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  • 1.
    Lincke, Alisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    A Computational Approach for Modelling Context across Different Application Domains2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Nowadays, people use a wide range of devices (e.g., mobile phones, smart watches, tablets, activity bands, laptops) to access different digital applications and services. The ubiquitous distribution of these devices allows them to be used across different settings, in different situations, and in a large number of different domains. These devices contain a variety of hardware features (e.g., sensors, Internet connectivity, camera, low energy Bluetooth connectivity) that allow for gathering diverse data types that can be used in many application domains. Among other areas, they could be utilized in mobile learning situations (e.g., for data collection in science education, field trips), to support mobile health (e.g., for health data collection, monitoring the health states of patients, monitoring for changes in health conditions and/or detection of emergency situations), and to provide personalised recommendations (e.g., for recommending services based on the user’s location and time). These devices help to capture the current contextual situation of the user, which could make applications more personalised in order to generate novel services and to deliver a better user experience. However, most applications lack capturing the user’s context situation or have been often limited to the user’s current location and time. Therefore, new ways of conceptualising and processing contextual information are necessary in order to support the development of personalised and contextualised applications and services. Substantial research in the field of contextualisation has explored aspects related to computational modelling of context focusing on just one specific application domain. Most of the existing context models do not address the issue of generalization as being a core feature of the model. Thus, the model is to a particular application domain or scenario. The main goal of this thesis is to conceptualise, design and validate an approach for a unified context model and to investigate its applicability in different application domains. This thesis presents the state of the art of recent approaches used for context modelling and it introduces a rich context model as an approach for modelling context in a domain-independent way. Reusability and flexibility of the proposed rich context model are illustrated by showing several applications domains (e.g., mobile learning, recommender systems, data analytics, eHealth) in which the model has been tested. This work explains the promising potential of using rich context models to support the personalization of services that are tied to the user’s current context. The results and outcomes of this work pave the way for new opportunities and further research related to the integration and combination of the proposed rich context model with machine learning techniques.

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  • 2.
    Muhr, Anneli
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Andra generationens unga företagare med utländsk bakgrund: En förståelse av det egna företagandet utifrån social position2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is about young second-generation immigrants who choose to become entrepreneurs. In a qualitative interview study, 22 young individuals’ choices and trajectories as entrepreneurs were examined. The aim of the dissertation was to understand how these young entrepreneurs, based on their social position, motivated their choices and trajectories into working life as business owners. The results of the study show how the young entrepreneurs act based on their social position, in which both structural and intergenerational factors have significance for their choices. Furthermore, variations are clarified in the individuals’ motives and trajectories as young entrepreneurs, which can be understood against the backdrop of various social positions. Three patterns have crystallised from the young entrepreneurs’ stories: the “follower” – the early entrepreneur with a strong tradition of business in their family, the “climber” – the later and strategic young entrepreneur who also has a strong tradition of business, and finally the “stopover” – who does not have a tradition of business in their family. But the most prominent pattern is the “early and horizontal business trajectory”. This trajectory does not represent the typical highly educated springboard examples, which are normally highlighted in previous research. Instead it represents a “new category” which includes young people who come from less highly educated business environments, and who largely follow in the footsteps of their parents and relatives and continues to work in typical trade- and service branches. For this category, it is more likely the individuals’ lack of education, rather than strong education, that drives them to become entrepreneurs. The young people in this category leave school early and start their own businesses. Central to this is how the young people continue to work in the increasingly uncertain and informal labour market, in which relatively strenuous living patterns are passed on through generations, and where the young people partially fall outside the public welfare systems.

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  • 3.
    Ebbelind, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics. Linnaeus University.
    Becoming recognised as mathematically proficient: The role of a primary school teacher education programme2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on upper primary prospective teachers in their first years of a teacher education programme in Sweden, in particular, a 20-week mathematics education course. It aims to contribute with insight into how, or even if, experience from a teacher education programme and other relevant past and present social practices and figured worlds plays a role in prospective generalist teachers’ imaginings of themselves as primary mathematics teachers-to-be and potentially shapes their identity. The theoretical perspective, Patterns of Participation, guides the logic and the research process and is used to interpret the construct of professional identity development. Ethnographic methods were crucial during the research process, which starts by taking a wide perspective on relevant social practices and then focuses exclusively on the everyday lives of prospective teachers.

    This study adds to the understanding of how the similarities in the discursive patterns of two prospective teachers, Evie and Lisa, frame their processes as teachers-to-be by staying committed to their prior positive experiences of mathematics. The figured world of performative mathematics is a significant aspect of Evie’s and Lisa’s experience, which involves being recognised for mathematical ability. Evie’s identity development is framed in relation to how her degree of certainty changes during her teacher education experience. She became recognised as someone who helps others in mathematics and found a way of performing this role during the teacher education programme. Lisa’s identity development is framed in relation to her commitment to the figured world of performative mathematics. She became recognised as a winner of competitions and for quickly completing the textbook exercises – experiences that proved formative during her teacher education programme.

    In this study, I conclude that the teacher education programme has an impact regarding prospective teachers’ professional development, but perhaps not in the way teacher educators expect or want. Thus, the teacher educators’ intention for the education programme differs from the result. An important aspect is that prospective teachers are not challenged first and foremost by encountering the theoretical perspectives involved in teaching mathematics. Instead, their prior experience is confirmed when used as a key source in determining what teaching mathematics means in terms of identity.

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  • 4.
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Creating clarity and managing complexity through co-operation and communication: The case of Swedish icebreaker operations2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea transportation is vital for the global economy, and the amount of seaborne trade is expected to increase in the future. In some areas, icebreakers are necessary for maintaining open shipping lanes all-year round and ensuring safe navigation. Vessels operating in ice are exposed to harsh environmental factors such as severe weather and heavy ice, and when external forces become too strong vessels will depend on icebreaker assistance. However, successful icebreaker operations require the icebreaker to operate in close vicinity to the assisted vessel to break the ice, which in turn increases the risk of collision.

    There are many factors which make icebreaker operations complex. The aim of this thesis is to use work organization, operational safety, and interpersonal communication as three lenses to describe and analyse the complexity of icebreaker operations, and its implications for practice. To thoroughly investigate this complexity, data are drawn from numerous sources; semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire, and a substantial amount of recorded authentic communication all provide complementary insights.

    The results show that the icebreaker performs a multitude of tasks directly concerned with icebreaking, e.g. directing and physically assisting other vessels, but that these tasks indirectly rely on interpersonal interaction and communication. A number of conflicting constraints add to the complexity. For example, harsh winter conditions impede vessels’ independent navigation in ice, while offering icebreaker crews opportunities to practice and maintain important skills. Furthermore, it was shown that language skills and communication play an important role in upholding the operational safety. However, closed-loop communication is not always used as intended, a deviation from intended communication protocol with potential to increase the risk of misunderstandings.

    This thesis suggests that safety and efficiency of winter navigation can be enhanced by making better use of existing technology and data; by examining the past track of other vessels, e.g. via AIS, finding suitable ice tracks will be made easier. Another implication concerning communication is that training institutes should emphasize the logic behind standardized communication protocols rather than focusing on standard phrases, i.e. facilitating means for advanced English speakers to adapt their communication style. That way, novice and advanced speakers could find common ground.

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  • 5.
    Helin, Anu S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Eco-immunological studies of innate immunity in Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis comprises two sections, both of which explore eco-immunology of the innate immune system of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The innate immune system serves a pivotal role as the first line of defense against invading pathogens, and is comprised of physical and chemical barriers. Its main function is to inhibit and/or eliminate the pathogenic microorganisms while minimizing collateral damage to host cells.

    The first section investigates the allelic variation and selective forces acting on five avian β-defensins (AvBD) genes. Showing that purifying selection is the predominant selective force, although one gene AvBD3b, appeared to be subject to balancing selection. Moreover, the solution structure of the AvBD3b peptide was solved in this work, revealing that it contains a typical β-defensin fold with three β-sheets. Linear and folded AvBD3b peptides were shown to exhibit similar antibacterial properties, indicating that the tertiary structure was not the primary determinant of antimicrobial activity. Moreover, testing the antimicrobial activity of synthetic AvBD peptides showed that they mostly had higher activity against Gram-negative than Gram-positive bacteria.

    The second section investigates expression of two innate immune genes during avian influenza virus infection. Data quality in gene expression studies depends, in part, on the stability of the reference genes (RGs) used to normalize expression levels, meaning putative RGs must be validated prior to use. Eleven potential mallard RGs were tested and it was found that the stability varied across different tissue types, highlighting the importance of correct RG selection for the specific experimental conditions. Optimal RGs were then used in a gene expression study of retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and myxovirus resistant gene (Mx) in mallards during a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) infection. Upregulation of both genes was rapid and transient, returning back to basal levels two days post infection across most of the five tissue types analyzed.

    This thesis provides new insights into the tertiary structure and antimicrobial activity of AvBDs, and how this relates to selective pressures exerted in natural populations. It also highlights the importance of RGs validation, and confirms that RIG-I and Mx are involved in the early stages of the mallard immune response to LPAI infection.

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  • 6.
    Bennedahl, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Fall in Line: Genus, kropp och minnena av det amerikanska inbördeskriget i skandinavisk reenactment2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    “Fall in line” is a military command used when the American Civil War is reenacted in Scandinavia, ordering the soldiers to stand in a row. The command can also be used as a metaphor for the adaptations reenactors make as a group to guidelines, originating from collective memories of the Civil War. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate gender and body as dimensions of the collective conciliation of memories within a group reenacting historical events. The body's materiality, material objects such as clothing, interactions between members of a group and with contemporary surroundings all have a varying impact on the evolving conciliation of the memories. Historical reenactment is a slightly unconventional context in which people make use of history, and the thesis highlights how events from history are modernised, utilised and forgotten, in the absence of regulatory documents and institutions. The collective memories act as a reference, yet the memories are constantly evolving. The thesis discusses how American collective memories are remediated within a Scandinavian context.

    The study is based on autoethnographic studies, interviews of group members and is supported by photographs. The autoethnographic studies allow for a new method of historical research, whereby the researcher becomes part of the material. Based on the queer phenomenology perspective that every person adapts to the behaviour expected in a group, I have been able to use the autoethnographic material to study my own adaptations. The expectations are based on the collective memories and are thus conciliated and changed. My own body and my experiences serve to highlight how gender and body are decisive dimensions when conciliating memories.

    During reenactment, a temporary memorial site is created where the distance between it and the contemporary world allows for conciliation of memories of the past. The reenactors move around the constructed space in different ways, determined by gender and body. Some reenactors move around the boundaries with the surrounding area, which is not included in the reenactment, and others move closer to the centre and are therefore also closer to the seemingly authentic. The memories of the past are generated by means of movement along the lines staked out in the space or along alternative lines, and it is not possible to understand how the memories are conciliated without studying gender and body.

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  • 7.
    Bjärsholm, Daniel
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Idrott som medel – inte som mål: Förutsättningar för socialt entreprenörskap inom idrotten2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In sport management research, little attention has been paid to the relatively new concept of social entrepreneurship. In short, the concept refers to innovative methods of creating and satisfying social values through sport. However, research has shown that social entrepreneurs in sporting contexts are having difficulties in creating sustainable businesses. In addition to that the economic preconditions for social entreprenurial undertakings are uncertain, more research is needed on the general preconditions for conducting social entrepreneurship in sport. Hence, the aim of this compilation thesis, which consists of five papers, is to examine and analyse the preconditions for conducting social entrepreneurship in sport. The thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, the subject of research (i.e., social entreprenurship in sport) is presented and defined. This is done by contextualising social entrepreneurship, analysing previous research on social entrepreneurship in sport, theoretically defining the concept and describing some research ethical issues that might arise in studies of social entrepreneurship. The second part of the thesis consists of three empirical studies of organisational, economic and political preconditions for conducting social entrepreneurship in sport. The findings from this thesis are based on an extensive literature review and five case studies in which multiple methods of data collection were used (interviews, documents and observations). The first paper, Sport and social entrepreneurship: a review of a concept in progress, shows that research on social entrepreneurship in sport is limited, the concept is seldom defined and sometimes used in ways more similar to philanthropy or corporate social responsibility. Also, sport only plays a minor role in the reviewed literature. The second paper, Ethical considerations in researching sport and social entrepreneurship, discusses some of the ethical dilemmas that have occurred when researching social entrepreneurship in sport. These dilemmas can, for example, be related to the principle of confidentiality. The third paper, Social entrepreneurship, sport and democracy development, offers an explanation of how to understand the “social” dimension in the concept of social entrepreneurship in sport. The social is ultimately about democracy in the sense that the participants are recognised, are given influence and are included in the organisation and in its community. The fourth paper, Networking as a cornerstone within the practice of social entrepreneurship in sport, focuses on how social entrepreneurial sport organisations can achieve economic sustainability by using their networks. The analysis shows, for instance, that the network of a social entrepreneurial sport organisation encompasses many actors from all sectors of society, and that the networks themselves assume many forms. The fifth and final paper, Swedish sport policy in an era of neoliberalism: An expression of social entrepreneurship?, provides an analysis of political preconditions for conducting social entrepreneurship in sport in Sweden. The paper, for example, argues that some political initiatives in the Swedish sport policy can be regarded as social innovations, since these aim to both solve certain identified social problems in society in general (e.g., social inclusion), or in sport in particular (e.g., making sport activities more accessible by lowering costs). In sum, this thesis contributes with: (a) empirical examples of social entrepreneurial sport organisations; (b) a theoretical understanding of the “social” dimension of social entrepreneurship in sport; (c) an ethical discussion on the role of researchers; and (d) a starting point when discussing the Swedish government support for sport.

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  • 8.
    Mutafela, Richard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Landfill mining approach for resource recovery from glass dumps into the circular economy2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills and open dumps have been the most cost-effective waste disposal option, resulting in over 500,000 landfills and dumps in the EU alone. They pose significant environmental and health threats due to emission of toxic gases and release of persistent contaminants to soil and groundwater, triggering a considerable global economic impact annually. Contrariwise, since they have been the ultimate end-of-life sink for materials over time, dumpsites are potential secondary resource reservoirs whose recovery could offset their impacts. However, resource recovery is impeded by the heterogeneous nature and contamination of the wastes, and thus uncertainty about availability and efficiency of recovery techniques. This thesis, therefore, proposes techniques that could improve excavated material quality and enhance their recovery as potential secondary resources for the circular economy.

    Waste from glass dumps in south-eastern Sweden was characterised to evaluate safe handling, pre-recycling storage requirements, and suitability for resource recovery or disposal. The dumps were mapped with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) before excavation to detect glass locations and enhance recovery. Furthermore, metal extraction from the recovered glass was assessed using a combination of mechanical activation of the glass and leaching with acids and biodegradable chelating agents. The waste required safe pre-recycling storage in hazardous waste class ‘bank account’ cells due to hazardous concentrations of leachable As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn. The waste obtained was also highly heterogeneous, although its recycling could not pose any radiological risks. However, application of ERT as a pre-excavation tool improved excavated material composition and secured a more homogeneous, recyclable fraction (>87% glass). Subsequently, leaching of the homogeneous glass fraction achieved Pb extraction efficiency of 78%, 64% and 42% for HNO3, EDDS and NTA respectively, at low leachant concentrations. The extraction was enhanced by the mechanical activation step, as comparison between activated and inactivated samples showed a 1200% difference in extraction.

    The findings in this thesis highlight dumped waste as a resource whose recovery requires integrating the landfill mining approach with techniques that enhance material quality and extraction efficiency to ensure a resource-secure circular economy and decontaminated ecosystems.

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  • 9.
    Briggert, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Modelling and strength grading of structural timber and glulam lamellae on the basis of optical scanning and dynamic excitation2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine strength grading of sawn timber is a sawmill process in which density, modulus of elasticity (MOE) and bending or tensile strength are predicted such that the timber can be assigned to strength classes. The predictions of these properties are performed using one or several so-called indicating properties (IPs), which represent a board property, or combination of board properties, measured non-destructively. A limitation of today’s strength grading is that the IPs applied in the industry for prediction of strength, in general, are based on rather weak statistical relationships between IPs and strength properties, which in turn results in poor material utilisation. It is well known that the strength of sawn timber is associated with the presence of knots and their surrounding fibre disorientations. Local fibre direction at surfaces of softwood can be determined by means of the light scattering that occur when a wood surface is illuminated by a dot-laser, i.e. by application of the so-called tracheid effect. Lately, IPs based on such measurements have been developed, and some of the suggested IPs have a strong statistical relationship to bending strength. The purposes of the research presented in this thesis are to contribute with knowledge of possibilities and limitations of the tracheid effect and of data of fibre directions in the vicinity of knots, to evaluate if information of fibre directions at surfaces of Norway spruce sawn timber can be used to achieve a better material utilisation of glulam lamellae and finger-jointed timber, and to provide insight regarding the grading regulations in Europe. Results presented herein show that knots and fibre direction within the interior of boards can be modelled on the basis of data obtained by means of the tracheid effect, but also that a previously proposed method to determine out-of-plane fibre angles gives poor accuracy. As regards grading of glulam lamellae, an IP based on fibre directions and dynamic MOE is proposed for prediction of tensile strength. The latter is used when grading glulam lamellae. Application of the proposed IP resulted in substantially increased yield in strength classes. It is also shown that this IP is applicable for boards with sawn as well as with planed surface finish. Regarding current regulations for machine strength grading in Europe, results indicate that grading based on global board properties give higher yield than what is appropriate.

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  • 10.
    Nordqvist, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Residue fixed point index and wildly ramified power series2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns discrete dynamical systems. These are systems where the dynamics is modeled by iterated functions. There are several applications of discrete dynamical system e.g. in biology, pseudo random number generation and statistical mechanics. In this thesis we are interested in discrete dynamical systems described by iterations of a power series f fixing the origin, where it is tangent to the identity. In particular, the coefficients of f are given in a field of positive characteristic p. We are interested in the so-called lower ramification numbers of such series. The lower ramification numbers encodes the multiplicity of the origin as a fixed point of f under p-power iterates. In particular this thesis contains four papers all related to the topic of lower ramification numbers of such power series.

    In Paper I we consider so-called 2-ramified power series and give a characterization of such in terms of its first significant terms. This is further extended in Paper II, where we geometrically locate the periodic points of 2-ramified power series in the open unit disk. In doing, so we provide a self-contained proof of the main result of the first paper.

    In Paper III, we consider power series with a fixed point at the origin of small multiplicity, i.e. the multiplicity of the fixed point is less than that of the characteristic of the ground field. We provide a characterization of all such power series having the smallest possible lower ramification numbers, in terms of its first significant terms, and in terms of the nonvanishing of the so-called iterative residue. In doing so, we also provide a formula for the residue fixed point index for the case of a multiple fixed point. We further extend the results of Paper II by locating geometrically the periodic points in the open unit disk of convergent power series with small multiplicity.

    In Paper IV we consider power series of large multiplicity, and introduce an invariant in positive characteristic closely related to the residue fixed point index. We provide a characterization of these power series having the smallest possible lower ramification numbers in terms of the nonvanishing of this invariant. As a by-product we obtain results about the dimension of the moduli space of formal classification of wildly ramified power series.

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  • 11.
    Klope, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Respektabla frisörer: - Femininitet och (yrkes)identitet bland tjejer i gymnasieskolans frisörutbildning2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute with knowledge on how adolescent girls in VET for hairdressers in Swedish Upper Secondary School negotiate and perform (vocational) identities from a class- and gender perspective with special focus on femininity. This is done through ethnographical fieldwork where 18 female students and their vocational teachers were observed for four months. Theoretically the study is inspired by feminist poststructuralist theory together with theory of how working-class women act to become respectable, since class and gender must be fused together to produce an accurate representation of power relations. 

    The results show how the girls position themselves as beauty experts and this expertise involves transforming people to appear in accordance with gendered- and classed beauty norms.  To be recognized as a hairdresser-girl the students are supposed to look nice and feminine. The hairdresser’s body and image are described as a trade-mark to be used to look profesional. Moreover, through cleaning-tasks the girls are expected to act as hardworking respectable subjects and to make the practice respectable. The hairdresser student is also positioned as a female  entrepreneur, that is constructed through two different discourses. One depicts the vocation as a glamorous profession to love. The other as hard work, low wages, and a craft that requires many hours of education. The meanings of men's absence in VET for hairdressers are also explored. The girls maintain the men’s privileged positions through stories which describe male hairdressers as more skillful. A school class consisiting of girls only is described as problematic where conflicts and ‘drama’ were explained by gender, and caused by the absence of boys. One conclusion of the thesis is that traditionally feminine coded performances, such as careing, being nice, and doing good is reshaped in a neoliberal time where notions of a competitive, strong, and self-governing girl is the one that has become the ideal hairdresser. The position of a self-governing girl neglects issues of class and gender, since discourses of Girl Power position girls in a way that the individual subject owns their success, and that we are living in an equal society.

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  • 12.
    Cronquist, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Samtidskonstbaserat gestaltningsarbete i utbildningen av bildlärare: Om vikten av transformativ beredskap i förändringsprocesser2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation addresses student learning processes in contemporary arts- based practice in visual arts teacher education programs. The arts-based processes studied are based on the explorative method for exploring social and social phenomena. ‘Art’, as a school subject, is based on scientific foundations that are informed by a ‘semiotics of art’ perspective. Notwithstanding this, artistic methods comprise a large part of the subject. The aim of this dissertation is to deepen our knowledge of the students’ experience of the learning processes that are present in contemporary arts-based practice in visual arts teacher education programs. Three empirical investigations into two visual arts teacher education programs were conducted. Study I reports on an investigation into an introductory course in contemporary arts-based practice where focus was placed on the student’s learning processes. The theoretical frameworks used in Study I were hermeneutics, symbolic interactionism, and transformative theory. The results of Study I were reported on in their entirety in a licentiate thesis (Cronquist, 2015), and can be summarised in terms of the concepts ‘resistance’, ‘challenges’, and ‘alienation and conciliation as a communicative process’. This introductory study gave rise to new questions which demanded both further depth and breadth in their answers. These issues were addressed by investigating an additional art teacher education program and by analysing the more advanced courses in this program, in contrast to the analysis of the introductory courses that were analysed in the first investigation. Study II presents an investigation into the meanings which emerged in the students’ experiences of the learning processes in a prescribed contemporary arts-based projects whilst Study III presents an investigation of the meanings with emerged in the students’ experiences of learning processes in a prescribed contemporary arts-based independent project, second cycle (Master of arts in secondary education for upper secondary). Study II and Study III take their point of departure in Dewey’s ‘pragmatism’, where human behaviour is considered to be a transactional process between people and their environment. The method of analysis that was used in these studies was inspired by ‘practical epistemological analysis’ (PEA) (Wickman & Östman, 2014). The object of study, which links all three studies together, addresses deepening our knowledge of the learning processes in contemporary arts-based projects. The results of these studies are revealed in three distinct problem areas namely, the laboratory - explorative problem, the subject-cultural problem, and the methodology problem. The laboratory - explorative problem involves the difficulties which students are

    faced with when they are tasked with making independent choices of methods for creative laboratory - explorative workprocesses in art projects. The subject- cultural problem refers to how students carry within themselves their experiences of learning processes from other subjects and how they put them in contrast with their learning experiences in their art classes. The methodology problem reveals to us how scientific research methods and exploratory art methods come to collide with each other (from the students’ perspective) in the students’ independent art projects. In conclusion, I present a discussion of the questions and challenges that contemporary art concepts can provide to an art teacher education program. ‘Transformative preparedness’ is highlighted as a central concept which students can use to move forward in their art teacher training when habitual behaviours are challenged. ‘Transformative preparedness’ is based primarily on the ability to adopt another person’s perspective.

    Keywords: teacher education program, art teacher education program, contemporary art, art project, contemporary arts-based practice learning processes, transformation, subject culture, artistic project methods

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