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  • 1.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Jonson, Bo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    The influence of basicity on oxygen activity and antimony oxide fining efficiency in alkali alkaline earth aluminosilicate glasses2009In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 241-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of bubbles was monitored in antimony oxide fined R2O-MxOy-SiO2 and R2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses (R = Na, K; M = Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Zn, B, Al, Ti, x = 1 or 2, y = 1, 2 or 3) in order to evaluate the fining efficiency. Electrochemical measurements of oxygen activity were used to, in situ, monitor the fining characteristics and conditions in some of the investigated glass melts. The results showed that an increase of the calculated optical basicity was related to an increased number of bubbles in the glass samples. The oxygen activity in the melt during fining decreased with increased optical basicity.

  • 2.
    Grund, Lina
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Jonson, Bo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Compositional effect on fining and oxygen activity in mixed alkali silicate glasses2009In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 62-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study monitors, in situ, how alterations of the glass composition affect the results of fining and the oxygen activity (aO2) of the melt. The number of bubbles in annealed glass samples was determined in order to evaluate the fining efficiency. Electrochemical measurement of aO2 was used to monitor in situ the fining charcteristics and conditions of Na2O-K2O-CaO-SiO2 glasses. The glasses investigated had a constant alkali oxide content, but a varying ratio of Na2O/(Na2O+K2O). The Sb2O3 content was o.2 mole-% and NaNO3 or KNO3 was added as oxidising agent in most of the glasses. The results show that the number of bubbles decreases from approximately 1100 to 200 bubbles/ 100 g glass and that aO2 at 1400 deg C increases from 0.2 to 1.2 bar in the glass melt when increasing the Na2O/(Na2O+K2O) ratio from 0 to 1.

  • 3.
    Jonson, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    Glafo, SE-35196 Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Devitrification and dilatometric properties of low T-g unleaded silicate glasses2013In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 108-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Candidate lead free glass enamels have been sought within the glass system described in general terms by the mole fractions 0.25R(2)O center dot 0.16(R'O,R-2 '' O-3)center dot 0.59SiO(2) where R=Li, Na, K; R'=Ba, Zn and R ''=B, Bi. Glass compositions containing high mole fractions of Li2O were found to devitrify when they were heated to temperatures up to 530 degrees C typical for the procedure used when fusing enamels to tableware glasses. The devitrification characteristics are complex and several peaks attributed to crystallisation were found by DSC characterisation. The thermal expansion coefficient (alpha) within the system ranges from 11-14x10(-6) K-1 and the glass transition temperatures (T-g) between 410-460 degrees C. The measured data could be fitted to the chemical composition by multiple regression analysis with a general equation of the form: (alpha,T-g)=K((alpha/Tg))+Sigma(cRxfR) in which K is a constant, c is the oxide mole fraction and f is an oxide specific factor. The statistical analysis correlation coefficients (r(2)) were around 0.9.

  • 4.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Glafo, Sweden;University of Jena, Germany .
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Limbach, Renè
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Alkali salt vapour deposition and in-line ion exchange on flat glass surfaces2015In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 203-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study suggests a different route for the modification of flat/float glass surfaces; i.e. exchange of ionic species originatingfrom in-line vapour deposition of salt as compared to the conventional route of immersing the glass in a molten saltbath. The aim of this work is to develop a more flexible and, eventually, more rapid process for improving the mechanicalstrength of flat glass by introducing external material into the surface. We discuss how chemical strengthening can beperformed through the application of potassium chloride on the glass surface by vapour deposition, and in-line thermallyactivated ion exchange. The method presented here has the potential to be up-scaled and to be used in in-line productionin the future, which would make it possible to produce large quantities of chemically strengthened flat glass at aconsiderably lower cost.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    The effect of single-side ion exchange on the flexural strength of plain and holed float glass containing a drilled hole2013In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 66-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of single-side ion exchange (using a KNO3:KCl mixture) on the ring-on-ring flexural strength of float glass has been studied. Two ion exchanged series, treated at 450 and 515°C, were investigated. The ion exchanged samples showed approximately 160 respectively 100% increases in their arithmetic mean strength compared to as-received float glass. Furthermore, a series of samples containing drilled holes were studied in order to investigate the effect of single-side ion exchange on such common construction elements. The samples that contained drilled holes were ion exchanged at 450°C and showed around 140% increase of the fracture load compared to the untreated samples containing drilled holes. As a general observation, the ion exchange treatment induced ~110 MPa compressive stresses (515°C) and ~180 MPa compressive stresses (450°C). The ion exchanged samples showed no significant increase in stiffness. 

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Reibstein, Sindy
    Institute of Glass and Ceramics, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Institute of Glass and Ceramics, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.
    Surface ruby colouring of float glass by sodium-copper ion exchange2013In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 100-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, colouration of the tin side of commercial soda lime silicate float glass by copper ion exchange is described and characterised. Data on the resulting concentration vs. depth profiles, absorbance vs. depth profiles, UV-Vis spectra  and CIE-Lab colour coordinates are reported. Fundamental aspects of the process of colouration are described and discussed. Optimum saturation of colouration is achieved after ion exchange at 520 °C for 10 h, or at 500 °C for 20 h, respectively. The depth of the coloured layer increases with increasing treatment time. At the same time, a linear dependency is found between the value of a and b in the CIE-Lab colour space for variations of treatment time and temperature. The latter indicates broad tunability of colouration between different shades of ruby and varying colour saturation. It is shown that colour arises from a redox reaction between copper species and residual tin ions, and that the depth of the coloured layer is governed by the position of the tin hump. The critical concentration of tin and copper to achieve colour formation was found to be ~0.25 mol% and >1 mol%, respectively.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Institute of Glass and Ceramics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg.
    Copper, silver, rubidium and caesium ion exchange in soda-lime-silicate float glass by direct deposition and in line melting of salt pastes2012In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the change of surface composition on commercial soda-lime-silica (SLS) float glass which results from single-side exchange of Na+ by Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+, respectively. Ion exchange is achieved by in line melting of a directly deposited salt paste in a prolonged annealing procedure. Concentration profiles obtained and computed effective diffusion coefficients, as well as apparent activation energies for diffusion, are reported. Depending on exchange species, treatment time and treatment temperature, the penetration depths are in the range of 10-20 μm for K+, Cu+, Rb+ and Cs+. A penetration depth of >100 μm can readily be obtained for Ag+.

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