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  • 1.
    Alasuutari, Pertti
    et al.
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Rautalin, Marjaana
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The Rise of the Idea of Model in Policymaking: The case of the British parliament, 1803-20052018In: European Journal of Sociology / Archives Européennes de Sociologie, ISSN 0003-9756, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 341-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the question whether national decision-making has become increasingly interdependent in recent decades, and what role “world models” play in any such trend. These questions are scrutinised by utilising the “Historic Hansard” corpus, which contains all records of the UK Parliament from 1803 to 2005, complemented by other corpora. The results show that references to other countries were most frequent in parliamentary debates very early in the 19th century. However, allusions to other countries have evolved from referencing case examples to referencing policies that are constructed and branded as models. The idea of transferable models caught on particularly strongly from the 1950s onward. The other corpora used for the study confirmed that these changes reflect a global trend. Hence, the post-war era has witnessed a worldwide spread of the idea of model as a precondition for a global proliferation of named models.

  • 2.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Reski, Nico
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Visualizing dynamic text corpora using Virtual Reality2018In: ICAME 39 : Tampere, 30 May – 3 June, 2018: Corpus Linguistics and Changing Society : Book of Abstracts, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2018, p. 205-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, data visualization has become a major area in Digital Humanities research, and the same holds true also in linguistics. The rapidly increasing size of corpora, the emergence of dynamic real-time streams, and the availability of complex and enriched metadata have made it increasingly important to facilitate new and innovative approaches to presenting and exploring primary data. This demonstration showcases the uses of Virtual Reality (VR) in the visualization of geospatial linguistic data using data from the Nordic Tweet Stream (NTS) project (see Laitinen et al 2017). The NTS data for this demonstration comprises a full year of geotagged tweets (12,443,696 tweets from 273,648 user accounts) posted within the Nordic region (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). The dataset includes over 50 metadata parameters in addition to the tweets themselves.

    We demonstrate the potential of using VR to efficiently find meaningful patterns in vast streams of data. The VR environment allows an easy overview of any of the features (textual or metadata) in a text corpus. Our focus will be on the language identification data, which provides a previously unexplored perspective into the use of English and other non-indigenous languages in the Nordic countries alongside the native languages of the region.

    Our VR prototype utilizes the HTC Vive headset for a room-scale VR scenario, and it is being developed using the Unity3D game development engine. Each node in the VR space is displayed as a stacked cuboid, the equivalent of a bar chart in a three-dimensional space, summarizing all tweets at one geographic location for a given point in time (see: https://tinyurl.com/nts-vr). Each stacked cuboid represents information of the three most frequently used languages, appropriately color coded, enabling the user to get an overview of the language distribution at each location. The VR prototype further encourages users to move between different locations and inspect points of interest in more detail (overall location-related information, a detailed list of all languages detected, the most frequently used hashtags). An underlying map outlines country borders and facilitates orientation. In addition to spatial movement through the Nordic areas, the VR system provides an interface to explore the Twitter data based on time (days, weeks, months, or time of predefined special events), which enables users to explore data over time (see: https://tinyurl.com/nts-vr-time).

    In addition to demonstrating how the VR methods aid data visualization and exploration, we will also briefly discuss the pedagogical implications of using VR to showcase linguistic diversity.

  • 3.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Ahlström, Ida
    Linnaeus University, The University Library.
    Hansson, Joacim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Subject metadata for humanities journal articles: Indexing consistency between a local repository and an external bibliographic database2019In: Presented at DCMI 2019: Metadata Innovation. Seoul, South Korea - September 23rd-26th, 2019, Dublin Core Metadata Initiative , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Jusufi, Ilir
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Ardö, Anders
    Lund University.
    Automatic subject classification for improving retrieval in a Swedish repository2017In: ISKO UK Conference 2017: Knowledge Organization: what's the story?, 11 – 12 September 2017, London, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent adoption of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) in Sweden has ignited discussions about automated subject classification especially for digital collections, which generally seem to lack subject indexing from controlled vocabularies. This is particularly problematic in the context of academic resource retrieval tasks, which require an understanding of discipline-specific terminologies and the narratives behind their internal ontologies. The currently available experimental classification software have not been adequately tested and their usefulness is unproven especially for Swedish language resources. We address these issues by investigating a unifying framework of automatic subject indexing for the DDC, including an analysis of suitable interactive visualisation features for supporting these aims. We will address the disciplinary narratives behind the DDC in selected subject areas and the preliminary results will include an analysis of the data collection and a breakdown of the methodology. Major visualisation possibilities in support of the classification process are also outlined. The project will contribute significantly to Swedish information infrastructure by improving the findability of Swedish research resources by subject searching, one of the most common yet the most challenging types of searching.

  • 5.
    Hiltunen, Turo
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Academic Vocabulary in Wikipedia Articles: Frequency and Dispersion in Uneven Datasets2019In: From Data to Evidence in English Language Research / [ed] Carl Suhr, Terttu Nevalainen, Irma Taavitsainen, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, p. 282-306Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its popularity, the status of Wikipedia in higher education settings remains somewhat controversial, and the linguistic characteristics of the genre have not been exhaustively described. This exploratory paper takes a data-driven approach to assessing the use of academic vocabulary in Wikipedia articles. Our analysis is based on Coxhead’s Academic Word List, and the data comes from the Westbury Lab Wikipedia Corpus. We employ methods of statistical data analysis to classify Wikipedia articles according to the frequencies of academic words, and apply the same procedure to a comparable set of texts representing another genre, published research articles. The unsupervised classification procedure groups the articles according to academic content regardless of topic, which allows us to measure genre-specific similarities. The findings of the study show that academic words are common in both genres in focus, and more interestingly, if we look at aggregate frequencies of academic words, Wikipedia articles are not markedly different from RAs within the same discipline. This being said, we can observe disciplinary differences in the distribution of academic words in Wikipedia, such that Economics writing contains more academic words than the other two disciplines in focus. Disciplinary differences can likewise be observed in the distribution of individual academic words.

  • 6. Hiltunen, Turo
    et al.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Manual to the LMEMT corpus2019In: Late Modern English Medical Texts: Writing medicine in the eighteenth century / [ed] Irma Taavitsainen, Turo Hiltunen, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2019, p. 337-358Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7. Kauhanen, Henri
    et al.
    Hiltunen, Turo
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Something about nothing: Using resampling, collocation extraction and nonlinear regression to link orthography and grammaticalisation2013In: Ex Philologia Lux: Essays in Honour of Leena Kahlas-Tarkka / [ed] Tyrkkö Jukka, Olga Timofeeva, Maria Salenius, Helsinki: Société Néophilologique , 2013, p. 131-159Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Kopaczyk, Joanna
    et al.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Tyrkkö, JukkaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Applications of Pattern-driven Methods in Corpus Linguistics2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of corpora has conventionally been envisioned as being either corpus-based or corpus-driven. While the formal definition of the latter term has been widely accepted since it was established by Tognini-Bonelli (2001), it is often applied to studies that do not, in fact, fullfil the fundamental requirement of a theory-neutral starting point. This volume proposes the term pattern-driven as a more precise alternative. The chapters illustrate a variety of methods that fall under this broad methodology, such as the extraction of lexical bundles, POS-grams and semantic frames, and demonstrate how these approaches can uncover new understandings of both synchronic and diachronic linguistic phenomena.

  • 9.
    Kopaczyk, Joanna
    et al.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Blogging around the world: Universal and localised patterns in Online Englishes2018In: Applications of Pattern-driven Methods in Corpus Linguistics / [ed] Joanna Kopaczyk, Jukka Tyrkkö, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 277-310Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The borderless nature of blogging raises the question whether the traditional regionally defined varieties of English continue to hold true (see Crystal 2011). In order to investigate the extent to which the language published online without external intervention is similar around the world, this chapter investigates repetitive patterns, or 3-grams, found in blogs in the 583-million-word GloWbE corpus (Davies 2013). The data shows two types of repetitive word sequences: universal, or those that are frequent in all or most of the nineteen geographic locations represented in the corpus, and localised, or those unique to specific regions. We explore multiple ways of approaching the regional distribution of universal and localised 3-grams, such as statistical similarity measures (Jaccard coefficient and hierarchical clustering) and network visualisations. Three correlated research issues are addressed by this study: (1) the ratio of 3-grams in blogs from various World Englishes, which will shed light onto the degree of formulaicity in Web Englishes around the world; (2) the overlaps between various locations in terms of preferred sequences, which may point to local or global standardization hubs on the level of sentence and text construction; (3) finally, the status of model-providing varieties for internet communication, especially American English, in view of the most frequent 3-grams from other locations (cf. Mair 2013).

  • 10.
    Leppänen, Sirpa
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Introduction2014In: Texts and Discourses of New Media / [ed] Tyrkkö Jukka, Sirpa Leppänen, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Levin, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    From the BBC to the PFC and CAPTCHA: Acronym typology from a cross-linguistic perspective2018In: ICAME 39, Tampere, 30 May – 3 June, 2018, Corpus Linguistics and Changing Society: Book of Abstracts, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2018, p. 108-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acronyms are prevalent and increasingly frequent both in English (Leech et al. 2009: 212–213) and other languages, such as German (Steinhauer 2000: 1), a development which mirrors the increasing societal prominence of science/technology and politics/business outside specialized domains (Kobler-Trill 1994: 200). Although acronyms allow brief and unambiguous communication among experts, they also decrease transparency for non-experts both when it comes to retrieving the full form of the acronym (e.g., LSD) or its referent (UNFCCC). The potential lack of transparency is further compounded in translations due to cultural differences. However, few previous studies have addressed the translation of acronyms and none from a corpus-based perspective.

    This study investigates the use of acronyms in English originals and their translations into German and Swedish, comparing forms, functions and distributions across the languages. A major outcome will be a typology of translation strategies and acronym use in the three languages. The material consists of an English-German-Swedish popular non-fiction parallel corpus currently being compiled by the authors. This genre covers, for instance, popular science and biographies, and the texts are aimed at informing and entertaining non-specialist audiences. Therefore, writers and translators need to strike a balance between brevity and transparency without compromising accuracy or alienating readers.

    Preliminary results suggest that acronyms most often occur as noun phrase heads (When IBM introduced…), but they are also frequent in more complex structures such as English premodifiers (PGP encryption) and German (UN-Klimakonvention) and Swedish compounds (NKVD-officer) (cf. Ström Herold & Levin in preparation). They also occasionally form part of new words (NAFTA-style). This flexibility is likely facilitated by the simplex forms of acronyms (Fleischer & Barz 2012: 284).

    The first-time mentions of acronyms in texts are of particular interest. Based on our popular non-fiction corpus, knowledge of some frequent acronyms is presupposed (e.g., DNA tests), others are given as appositive noun phrases alongside the full form (The chemical dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (usually known as DDT) […]) (cf. Biber & Gray 2016: 202–207), while some receive more extensive meta-linguistic comments (WYSIWYG, pronounced "wiz-ee-wig," an acronym for "What you see is what you get."). This is also found in translations, which can be either more or less explicit than the original:

    (1a)  Complete the CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart), and you're in.

    (1b) den CAPTCHA […] (den ”Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart", also den ”vollautomatischen öffentlichen Turingtest zur Unterscheidung von Computern und Menschen") [’i.e. the ”completely-automated…”’]

    (1c) captcha-rutan (ett robotfilter för att skilja människor från datorer) [’the captcha-box (a robot-filter to tell …’]

    The translations of first-time mentions vary greatly between German and Swedish target texts. Important factors are the target audience’s (assumed) culture-specific knowledge and their knowledge of English. Our acronym typology will consider structural and pragmatic features and their relevance to translation.

    References

    Biber, Douglas & Bethany Gray. 2016. Grammatical complexity in academic English. Linguistic change in writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Fleischer, Wolfgang & Irmhild Barz. 2012. Wortbildung der deutschen Gegenwartssprache. Berlin: De Gruyter.

    Kobler-Trill, Dorothea. 1994. Das Kurzwort im Deutschen. Eine Untersuchung zu Definition, Typologie und Entwicklung. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.

    Leech, Geoffrey, Marianne Hundt, Christian Mair & Nicholas Smith. 2009. Change in contemporary English. A grammatical study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Steinhauer, Anja. 2000. Sprachökonomie durch Kurzwörter: Bildung und Verwendung in der Fachkommunikation. Tübingen: Narr.

    Ström Herold, Jenny & Magnus Levin. In preparation. The Obama presidency, the Macintosh keyboard and the Norway fiasco. English proper noun modifiers in German and Swedish contrast. Paper presented at BICLCE, Vigo, September 2017.

  • 12.
    McConchie, R. W.
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Juvonen, TeoKaunisto, MarkUniversity of Jyväskylä, Finland.Nevala, MinnaTyrkkö, JukkaUniversity of Helsinki, Finland.
    Selected Proceedings of the 2012 Symposium on New Approaches to English Historical Lexis 3 (HEL-LEX 3)2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 13. McConchie, Roderick
    et al.
    Tyrkkö, JukkaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Historical Dictionaries in their Paratextual Context2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both dictionary and paratext research have emerged recently as widely-recognised research areas of intrinsic interest. This collection represents an attempt to place dictionaries within the paratextual context for the first time. This volume covers paratextual concerns, including dictionary production and use, questions concerning compilers, publishers, patrons and subscribers, and their cultural embedding generally. This book raises questions such as who compiled dictionaries and what cultural, linguistic and scientific notions drove this process. What influence did the professional interests, life experience, and social connexions of the lexicographer have? Who published dictionaries and why, and what do the forematter, backmatter, and supplements tell us? Lexicographers edited, adapted and improved earlier works, leaving copies with marginalia which illuminate working methods. Individual copies offer a history of ownership through marginalia, signatures, dates, places, and library stamps. Further questions concern how dictionaries were sold, who patronised them, subscribed to them, and how they came to various libraries.

  • 14. McConchie, Roderick
    et al.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Introduction2018In: Historical Dictionaries in their Paratexual Context / [ed] McConchie Roderick, Jukka Tyrkkö, Berlin & Boston: Mouton de Gruyter, 2018, p. vii-xiiChapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Meurman-Solin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Introduction2013In: Principles and Practices for the Digital Editing and Annotation of Diachronic Data / [ed] Meurman-Solin Anneli, Jukka Tyrkkö, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Meurman-Solin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, JukkaUniversity of Tampere, Finland.
    Principles and Practices for the Digital Editing and Annotation of Diachronic Data2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 17. Nurmi, Arja
    et al.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Petäjäniemi, Anna
    Pahta, Päivi
    The social and textual embedding of multilingual practices in Late Modern English: A corpus-based analysis2018In: Multilingual Practices in Language History: English and Beyond / [ed] Päivi Pahta, Janne Skaffari, Laura Wright, Mouton de Gruyter, 2018, p. 171-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18. Reski, Nico
    et al.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Collaborative exploration of rich corpus data using immersive virtual reality and non-immersive technologies2019In: ADDA: Approaches to Digital Discourse Analysis – ADDA 2, Turku, Finland 23-25 May 2019 ; Book of abstracts, Turku: University of Turku , 2019, p. 7-7Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, large textual data sets, comprising many data points and rich metadata, have become a common object of investigation and analysis. Information Visualization and Visual Analytics provide practical tools for visual data analysis, most commonly as interactive two-dimensional (2D) visualizations that are displayed through normal computer monitors. At the same time, display technologies have evolved rapidly over the past decade. In particular, emerging technologies such as virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), or mixed reality (MR) have become affordable and more user-friendly (LaValle 2016). Under the banner of “Immersive Analytics”, researchers started to explore the novel application of such immersive technologies for the purpose of data analysis (Marriott et al. 2018).

    By using immersive technologies, researchers hope to increase motivation and user engagement for the overall data analysis activity as well as providing different perspectives on the data. This can be particularly helpful in the case of exploratory data analysis, when the researcher attempts to identify interesting points or anomalies in the data without prior knowledge of what exactly they are searching for. Furthermore, the data analysis process often involves the collaborative sharing of information and knowledge between multiple users for the goal of interpreting and making sense of the explored data together (Isenberg et al. 2011). However, immersive technologies such as VR are often rather single user-centric experiences, where one user is wearing a head-mounted display (HMD) device and is thus visually isolated from the real-world surroundings. Consequently, new tools and approaches for co-located, synchronous collaboration in such immersive data analysis scenarios are needed.

    In this software demonstration, we present our developed VR system that enables two users to explore data at the same time, one inside an immersive VR environment, and one outside VR using a non-immersive companion application. The context of this demonstrated data analysis activity is centered around the exploration of the language variability in tweets from the perspectives of multilingualism and sociolinguistics (see, e.g. Coats 2017 and Grieve et al. 2017). Our primary data come from the the Nordic Tweet Stream (NTS) corpus (Laitinen et al. 2018, Tyrkkö 2018), and the immersive VR application visualizes in three dimensions (3D) the clustered Twitter traffic within the Nordic region as stacked cuboids according to their geospatial position, where each stack represents a color-coded language share (Alissandrakis et al. 2018). Through the utilization of 3D gestural input, the VR user can interact with the data using hand postures and gestures in order to move through the virtual 3D space, select clusters and display more detailed information, and to navigate through time (Reski and Alissandrakis 2019) ( https://vrxar.lnu.se/apps/odxvrxnts-360/ ). A non-immersive companion application, running in a normal web browser, presents an overview map of the Nordic region as well as other supplemental information about the data that are more suitable to be displayed using non-immersive technologies.

    We will present two complementary applications, each with a different objective within the collaborative data analysis framework. The design and implementation of certain connectivity and collaboration features within these applications facilitate the co-located, synchronous exploration and sensemaking. For instance, the VR user’s position and orientation are displayed and updated in real-time within the overview map of the non-immersive application. The other way around, the selected cluster of the non-immersive user is also highlighted for the user in VR. Initial tests with pairs of language students validated the proof-of-concept of the developed collaborative system and encourage the conduction of further future investigations in this direction.

  • 19.
    Rissanen, Matti
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    The Helsinki Corpus of English Texts (HC)2012In: Principles and Practices for the Digital Editing and Annotation of Diachronic Data / [ed] Meurman-Solin Anneli, Jukka Tyrkkö, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The compilation of the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts (HC) was initiated in the early 1980s and the corpus was completed and publicly distributed in 1991. Its size is c. 1.5 million words, and it covers the periods from Early Old English to the end of Early Modern English, i.e., to the beginning of the eighteenth century. The Corpus is structured chronologically and by sociolinguistic, dialectal and genre-based parameters. After two decades, it is still used in various parts of the world as a “diagnostic” corpus giving useful indications of the first thousand years of the development of the English language. The results given by the Helsinki Corpus can be easily supplemented from other larger and/or more focused historical corpora compiled in Helsinki and elsewhere.

  • 20.
    Taavitsainen, Irma
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Turo
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lehto, Anu
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Marttila, Ville
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Pahta, Päivi
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Ratia, Maura
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Suhr, Carla
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Late Modern English Medical Texts 1700-1800: A corpus for analysing eighteenth-century medical English2014In: ICAME Journal/International Computer Archive of Modern English, ISSN 0801-5775, E-ISSN 1502-5462, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 137-153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Timofeeva, Olga
    et al.
    Salenius, Maria
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Preface2013In: Ex Philologia Lux: Essays in Honour of Leena Kahlas-Tarkka / [ed] Tyrkkö Jukka, Olga Timofeeva, Maria Salenius, Helsinki: Société Néophilologique , 2013, p. v-xiiiChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    A Physical Dictionary (1657): The first English medical dictionary2012In: Ashgate Critical Essays on Early English Lexicographers: Volume 4 : The Seventeenth Century / [ed] John Considine, London: Ashgate, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Astronomy ‘Playne and Simple’: The Writing of Science between 1700 and 1900: Isabel Moskowich and Begoña Crespo (eds). Amsterdam, Philadelphia : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012. xi + 240 pp. ISBN 978-90-272-1194-12013In: Literary & Linguistic Computing, ISSN 0268-1145, E-ISSN 1477-4615, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 487-490Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Binomials in English novels of the late modern period: fixedness, formulaicity and style2017In: Binomials in the History of English: Fixed and Flexible / [ed] Joanna Kopaczyk, Hans Sauer, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 281-295Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Chapter 10. The symptom comes of age: Sign semantics from the Late Middle to the Late Modern English2019In: Late Modern English Medical Texts: Writing medicine in the eighteenth century / [ed] Irma Taavitsainen, Turo Hiltunen, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2019, p. 199-227Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Discovering the past for yourself: Corpora, data-driven learning and the history of English2017In: Approaches to Teaching History of the English Language: Pedagogy in Practice / [ed] Mary Hayes, Allison Burkette, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 141-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Exploring Part-of-Speech Profiles and Authorship Attribution in Early Modern Medical Texts2013In: Meaning in the History of English: Words and texts in context / [ed] Andreas H. Jucker, Daniela Landert, Annina Seiler, Nicole Studer-Joho, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 190-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical linguists frequently find themselves working with primary texts of uncertain or dubious origin. Sometimes the author of a text is not known at all or the authorship has been contested on the basis of book-historical evidence; but, whatever the reason is, uncertainties about authorship can lead to problems if the linguistic characteristics of the text are ascribed to the supposed or conventionally accepted author. This exploratory paper evaluates the usefulness of a method of authorship attribution that is based on cluster analysis of part-of-speech frequencies. While far from perfect, the method is shown to be a useful addition to the methodological toolkit of the historical corpus linguist by allowing quick diagnostic analysis of similarities between texts.

  • 28.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Kinship References in the British Parliament, 1800-2005.2019In: Reference and Identify in Public Discourses / [ed] Ursula Lutzky, Minna Nevala, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2019, p. 97-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lasikatto ja lasilattia: Monikielisyyden dynamiikkaa 1800-luvun Tampereella2019In: Kielten ja kirjallisuuksien mosaiikki — Valta, periferia ja arki / [ed] Arja Nurmi, Saija Isomaa, Päivi Pahta, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2019, p. 133-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Tampere, Finland.
    Looking for Rhetorical Thresholds: Pronoun Frequencies in Political Speeches2016In: The Pragmatics and Stylistics of Identity Construction and Characterisation / [ed] Nevala Minna, Ursula Lutzky, Gabrielle Mazzon, Carla Suhr, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deliberate and considered use of personal pronouns is one of the primary linguistic features used by political speakers to manage their audiences’ perceptions of in-groups and out-groups. In this diachronic study of political speeches over the last two centuries, I will argue that a notable shift took place in politicians’ use of personal pronouns around the 1920s, immediately following the time broadcast media emerged on the scene.

  • 31.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    ‘My intent is onelie to further those that be willing to learne’: The lexicon of mid-sixteenth century surgical books in context2013In: Selected Proceedings of the 2012 Symposium on New Approaches to English Historical Lexis 3 (HEL-LEX 3) / [ed] R.W. McConchie, Teo Juvonen, Mark Kaunisto, Minna Nevala, Jukka Tyrkkö, Somerville: Cascadilla Proceedings Project , 2013, p. 177-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    New Methods of Bringing Image Data into Historical Linguistics: A Case Study with Medical Writing 1500–17002017In: Studia Neophilologica, ISSN 0039-3274, E-ISSN 1651-2308, Vol. 89, no Supplement 1 SI, p. 90-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, advances in text annotation, the computational analysis of images and quantitative corpus linguistics have introduced new and exciting approaches to the study of text and paratext that combine the perspectives of historical linguistics and book history. However, so far most corpus-based research in this field has been hampered by the manual nature of the visual analyses (see, e.g., Tyrkkö, Marttila & Suhr 2013 and Tyrkkö 2013). The manual measuring and evaluation of visual features in a consistent manner is both slow and prone to human error, particularly with volumes of texts sufficient for statistical interrogation. As a result, while the linguistic analysis of historical texts can be rigorously systematic and corpus-based, the visual data, when taken into account at all, have typically been rather scarce and anecdotal in nature. In this paper, I will discuss new computational methods of analysing diachronic changes in visual features of title-pages and body text, and of combining that information with linguistic data. Using two linguistic corpora, Early Modern English Medical Texts and Late Modern English Medical Texts, and ImagePlot 1.1, a tool designed for the analysis of visual data, I will first map the paratextual features of the medical books and turn them into a matrix of statistically usable data points (Manovich 2012, 2013) for further processing.

  • 33.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Notes on eighteenth-century dictionary grammars2013In: Transactions of the Philological Society (Print), ISSN 0079-1636, E-ISSN 1467-968X, Vol. 111, no 2, p. 179-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the volume of new dictionaries and grammars surged during the eighteenth century, one of the natural by-products was the introduction of brief grammars as part of the preliminaries of dictionaries. This paper looks at what these grammars were like, what purposes they served, who wrote them and how much copying was involved in their production. The argument is made that dictionary grammars were often included for the added value they brought to the books as products, and not for the purpose of providing readers with thorough grammatical knowledge.

  • 34.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Orthography as Social Action. Scripts, Spelling, Identity and Power (Language and Social Processes 3), edited by Alexandra Jaffe, Jannis Androutsopoulos, Mark Sebba & Sally Johnson: De Gruyter Mouton, Berlin, 2012, ISBN: 978-1-61451-103-8, vi, 396 pp.2015In: Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics, ISSN 2199-2908, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 131-134Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Printing houses as communities of practice: Orthography in early modern medical books2013In: Communities of Practice in the History of English / [ed] Joanna Kopazcyk, Andreas H. Jucker, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 151-176Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Quantifying Contrasts: A Method of Computational Analysis of Visual Features on the Early Printed Page2017In: Verbal and Visual Communication in Early English Texts / [ed] Matti Peikola, Aleksi Mäkilähde, Mari-Liisa Varila, Hanna Salmi, Janne Skaffari, Turnhout: Brepols, 2017, p. 95-112Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    "Strong Churlish Purging Pills": Multi-adjectival Premodification in Early Modern Medical Writing in English2014In: Diachronic Corpus Pragmatics / [ed] Irma Taavitsainen, Andreas H. Jucker, Jukka Tuominen, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 157-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article looks at the frequency and use of sequences of two or more attributive adjectives in early modern medical writing in English. Taking as a starting point the observation that long sequences of premodifiers are one of the many linguistic features that add complexity to present-day academic writing, I examine the situation diachronically and pragmatically during the period when the scholastic style of thought gave way to empiricism. The study will argue that while a modest increase in multi-adjectival premodifiers can be observed over the timeline, the observation can be largely attributed to pragmatic contexts which arose from the practice of early modern medicine and which, by and large, cannot be considered a predictor of present-day scientific style.

  • 38.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Surgical and anatomical texts2019In: Late Modern English Medical Texts: Writing medicine in the eighteenth century / [ed] Irma Taavitsainen, Turo Hiltunen, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2019, p. 299-306Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    “Weak Shrube or Underwood”: The unlikely medical glossator John Woodall and his glossary2018In: Historical Dictionaries in their Paratextual Context / [ed] McConchie Roderick, Jukka Tyrkkö, Berlin & Boston: Mouton de Gruyter, 2018, p. 261-284Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The barber-surgeon John Woodall, best remembered as the first surgeon general of the East India Company, lived a rich and varied life that saw him adventuring abroad several times, building a successful medical practice in London and investing overseas. His guide book for young sea surgeons, A surgions mate (1617), was the first book of its kind and it and its subsequent editions remained in use for more than half a century. The book included an influential three-part medical glossary, which borrowed from earlier lexicons but also introduced new headwords and definitions that were picked up by later medical lexicographers. This article recounts the history of Woodall’s life and books, and illustrates how the paratextual features of his publications reflected his growing professional stature.

  • 40.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kilpiö, Matti
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Nevalainen, Terttu
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Rissanen, Matti
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    General introduction2012In: Outposts of Historical Linguistics: From the Helsinki Corpus to a Proliferation of Resources / [ed] Tyrkkö Jukka, Matti Kilpiö, Terttu Nevalainen, Matti Rissanen, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kilpiö, MattiUniversity of Helsinki, Finland.Nevalainen, TerttuUniversity of Helsinki, Finland.Rissanen, MattiUniversity of Helsinki, Finland.
    Outposts of Historical Corpus Linguistics: From the Helsinki Corpus to a Proliferation of Resources2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Kopaczyk, Joanna
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Present applications and future directions of pattern-driven approaches in corpus linguistics2018In: Applications of Pattern-driven Methods in Corpus Linguistics / [ed] Joanna Kopaczyk, Jukka Tyrkkö, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. -12Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    et al.
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Leppänen, SirpaUniversity of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Texts and Discourses of New Media2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Limatius, Hanna
    “‘When did I do dangerous driving then?’: Structures and functions of Formula One race radio messages”.2019In: Corpus Approaches to the Language of Sports: Texts, Media, Modalities / [ed] Marcus Callies, Magnus Levin, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2019, p. 111-138Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    et al.
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Marttila, Ville
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Suhr, Carla
    University of Turku, Finland.
    The Culpeper Project: Digital editing of title-pages2013In: Principles and Practices for the Digital Editing and Annotation of Diachronic Data / [ed] Meurman-Solin Anneli, Jukka Tyrkkö, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a few notable exceptions, traditional corpus linguistic methods have focused on linguistic rather than peritextual features, while the enterprise of digital editing has paid more attention to the latter. Over the last decade, the rising prominence of the field of digital humanities has served to bring together these two disciplines by means of common annotation schemata and, more crucially still, has fostered a renewed sense that a comprehensive understanding of the primary source is useful to both linguists and archivists. Today, by means of careful digital editing, many contextual and co-textual features of the artefact can be recorded in a searchable and quantifiable format along with the text itself.

    This article presents a TEI XML-based system of peritextual annotation developed by the authors as part of the Gatekeepers of Knowledge project. In addition to discussing the annotation model in some detail, we present some of the first findings of a pilot study on the title-pages of books by the seventeenth-century medical author Nicholas Culpeper. The pilot project will demonstrate the usefulness of the system of annotation and the preliminary findings will support the observation made in earlier scholarship that Culpeper’s main publishers can be effectively divided into two competing branches.

  • 46.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Nurmi, Arja
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Analysing multilingual practices in Late Modern English: Parameter selection and recursive partitioning in focus2017In: Exploring Recent Diachrony: Corpus Studies of Lexicogrammar and Language Practices in Late Modern English / [ed] Sebastian Hoffmann, Andrea Sand, Sabine Arndt-Lappe, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last ten years, historical linguists have paid increasing attention to multilingualism and multilingual practices, defined as the alternating use of resources from two or more languages by a writer within a single text. Most studies in this emerging field have been carried out using relatively small datasets, such as individual genres or texts written by a single person, which allow only limited opportunities for the discovery of broader tendencies. Furthermore, previous studies have typically examined multilingual practices in light of individual factors without attempting to identify significant predictors in a multifactorial setting. With the 34-million-word multigenre Corpus of Late Modern English Texts 3.0 as our primary data we explore the sociolinguistic and textual factors that predicted the use of foreign languages in English texts during the Late Modern period. To identify the most significant variables, we use recursive partitioning, a statistical method in which significance-based splitting is carried out in a stepwise fashion on predictor variables. The decision trees produced by recursive partitioning are easily interpreted and they allow rule-based predictions about the likely frequency of the linguistic feature being investigated.

  • 47.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Nurmi, Arja
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Tuominen, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Semi-automatic discovery of code-switching from English historical corpora: Methods and challenges2017In: Challenging the myth of monolingual corpora / [ed] Nurmi Arja, Tanja Rütten, Päivi Pahta, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2017, p. 172-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Taavitsainen, Irma
    Laajojen tekstimassojen luokitteluperusteista2012In: Genreanalyysi: tekstilajitutkimuksen käsikirja / [ed] Heikkinen Vesa, Eero Voutilainen, Petri Lauerma, Ulla Tiililä, Mikko Lounela, Helsinki: Gaudeamus, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
1 - 48 of 48
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