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  • 1.
    Hamidi, Ali
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för informatik (IK).
    A Systems Thinking Approach to Computational Thinking in Education2023Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's rapidly changing world, the acquisition of essential skills is crucial for the success of young individuals. Among these skills, computational thinking (CT) plays a vital role in problem-solving and adapting to the complex and evolving demands of the 21st century. However, there is a need to explore the integration of other thinking skills alongside CT, as well as their application in educational settings.

    This study aims to address the gap in knowledge regarding the application of systems thinking to the development of CT and its integration into education. The primary objective is to explore the relationship between systems thinking and CT, providing a contextual framework for existing studies that focus on systems thinking in relation to CT. Additionally, the study explores how systems thinking can be applied to CT within educational contexts. By incorporating a systems thinking approach, a broader examination of the various factors involved in CT, including the technological landscape, individual skills and knowledge, and the social and cultural context, can be achieved.

    The thesis comprises three papers that describe research efforts conducted over three years. These projects focused on CT development using educational robotics and maker technologies, aiming to build and enhance CT skills among individuals of different ages and perspectives. The findings of the research efforts are synthesized and consolidated using the systemic FMA model, a comprehensive model that interconnects the frameworks of ideas, methodology, and the area of interest. This model conceptualizes CT practices as a system encompassing emergent properties, multiple perspectives, design interventions, and social and ethical considerations. The adopted FMA model enables methodological pluralism and facilitates critical examination of the boundaries of CT development, leading to conceptual and practical changes.

    The research contributes to the field of CT by providing insights into its theoretical foundations and practical applications, informing and guiding educational practices that are associated with CT. 

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  • 2.
    Adelsjö, Igor
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Medication communication with older adults experiencing chronic illness and polypharmacy2023Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Populations in many high-income countries are ageing, with an ever-increasing proportion of the population aged 65 years or older. Despite increasingly better health in older people, susceptibility to chronic illness increase with age. As life expectancy increases, the length of time people can live with chronic illness increases correspondingly, mainly due to improved medication treatments. Decreased number of hospital beds per capita and length of stay in hospital has gained primary care an increasing role in the healthcare system, with higher demands on patients and their knowledge and abilities to manage medications and self-management.

    Aim: The overarching aim of this thesis was to explore how medication regimens are communicated in primary care consultations and in written discharge letters.

    Methods: In Study I, passive participant observations of primary care consultations were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using content analysis. Study II had a convergent mixed methods design. An assessment matrix, constructed based on previous research, was used to assess and quantify discharge letter content. The quantified discharge letter content, questionnaires and register data were used to calculate correlations between discharge letter content and readmission rate as well as self-rated quality of care transition. Finally, associations between discharge letter content and time to readmission were calculated both univariable and multivariable. In addition to discharge letter content, several other potential independent variables were included in the multivariable analysis.

    Results: Both studies show that physicians were prone to give information about medications and blood-samples or other examinations performed in advance to the consultation (Study I) or during the hospital admission (Study II). The physicians were, however, less prone to inform patients about self-management and lifestyle changes, symptoms to be aware of, and what to do in case they would appear. Communication was occasionally hindered by misunderstandings, e.g., when vague expressions or words with ambiguous meaning was used. Ambiguities e.g., arose due to dialectal disparity. Although physicians mainly communicated in plain language with patients, medication names imposed a significant problem for patients and in communication about medications. Discharge letter content was not associated to readmissions, the only significant predictor variables for time to readmission were previous admission the past 180 days and birth outside the Nordic countries. Discharge letters with more content were, on the other hand, correlated to worse self-estimated quality of care transition from hospital to home (Study II).

    Conclusions: Physicians informed patients about tests and examinations performed in the past time, and comprehensive information was provided about medications, both during consultations and in discharge letters. However, information about symptoms to be aware of and measures to take in case they would appear was scarce in consultations and discharge letters. In conversations where lifestyle changes were raised, the topic was quickly dropped without recommendations or offering support if the patient showed unconcern. Lifestyle changes in relation to chronic illness and medications were rarely discussed. Improved lifestyle as a means of reducing the need for medications was not discussed or informed about in discharge letters. Discharge letter content did not have any impact on readmissions.

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  • 3.
    Mbiyana, Keegan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för maskinteknik (MT).
    On the establishment of a data-driven approach to gravel road maintenance2023Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Gravel roads are essential for economic development as they facilitate the movement of people, transportation of goods and services, and promote cultural and social development. They typically connect sparsely populated rural areas to urban centres, providing essential access for residents and entrepreneurs. Maintaining these roads to an acceptable level of service is crucial for the efficient and safe transportation of goods and services. However, substantial maintenance investmentis required, yet resources are limited. Gravel roads are prone to dust, potholes, corrugations, rutting and loose gravel. They deteriorate faster than paved roads, and their failure development is affected by traffic action and physical, geometric and climatic factors. Thus, more condition monitoring and proper road condition assessment are necessary for dynamic maintenance planning to reach efficiency and effectiveness using objective, data-driven condition assessment methods to ensure all-year-round access.

    However, objective data-driven methods (DDMs) are not frequently used for gravel road condition assessment, and where they have been applied, the practical implementation is limited. Instead, visual windshield assessment and manual methods are predominant. Visual assessments are unreliable and susceptible to human judgement errors, while manual methods are time-consuming and labour-intensive. Maintenance activities are predetermined despite dynamic maintenance needs, and the planning is based on historical failure data rather than the actual road condition. This thesis establishes a data-driven approach to gravel road maintenance describing the systematic assessment of the gravel road condition and collection of the condition data to ensure efficient and effective maintenance planning. This thesis uses a design research methodology based on a literature review, concept development, interview study and field experiments.

    A holistic approach is proposed for data-driven maintenance of gravel roads encompassing objective condition data collection, processing, analysing, and interpreting the findings for obtaining reliable information concerning the condition to gravel road decision support by utilising the opportunities presented by technological advancements, particularly sensor technology. Then, decision-making is primarily influenced by the objectively collected gravel road condition data rather than the evaluator’s perception or experience. The successful implementation of a data-driven approach depends on the quality of the collected data; therefore, data relevance and quality are emphasised in this thesis. The lack of data quality and relevance hinders effective data utilisation, leading to less precisionin decision-making and ineffective decisions.

    Furthermore, the thesis proposes a participatory data-driven approach for unpaved road condition monitoring, allowing road users to be part of the maintenance process and providing an efficient and effective alternative for collecting road condition data and accomplishing broad coverage at minimum cost. A top-down iiapproach for data-driven gravel road condition classification is proposed to achieve an objective assessment to address the lack of readily available quality and relevant condition data. The established data-driven approach to gravel road maintenance is evaluated and verified with field experiments on three gravel roads in Växjö municipality, Southern Sweden. The research findings indicate that properly implementing a data-driven approach to gravel road maintenance would ensure efficient and effective condition assessment and classification, which are a basis for a maintenance management system of gravel roads and enable road maintainers and authorities to achieve cost-effective decision-making. 

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  • 4.
    Olausson, Katarina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik och lärande (PEL).
    Skolsvårigheter för ungdomar med alkohol och narkotikaproblem: – En studie om (social)exkludering i skolan2023Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to highlight young people with alcohol and drug problems and their experiences of social and pedagogical exclusion. The data collected consist of interviews, in turn obtained from Ungdok. Ungdok is a documentation system used by the Social Services. It aims at documenting young people’s own accounts of their alcohol and drug use and how it affects different aspects of their lives. The study’s focus was on how young people with a variety of substance use describe their experiences of exclusion in school settings. Initially the results were analyzed with the help of concepts that are used to identify various aspects of school difficulties, the significance of them, and what the consequences might be for the youngsters. The analysis also focuses on the elements of exclusion that the youngsters ascribe to the school setting, as well as peer relations, and their own family ties.

    A large part of the interviewees, roughly 1/3 of  2169 young people with alcohol and drug problems, state that they have no school related problems, which perhaps could be attributed to a more normalized use of so-called party drugs, and/or cannabis. 2/3 of the interviewees however, state that they have experienced, or are experiencing school related problems. A lot of the young people whose accounts were used in this study state that their drug use was most prevalent in transition periods, even though alcohol use generally increase when adolescents reach adulthood. A finding of this study is that about half of the young people interviewed consider themselves unwanted or as failures. Another finding is that approximately 1/5 of the youngsters’ accounts of school related difficulties relate to ADHD or other neuropsychiatric difficulties or diagnoses. Physical illness is in a few cases also given as a reason for school related difficulties. Other problematic areas described by the young people relate to difficulties with concentration, and those are often described in terms of comorbidities or that the individual devalues him or herself.

    The results of the study show that school related social exclusion appear on both a structural, interpersonal, as well as an individual level. Two distinct approaches also become apparent in the results. The first approach emphasizes that exclusion is the result of the school’s, or the educational institution’s failure to fully embrace inclusive practices. The second approach visible in the results takes a more individualistic view on exclusion, often resulting in the young person putting blame on him or herself for being the very reason they’re experiencing social, and/or pedagogical exclusion.

    The study’s results raise questions as to what extent an individual child/young person can be expected to take responsibility for the parental level of education and the potential disadvantage this brings the young person. Other questions of interest that may be raised in relation to the results of this study is to what extent a child or young person can be expected to take responsibility for the potentially negative consequences of an unequal and/or segregated school system. Is it the education system, the school, or the pupils that ought to take the responsibility and action to guarantee the educational support that all pupils have the right to?

    This study has contributed to the body of knowledge by providing knowledge of how young people with alcohol and drug problems describe their own experiences of school related difficulties, and to what extent these experiences in various degrees have contributed to a sense of social and pedagogical exclusion in school settings.

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  • 5.
    Larsson, Carl
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Timber-concrete hybrid structural systems: Examples, long and short-term dynamic monitoring, and numerical analysis2023Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Timber-concrete hybrid buildings are an innovative solution to increase the amount of timber materials in modern buildings. Due to its lower impact on the environment than materials like steel and concrete, the demand for timber products is rising as the construction industry aims to decrease its environmental footprint.Timber is naturally grown, and certain characteristics must be considered when used in buildings, such as strength and stiffness properties depending on variables like fiber direction and moisture content. In addition, timber is a lightweight material, which influences dynamic performance of timber elements and structures.To fulfill the requirements of a modern building, timber elements are sometimes combined with concrete elements, introducing timber-concrete hybrid buildings.This study aims to expand the use of timber-concrete hybrid buildings within the construction industry. The objective is to present different types of timber-concrete hybrid buildings and evaluate their structural performance to improve the level of knowledge for structural designers for the safe and robust design of such buildings. Typically, four different types of timber-concrete hybrid structures are found in building projects in Sweden. These types of building projects usually involve additional designers than regular projects due to a lack of knowledge in timber design. Additionally, different designers uses different statical models for their designs, even within the same building project. A mobile measurement system was developed to perform in-situ dynamic measurements. The system was used in a nine-story timber-concrete hybrid building during construction to investigate the dynamic properties and validate structural design models. A parameter study highlights different design parameters that have a large influence on these models. These parameters include the inplane shear stiffness of CLT wall elements, the foundation properties, as well as non-load-bearing internal walls. In addition, the long-term dynamic response of a four-story office timber concretehybrid building is presented. Over a three-years evaluation period, the results show a clear seasonal variation of the natural frequencies which correlates well with the moisture content within a CLT slab element. The results show that environmental effects are to be considered when comparing with finite  . A predictive model is presented that can be implemented in a structural health monitoring system for damage detection so that these environmental effect scan be filtered out.

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