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  • 1.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Reski, Nico
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Visualizing dynamic text corpora using Virtual Reality2018In: ICAME 39 : Tampere, 30 May – 3 June, 2018: Corpus Linguistics and Changing Society : Book of Abstracts, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2018, p. 205-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, data visualization has become a major area in Digital Humanities research, and the same holds true also in linguistics. The rapidly increasing size of corpora, the emergence of dynamic real-time streams, and the availability of complex and enriched metadata have made it increasingly important to facilitate new and innovative approaches to presenting and exploring primary data. This demonstration showcases the uses of Virtual Reality (VR) in the visualization of geospatial linguistic data using data from the Nordic Tweet Stream (NTS) project (see Laitinen et al 2017). The NTS data for this demonstration comprises a full year of geotagged tweets (12,443,696 tweets from 273,648 user accounts) posted within the Nordic region (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). The dataset includes over 50 metadata parameters in addition to the tweets themselves.

    We demonstrate the potential of using VR to efficiently find meaningful patterns in vast streams of data. The VR environment allows an easy overview of any of the features (textual or metadata) in a text corpus. Our focus will be on the language identification data, which provides a previously unexplored perspective into the use of English and other non-indigenous languages in the Nordic countries alongside the native languages of the region.

    Our VR prototype utilizes the HTC Vive headset for a room-scale VR scenario, and it is being developed using the Unity3D game development engine. Each node in the VR space is displayed as a stacked cuboid, the equivalent of a bar chart in a three-dimensional space, summarizing all tweets at one geographic location for a given point in time (see: https://tinyurl.com/nts-vr). Each stacked cuboid represents information of the three most frequently used languages, appropriately color coded, enabling the user to get an overview of the language distribution at each location. The VR prototype further encourages users to move between different locations and inspect points of interest in more detail (overall location-related information, a detailed list of all languages detected, the most frequently used hashtags). An underlying map outlines country borders and facilitates orientation. In addition to spatial movement through the Nordic areas, the VR system provides an interface to explore the Twitter data based on time (days, weeks, months, or time of predefined special events), which enables users to explore data over time (see: https://tinyurl.com/nts-vr-time).

    In addition to demonstrating how the VR methods aid data visualization and exploration, we will also briefly discuss the pedagogical implications of using VR to showcase linguistic diversity.

  • 2.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Big Data in Cross-Disciplinary Research: J.UCS Focused Topic2017In: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 1035-1037Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Byrman, Gunilla
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Lindquist, HansVäxjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.Levin, MagnusVäxjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Korpusar i forskning och undervisning - Corpora in research and teaching: Papers from the ASLA symposium, Växjö 11-12 November 19992000Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4. Callies, Marcus
    et al.
    Levin, Magnus
    A comparative multimodal corpus study of dislocation structures in live football commentary2019In: Corpus Approaches to the Language of Sports / [ed] Callies, Marcus & Magnus Levin, London: Bloomsbury Academic , 2019, p. 253-269Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Callies, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Marburg, Germany.
    Levin, MagnusLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Corpus approaches to the language of sports: Texts, Media, Modalities2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 6. Callies, Marcus
    et al.
    Levin, Magnus
    Introduction. Corpus approaches to the language of sports: Texts, media, modalities2019In: Corpus Approaches to the Language of Sports / [ed] Callies, Marucs & Magnus Levin, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2019, p. 1-11Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    On the globalization of English: Observations of subjective progressives in present-day Englishes2016In: World Englishes: New theoretical and methodological considerations / [ed] Elena Seoane, Cristina Suárez-Gómez, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2016, p. 229-252Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the globalization of English and suggests that the changingrole and nature of English in the expanding circle requires new methodologicalapproaches and new empirical materials which better represent non-nativeglobal English(es), that is, when English is used as an additional linguisticresource alongside L1s. Our case study investigates how ongoing grammaticalchanges are adapted in global use, and focuses on a specific use of the progressive:the subjective sense with an intervening adverbial. Our findings corroboratethose of Hundt & Vogel (2011) on the progressive in general, but also showthat stretched, special uses of progressives are fully established in non-nativeglobal usage. We conclude that as the globalization of English continues toblur the neat division of the English varieties, better data is needed to take intoaccount the diversity of texts emerging in the expanding circle and to representa variety of text types from natural, non-instructional settings.

  • 8.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lakaw, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Advanced non-native English on a continuum of Englishes: Charting new data sources2015In: From data to evidence : big data, rich data, uncharted data: 19-22 October 2015, Helsinki, Varieng , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation discusses research in which the objective is to find new empirical and theoretical ways of approaching the ongoing globalization of English. A particular angle is to test the usability of corpus-based diachronic methods for studying advanced non-native Englishes and to investigate present-day non-native use as one stage in the long continuum of Englishes. Such an approach is motivated by calls from the English as a lingua franca (ELF) domain to provide diachronically-informed evidence of English in multilingual settings (Seildhofer 2011) and by recent attempts in the study of indigenized World Englishes to take into account diachronic processes in shaping the outer circle Englishes (Noël, van Rooy & van der Auwera 2014). In particular, we investigate how ongoing grammatical variability, which is widely documented in many native varieties, is adapted in advanced non-native use. A key question is to investigate to what extent multilingual settings contribute to ongoing variability. The presentation discusses requirements for sources of material and evidence, and its starting point is the fact that the ELF research has so far focused on meaning making in interaction, which is also reflected in the scope of corpus resources. We zoom into ongoing corpus compilation work in which the aim is to collect a representative multi-genre sample of English texts in multilingual settings. The objective is that the sampling frame should enable diachronic and diatopic analyses of advanced nonnative use and make possible quantitative comparisons between our evidence and some of the existing English corpora, both native and non-native. The presentation discusses the diverse nature of our data and presents how we turn the data into evidence. We will introduce the set of grammatical structures, stemming from the corpus material, which have so far been investigated, and discuss a set of broader research questions to which this type of multi-genre corpus material of English texts in multilingual settings could shed more light.

  • 9.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. DISA.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. DISA.
    Lakaw, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. DISA.
    Charting New Sources of elf Data: A Multi-Genre Corpus Approach2019In: From Data to Evidence in English Language Research / [ed] Carla Suhr, Terttu Nevalainen, Irma Taavitsainen, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, p. 326-350Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses research that charts new lingua franca English data and broadensthe scope of written elf corpora. We illustrate that, apart from the academic domain,there exist various written genres in non-native contexts in which English is used as asecond language resource alongside native languages. These uncharted data can provideus with new ways of approaching the ongoing globalization of English. The newapproach incorporates a broader perspective on elf than previously, seeing it as onestage in the long diachronic continuum of Englishes rather than as an entity emergingin interaction. The first part details a corpus project that produces written multi-genrecorpora suitable for real-time studies of how ongoing variability is reflected in linguafranca use. It is followed by three case studies investigating quantitative patterns ofongoing change in elf. The conclusions suggest that a diachronically-informed angleto lingua franca use offers a new vantage point not only to elf but also to ongoinggrammatical variability. It shows that the traditional and canonized way of seeing nonnativespeakers/writers is not sufficient, nor is the simplified view of norm dependency of non-native individuals.

  • 10.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lakaw, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ongoing grammatical change and the new Englishes: Towards a set of corpora of English uses in the expanding circle2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lakaw, Alexander
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Revisiting weak ties: Using present-day social media data in variationist studies2017In: Exploring Future Paths for Historical Sociolinguistics / [ed] Tanja Säily, Minna Palander-Collin, Arja Nurmi, Anita Auer, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, p. 303-325Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article makes use of big and rich present-day data to revisit the social network model in sociolinguistics. This model predicts that mobile individuals with ties outside a home community and subsequent loose-knit networks tend to promote the diffusion of linguistic innovations. The model has been applied to a range of small ethnographic networks. We use a database of nearly 200,000 informants who send micro-blog messages in Twitter. We operationalize networks using two ratio variables; one of them is a truly weak tie and the other one a slightly stronger one. The results show that there is a straightforward increase of innovative behavior in the truly weak tie network, but the data indicate that innovations also spread under conditions of stronger networks, given that the network size is large enough. On the methodological level, our approach opens up new horizons in using big and often freely available data in sociolinguistics, both past and present.

  • 12.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lakaw, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Utilizing Multilingual Language Data in (Nearly) Real Time: The Case of the Nordic Tweet Stream2017In: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 1038-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the Nordic Tweet Stream, a cross-disciplinary digital humanities project that downloads Twitter messages from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The paper first introduces some of the technical aspects in creating a real-time monitor corpus that grows every day, and then two case studies illustrate how the corpus could be used as empirical evidence in studies focusing on the global spread of English. Our approach in the case studies is sociolinguistic, and we are interested in how widespread multilingualism which involves English is in the region, and what happens to ongoing grammatical change in digital environments. The results are based on 6.6 million tweets collected during the first four months of data streaming. They show that English was the most frequently used language, accounting for almost a third. This indicates that Nordic Twitter users choose English as a means of reaching wider audiences. The preference for English is the strongest in Denmark and the weakest in Finland. Tweeting mostly occurs late in the evening, and high-profile media events such as the Eurovision Song Contest produce considerable peaks in Twitter activity. The prevalent use of informal features such as univerbated verb forms (e.g., gotta for (HAVE) got to) supports previous findings of the speech-like nature of written Twitter data, but the results indicate that tweeters are pushing the limits even further.

  • 13. Laitinen, Mikko
    et al.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Martins, Rafael Messias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    The Nordic Tweet Stream: A Dynamic Real-Time Monitor Corpus of Big and Rich Language Data2018In: DHN 2018 Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 3rd Conference: Proceedings of the Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 3rd Conference Helsinki, Finland, March 7-9, 2018 / [ed] Eetu Mäkelä, Mikko Tolonen, Jouni Tuominen, CEUR-WS.org , 2018, p. 349-362Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the Nordic Tweet Stream (NTS), a cross-disciplinarycorpus project of computer scientists and a group of sociolinguists interestedin language variability and in the global spread of English. Our research integratestwo types of empirical data: We not only rely on traditional structured corpusdata but also use unstructured data sources that are often big and rich inmetadata, such as Twitter streams. The NTS downloads tweets and associatedmetadata from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. We first introducesome technical aspects in creating a dynamic real-time monitor corpus, andthe following case study illustrates how the corpus could be used as empiricalevidence in sociolinguistic studies focusing on the global spread of English tomultilingual settings. The results show that English is the most frequently usedlanguage, accounting for almost a third. These results can be used to assess howwidespread English use is in the Nordic region and offer a big data perspectivethat complement previous small-scale studies. The future objectives include annotatingthe material, making it available for the scholarly community, and expandingthe geographic scope of the data stream outside Nordic region.

  • 14.
    Levin, Magnus
    Växjö University.
    Agreement with Collective Nouns in English2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Claridge, Claudia. Hyperbole in English: A corpus-based study of exaggeration2015In: ICAME Journal/International Computer Archive of Modern English, ISSN 0801-5775, E-ISSN 1502-5462, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 140-144Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Levin, Magnus
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Collective nouns and language change2006In: English Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1360-6743, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 321–343-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns the changing and variable agreement patterns with 21 low-frequency collective nouns (e.g. trio) in British English. The data comes from the 1990 and 2000 CD-ROM editions of The Independent. The token frequencies of nouns do not appear to affect the preference for singular verb agreement. There are however clear differences between noun types, as is typical for lexical diffusion. Most nouns have developed a strong preference for singular verb agreement, some remain variable and some prefer the plural. Many of the agreement patterns for individual nouns can be motivated with reference to the characteristics of the nouns rather than to the semantics of the verbs. This investigation found no evidence that singular verb agreement, which is argued in this study to be the unmarked alternative, is generally on the increase. Rather it seems that nouns which prefer plural verbs continue to move towards plural agreement.

  • 17.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Douglas Biber and Bethany Gray. Grammatical complexity in academic English. Linguistic change in writing: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2016. 277 pp. ISBN 978-1-107-00926-42017In: ICAME Journal/International Computer Archive of Modern English, ISSN 0801-5775, E-ISSN 1502-5462, Vol. 41, p. 215-219Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Furiassi, Cristiano, Virginia Pulcini and Félix Rodríguez González (eds.). 2012. The Anglicization of European Lexis. Amsterdam / Philadelphia:John Benjamins.2013In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 125-131Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Levin, Magnus
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    “Hitting the back of the net just before the final whistle”: High-frequency phrases in football reporting2008In: The Linguistics of Football, Tübingen: Gunter Narr , 2008, p. 143–155-Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study football language is shown to consist largely of semi-fixed phrases with conventionalized functions. Superficially similar phrases have developed separate functions. The phrases under study are largely restricted to football and sports reporting, and therefore it is argued that they are register markers. As such, they both support social cohesion and social exclusion. The investigation comprises match reports, and, to a lesser extent, play-by-play commentary. The phrases typically have fixed cores and variable slots. The focus is on phrases containing the words net, minute(s) and whistle. Goal-scoring

    phrases are based on metonymy (hit the back of the net) while time is usually expressed with metaphors (in the nth minute). This study uses an interface developed by Fletcher 2003/2004 to extract frequent phrases. The material comes from the British National Corpus, on which Fletcher’s database is based,

    with additional material from The Independent on CD-ROM.

  • 20.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Kan man gå en översättarutbildning på distans?: Det funkar alldeles utmärkt!2016In: Facköversättaren, ISSN 1400-125X, no 2, p. 1p. 18-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Levin, Magnus
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Pled guilty and hoved into view: Using the Web to Explore Morphological Variation2009In: Corpora and discourse – and stuff. : Papers in honour of Karin Aijmer / [ed] Bowen, Rhonwen, Mats Mobärg & Sölve Ohlander, 2009Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Review of Leech, Geoffrey, Marianne Hundt, Christian Mair and Nicholas Smith (eds.). 2009. Change in Contemporary English. A Grammatical Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.2010In: ICAME Journal, ISSN 0801-5775, Vol. 34, p. 267-274Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The Bathroom Formula:: A corpus-based study of a speech act in American and British English2014In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 64, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a corpus-based study of the Bathroom Formula, a speech act that refers to the phrases speakers use to express their need to leave any ongoing activity in order to go to the bathroom (e.g., I'm gonna go to the bathroom). The data were retrieved from the Longman Spoken American Corpus, the Michigan Corpus of Spoken Academic English and the spoken component of the British National Corpus. More than 80 'anchor' words and phrases found in the literature were searched for (e.g., loo, pee, wash my hands). The results show that a large majority of all instances are based on a small number of lexicalized sentence stems (1 ((SEMI-)MODAL) V to the bathroom/loo/restroom/toilet; I ((SEMI-)MODAL) (go) pee/potty). It is argued that the lack of creativity is connected to ease of comprehension and production and to speakers' wish to be unobtrusive. Apart from some lexical differences between the regional varieties (e.g., AmE bathroom and BrE loo) there was little sociolinguistic variation. The desire to be unobtrusive is also reflected in the responses to the formula: about half the tokens are not responded to at all, and the most common verbal response involves simple acknowledgements (e.g., okay).

  • 24.
    Levin, Magnus
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    The formation of the preterite and the past participle2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The progressive verb in modern American English:  investigating recent language change with corpora2013In: The verb phrase in English:  investigating recent language change with corpora / [ed] Aarts, Bas Joanne Close, Geoffrey Leech & Sean Wallis (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013, p. 187-216Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Levin, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lindquist, Hans
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Like I said again and again and over and over: On the ADV1 and ADV1 construction with adverbs of direction in English2013In: International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, ISSN 1384-6655, E-ISSN 1569-9811, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 7-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses an adverbial pattern which has so far been largely overlooked, namely ADV1 and ADV1, as in again and again, on and on and over and over. The paper is primarily based on the Corpus of Historical American English (COHA) and the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). The data show that these patterns follow typical paths of change, such as a movement towards more abstract meanings (metaphorization; over and over increasingly referring to repetition rather than to physical motion), lexicalization (e.g. up and up being used as a noun with idiosyncratic meaning in on the up and up), subjectification (e.g. on and on expressing negative connotations), iconic variation (again and again and again referring to multiple repetitions), simplification (loss of again after over and over), and the development of discourse functions (and on and on meaning “and so on“).

  • 27.
    Levin, Magnus
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Lindquist, Hans
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    On the face of it: How recurrent phrases organize text2009In: Corpora: Pragmatics and discourse / [ed] Andreas H. Jucker, Daniel Scvhreier and Marianne Hundt, Amsterdam: Rodopi , 2009, p. 169-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns the text-organizing functions of the recurrent phrases

    face of it

    pragmatic meanings is related to grammaticalization theory. It is demonstrated

    that the two former phrases often occur in constructions where they are followed

    by a hedge and a refutation (

    face of

    (e.g.

    Mark Davies are shown to be useful complements to the BNC. These corpora

    show that

    variant

    on the, on its face and in (the) face of. It is argued that the development of theon the face of it … this seems … But…). In (the)mainly organizes text through its connection with negative evaluationsin the face of opposition). The new Time and COCA corpora compiled byon its face is typical of American English, and that the article-lessin face of is rare, and possibly decreasing in use.

  • 28.
    Levin, Magnus
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Lindquist, Hans
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Sticking one’s nose in the data. Evaluation in phraseological sequences with nose2007In: ICAME Journal, Vol. 31, p. 87-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Levin, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    English hyphenated premodifiers in German and Swedish translations: A cutting-edge-state-of-the-art study2015In: ICAME 36: Words, Words, Words – Corpora and Lexis : Abstracts, 2015, p. 27-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study stems from our work training translators where we have noticed that trainee translators struggle with English hyphenated premodifiers. Such premodifiers come in a variety of different forms, e.g., N + ed-participle (pig-headed losers), adjective + ing-participle (a tight-fitting beret), NPs (the end-of-term reports) and verb phrases (a go-along-and-enjoy-yourselves gesture) (for an overview, see Biber et al. 1999: 534–5). As indicated in these examples, hyphens are used both with highly lexicalized premodifiers (Arnaud et al. 2008: 116) and ad hoc constructions. The aim is to investigate how professional translators translate these construction types into German and Swedish in the Oslo Multilingual Corpus, focusing on how the structural means of the two target languages affect the choices made. The results will also help to improve teaching materials for trainee translators, by providing an overview of the strategies used by professionals.

    Previous findings suggest that premodification is more common in German than in Swedish source texts, which favour postmodification (cf. Fleischer & Barz 1995: 320–31; Teleman et al. 1999: III: 71–84). It can therefore be assumed that translations into these languages also have different preferences.

    Our data show that different construction types are connected to different types of translation alternatives, and there are some indications of target-language-specific preferences. For example, ed-participles are generally rendered as similar adjectives in the translations (liver- coloured > leberfarbene/leverfärgad), and relative clauses are more common in Swedish translations (a market-analysis firm > ett företag som gjorde marknadsanalyser) which confirms the observation that Swedish is more prone to postmodification. In the German translations, on the other hand, complex premodifications are more often rendered as extended participial premodifiers (sea-washed stone > vom Meer glattgeschliffenen Stein). Other frequent translation strategies involve compounding and prepositional phrases. These premodifiers often lack lexicalized equivalents, and they are often omitted, restructured or rendered word-for-word.

    Our results indicate that there is a relatively low degree of correspondence between the structures chosen in the target languages, at least regarding the more lexicalized instances. This suggests that the structural means of the individual languages affect the strategies used by either allowing or forcing translators into making different choices. The degree of lexicalization is a key factor when translating more freely or word-for-word. 

  • 30.
    Levin, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    From language to language, from time to time: echoic binomials in an English-German-Swedish perspective2019In: Language in time, time in language. ICAME40: Book of abstracts. June 1-5, 2019, Neuchâtel: Université de Neuchâtel , 2019, p. 51-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Echoic, or repetitive, binomials (Mollin 2013: 172; Gustafsson 1975: 9) are a cross-linguistic phenomenon dating back at least to biblical times (tooth for tooth) (Malkiel 1959: 125–126). Such binomials are characterized by a tripartite structure in which two tokens of the same lexical type are linked by the coordinator and or a preposition. The repeated words may be nouns (day by day), adverbs (again and again) or adjectives (smaller and smaller). Although such constructions occur in many languages (Jackendoff 2008: 8), contrastive studies are lacking.

    Echoic binomials express a variety of meanings, but in our data as many as three out of four relate to time. The repeated lexical items either already denote concepts of time (hour after hour) or the binomial invokes a temporal or aspectual reading (collapse bit by bit and grow brighter and brighter). Although German and Swedish have corresponding phraseological patterns, parallel corpora reveal that the forms, functions and distributions of these binomials differ cross-linguistically.   

    This study is based on the Linnaeus University English-German-Swedish corpus and the English-Swedish Parallel Corpus. A customized script was used to retrieve all relevant occurrences in both source and target texts. Our findings suggest that echoic binomials are equally common in English and Swedish but much rarer in German. In German, competing phraseological patterns are more pervasive, an example being the immer COMP.ADJ construction used for English adjectival binomials (a bigger and bigger hit > einen immer größeren Kick [‘ever bigger’]).

    Interestingly, echoic binomials appear to be more common in translations than in originals. About half the instances are translated into corresponding binomials (step by step > steg för steg), and a large number are also “introduced” in translations. In the latter case, echoic binomials fill constructional gaps as when the continuative-iterative reading of the English keep V-ing construction is rendered as the Swedish binomial om och om (igen) (we kept saying > om och om igen sa vi [‘again and again we said’]). Moreover, some language-specific binomials may be “overused” in translations, leading to reduced lexical variation. This is the case for German nach und nach which is a frequent choice for many different English source-text items (gradually, finally, begin to, Ø).

    A data-driven approach to echoic binomials enables researchers to uncover cross-linguistic patterns. One notable finding is that when the correspondents are not echoic, meanings still tend to be expressed by related recurring phraseological patterns, e.g., line by line > en rad i taget [‘a line at a time’]. Thus, recurrent meanings tend to be expressed by recurrent patterns.   

    References

    Gustafsson, Marita. 1975. Binomial expressions in present-day English. Turku: University of Turku.

    Jackendoff, Ray. 2008. Construction after construction and its theoretical challenges. Language, 84(1), 8–28.

    Malkiel, Yakov. 1959. Studies in irreversible binomials. Lingua 8, 113–160.

    Mollin, Sandra. 2013. Pathways of change in the diachronic development of binomial reversibility in Late Modern American English. Journal of English Linguistics 41(2), 168–203.

  • 31.
    Levin, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Give and Take: A contrastive study of light verb constructions in English, German and Swedish2015In: Cross-Linguistic Perspectives on Verb Constructions / [ed] Signe Oksefjell Ebeling, Hilde Hasselgård, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015, p. 144-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates light verb constructions (LVCs) with give/geben/ge and take/nehmen/ta in English, German and Swedish in the Oslo Multilingual Corpus and the English-Swedish Parallel Corpus. The results indicate that LVCs express aspectual distinctions (which is often done through quantification) and carry (mostly adjective) modifications. English prefers LVCs with zero-derived nouns, German mostly uses suffixed nouns and Swedish mainly nouns without equivalent verbs. Swedish translations from and into English are affected by the types of LVCs translated while German translations are less so. In general, LVCs with give/geben/ge are more similar cross-linguistically than those with take/nehmen/ta because the former are often based on the double-object construction.

  • 32.
    Levin, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    From the BBC to the PFC and CAPTCHA: Acronym typology from a cross-linguistic perspective2018In: ICAME 39, Tampere, 30 May – 3 June, 2018, Corpus Linguistics and Changing Society: Book of Abstracts, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2018, p. 108-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acronyms are prevalent and increasingly frequent both in English (Leech et al. 2009: 212–213) and other languages, such as German (Steinhauer 2000: 1), a development which mirrors the increasing societal prominence of science/technology and politics/business outside specialized domains (Kobler-Trill 1994: 200). Although acronyms allow brief and unambiguous communication among experts, they also decrease transparency for non-experts both when it comes to retrieving the full form of the acronym (e.g., LSD) or its referent (UNFCCC). The potential lack of transparency is further compounded in translations due to cultural differences. However, few previous studies have addressed the translation of acronyms and none from a corpus-based perspective.

    This study investigates the use of acronyms in English originals and their translations into German and Swedish, comparing forms, functions and distributions across the languages. A major outcome will be a typology of translation strategies and acronym use in the three languages. The material consists of an English-German-Swedish popular non-fiction parallel corpus currently being compiled by the authors. This genre covers, for instance, popular science and biographies, and the texts are aimed at informing and entertaining non-specialist audiences. Therefore, writers and translators need to strike a balance between brevity and transparency without compromising accuracy or alienating readers.

    Preliminary results suggest that acronyms most often occur as noun phrase heads (When IBM introduced…), but they are also frequent in more complex structures such as English premodifiers (PGP encryption) and German (UN-Klimakonvention) and Swedish compounds (NKVD-officer) (cf. Ström Herold & Levin in preparation). They also occasionally form part of new words (NAFTA-style). This flexibility is likely facilitated by the simplex forms of acronyms (Fleischer & Barz 2012: 284).

    The first-time mentions of acronyms in texts are of particular interest. Based on our popular non-fiction corpus, knowledge of some frequent acronyms is presupposed (e.g., DNA tests), others are given as appositive noun phrases alongside the full form (The chemical dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (usually known as DDT) […]) (cf. Biber & Gray 2016: 202–207), while some receive more extensive meta-linguistic comments (WYSIWYG, pronounced "wiz-ee-wig," an acronym for "What you see is what you get."). This is also found in translations, which can be either more or less explicit than the original:

    (1a)  Complete the CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart), and you're in.

    (1b) den CAPTCHA […] (den ”Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart", also den ”vollautomatischen öffentlichen Turingtest zur Unterscheidung von Computern und Menschen") [’i.e. the ”completely-automated…”’]

    (1c) captcha-rutan (ett robotfilter för att skilja människor från datorer) [’the captcha-box (a robot-filter to tell …’]

    The translations of first-time mentions vary greatly between German and Swedish target texts. Important factors are the target audience’s (assumed) culture-specific knowledge and their knowledge of English. Our acronym typology will consider structural and pragmatic features and their relevance to translation.

    References

    Biber, Douglas & Bethany Gray. 2016. Grammatical complexity in academic English. Linguistic change in writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Fleischer, Wolfgang & Irmhild Barz. 2012. Wortbildung der deutschen Gegenwartssprache. Berlin: De Gruyter.

    Kobler-Trill, Dorothea. 1994. Das Kurzwort im Deutschen. Eine Untersuchung zu Definition, Typologie und Entwicklung. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.

    Leech, Geoffrey, Marianne Hundt, Christian Mair & Nicholas Smith. 2009. Change in contemporary English. A grammatical study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Steinhauer, Anja. 2000. Sprachökonomie durch Kurzwörter: Bildung und Verwendung in der Fachkommunikation. Tübingen: Narr.

    Ström Herold, Jenny & Magnus Levin. In preparation. The Obama presidency, the Macintosh keyboard and the Norway fiasco. English proper noun modifiers in German and Swedish contrast. Paper presented at BICLCE, Vigo, September 2017.

  • 33.
    Lindquist, Hans
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Estling Vannestål, MariaVäxjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.Levin, MagnusVäxjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    GramTime News2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    GramTime News 1998-2009 (PDF files)

    How frequent is Ms compared to Mrs and Miss?

    What does awesome mean nowadays?

    Do you have to use the definite article the in expressions like play /the/ piano?

    Can you use siblings instead of brothers and sisters in non-scientific language?

    These are just a few of the hundreds of questions on present-day English usage that have beed answered in GramTime News, a free corpus-based newsletter aimed at (among others) non-native teachers of English. Here you can ask your own usage questions, read answers to previous questions and get tips for websites and books that can be used for learning English. There are four issues of GramTime News per year.

    Editor-in-chief: Hans Lindquist, PhD

    Managing editor: Maria Estling Vannestål, PhD

    Contributing editor: Magnus Levin, PhD

  • 34.
    Lindquist, Hans
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Klintborg, StaffanVäxjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.Levin, MagnusVäxjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.Estling, MariaVäxjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    The major varieties of English1998Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Lindquist, Hans
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Levin, Magnus
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Apples and oranges: On comparing data from different corpora2000In: Corpus linguistics and linguistic theory, Benjamins, Amsterdam , 2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Lindquist, Hans
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Corpus Linguistics and the Description of English2018 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Lindquist, Hans
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Engelska.
    Levin, Magnus
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Engelska.
    FOOT and MOUTH: The phrasal patterns of frequent nouns2008In: Phraseology: An interdisciplinary perspective, Amsterdam: Benjamins , 2008, p. 143–158-Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper concepts from cognitive linguistics are combined with methods from corpus linguistics to study the phraseology formed around the frequent body part nouns FOOT and MOUTH. The material consists of The British National Corpus accessed through Fletcher’s (2003/2004) database Phrases in English supplemented with British, American and Australian newspapers on CD-ROM. In more than half of the occurrences in the BNC the single word forms foot, feet, mouth and mouths were used in phrases, where furthermore their meaning had often been extended metonymically or metaphorically. The frequent lemmas FOOT and MOUTH are thus frequent at least partly because they occur in conventionalized phrases.

    Body parts are frequently mapped onto topographical phenomena in phrases like the foot of the mountain and the mouth of the river. Apart from being used in such phrases MOUTH is often connected to conventional ways of describing eating, drinking, speaking and the experience and expression of emotions. FOOT more often refers to location, and also occurs in phrases expressing other meanings, such as measurement. Metonymy and metaphor play a major role in the creation and extension of new phrasal patterns. Metonymic links are frequent because a physical reaction connected to the body part is used to represent the underlying emotion. In many cases these physical reactions have become such a conventionalized way of expressing the emotion that the reaction alone can stand for the emotion. The relative transparency of some phrases such as down in the mouth, stamping one’s foot and foaming at the mouth is likely to facilitate their learning in spite of the fact that they are not very frequent in themselves.

    Phrases are often manipulated in various ways, so that they occur in non-canonical forms and in word play. The use of word play shows that the borderline between literal and nonliteral meanings is fuzzy, and that both a literal and a nonliteral meaning can be available to speakers simultaneously, although at any given moment one is usually more salient than the other.

  • 38.
    Lindquist, Hans
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Levin, Magnus
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    The grammatical properties of recurrent phrases with body-part nouns: The N1 to N1 pattern2009In: Exploring the Lexis-Grammar Interface, Amsterdam: John Benjamins , 2009, p. 171-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This corpus-based paper investigates the frequency, grammatical irregularity, and variational behaviour of formulaic sequences consisting of the N1 to N1 pattern with body-part nouns (e.g. face to face) and the analogical extension of the pattern to new, less frequent body-part nouns. These phrases show signs of lexicalization, such as lack of singular/plural distinction, lack of articles and very low likelihood of adjective insertion. While the pattern itself is grammatically irregular, it has a tendency to go through the regular process of conversion from an adverbial (go head to head), via a premodifier (a head-to-head competition) to a noun (a Christie-Lewis head-to-head). One further sign of univerbation is the use of hyphens, which is most frequent in the premodifier function and in nouns.

  • 39.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    English supplementive ing-clauses and their German and Swedish correspondences2018In: Bergen Language and Lingustics Studies, ISSN 1892-2449, E-ISSN 1892-2449, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 115-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates English supplementive ing-clauses (e.g., Hitler exploded, demanding examples.) in German and Swedish contrast. The material consists of popular non-fiction originals and their translations from the Linnaeus University English-German-Swedish corpus (LEGS) (version 0.1). The results show that coordination is the most frequent correspondence of supplementive ing-clauses in German and Swedish translations and originals. Like the supplementive ing-clause, a coordination is a compressed and semantically indeterminate structure. The other major correspondences include subordination, main clause and prepositional phrase. German translators more often use main clauses than Swedish translators, which seems to be related to an increasing German tendency for parataxis rather than hypotaxis. A number of German and Swedish instances involve different kinds of explicitation, including conjunctions and German pronominal adverbs.

  • 40.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Premodification in translation: Hyphenated premodifiers in fiction and their translations into German and Swedish2017In: Cross-linguistic Correspondences: From lexis to genre / [ed] Thomas Egan, Hildegunn Dirdal, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, p. 149-175Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study concerns English hyphenated premodifiers translated into German and Swedish. The material was collected from the fiction part of the English – Swedish Parallel Corpus and the Oslo Multilingual Corpus, and includes almost 700 instances of translations into both German and Swedish, as well as 500 instances each of translations from German and Swedish into English. In the material, hyphenated premodifiers come in many different forms. However, they are mostly short, often containing nominal heads (head-office (man)), ed-participles (water-filled (ditches)) or adjectives (gray-green (tweed)), and only a few are longer, creative hapaxes ((her) take-me-seriously-or-I’ll-sue-you(demeanor)). The translations into English contain less variation than English originals, as predicted by translation theory. When the premodifiers are translated into German and Swedish they are often restructured, and only half are translated into German and Swedish premodifiers. German and Swedish premodifying compound adjectives/participles are the most frequent equivalents of English hyphenated premodifiers. More complex English premodifiers are often rendered as postmodifiers in German and Swedish. As could be expected from the preferred noun-phrase structures in German and Swedish, German translations have a (slightly) stronger preference for premodification (e.g., the all-embracing unit die alles umschließende Einheit), while Swedish (slightly) more often uses postmodifying clauses and prepositional phrases (fifteen-year-old schoolgirls skolflickor i femtonårsåldern). German and Swedish postmodifiers are very rarely translated into English hyphenated premodifiers.

  • 41.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The NAFTA signing, a Luftwaffe staff officer and a Västerbotten family: English proper noun modifiers in German and Swedish contrast2017In: 7th Biennial International Conference of the Linguistics of Contemporary English: University of Vigo, 28-30 September 2017 : Book of abstracts, 2017, p. 54-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous studies of English proper noun modifiers have touched upon contrastive aspects with other languages (see, e.g., Koptjevskaja-Tamm 2013; Schlücker 2013: 464–5; Breban 2017: 13), to date there has been no systematic study. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap by investigating personal names, place names and the names of organizations used as premodifiers in English non-fiction source texts and their translations into English from German and Swedish. The investigation will provide insights into (i) how translators interpret the modifiers, (ii) what structural means are used in German and Swedish to render them, (iii) in what ways the semantic relations that the proper nouns express affect the translation choices and (iv) the specific nature of translated language (cf. Baker 1993). German and Swedish share most of structural means used to translate proper noun modifiers, including the most straightforward equivalent, compound nouns.

    The material was collected from a new, parallel and comparable corpus. The corpus is being compiled by the researchers, and the texts include recently published biographies and books on popular science.

    The non-fiction genre seems to favour the use of modifiers based on acronyms (NKVD troops) and locations (Southampton traffic) (as found also by Rosenbach 2007: 165), rather than personal names (the Obama presidency). Overall, there are a large number of alternatives among the renderings of proper noun modifiers, e.g., compound nouns (Stirling undergraduates > Stirlingstudenter (Sw.)), prepositional phrases (the Apple corridors > korridorerna på Apple (Sw.)), genitives (Apple headquarters > Apples högkvarter (Sw.)), adjectives (Washington think tanks > Washingtoner Denkfabriken (Ge.)), appositions (the Clinton administration > die Regierung Clinton (Ge.)), metonymies (a Picasso painting > einem Picasso (Ge.)) and omissions of the proper noun (White House interns > Praktikantinnen (Ge.)).

    Our findings support Schlücker’s (2013) observation that German translations of location- based English modifiers may involve prepositional phrases or adjectives. The same holds true for the Swedish translations. Furthermore, there seems to be a tendency for modifiers with a deverbal head noun and a complement interpretation to be rendered as prepositional phrases in both German and Swedish (the NAFTA signing > die Unterzeichnung von NAFTA (Ge.) / undertecknandet av NAFTA (Sw.)). Among the notable language-specific tendencies is a German preference for postposed genitives (RAF airfields > Flugfelder der RAF) and a more frequent Swedish use of compounds (the Dunkirk pocket > Dunkerque-fickan).

    Proper noun modifiers in English texts translated from German and Swedish are mostly based on compounds in the source texts (e.g., DDR-Fernsehen (Ge.) > GDR television; Karl XII- dagen (Sw.) > the Charles XII anniversary day). Interestingly, some English modifiers originate in the translation strategy explicitation (skärgården (Sw.) > the Stockholm archipelago). 

  • 42.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The Obama presidency, the Macintosh keyboard and the Norway fiasco: English proper noun modifiers and their German and Swedish correspondences2019In: English Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1360-6743, E-ISSN 1469-4379, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 827-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article concerns English proper noun modifiers denoting organizations, people and places and their German and Swedish correspondences. It supplements previous studies touching upon contrastive comparisons by providing large-scale systematic findings on the translation correspondences of the three aforementioned semantic types. The data are drawn from the Linnaeus University English–German–Swedish Corpus (LEGS), which contains popular non-fiction, a genre previously not studied in connection with proper noun modifiers. The results show that organization-based modifiers are the most common and person-based ones the rarest in English originals. Compounds are the most frequent correspondences in German and Swedish translations and originals with genitives and prepositional phrases as other common options. The preference for compounds is stronger in German, while it is stronger for prepositional phrases in Swedish translations, reflecting earlier findings on language-specific tendencies. Organization-based modifiers tend to be translated into compounds, and place-based modifiers into prepositional phrases. German and Swedish translators relatively often opt for similar target-language structures. Two important target-language differences emerge: (i) compounds with complex heads are dispreferred in Swedish (US news show > *USA-nyhetsprogram) but unproblematic in German (US-Nachrichtensendung), and (ii) compounds with acronyms (WTO ruling >WTO-Entscheidung) are more frequent in German.

  • 43.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The Obama presidency, the Macintosh keyboard and the Norway fiasco: English proper noun modifiers in German and Swedish contrast2018In: Book of Abstracts: Using Corpora in Contrastive and Translation Studies Conference (5th edition) / [ed] Sylviane Granger, Marie-Aude Lefer, Laura Aguiar de Souza Penha Marion, Louvain-la-Neuve: University of Louvain , 2018, p. 164-165Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nouns used as premodifiers have tripled over the last two centuries in English (Biber, Grieve & Iberri-Shea 2009: 187), and proper nouns are increasing in frequency in writing, a change which is particularly noticeable with acronyms (Leech et al. 2009: 212). In German and Swedish, which disallow nouns as premodifiers (*Dylan bootlegs; *Australien Projekt) and instead use either hyphenated or solid compounds (Dylan-bootlegs (Sw.); Australienprojekt (Ge.)), the frequencies of such compounds also appear to be on the increase (for German, see Zifonun 2010 and for Swedish Koptjevskaja-Tamm 2013). It is noteworthy that Zifonun (2010) attributes this change in German to English influence.

    Although previous studies of English proper noun modifiers have touched upon contrastive aspects (see, e.g., Koptjevskaja-Tamm 2013; Schlücker 2013: 464–5; Breban 2017: 13), there has to date been no systematic study. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap by investigating the semantic categories personal names, place names and names of organizations used as premodifiers in both English source texts and English target texts translated from German and Swedish. The investigation shows (i) what structural means are used in German and Swedish to render the modifiers, (ii) in what ways the semantic categories of the proper nouns affect the translation choices, (iii) what German and Swedish structures are translated as English proper noun modifiers and (iv) the specific nature of translated language (cf. Baker 1993).

    The corpus used in this study, the Linnaeus University English-German-Swedish Corpus (LEGS) (see, Ström Herold & Levin Forthcoming), consists of recently published (2000s) popular non-fiction texts (e.g., biographies and popular science) in English, German and Swedish, and is balanced for the three languages, each original always being accompanied by two target texts. Also, each author and translator is represented only once. The corpus, which is being compiled by the present authors, currently comprises about 250,000 words in each source language with translations. The main advantage of the corpus is that there are always two translations available for every source-text segment. This makes it possible to compare how the very same instance has been translated into two target languages, thereby allowing identification of language-specific and translation-specific features. Moreover, the corpus provides translations from two source languages into each language. A tagged version of the corpus was searched for proper nouns immediately followed by (a) common noun(s). This way, more than 1,000 instances of English proper noun modifiers and 1,600 German and Swedish correspondences were retrieved.

    The results show that there are many different alternatives among the renderings of proper noun modifiers, the three most frequent being compound nouns (the Norway fiasco > das Norwegen-Fiasko (Ge.)), prepositional phrases (the Apple corridors > korridorerna på Apple (Sw.)) and genitives (U.N. climate summits > FN:s klimattoppmöten (Sw.)). Apart from these, ten minor correspondence categories were identified.

    Among the notable language-specific tendencies is a significantly stronger German preference for compounds (the Stanford campus > den Stanford-Campus) (cf. Carlsson’s (2004) finding on compounds being more common in German than in Swedish). Swedish translations instead use more postmodifying prepositional phrases (the Fukushima disaster > katastrofen i Fukushima [‘the disaster in Fukushima’]). However, compounds are strongly disfavoured in both German and Swedish translations when the noun phrase contains a “heavy head” (cf. Koptjevskaja-Tamm 2013), i.e. a head consisting of a ‘compound’/ two or more nouns. Such noun phrases are instead often translated into (compound nouns followed by) prepositional phrases containing the proper nouns, e.g. a Yale law degree > einen Juraabschluss in Yale (Ge.); juristexamen vid Yale (Sw.) [‘a law-degree at Yale’].

    Concerning the semantic categories of proper noun, the ones based on organizations are typically translated into compounds (every Apple product > jedes Apple-Produkt (Ge.)) or genitives (Red Army soldiers > Röda arméns soldater (Sw.)). In contrast, proper noun modifiers based on place names are more often rendered as prepositional phrases (Ontario residents > die Bürger von Ontario (Ge.); invånarna i Ontario (Sw.)), as already noted by Schlücker (2013) for German.

    Overall, acronyms are quite frequent as premodifiers (NKVD troops) in both English source texts and translations, and they have a bearing on translation choices. While German prefers compounds (a US news show > einer US-Nachrichtensendung), Swedish prefers genitives (U.S. negotiators > USA:s förhandlare).

    Most of the proper noun modifiers in English target texts translated from German and Swedish are based on compounds (e.g., DDR-Fernsehen (Ge.) > GDR television). Postmodifying prepositional phrases are very rarely translated into premodifiers (ett hotell i Florida (Sw.) > a Florida hotel), as also found by Levin & Ström Herold (2017), and the same holds true for genitives. It is noteworthy that some English modifiers originate in the translation strategy explicitation (skärgården [‘the archipelago’] (Sw.) > the Stockholm archipelago).

    The results indicate that premodifiers (such as proper noun modifiers) are rarer in translations than in source texts, possibly because they are less explicit and/or more compressed, as suggested by Levin & Ström Herold (2017). Another translation-specific feature concerns proper noun modifiers being dispreferred with unknown/exotic elements, as when the Swedish compound Expressenjournalisten is translated into a postmodifying prepositional phrase in English a journalist on Expressen newspaper, in spite of similar constructions often being written as premodifiers in English source texts (e.g., the Time reporter).

     

    References

    Baker, M. (1993). Corpus linguistics and translation studies: implications and applications. In M. Baker, G. Francis & E. Tognini-Bonelli (eds.) Text and Technology: in Honour of John Sinclair. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins, 233–250.

    Biber, D., Grieve, J. & Iberri-Shea, G. (2009). Noun phrase modification. In G. Rohdenburg & Julia Schlüter (eds.) One Language, Two Grammars? Differences between British and American English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 182–193.

    Breban, T. (2017). Proper names used as modifiers: a comprehensive functional analysis. English Language and Linguistics, 1–21.

    Carlsson, M. (2004). Deutsch und Schwedisch im Kontrast: Zur Distribution nominaler und verbaler Ausdrucksweise in Zeitungstexten. Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.

    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, M. (2013). A Mozart sonata and the Palme murder: The structure and uses of proper-name compounds in Swedish. In K. Börjars, D. Denison & A. Scott (eds.) Morphosyntactic Categories and the Expression of Possession. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins, 253–290.

    Leech, G., Hundt, M. Mair, C. & Smith, N. (2009). Change in Contemporary English. A Grammatical Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Levin, M & Ström Herold, J. (2017). Premodification in translation English hyphenated premodifiers in fiction and their translations into German and Swedish. In T Egan & H. Dirdal (eds.) Cross-linguistic Correspondences: From Lexis to Genre. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins,  149–176.

    Rosenbach, A. (2007). Emerging variation: determiner genitives and noun modifiers in English. English Language and Linguistics 11(1), 143–189.

    Schlücker, B. (2013). Non-classifying compounds in German. Folia Linguistica 47, 449–480.

    Ström Herold, J. & Levin, M. (Forthcoming). English ing-clauses and their German and Swedish correspondences.

    Zifonun, G. (2010). Von Bush administration zu Kohl-Regierung: Englische Einflüsse auf deutsche Nominalkonstruktionen? In C. Scherer & A. Holler (eds.) Strategien der Integration und Isolation nicht-nativer Einheiten und Strukturen. Berlin: De Gruyter, 165–182.

     

     

  • 44.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Translating textual indeterminacy: English supplementive ing-clauses and their German and Swedish translations2017In: Corpus et Orbis : Interpreting the World through Corpora: Book of Abstracts, 2017, p. 39-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subordinatorless supplementive ing-clauses (as in Hitler exploded, demanding examples) are characterized by their “considerable indeterminacy as to the semantic relationship to be inferred” ( irk et al. 1985: 1123; cf. also Biber et al. 1999: 820; Malá 2005) and may induce, for example, temporal, causal, conditional, concessive or circumstantial readings ( irk et al. 1985: 1124; Kortmann 1991: 114–141). is puts a heavy interpretation load on translators, the translation task becoming more intricate with target languages lacking a similarly productive form. us, it is not unexpected that previous studies on the translation of ing-clauses into Swedish highlight the multitude of translation equivalents found in target texts (Lindquist 1989: 120–128; Blensenius 2006: 36).

    is multi-target-language study provides insights into how di erent translators interpret and render the very same instance of an ing-clause. It draws on data from a new corpus being compiled by the authors. It comprises recently published English, German and Swedish non- ction texts and their translations into the respective languages. In order to compare original English with translated English, the study also includes ing-clauses used as equivalents of German and Swedish source-text structures. Preliminary findings indicate that the position of the ing-clause a ects the dis- tribution of translation equivalents. e rare sentence-initial ing-clauses more o en show congruent, i.e. formally and semantically matching, translations, both target languages o en opting for causal or temporal nite subclauses (e.g., Feeding bread to the ducks, I noticed [...] rendered as Als ich die Enten mit Brot fü erte (‘when I the ducks with bread fed’) in German and similarly in Swedish När jag matade änderna med bröd, or a PP expressing manner (e.g., Using this set up, Ellington’s team could [...] rendered as Mithilfe dieser Vorrichtung (‘by means of this device’) in German and Med detta upplägg (‘with this set-up’) in Swedish). e equivalents of sentencenal ing-clauses are more varied and non-congruent, ranging from in nitives to relative clauses, separate or coordinated main clauses, adverbial nite subclauses and prepositional phrases. Also, the translations more often differ semantically in this position. Overall, nite structures dominate in both target languages, which indicates that translators are producing more explicit structures. Moreover, our ndings suggest that ing-clauses are much rarer in English target texts (in particular from Swedish originals), indicating a potential case of translationese.

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