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  • 1.
    Berggren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Larsson, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Testing for local adaptation to spawning habitat in sympatric subpopulations of northern pike by reciprocal translocation of embryos2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 5, artikkel-id e0154488Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested for local adaption in early life-history traits by performing a reciprocal translocation experiment with approximately 2500 embryos of pike (Esox lucius) divided in paired split-family batches. The experiment indicated local adaptation in one of the two subpopulations manifested as enhanced hatching success of eggs in the native habitat, both when compared to siblings transferred to a non-native habitat, and when compared to immigrant genotypes from the other subpopulation. Gene-by-environment effects on viability of eggs and larvae were evident in both subpopulations, showing that there existed genetic variation allowing for evolutionary responses to divergent selection, and indicating a capacity for plastic responses to environmental change. Next, we tested for differences in female life-history traits. Results uncovered that females from one population invested more resources into reproduction and also produced more (but smaller) eggs in relation to their body size compared to females from the other population. We suggest that these females have adjusted their reproductive strategies as a counter-adaptation because a high amount of sedimentation on the eggs in that subpopulations spawning habitat might benefit smaller eggs. Collectively, our findings point to adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations that are physically separated only for a short period during reproduction and early development – which is rare. These results illustrate how combinations of translocation experiments and field studies of life-history traits might infer about local adaptation and evolutionary divergence among populations. Local adaptations in subdivided populations are important to consider in management and conservation of biodiversity, because they may otherwise be negatively affected by harvesting, supplementation, and reintroduction efforts targeted at endangered populations.

  • 2.
    Berggren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Tinnert, Jon
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Spatial sorting may explain evolutionary dynamics of wing polymorphism in pygmy grasshoppers.2012Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 25, nr 10, s. 2126-2138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wing polymorphism in insects provides a good model system for investigating evolutionary dynamics and population divergence in dispersal-enhancing traits. This study investigates the contribution of divergent selection, trade-offs, behaviour and spatial sorting to the evolutionary dynamics of wing polymorphism in the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata (Tetrigidae: Orthoptera). We use data for > 2800 wild-caught individuals from 13 populations and demonstrate that the incidence of the long-winged (macropterous) morph is higher and changes faster between years in disturbed habitats characterized by succession than in stable habitats. Common garden and mother-offspring resemblance studies indicate that variation among populations and families is genetically determined and not influenced to any important degree by developmental plasticity in response to maternal condition, rearing density or individual growth rate. Performance trials show that only the macropterous morph is capable of flight and that propensity to fly differs according to environment. Markrecapture data reveal no difference in the distance moved between free-ranging long- and short-winged individuals. There is no consistent difference across populations and years in number of hatchlings produced by long- and shorter-winged females. Our findings suggest that the variable frequency of the long-winged morph among and within pygmy grasshopper populations may reflect evolutionary modifications driven by spatial sorting due to phenotype- and habitat typedependent emigration and immigration.

  • 3.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Can spatial sorting associated with spawning migration explain evolution of body size and vertebral number in Anguilla eels?2017Inngår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 751-761Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial sorting is a process that can contribute to microevolutionary change by assemblingphenotypes through space, owing to nonrandom dispersal. Here we first buildupon and develop the “neutral” version of the spatial sorting hypothesis by arguingthat in systems that are not characterized by repeated range expansions, the evolutionaryeffects of variation in dispersal capacity and assortative mating might not beindependent of but interact with natural selection. In addition to generating assortativemating, variation in dispersal capacity together with spatial and temporal variationin quality of spawning area is likely to influence both reproductive success and survivalof spawning migrating individuals, and this will contribute to the evolution of dispersal-enhancingtraits. Next, we use a comparative approach to examine whether differencesin spawning migration distance among 18 species of freshwater Anguilla eelshave evolved in tandem with two dispersal-favoringtraits. In our analyses, we use informationon spawning migration distance, body length, and vertebral number thatwas obtained from the literature, and a published whole mitochondrial DNA-basedphylogeny. Results from comparative analysis of independent contrasts showed thatmacroevolutionary shifts in body length throughout the phylogeny have been associatedwith concomitant shifts in spawning migration. Shifts in migration distance werenot associated with shifts in number of vertebrae. These findings are consistent withthe hypothesis that spatial sorting has contributed to the evolution of more elongatedbodies in species with longer spawning migration distances, or resulted in evolution oflonger migration distances in species with larger body size. This novel demonstrationis important in that it expands the list of ecological settings and hierarchical levels ofbiological organization for which the spatial sorting hypothesis seems to have predictivepower.

  • 4.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Larsson, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    To what extent can existing research help project climate change impacts on biodiversity in aquatic environments?: A review of methodological approaches2016Inngår i: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, E-ISSN 2077-1312, Vol. 4, nr 4, artikkel-id 75Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is broadly accepted that continued global warming will pose a major threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. But how reliable are current projections regarding consequences of future climate change for biodiversity? To address this issue, we review the methodological approaches in published studies of how life in marine and freshwater environments responds to temperature shifts. We analyze and compare observational field surveys and experiments performed either in the laboratory or under natural conditions in the wild, the type of response variables considered, the number of species investigated, study duration, and the nature and magnitude of experimental temperature manipulations. The observed patterns indicate that, due to limitations of study design, ecological and evolutionary responses of individuals, populations, species, and ecosystems to temperature change were in many cases difficult to establish, and causal mechanism(s) often remained ambiguous. We also discovered that the thermal challenge in experimental studies was 10,000 times more severe than reconstructed estimates of past and projections of future warming of the oceans, and that temperature manipulations also tended to increase in magnitude in more recent studies. These findings raise some concerns regarding the extent to which existing research can increase our understanding of how higher temperatures associated with climate change will affect life in aquatic environments. In view of our review findings, we discuss the trade-off between realism and methodological tractability. We also propose a series of suggestions and directions towards developing a scientific agenda for improving the validity and inference space of future research efforts.

  • 5.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Larsson, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Pike Esox lucius as an emerging model organism for studies in ecology and evolutionary biology: a review.2015Inngår i: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 87, nr 2, s. 472-479Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pikeEsox luciusis a large, long-lived, iteroparous, top- predator fish species with a circumpolardistribution that occupies a broad range of aquatic environments. This study reports on a literaturesearch and demonstrates that the publication rate ofE. luciusresearch increases both in absolute termsand relative to total scientific output, and that the focus of investigation has changed over time frombeing dominated by studies on physiology and disease to being gradually replaced by studies on ecol-ogy and evolution.Esox luciuscan be exploited as a model in future research for identifying causes andconsequences of phenotypic and genetic variation at the levels of individuals, populations and speciesas well as for investigating community processes.

  • 6.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Larsson, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sun-basking fish benefit from body temperatures that are higher than ambient water2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 285, nr 1879, artikkel-id 20180639Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In terrestrial environments, cold-blooded animals can attain higher bodytemperatures by sun basking, and thereby potentially benefit from broaderniches, improved performance and higher fitness. The higher heat capacityand thermal conductivity of water compared with air have been universallyassumed to render heat gain from sun basking impossible for aquaticectotherms, such that their opportunities to behaviourally regulate body temperatureare largely limited to choosing warmer or colder habitats. Here wechallenge this paradigm. Using physical modelswe first showthat submergedobjects exposed to natural sunlight attain temperatures in excess of ambientwater. We next demonstrate that free-ranging carp (Cyprinus carpio) canincrease their body temperature during aquatic sun basking close to thesurface. The temperature excess gained by basking was larger in dark thanin pale individuals, increased with behavioural boldness, and was associatedwith faster growth. Overall, our results establish aquatic sun basking as a novelecologically significant mechanism for thermoregulation in fish. The discoveryof this previously overlooked process has practical implications for aquaculture,offers alternative explanations for behavioural and phenotypicadaptations, will spur future research in fish ecology, and calls for modificationsof models concerning climate change impacts on biodiversity inmarine and freshwater environments.

  • 7.
    Tibblin, Petter
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Larsson, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Causes and consequences of intra-specific variation in vertebral number2016Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 26372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraspecific variation in vertebral number is taxonomically widespread. Much scientific attention hasbeen directed towards understanding patterns of variation in vertebral number among individualsand between populations, particularly across large spatial scales and in structured environments.However, the relative role of genes, plasticity, selection, and drift as drivers of individual variation andpopulation differentiation remains unknown for most systems. Here, we report on patterns, causesand consequences of variation in vertebral number among and within sympatric subpopulations ofpike (Esox lucius). Vertebral number differed among subpopulations, and common garden experimentsindicated that this reflected genetic differences. A QST-FST comparison suggested that populationdifferences represented local adaptations driven by divergent selection. Associations with fitness traitsfurther indicated that vertebral counts were influenced both by stabilizing and directional selectionwithin populations. Overall, our study enhances the understanding of adaptive variation, which iscritical for the maintenance of intraspecific diversity and species conservation.

  • 8.
    Tinnert, Jon
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Population-specific effects of interbreeding and admixture on reproductive decisions and offspring quality2016Inngår i: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 53, nr 1-2, s. 55-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated interbreeding and admixture in Tetrix subulata grasshoppers from two maternal origin populations that differed in life-history and dispersal traits. We compared reproductive output of females that had been experimentally mated with males from the same or from a different population. Interbreeding affected clutch size and number of clutches; in one population females in the admixed treatment produced smaller clutches, in the other population females in the admixed treatment produced more clutches. Behavioral observations indicated that individuals can discriminate scents emitted by individuals from different populations; such that females might adjust reproductive allocation depending on male origin. However, hatchability of eggs and survival of nymphs were not affected by the mating treatment. Admixture influenced the production of viable offspring in the F2 generation, but the effect was opposite in the two populations of maternal origin. Results suggested that responses to interbreeding and admixture can differ between populations within a species.

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