immigrants2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and empirically evaluates the idea that individual level political tolerance is influenced by the overall tolerance in society. Hence, the expectation is that more politically tolerant attitudes would be developed as a consequence of exposure to a social environment in which people in general are more inclined to accept freedom of speech, also when the message (or the messenger as such) challenges one’s own values and beliefs. The theoretical base of the analyses is a learning model, according to which more broad-minded and permissive attitudes, from a democratic point of view, are adopted as a result of (1) an adjustment stimulated by mere observation of an overall high-level of political tolerance in society (‘passive learning’), and (2) an adjustment due to cognition and interaction within important spheres in society (‘active learning’). Using surveydata, we explore empirically how length of residence among immigrants in high-tolerance Sweden are related to attitudinal measures of political tolerance, and to what extent a time-related effect is mediated through participation in ‘learning institutions’ of education, working-life, civil society and political involvement. In concert with expectations, the empirical findings suggest that an observed positive effect of time in Sweden on political tolerance may be explained by a gradual adoption of the principle that political rights should be recognized. Such an adoption, however, seems to require participation in activities of learning institutions, as we find that passive learning alone is not sufficient.

  • 4.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Political integration in practice: explaining a time-dependent increase in political knowledge among immigrants in Sweden2018In: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 248-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholarly findings suggest that immigrants in Western countries, in general, participate less in politics and show lower levels of political efficacy than native-born citizens. Research is scarce, however, when it comes to immigrants’ knowledge about politics and public affairs in their new home country, and what happens with this knowledge over the years. This article focuses on immigrants in Sweden, a country known for ambitious multicultural policies, but where immigrants also face disadvantages in areas such as labor and housing markets. Utilizing particularly suitable survey data we find that immigrants, in general, know less about Swedish politics than natives, but also that this difference disappears with time. Exploring the influence of time of residence on political knowledge, the article shows that the positive effect of time in Sweden among immigrants remains after controlling for an extensive set of background factors. Moreover, the article examines this political learning effect through the lens of an Ability–Motivation–Opportunity (AMO) model. The findings suggest that the development of an actual ability to learn about Swedish politics—via education in Sweden, and by improved Swedish language skills—is an especially important explanation for the increase in political knowledge.

  • 5.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Political Trust as Modest Expectations: Exploring Immigrants’ Falling Confidence in Swedish Political Institutions2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies report high levels of political trust among immigrants in Western Europe. Notably, such confidence tend to be particularly pronounced among immigrants from countries without democratic institutions and poor records in terms of corruption level. Yet over time, members of these population categories tend to express decreasing levels of political trust. Following previous research, such a pattern may be explained by high initial—although with time retreating—expectations concerning the quality of institutions in Western Europe. Analyzing Swedish survey data—particularly appropriate in the light of competing hypotheses concerning acculturation and barriers to integration, including discrimination—this paper presents additional support for the importance of expectations when it comes to political trust. Our analyses suggest that the gradual development of more modest expectations regarding institutional performance in the new country is a trustworthy explanation of the falling levels of immigrants‘ political trust.

  • 6.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Political Trust as Modest Expectations: Exploring Immigrants' Falling Confidence in Swedish Political Institutions2015In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, ISSN 1799-649X, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 107-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political trust among immigrants in Western Europe seems to be surprisingly high, especially among immigrants from non-democratic countries with institutions plagued by corruption. Over time, however, trust tends to diminish among these individuals. In this paper we argue that this may neither be explained by acculturation nor by experiences of discrimination. Analysing Swedish survey data we instead conclude, although tentatively, that falling expectations regarding the performance of host country institutions is a fruitful explanation. Such expectations presumably become more modest the longer one has been living in Sweden, causing a time-related drop in the overall confidence in Swedish political institutions.

  • 7. Adman, Per
    et al.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Time for Tolerance: Exploring the Influence of Learning Institutions on the Recognition of Political Rights Among Immigrants2018In: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Adolfsson, Rebecca
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    EU:s gemensamma handelspolitik före och efter Lissabonfördraget: En jämförande studie av EU:s normativa makt genom den gemensamma handelspolitiken 2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the EU’s normative power through the Common Commercial Policy (CCP) before and after the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force. The study is a comparative study and was carried out through a document study of official documents and treaties. To pursue the aim the following questions were asked: What are the differences and similarities within the EU's common trade policy before and after the introduction of the Treaty of Lisbon and does the Treaty of Lisbon increased the normative ambition of the EU?

     

    In this study Ian Manners theory Normative Power Europe has been categorized into direct normative actions and indirect normative actions. The empirical material is based on literature, primary document, Official Journal of the European Union and EU: s webpage.

     

    The conclusions of this study show that the Treaty of Lisbon has changed the constitutional basis for the common commercial policy in several ways. The CCP has more room after the Treaty of Lisbon to develop and take on direct normative actions. The major difference is that the CCP now endorse all the Union’s objectives, principles and values which give the CCP more opportunities to set normative requirements and gain normative power.

  • 9.
    Afsah, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ukraina som nation & stat: En studie om hur etniska motsättningar kan vara ett hinder för demokratiseringsprocessen & hur det skulle kunna lösas.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study is to investigate, scrutinize and to understand the current political situation in Ukraine and why it has not been progressed. The disastrous democratic process and the country´s existing and indefatigable problems are studied through dynamics that deals with the country’s ethnic divisions and the conflict with Russia regarding several regions in Ukraine. In this paper, a case study is used as the method, and by applying Anna Jarstads dilemmas of democracy process and Arend Lijpharts Consociational democracy is as well, the investigation shows that this system of democracy model can be successful Ukraine if they take regards to Anna Jarstads four dilemmas. The conclusion of this study means that it is important to take regards into the dilemmas of democracy and therefore must be regarded to when a country is trying to build a state based on democracy and that no improvement can be done without it. And the process of democracy should take impression of the Consociational democracy model, otherwise it´s more likely that the political volatility will remain and further increase.

  • 10.
    Agevall, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jonnergård, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics. Ekonomihögskolan, Lund Universitet.
    Bilden av revisorn: Förändringar i beskrivningen av professionen 1989-20112013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur revisorerna ser på sig själva och sin profession har förändrats över tiden. I denna rapport utgår vi från den bild som professionen har gett av sig själva i tidskriften Balans från 1989-2011. Vi följer hur synen på professionella normer, kunskapsbas, yrkesroller, avgränsningar mot andra professioner, organisering av den professionella föreningen, självreglering och hur man ser på andra parters påverkan på professionen. Våra resultat pekar på en ökad kommersialisering av professionen där revision allt mer ses som en produkt bland andra konsultprodukter. I stort har utvecklingen av bilden av revisorn följt utvecklingen av verksamheten inom de stora revisionsföretagen. Samtidigt har makten över utvecklingen avrevisionsprocess och professionella normer allt mer lyfts från nationell till internationell nivå och inflytandet över utvecklingen sker via komplexa nätverk av personer, organisationer och företag. Det kan därför vara dags att omdefiniera vad som är profession inom revisionsbranschen.

  • 11.
    Ahling, Jesse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kosovo - Självständighetens betydelse och möjligheter: En fallstudie i demokratiutveckling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the democratization process of Kosovo in the years after the countries independence was assured. Two central questions for the case study consist of whether a democratic improvement in the country has occurred and which factors, positive and negative, are present to further improve or impede the democratizationprocess. The study builds upon two central definitions, democratic states and democratization in order to gain theoretical background to be able to measure these two quite abstract expressions. A socioeconomic model is used to measure favorable or negative developments within Kosovos society and the findings of this model confirms the hypothesis of modernization theory, namely that increased socioeconomic development increases the chance of a positive democratizationprocess. There has been a positive democratic development aswell as socioecomic progress but since the nature of this study is merely descriptive and not explanatory, it doesnt make claims on the explanatory power of modernization theory. A transition model is used for gaining a general overview of where in the democratizationprocess Kosovo currently resides. The findings of this model suggests that Kosovo currently sits in the transitionsphase of the model with problems like corruption and ethnical conflicts between minorities aswell as gender inequality as the main forces holding back the quality aspect of the consolidationphase.

  • 12.
    Ahmad, Batool
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Europafortet - under Turkarnas beskydd: Motivanalys av överenskommelsen mellan EU och Turkiet under den pågående flyktingkrisen.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The discussion about the refugees in Europe has never before been as important to address as now. We rely on our decision-makers to call the right shots for the people in need. So what do we do, if we do not believe that they make the right decisions?

    In March 2016, the European Union made a deal with Turkey to outsource the handling of the refugee-crisis. The EU will pay large amounts of money and grant visa liberation for the Turks, in exchange for them taking care of the refugees so they don’t cross the EU borders. The deal has been questioned by many and it criticized for being illegal and violating human rights. But it is still in effect.

    This study aims to detect the motives of the EU-leaders that led to the deal and subsequently with the motives detect what kind of decision-process that made the decision possible. The study conducts a motive analysis, based on Axel Hadenius theory of hermeneutics. To conclude, the study will use the critics aimed at the deal to discover whether there is a gap between the stated motivations of the EU-leaders, and the result that the deal brings when implemented. 

  • 13.
    ahmed, amal
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Botswana och Zimbabwe: En jämförande studie studie utifrån demokratiseringens fyra interna faktorer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is a comparative study between Botswana och Zimbabwe. The author presents the four internal democratication factors which are: economic development, free values,authotarian divisions and the civil society. These factors are presented and applied to each country. Zimbabwe is a authotarian regime and Botswana is a democractic regime. Which of the factors influences the democratization process? The author found that it is the economic development. Industrialized countries are more prone to be democratic than poor countries. 

  • 14.
    Ahmed, Maroa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Is Kurdistan heading toward democracy?: A Case Study of Democratization process in Iraqi Kurdistan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Can a nation without being an independent state reach democracy? According to some researchers a democratization process cannot happen without having an independent state with control over their own territories. The Kurdish people without a given state are divided between four authoritarian states in the Middle east and in opposite to its neighbors' have Kurds ambition to become democratic always existed. The purpose pf this thesis was to analyze if Iraqi Kurdistan is heading towards democracy and to find what the driving factors behind the democratization process are. The thesis used a qualitative text analysis approach with a complementary case study where the thesis focused on Larry Diamonds internal and external factors as a guiding instrument to determine what political mechanisms have driven Kurds and politicians' transition to democracy and peace. The analysis presented that authoritarian division, authoritarian development, free values, civil society, peaceful pressure and limits of sanctions and aid conditionally drove them. For answering the research problem, is a democratization processes possible for non-independent states? It is possible, Kurds in Iraq have so far accomplished to establish an electoral democracy, and a consolidated democracy is not impossible if legitimacy among politicians are increased and if freedom of expression is uncontrolled by politicians and if corruption decreases.

  • 15.
    Akouri, Elie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Varför har Egypten inte demokratiserats?: En fallstudie om bakomliggande orsaker till den haltande demokratiseringsprocessen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is designed to analyse the situation regarding the attempt to implement democracy in Egypt and why it failed. Theories regarding democratic transition and consolidation is acting as scientific instruments to carry out this case study. This essay directs its focus on several key factors that has contributed to the prevention of democratic reforms. The theory concerning path dependence is used to compliment the remaining theories to distinguish vital historic aspects to this issue. Key factors such as the Muslim brotherhood, the Egyptian military and regime, as well as the liberal movement is examined in this paper to illuminate their respective contribution to this situation.

    The conclusion of this paper focuses on the military, unwilling to surrender its power, along with the religiously fundamental brotherhood, growing rapidly. A democratic transition was in the making, only to be shut down by the military, regaining its former power. Although chaotic and military-biased reforms continued, they were far from democratic.  Because of all the key factors not sharing any political ideals, the situation has come to an abrupt halt regarding a democratisation process. The democratic ideal has become worn among the protestors and another try at a democratic transition is far from reality. 

  • 16.
    Aksak, Rona Isabelle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demokratisering i Bashur: En fallstudie om förutsättningarna för en demokratiseringsprocess i den kurdiska regionen i Irak.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Alm, Josef
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Youth political participation in an emerging democracy: A case study of political participation among Tanzanian youths in urban Mwanza2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on a case study of Tanzanian youths’ political participation in urban Mwanza. The purpose of this study is to examine how urban youths understand their participation in various political activities in an emerging democracy like Tanzania. The research question guiding the study is how youths understand and value voting in elections in comparison to other forms of political participation. The study focuses on three different political activities; to vote, to contact a politician and to participate in a demonstration. The three political activities are combined with Verba et al.’s (1995) theory of the attributes of political activities into a theoretical analysis model. The thesis uses a qualitative methodology based on 19 semi-structured interviews with Tanzanian youths living in urban Mwanza. The results indicated that the youths in Mwanza understood voting as their prime opportunity to communicate their political voices to politicians. However, the youths expressed that political activities beyond voting facilitate them with opportunities to communicate more specific political messages to politicians multiple times. 

  • 18.
    Altin Prytz, Fredric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sverigedemokraterna i Ronneby: Teorikonsumerande studie med fallet i centrum2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With varied electoral success for anti-immigration parties across Western Europe, Sweden is often held as an example where anti-immigration parties have been less successful. This have caught the interest of many scientists around the world and have recently developed theories on a subnational level when testing Sweden’s municipalities, on why they have failed here but not in other countries. But in the election to 2010, Sweden now joins the rest of the Western-European countries in having an anti-immigrations party in the parliament.

    This paper has tested three theories on a Municipality that has shown evident support for the Sweden democrats, both in the local and the national election. This is done with a qualitative approach, made up from interviews with the local established parties. Results show that the success of the Sweden democrats are not explained by the local presence in the city council, where they make no real impressions and rarely, or never, turns in propositions.  There is also no real support for the theory that the established parties issue strategy has an effect on the success or failure for the anti-immigration party.

  • 19.
    Alvarez Reyes, Paula
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Att bedöma risker: En komparativ studie om Sveriges och Danmarks nationella riskbedömningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Al-wassity, Shagan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    “Responsibility to Protect och dess komplex”: En fallstudie om invasionen av irak 20032017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Andersson, Helen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Alla människors rätt till jämlika möjligheter i samhället: En komparativ studie av länsstyrelserna i Kalmars, Östergötlands och Västra Götalands läns arbete med de mänskliga rättigheterna.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is a human right to be treated equally and fairly no matter whom you are, what you like or where you are from. The United Nations addressed the important aspects of equally treatment in their declaration of the human rights. It is each conventions state’s responsibility to fulfil all the rights in the declaration. This study focuses on three Swedish county administrative organizational works with the human rights from their annual reports from 2014. The purpose of this study was to clarify each county administrative work with the human rights from an implementation perspective, and educe improvement potentials.

    The method which is used in this essay is a comparative study of the three organizations with a text analysis of their annual reports and a national report. This means that they initially were analysed separately and then compared in the end of the analysis. Factors such as the integration of the human rights and methods are of great importance in the presentation of each county administrative work. It is the government who is ultimately responsible for the human rights and that they are observed and worked with. To facilitate the work on a regional basis, the government have delegated the responsibility to the county administrative. Their main task is to ensure that the human rights-perspective is anchored in the organisation and that they work with the rights externally as well. The analysis compared the county administrative for what they have accomplished during the year, regardless of their geographical size and population. The results show that there are several steps left for the county administrative to use in their future work with the implementation of the human rights.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Jacob
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demokratiprocessen i Bosnien: En fallstudie om hur etnisk splittring försvårar den demokratiska utvecklingen i Bosnien2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate and understand the current political situation in Bosnia and why it not has been improving. The failed democratic process and the country's current continuing problems are studied through factors that deal with the country's ethnic diversity and the problematic constitution after the Bosnian war which separates the country. In this paper, a case study is used as the method, and by applying a reconciliation theory about the reconciliation process in Bosnia, the analysis shows that politicians, religious leaders and citizens show large cooperation problems and are holding back a democratic development in the country. Constitutional democracy is also used as theory, and the analysis in this study shows that this form of democracy can work in Bosnia after a reconciliation process. The conclusion of this study means that reconciliation is very important and must be implemented because no democratic improvement can be done without it. If there is no reconciliation in future Bosnia, it is more likely that the country will separate in two or more parts and that Bosnia as a state will not survive when the conflicts between the different ethnic groups in the country is so great.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Joel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ett land i förändring?: En jämförande fallstudie av Ukrainas demokrati innan och efter Euromajdan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to explore the difference in the political system between the Ukrainian regime in the period 2010-2014 and the regime that emerged out of the euromaidan protests in 2014. Through this the essay will determine if there has been any democratical progress between both of the timelines and if any of the periods achieved the status of democracy. Democracy is defined as polyarchy which gives a clear structure to study both periods and compare them to the criteria’s that this type of democracy offers. The areas that will be studied are: Free and Fair Elections, Universal Suffrage, Elected Representatives, the Right to Candidate in Elections, the Right to Organize, Freedom of Speech and Alternative Sources of Information. The essay is a Theory Consuming Case Study with both descriptive questions and a descriptive approach to answer the questions. The framework that is used to analyze the information is of a qualitative nature. This essay concludes that both periods have had large democratic problems. Although the problems for both periods differ, in the first problem there are several events with rigged elections, crime against journalists and restraints of freedom of speech. The second period saw several improvements in several areas but issues with universal suffrage emerged. This caused both periods to not being able to fulfill the criteria’s of polyarchy which, in this study, is the benchmark for a democracy. Instead, both periods achieved the criteria’s for a hybrid regime which in many ways are equivalent of a flawed democracy.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Josefin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Inflytande på agendan: En intervjustudie om elevkårsrepresentanters upplevelser av representation och elevdemokrati2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Democracy, influence and school are three keywords that characterize many of today's debates taken place both within the world of school and outside. Articles in newspapers and theses are written with the purpose to investigate how these three concepts can and should relate to each other, however, there are differences between how and the extent to which students should be involved and influence the school's activities and its democratic mandate. The purpose of this study is to examine how democratic representation is reflected in school activities. Through interviews with two student representatives from two student bodies, I want to examine how they see their work and its opportunities for advocacy in school activities. The result of this study indicates that through the theoretical framework of democratic representation, the two student representatives can and can not be seen as representative for the whole school and its pupils. Also, it is not well-known by the pupils that these types of student organisations exist. 

  • 25.
    Andersson, Karl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Costa Ricas konsolidering: När konsoliderades Costa Ricas demokrati utifrån ett maximalistiskt perspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to examine when democratic consolidation took place in Costa Rica from a maximalistic perspective. The hypothesis is that it’s likely that the democracy was not consolidated as early as 1953 which would be the case if applying a minimalistic perspective. Linz and Stepan’s theory about democratic consolidation has been chosen as the theoretical framework of the thesis and the research has been conducted by using a qualitative text analysis. The thesis comes to the conclusion that Costa Rica’s democracy completed its consolidation 1978 when the previously banned communist party Partido Vanguardia Popular was allowed to compete for votes again in the 1978’s presidential and parliamentary elections. From that point no party was excluded from taking part in free and fair elections.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Karl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hotbilden från öst: en falsk säkerhet?: En fallstudie om försvarsberedningens rapporter 2007-2014.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sweden has traditionally viewed Soviet Union and Russia as a potential threat. The Sweden Defense commission regularly presents reports with international monitoring to the Swedish Defense department concerning the security landscape and development. The analysis by the Defense commission drew conclusions in 2007 pointing to a Russia not moving towards military activity. Georgia and Ukraine proves the opposite. This bachelor thesis examines if the global analysis by the Swedish Defense commission have seen a change as a result of the Russian actions in Ukraine. The bachelor thesis has in its case study analysed the content of three reports from the Defense commission from perspectives based on liberalism and realism. From the results, it is identified that the analysis produced by the Swedish Defense commission has differed to a very small extent in its recommendations from both before, and after the annexation of Crimea. Rather than seeing any change, this thesis has strengthened the presumption that Swedish foreign- and security policy has a strong position of global cooperation both in and outside the European Union and keeps its position of advocating for international commitments, although national defense has gained a greater priority on the Swedish agenda.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bidrar betygssystemet till ökad stress bland unga?: En kvalitativ studie rörande förhållandet mellan elevers psykiska ohälsa och införandet av LGY112018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the mental health of young people in Sweden and the introduction of the new grade system. Through qualitative methods and semistructured interviews, people with experience in the grading systems have been given the opportunity to share their experiences and thoughts. The theories that have been taught, sometimes show that there are several factors that affect the increasing stress of young people, as well as studies showing that school is a major contributing factor in stress. The interviews that have been conducted, have been carefully transcribed and coded to maintain the validity and confidentiality of the study. The study has never been aimed at generalizing the data. The data has been analyzed based on previous research as a background and divided into categories for easier overview of the results. Burnard’s (1991) 14 steps for a qualitative analysis have been used for support and assistance with the implementation of the analysis of the results. The result has, in turn, shown that the grade system alone is not a contributing factor to increased psychological ill health. In the result, factors such as stress and grade systems were identified as two primary categories. The result can not be generalized because the individuals who study the gymnasium have all different experiences and feelings about both the stress and their school situation

  • 28.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sverigedemokraterna och främlingsfientlighet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to provide answers to whether the politics of the Swedish Democrats contains elements of xenophobia. The Swedish Democrats have become a major political party in Sweden. Today they are the Swedish parliament's third largest political party. Due to an ambition to grow as a party even more, the Swedish Democrats have a stated ambition of zero tolerance against racists. Nevertheless, the party has continued to build its policy on an immigration-critical agenda. Other parliamentary parties have so far not wanted to cooperate with the Swedish Democrats with reference to the party's xenophobic policy. However, if the Swedish Democrats continue to grow in size as a party, it will become increasingly difficult for other parties to continue ignoring the party's influence in the Swedish parliament.

    The study has consisted of rhetorical analysis of the Swedish Democrats party platforms from the party's formation until today. This analysis shows that the image the party gives of itself in the party platform has not changed significantly since the party was formed. However, the latest party platform of the Swedish Democrats includes more features of xenophobia than their first party program did. The policy of the Sweden Democrats thus still contains xenophobic elements.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Robert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Police Education.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    A nationalized police – the case of Sweden2018In: Procedings from Nordisk politiforskningsseminar 2016 / [ed] Larsson Paul & Skjevrak, Pernille, Oslo: Politihøgskolen i Oslo , 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015 a reform made the national Swe- dish police even more centralized as a means for improving efficiency and results. This was exactly fifty years after the origi- nal nationalization of the police –

    a reform said to be done in the same spirit of centralizing for efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and problematize the arguments behind the nationalization in 1965. How and why was

    the police nationalized and what was the chief political arguments for doing this? The paper also aims to discuss what the meaning of efficiency in policing means politically. 

  • 30.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Beyond Unidimensional Measurement of Corruption2017In: Public Integrity, ISSN 1099-9922, E-ISSN 1558-0989, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 58-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the effects of standard corruption measurement, as used in comparativeresearch, for its accuracy in estimating and understanding corruption. Implicitly, standard measurementstreat corruption as a one-dimensional phenomenon (measured by a single score) that can varyin incidence between countries (or other geographical entities), but not in form. Such measurementsalso tend to equate corruption with bribery. This article argues that the degree to which onedimensionalbribery-focused measurements constitute a suitable proxy for corruption differs acrosscountries (i.e., the measurement discrepancy is not random across countries). In particular, thesemeasurements are ill-suited to capture corruption in established democracies with highly developedeconomies, where corruption is expected to center on gaining access to and influence within strongstate institutions rather than on bribery. Sweden, a “least-corrupt” case, is used to illustrate theeffects of relying on such measurements in such a setting, and to show that whereas bribery mightbe a relatively rare event, undue influence and interest conflicts can be a frequent occurrence.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Corruption2016In: Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance / [ed] Farazmand, Ali, Springer, 2016, p. 1-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lessons from a Least Corrupt Case2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Storbritannien2015In: Komparativ politik: nio politiska system / [ed] Denk, Thomas & Anckar, Carsten, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 41-75Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Varieties of Corruption: Lessons From a Least Corrupt Case2013In: Corruption in least corrupt countries. Scope, causes and consequences, Bergen 26-27 August 2013., 2013, p. 1-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main drivers of the rapid growth of corruption research the last 20 years is the easy access to empirical data via corruption rankings and composite indices that can be used for large-N analysis. It is also these indicators that mainly are used to place countries in the comparative literature (and elsewhere) and in analyses of the relationship between corruption and, among else, democracy, economic output and growth and institutional performance. Without doubt this literature has contributed to the field but there are also problems. In focus here are the effects of the habitual treatment of corruption as a single-dimensional phenomenon, and often tantamount to bribery, and as spatially constant within a country. I argue that the effects of this on our estimations and understanding of corruption are particularly well illustrated by established democracies with highly developed market economies placed in the category of “least-corrupt” countries (as manyWest European states), as corruption in these countries on theoretical grounds can be assumed not to centre on bribery. In the article I use Sweden, almost always referred to as a least corrupt case, to unveil what we see using various corruption indicators but also what we do not see when we employ the standard comparative measurements and legal data. Although we would expect corruption types other than bribery to be important in such a case (a least corrupt one), not least conflict of interest, this is missed out when we use the indicators that have become the standard in the literature. I conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for the accuracy of corruption measurement and by arguing for studies that nuance our picture of corruption, and also bring in conflict of interest.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Anechiarico, Frank
    Shaping the State to Private Purposes:  A Comparison of Conflicts of Interest in Sweden and the United States2014In: The 2014 EGPA Annual Conference,  8-12 September, Speyer, Germany, Permanent Study Group VII : Quality and Integrity of governance, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Anechiarico, Frank
    The political economy of conflicts of interest in an era of public-private governance2014In: Routledge handbook of political corruption / [ed] Heywood, Paul M., Abingdon: Routledge, 2014, p. 253-269Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Babajan, Tigran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Korruptionen i det svenska folkstyret: vad säger medborgarna?2014In: Surveyjournalen, ISSN 2001-9327, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 103-121Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bergh, Andreas
    Lund University ; Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    Erlingsson, Gissur ó
    Linköping University.
    Korruption, maktmissbruk och legitimitet i mogna demokratier2014In: Korruption, maktmissbruk och legitimitet / [ed] Staffan Andersson, Andreas Bergh, Gissur Ò Erlingsson, Mats Sjölin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 2, p. 15-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bergh, Andreas
    Lund University ; Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    Erlingsson, Gissur Ó
    Linköping University.
    Vad kan vi läras oss?2014In: Korruption, maktmissbruk och legitimitet / [ed] Andersson, Staffan, Andreas Bergh, Gissur Ó Erlingsson, Mats Sjölin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 2, p. 263-278Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bergh, AndreasLund University ; Research Institute of Industrial Economics.Erlingsson, Gissur ÓLinköping University.Sjölin, MatsLinnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Korruption, maktmissbruk och legitimitet2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bergman, Torbjörn
    Södertörns högskola.
    Ersson, Svante
    The European Representative Democracy Data Archive, Release 2. Main sponsor: Riksbankens Jubileumsfond (In2007-0149:1-E). [www.erdda.se]2013Other (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bergman, Torbjörn
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Umeå universitet.
    Ersson, Svante
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Umeå universitet.
    The European Representative Democracy Data Archive, Release 32014Other (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bromander, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Legitimate and legal boundaries for political entrepreneurship2016In: Political entrepreneurship: regional growth and entrepreneurial diversity in Sweden / [ed] Karlsson, Charlie; Silander, Charlotte; Silander, Daniel, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 21-39Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bromander, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Politiska entreprenörer, nätverk och intressekonflikter2015In: Politiskt entreprenörskap: Den offentliga sektorns sätt att skapa bättre förutsättningar för entreprenörskap lokalt, regionalt och nationellt / [ed] Silander, Daniel & Silander, Charlotte, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2015, p. 133-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Erlingsson, Gissur Ò.
    Linköping University.
    Förvaltningsreformer och korruptionsrisker2014In: Korruption, maktmissbruk och legitimitet / [ed] Andersson, Staffan, Andreas Bergh, Gissur Ó Erlingsson, Mats Sjölin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 2, p. 192-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Andersson-Hanna, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Politisk sekterism i Libanon: En fallstudie av Taif-avtalet och den konsociationella demokratins hållbarhet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aiming to contribute to the discourse on the sustainability of consociational democracy in plural societies, this case study provides an examination of Lebanon’s power sharing model. The study begins with an evaluation of the Taif Agreement. After acknowledging its effect on Lebanon’s consociational system the function and operation of Lijphart’s four consociational elements are analyzed. From these evaluations one can argue that power-sharing principles have helped Lebanon to maintain a relative calm after its civil war, but also that they have failed in generating national cohesion and a strong state. A re-emerging proposition in this study is hence that consociationalism has been both a solution and an impediment to the development of Lebanon.

  • 47.
    Anechiarico, Frank
    et al.
    Hamilton College, USA ; City University of New York, USA.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Shaping the state to private purposes: A comparison of conflicts of interest in the United States and Sweden2016In: Legal but Corrupt: A new perspective on public ethics / [ed] Frank Anechiarico, Lanham: Lexington Books, 2016, p. 29-53Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Anell, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ett partilöst Sverige?: En studie om svenska partiers medlemsutveckling2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A group of scientist, called the council of democracy in Sweden made a prediction

    about members of political parties, in 2013 members should not exist. In this essay

    that statement going to be questioned. It shows that most of the political parties loses

    members in Sweden. The only differences from year 2000 and now is that in 14 years

    the parties has lost 65000 members, between 1991-1999 it was about 220000

    members. Something has changed. After researching about the confidence of political

    organs, the voter turnout, campaign parties, care of members in political parties and

    the state funding, it becomes clear why the parties loses members. The conclusion is

    that people do not identify them self with parties as they use to in the past, parties do

    not take care of the members enough for them to stay and the discussion about

    ideology has gone missing. About the statement, it shows that there are political

    members today and because of the changes in the confidence in politics and rise of

    new political parties it is hard to see a point when all members will leave. There is

    going to be a minimum point in the future, but it is difficult to say a point zero.

  • 49.
    Anton, Joelson
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hur kan den våldsbejakande radikaliseringsprocessen motverkas?: En komparativ fallstudie mellan Moderaternas - och Socialdemokraternas politiska förslag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 50.
    Ardhamre, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kvinnlig representation: Beskrivningar från Miljöpartiet, Moderaterna, Kristdemokraterna och Socialdemokraterna2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this qualitative text analysis paper the author examined how the Swedish Green party, the Moderate party, the Christian Democrats and the Swedish Social Democratic party described female representation during the years 2001-2013 at their party congresses. With party strategic categories constructed by Lena Wägnerud and one self-constructed category with the help of works by Ann Phillips a total of 5 categories was used to separate the different statements regarding female representation. The categories were attack, win voters, comparisons, bragging and other. The results of the study show that the focus of female representation has shifted from a focus on female political representation to female representation in the business world, mostly representation in the board rooms. The results also show that all parties express themselves about female representation but in different ways. The Swedish Social Democratic party is the only party that focuses mainly on female representation as a question of justice and democracy, statements that fall under the category other. The other parties in this paper all had their focus on strategic statements that fall under Lena Wägneruds categories.  

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