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  • 1.
    Choi, Andy S.
    et al.
    National Institute of Ecology, South Korea;University of Queensland, Australia.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). University of Queensland, Australia.
    Ritchie, Brent W.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Flying with climate liability?: economic valuation of voluntary carbon offsets using forced choices2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 62, s. 225-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine how key aspects of voluntary climate action influence economic values of aviation carbon offsets using an Australian case study, where voluntary carbon offset programs for the aviation sector were active under a carbon tax between July 01, 2012 and July 17, 2014. An online survey was administered during the period using choice experiments. This rare and short-lived Australian experience is useful to gain insights into how individuals respond to the new public policy in terms of the perceived economic value of voluntary offsets for air travel. According to the estimation results, supporters of the mandatory tax policy held a welfare value of voluntary carbon offsets for their domestic flights that is three times larger than non-supporters (i.e., $AU27.83 vs. $AU9.40). It is $AU12.27 on average per ton of carbon offsets per person for domestic flights and $AU0.92 for international long-haul flights. The findings endorse that individuals seem to attach personal responsibility for carbon emissions (i.e. climate liability or carbon conscience) to frequent domestic flights, but not so much to intercontinental flights. Furthermore, reported flight frequencies by respondents did not place any significant impact on economic values of voluntary carbon offsets in both domestic and international frameworks. A coupled approach between forced choices and certainty responses was adapted, where no-choice options were retrieved, potentially improving choice experiments. Results suggest that airlines should consider simplifying their carbon offset programs to fixed levels (e.g. £3, £10, and £20 as in the case of British Airways), regardless of geographical boundaries, while governments should promote both mandatory and voluntary climate measures in tandem.

  • 2.
    Cohen, Scott A.
    et al.
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Hanna, Paul
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Lund University.
    The dark side of business travel: a media comments analysis2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 61, nr part B, s. 406-419Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The publication of 'A darker side of hypermobility' (Cohen and Gössling, 2015), which reviewed the personal and social consequences of frequent travel, led to considerable media coverage and sparking of the public imagination, particularly with regards to the impacts of business travel. It featured in more than 85 news outlets across 17 countries, engendering over 150,000 social media shares and 433 media comments from readers, with the latter a source of insight into how the public reacts online when faced with an overview of the negative sides of frequent business travel. The present paper is theoretically framed by the role of discourse in social change and utilises discursive analysis as a method to evaluate this body of media comments. Our analysis finds two key identities are performed through public responses to the explicit health and social warnings concerned with frequent business travel: the 'flourishing hypermobile' and the 'floundering hypermobile'. The former either deny the health implications of frequent business travel, or present strategies to actively overcome them, while the latter seek solace in the public dissemination of the health warnings: they highlight their passivity in the construction of their identity as hypermobile and its associated health implications. The findings reveal a segment of business travellers who wish to reduce travel, but perceive this as beyond their locus of control. Business travel reductions are thus unlikely to happen through the agency of individual travellers, but rather by changes in the structural factors that influence human resource and corporate travel management policies. 

  • 3.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Lund University, Sweden;Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Integrating e-scooters in urban transportation: Problems, policies, and the prospect of system change2020Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 79, s. 1-12, artikkel-id 102230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the world, cities seek to ease transport-related problems of congestion, air pollution, noise, and traffic injuries. Urban transport planners have welcomed e-scooters as an alternative to motorized individual transport, specifically the car. The public has met e-scooters with both enthusiasm and scepticism, as cities have struggled with unforeseen outcomes such as forms of irresponsible riding, cluttering, or vandalism. This paper investigates the challenges associated with the introduction of e-scooters in ten major cities, based on a content analysis of local media reports. News items (n = 173) were identified through Internet searches and include print media, TV and radio websites. Concerns prior to and after the introduction of e-scooters are assessed, analysed, and interpreted in the context of new policies for this transport mode. Results suggest that many cities have moved through trial and error stages in their search for appropriate legislation. The paper concludes that it is prudent for urban planners to introduce policies regarding maximum speeds, mandatory use of bicycle infrastructure, and dedicated parking, as well as to limit the number of licensed operators. Where negative public opinion can be averted, e-scooters stand a chance to become a disruptive niche innovation with the potential to transform urban transport systems.

  • 4.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Lund University;Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Cohen, Scott
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Higham, James
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Peeters, Paul
    Breda University, The Netherlands.
    Eijgelaar, Eke
    Breda University, The Netherlands.
    Desirable transport futures2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 61, nr Part: B, s. 301-309Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This overview article for the special issue on 'Desirable Transport Futures' sets out with a brief introduction of the current development of the global transport system, suggesting that it remains unclear whether transport systems are heading towards desirable change. This desirability is defined as a reduction in the system's negative externalities, including accidents, congestion, pollutants and/or noise, while retaining its functionality. There is evidence that transport externalities continue to grow with an increasingly mobile and growing global population. Against this background, the article discusses what may constitute more desirable transport futures, as well as the barriers that have to be overcome to move towards such futures. The article concludes that transport governance will be essential to far-reaching change, and that greater focus has to be placed on individual and societal socio-psychological perspectives shaping mobility consumption. Nine papers contained in this special issue provide in-depth analyses of transport systems, as well as insight into how these may be changed in more systemic ways. A concluding research agenda is offered that outlines a number of innovative approaches researchers may pursue as part of further efforts to engender desirable transport futures.

  • 5.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Ram, Yael
    Ashkelon Acad Coll, Israel.
    Walk score (R) and its potential contribution to the study of active transport and walkability: A critical and systematic review2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 61, s. 310-324Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Walk Score (R) index has become increasingly applied in studies of walking and walkability. The index assesses the "walking potential" of a place through a combination of three elements: the shortest distance to a group of preselected destinations, the block length, and the intersection density around the origin. The Index links a gravity-based measure (distance accessibility), with topological accessibility (street connectivity) measured by two complementary indicators that act as penalties in the final score (R) (linearly expanded in the range 0-100). A systematic review of Scopus (R) and Web of Science was conducted with 42 journal articles eventually being evaluated. Research was primarily undertaken in North American urban geographies. Analysis of walk ability using Walk Score (R) is inconsistent. Twenty-nine papers do not exclusively relying on Walk Score (R) as a single measurement of walkability and add further estimates to better capture the multiple dimensions of walkability. In 33 studies the Walk Score (R) was used as an independent variable, and only once as a mediating-moderating variable. In eight papers (18%) the Walk Score (R) was a part of a bivariate correlation model. On no occasion was it used as a dependent variable. Results tend to only partly support the validity of Walk Score (R). The paper concludes that the Index is best understood as a surrogate measure of the density of the built environment of a specific neighborhood that indicates utilitarian walking potential. Implications for, and potential areas of, future research are discussed.

  • 6.
    Hanna, Paul
    et al.
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Kantenbacher, Joe
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Cohen, Scott
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Role model advocacy for sustainable transport2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 61, nr Part: B, s. 373-382Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual aspirations of associating with role models are routinely harnessed by marketers, who for instance, use celebrity endorsement in selling brands and products. It appears there has been no research to date, however, on the potential for celebrity activism, or role model advocacy beyond celebrities, such as from politicians, to form effective interventions for encouraging sustainable transport behavior. This is despite studies suggesting that celebrity endorsement is a potential gateway for transforming public opinion on carbon intensive transport modes. The present paper consequently offers a critical review of the literature on role model advocacy and celebrity activism, and how these concepts have been harnessed to address environmental issues, in order to conceptually assess the potential for extending these intervention techniques to the context of sustainable transport. The scope of the paper includes the potential that high profile politicians/celebrities might play as role models in exercising referent power to influence social norms surrounding sustainable transport, given that the success of social marketing interventions are closely tied to the need for changes in the policy landscape. Key dimensions of role model endorsement in transport are identified and applied to a series of examples of how celebrity and political role models have influenced transport cultures. In addition to offering an original application of a theoretical framework to a new context, in order to help address the increasingly important societal issue of transport's growing contribution to climate change, the paper discusses the challenges associated with the neoliberal framing of this approach.

  • 7.
    Langer, Sarka
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden;Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Sjöfartshögskolan (SJÖ). IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Bo
    Lund University, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moldanová, Jana
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Fridén, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Impacts of fuel quality on indoor environment onboard a ship: From policy to practice2020Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 83, artikkel-id 102352Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental considerations, concerning the negative impacts of ship exhaust gases and particles on ambient air quality, are behind the requirements of cleaner marine fuels currently applied in designated emission control areas (ECAs).

    We investigated the impact of a ship operating on two types of fuel on the indoor air quality onboard. Gaseous and particulate air pollutants were measured in the engine room and the accommodation sections onboard an icebreaker operating first on Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO, 1%-S), and later Marine Diesel Oil (MDO, 0.1%-S). Statistically significant decrease of SO2, NOx, PM2.5 and particle number concentration were observed when the ship was operating on MDO. Due to the higher content of alkylated PAHs in MDO compared to HFO, the concentration of PAHs increased during operation on MDO. The particulate PAHs classified as carcinogens, were similar to, or lower, in the MDO campaign. Chemical analysis of PM2.5 revealed that the particles consisted mainly of organic carbon and sulfate, although the fraction of metals was quite large in particles from the engine room. Principal Component Analysis of all measured parameters showed a clear difference between HFO and MDO fuel on the indoor environmental quality onboard the ship.

    This empirical study poses a first example on how environmental policy-making impacts not only the primary target at a global level, but also brings unexpected localized benefits at workplace level. The study emphasizes the need of further investigations on the impact of new marine fuels and technologies on the indoor air environments on board.

  • 8.
    Peeters, Paul
    et al.
    University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands.
    Higham, James
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Kutzner, Diana
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Cohen, Scott
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Are technology myths stalling aviation climate policy?2016Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 44, s. 30-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions from aviation will continue to increase in the future, in contradiction of global climate policy objectives. Yet, airlines and airline organisations suggest that aviation will become climatically sustainable. This paper investigates this paradox by reviewing fuel efficiency gains since the 1960s in comparison to aviation growth, and by linking these results to technology discourses, based on a two-tiered approach tracing technology focused discourses over 20 years (1994-2013). Findings indicate that a wide range of solutions to growing emissions from aviation have been presented by industry, hyped in global media, and subsequently vanished to be replaced by new technology discourses. Redundant discourses often linger in the public domain, where they continue to be associated with industry aspirations of 'sustainable aviation' and 'zero-emission flight'. The paper highlights and discusses a number of technology discourses that constitute 'technology myths', and the role these 'myths' may be playing in the enduring but flawed promise of sustainable aviation. We conclude that technology myths require policy-makers to interpret and take into account technical uncertainty, which may result in inaction that continues to delay much needed progress in climate policy for aviation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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