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  • 1.
    Ambrosius, Robin
    et al.
    Dezember IT GmbH, Germany.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Interviews Aided with Machine Learning2018Inngår i: Perspectives in Business Informatics Research. BIR 2018: 17th International Conference, BIR 2018, Stockholm, Sweden, September 24-26, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Zdravkovic J., Grabis J., Nurcan S., Stirna J., Springer, 2018, Vol. 330, s. 202-216Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have designed and implemented a Computer Aided Personal Interview (CAPI) system that learns from expert interviews and can support less experienced interviewers by for example suggesting questions to ask or skip. We were particularly interested to streamline the due diligence process when estimating the value for software startups. For our design we evaluated some machine learning algorithms and their trade-offs, and in a small case study we evaluates their implementation and performance. We find that while there is room for improvement, the system can learn and recommend questions. The CAPI system can in principle be applied to any domain in which long interview sessions should be shortened without sacrificing the quality of the assessment.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jessica
    et al.
    Gothenburg Univ, Sweden.
    Larsson, Sofia
    Gothenburg Univ, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Gothenburg Univ, Sweden.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV). Linnaeus Univ, Vaxjo, Sweden..
    A Study of Demand-Driven Documentation in Two Open Source Projects2015Inngår i: 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 2015, s. 5271-5279Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how demand-driven documentation is used by open source projects. Our study relies on questions and answers (i.e., demand-driven documentation) posted to Stack Overflow and focuses on two projects: Apache POI and Fennec (Firefox for Android). We find that the demand-driven documentation provided by respective community is of good quality and contributions are made within an acceptable amount of time. We conclude that demand-driven documentation can be suitable as a primary information source if other resources accompany it, e.g., websites. However, the suitability is closely related to size and activity of the project's community. We also investigate whether the type of project (e.g., API, application, product, etc.) matters, and find that given the nature of a forum, projects where the intended users are developers have larger and more active communities and are thus better suited for demand-driven documentation.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Jessica
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Larsson, Sofia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Quality of Demand-Driven Documentation2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 37th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia / [ed] Ahmad Ghazawneh, Jacob Nørbjerg and Jan Pries-Heje, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this case study we investigate how demand-driven documentation can be used in open source projects. The study relied on questions and answers (demand-driven documenta- tion) posted on Stack Overflow and studied two open source projects, Apache POI and Firefox for Android, in depth. We found that the demand driven documentation provided by the respec- tive community is in general of good quality and contributed within an acceptable amount of time. We conclude that demand driven documentation can be suitable as a primary information source if other resources accompany it. However, the suitability is closely related to the size and activity of the project’s community. 

  • 4.
    Andersson, Rikard
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Mining Relations from Git Commit Messages: an Experience Report2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the Fifth Swedish Language Technology Conference, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Bell, Tim
    et al.
    Departement of Computer Science and Software Engineering.
    Cockburn, Andy
    Departement of Computer Science and Software Engineering.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen. Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen. Informatik.
    Green, Richard
    Departement of Computer Science and Software Engineering.
    Podcasts as a supplement in tertiary education:: an experiment with two computer science courses2007Inngår i: Mobil Learning Technologies and Applications (MoLTA) 2007, Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand , 2007, s. 70-77Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current generation of undergraduate students are enthusiastic adopters of mobile technologies, and some of these technologies offers significant opportunities for broadening the times, places and manner that students study and learn. One of these is podcasting, which greatly eases distribution of content to portable devices, giving the students opportunity for anytime, anywhere learning. However, most educational podcasts do not take advantage of the potential of podcasting. In this paper we discuss the issues surrounding the use of podcasting for higher education. We report our experiences using podcasts to supplement two undergraduate Computer Science courses, and we provide tips for others considering the use of podcasts in education.

  • 6.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Olsson, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    A Study of the Effect of Data Normalization on Software and Information Quality Assessment2013Inngår i: Software Engineering Conference (APSEC, 2013 20th Asia-Pacific), IEEE Press, 2013, s. 55-60Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Indirect metrics in quality models define weighted integrations of direct metrics to provide higher-level quality indicators. This paper presents a case study that investigates to what degree quality models depend on statistical assumptions about the distribution of direct metrics values when these are integrated and aggregated. We vary the normalization used by the quality assessment efforts of three companies, while keeping quality models, metrics, metrics implementation and, hence, metrics values constant. We find that normalization has a considerable impact on the ranking of an artifact (such as a class). We also investigate how normalization affects the quality trend and find that normalizations have a considerable effect on quality trends. Based on these findings, we find it questionable to continue to aggregate different metrics in a quality model as we do today.

  • 7.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Probabilistic Quality Models to Improve Communication and Actionability2015Inngår i: 2015 30th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering Workshop (ASEW), IEEE: IEEE Press, 2015, s. 1-4Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We need to aggregate metric values to make quality assessment actionable. However, due to properties of metric values, i.e., unknown distributions and different measurement scales, they are difficult to aggregate. We present and evaluate a method to aggregate metric values based on observed numerical distributions that are converted into cumulative density functions. We use these to determine the probability of each metric and file, and aggregate these. Our limited study suggests that the method improves correctness, communication, and the ability to take action. However, more evaluation is required.

  • 8.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Mining job ads to find what skills are sought after from an employers' perspective on IT graduates2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2014 conference on Innovation & technology in computer science education, ACM Publications, 2014, s. 354-354Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We mine job ads to discover what skills are required from an employers' perspective. Some obvious trends appear, such as skills related to web and mobile technology. We aim to uncover more detailed information as the study continues to allow course content to better match the expressed needs.

  • 9.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    A Software Infrastructure For Information Quality Assessment2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Quality, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information quality assessment of technical documentation is nowadays an integral part of quality management of products and services. These are usually assessed using questionnaires, checklists, and reviews and consequently work that is cumbersome, costly and prone to errors. Acknowledging the fact that only humans can assess certain quality aspects, we suggest complementing these with automatic quality assessment using a software infrastructure that (i) reads information from documentations, (ii) performs analyses on this information, and (iii) visualizes the results to help stakeholders understand quality issues. We introduce the software infrastructure’s architecture and implementation, its adaptation to different formats of documentations and types of analyses, along with a number of real world cases exemplifying feasibility and benefit of our approach. Altogether, our approach contributes to more efficient and automatic information quality assessments. 

  • 10.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    The Design and Implementation of a Software Infrastructure for IQ Assessment2012Inngår i: International Journal of Information Quality, ISSN 1751-0457, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 49-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information quality assessment of technical documentation is an integral part of quality management of products and services. Technical documentation is usually assessed using questionnaires, checklists, and reviews. This is cumbersome, costly and prone to errors. Acknowledging the fact that only people can assess certain quality aspects, we suggest complementing these with software-supported automatic quality assessment. The many different encodings and representations of documentation, e.g., various XML dialects and XML Schemas/DTDs, is one problem. We present a system, a software infrastructure, where abstraction and meta modelling are used to define reusable analyses and visualisations that are independent of specific encodings and representations. We show how this system is implemented and how it: 1) reads information from documentations; 2) performs analyses on this information; 3) visualises the results to help stakeholders understand quality issues. We introduce the system, the architecture and implementation, its adaptation to different formats of documentations and types of analyses, along with a number of real world cases exemplifying the feasibility and benefits of our approach. Altogether, our approach contributes to more efficient information quality assessments.

     

  • 11.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Visualization of Text Clones in Technical Documentation2012Inngår i: Proceedings of SIGRAD 2012: Interactive Visual Analysis of Data / [ed] Andreas Kerren and Stefan Seipel, 2012, s. 79-82Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An initial study of how text clones can be detected and visualized in technical documentation, i.e., semi-structured text that describe a product, software, or service. The goal of the visualizations is to support human experts to assess and prioritize the clones, since certain clones can be either intentional or harmless. We study some existing visualizations designed for source code, and provide initial and limited adaption of these. A major difficulty in this adaptation is to manage the semi-structured technical documentation compared to structured source code. 

  • 12.
    Hönel, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    A changeset-based approach to assess source code density and developer efficacy2018Inngår i: ICSE '18 Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceeedings, IEEE , 2018, s. 220-221Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The productivity of a (team of) developer(s) can be expressed as a ratio between effort and delivered functionality. Several different estimation models have been proposed. These are based on statistical analysis of real development projects; their accuracy depends on the number and the precision of data points. We propose a data-driven method to automate the generation of precise data points. Functionality is proportional to the code size and Lines of Code (LoC) is a fundamental metric of code size. However, code size and LoC are not well defined as they could include or exclude lines that do not affect the delivered functionality. We present a new approach to measure the density of code in software repositories. We demonstrate how the accuracy of development time spent in relation to delivered code can be improved when basing it on net-instead of the gross-size measurements. We validated our tool by studying ca. 1,650 open-source software projects.

  • 13.
    Hönel, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Importance and Aptitude of Source code Density for Commit Classification into Maintenance Activities2019Inngår i: QRS 2019 Proceedings / [ed] Dr. David Shepherd, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Commit classification, the automatic classification of the purpose of changes to software, can support the understanding and quality improvement of software and its development process. We introduce code density of a commit, a measure of the net size of a commit, as a novel feature and study how well it is suited to determine the purpose of a change. We also compare the accuracy of code-density-based classifications with existing size-based classifications. By applying standard classification models, we demonstrate the significance of code density for the accuracy of commit classification. We achieve up to 89% accuracy and a Kappa of 0.82 for the cross-project commit classification where the model is trained on one project and applied to other projects. Such highly accurate classification of the purpose of software changes helps to improve the confidence in software (process) quality analyses exploiting this classification information.

  • 14.
    Kopetschny, Chris
    et al.
    Dezember IT GmbH, Germany .
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Optimization of Software Estimation Models2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Software Technologies - Volume 1, SciTePress, 2019, s. 141-150Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In software engineering, estimations are frequently used to determine expected but yet unknown properties of software development processes or the developed systems, such as costs, time, number of developers, efforts, sizes, and complexities. Plenty of estimation models exist, but it is hard to compare and improve them as software technologies evolve quickly. We suggest an approach to estimation model design and automated optimization allowing for model comparison and improvement based on commonly collected data points. This way, the approach simplifies model optimization and selection. It contributes to a convergence of existing estimation models to meet contemporary software technology practices and provide a possibility for selecting the most appropriate ones.

  • 15.
    Kovbasiuk, Igor
    et al.
    Softwerk.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Quick Decide: A Tool to Aid the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Group Decisions2015Inngår i: Perspectives in Business Informatics Research: 14th International Conference, BIR 2015, Tartu, Estonia, August 26-28, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Raimundas Matulevičius, Marlon Dumas, Springer: Springer Publishing Company, 2015, Vol. 229, s. 179-193Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To take simple decisions comes naturally and does not re- quire additional considerations but when there are multiple alternatives and criteria to be considered, a decision-making technique is required. The most studied and developed technique is the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). We focus on the practical implementation of AHP and study the set of features that are necessary when the process involves several experts together with a set of non-functional requirements, such as portability and usability. Since no existing tool satisfy all our require- ments, we design and implement a new AHP tool called Quick Decide. We perform a user experiment to evaluate our tool, and find that it fulfils all our requirements. To support our usability requirements, we extend AHP with an external consistency check, which measures the distance between expert opinions to avoid results that are mathematically correct but provide no semantic value (e.g., two opposite extreme opinions). 

  • 16.
    Luckert, Michael
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Schaefer-Kehnert, Mortiz
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    A Classifier to Determine Whether a Document is Professionally or Machine Translated2016Inngår i: PERSPECTIVES IN BUSINESS INFORMATICS RESEARCH, BIR 2016, Springer, 2016, s. 339-353Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an increasingly networked world, the availability of high quality translations is critical for success, especially in the context of international competition. International companies need to provide well translated, high quality technical documentation not only to be successful in the market but also to meet legal regulations. We seek to evaluate translation quality, specifically concerning technical documentation, and formulate a method to evaluate the translation quality of technical documents both when we do have access to the original documents and when we do not. We rely on state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms and translation evaluation metrics in the context of a knowledge discovery process. Our evaluation is performed on a sentence level where each sentence is classified as either professionally translated or machine translated. The results for each sentence is then combined to evaluate the full document. The research is based on a database that contains 22,327 sentences and 32 translation evaluation attributes, which are used to optimize Decision Trees that are used to evaluate translation quality. Our method achieves an accuracy of 70.48% on sentence level for texts in the database and can accurately classify documents with at least 100 sentences.

  • 17.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    An exploration and experiment tool suite for code to architecture mapping techniques2019Inngår i: ECSA '19 Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Software Architecture / [ed] Laurence Duchien, New York, NY, USA: ACM Publications, 2019, Vol. 2, s. 26-29Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflexion modeling can be used to validate that source code conforms to an intended architecture. However, it requires a mapping of source code modules (e.g., classes) to (software) architecture elements. We have developed a tool suite that allows for evaluation and exploration of automatic techniques to map source code modules to architecture elements. The suite includes a reusable core component and tools to define the architecture, define and run experiments with mapping strategies, and explore the results of these experiments. The experiments can be executed locally or in a remote high-performance computing environment.

  • 18.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Motivation and Impact of Modeling Erosion using Static Architecture Conformance Checking2017Inngår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ICSAW 2017: Side Track Proceedings, IEEE, 2017, s. 204-209Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We motivate and describe why erosion modelingfrom a static architecture conformance checking point of view isimportant as well as the impact we think it can have on industry.Our research goal is to get a better understanding of erosionand develop smarter and simpler methods to assess erosion. Wedescribe preliminary results from a retrospective, longitudinalcase study of an open source software. The software system westudy, JabRef, was created in 2003, and refactored to a layeredstructure to “transition from a spaghetti to a more structuredarchitecture” in 2015. We construct a model from this new,layered architecture, and assess 30 versions of JabRef to findarchitectural conformance violations. Our preliminary resultsshow a significant difference in productivity after refactoring andsuggest that there is a connection between our model of erosionand productivity where more erosion gives lower productivity.

  • 19.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Semi-Automatic Mapping of Source Code Using Naive Bayes2019Inngår i: ECSA '19 Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Software Architecture - / [ed] Laurence Duchien, New York, NY, USA: ACM Publications, 2019, Vol. 2, s. 209-216Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The software industry has not adopted continuous use of static architecture conformance checking. One hindrance is the needed mapping from source code elements to elements of the architecture. We present a novel approach of generating and combining dependency and semantic information extracted from an initial set of mapped source code files. We use this to train a Naive Bayes classifier that is then used to map the remainder of the source code files. We compare this approach with the HuGMe technique on six open source projects with known mappings. We find that our approach provides an average performance improvement of 0.22 and an average precision and recall F1-score improvement of 0.26 in comparison to HuGMe.

  • 20.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    The relationship of code churn and architectural violations in the open source software JabRef2017Inngår i: ECSA '17 Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Software Architecture: Companion Proceedings, New York, NY, USA: ACM Publications, 2017, s. 152-158Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The open source application JabRef has existed since 2003. In 2015, the developers decided to make an architectural refactoring as continued development was deemed too demanding. The developers also introduced Static Architecture Conformance Checking (SACC) to prevent violations to the intended architecture. Measurements mined from source code repositories such as code churn and code ownership has been linked to several problems, for example fault proneness, security vulnerabilities, code smells, and degraded maintainability. The root cause of such problems can be architectural. To determine the impact of the refactoring of JabRef, we measure the code churn and code ownership before and after the refactoring and find that large files with violations had a significantly higher code churn than large files without violations before the refactoring. After the refactoring, the files that had violations show a more normal code churn. We find no such effect on code ownership. We conclude that files that contain violations detectable by SACC methods are connected to higher than normal code churn.

  • 21.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Towards Improved Initial Mapping in Semi Automatic Clustering2018Inngår i: ECSA 2018: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE: COMPANION PROCEEDINGS, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An important step in Static Architecture Conformance Checking (SACC) is the mapping of source code entities to entities in the intended architecture. This step is currently relying on manual work, which is one hindrance for more widespread adoption of SACC in industry. Semi-automatic clustering is a promising approach to improve this, and the HuGMe clustering algorithm is an example of such a technique for use in SACC. But HuGMe relies on an initial set of clustered source code elements and algorithm parameters. We investigate the automatic mapping performance of HuGMe in two experiments to gain insight into what influence the starting set has in a medium-sized open source system, JabRef, which contain a relatively large number of architectural violations. Our results show that the highest automatic mapping performance can be achieved with a low number of elements within the initial set. However, the variability of the performance is high. We find a benefit in favoring source code elements with a high fan-out in the initial set.

  • 22.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Using Repository Data for Driving Software Architecture2018Inngår i: Proceeding of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceeedings (ICSE), 2018, ACM Publications, 2018, s. 197-198Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We are in the pursuit of establishing a method for continuous data driven software architecture. We describe the problem with current methods for measuring the impact of refactoring long lived systems at the architectural level and architecture compliance checking. We summarize our studies of code churn, productivity and an automatic tool for compliance checking. We conclude that architecture violations seem to play an important role, but current methods are infeasible for industry practice. Finally we propose to use repository data mining to improve current methods for architecture compliance checking.

  • 23.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Evaluation of an architectural conformance checking software service2016Inngår i: ACM Proccedings of the 10th European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops (ECSA-W), ACM Press, 2016, artikkel-id 15Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Static architectural conformance checking can be used to find architectural violations, cases where the implementation does not adhere to the architecture, and prevent architectural erosion. We implement a software service for automated conformance checking and investigate the effect this has on the number of architectural violations in software projects. The service is implemented using our heuristic-based approach to static architecture conformance checking of the Model-View-Controller pattern. The service is integrated in the source code management system of each project, so a report is generated every time the source code is modified. The service was evaluated in a field experiment that consisted of eight student projects. We found that the four projects that used the service produced significantly fewer violations compared to those that did not.

  • 24.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Evaluation of a static architectural conformance checking method in a line of computer games2014Inngår i: QoSA '14 Proceedings of the 10th international ACM Sigsoft conference on Quality of software architectures, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, s. 113-118Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an evaluation of a simple method to find architectural problems in a product line of computer games. The method uses dependencies (direct, indirect, or no) to automatically classify types in the implementation to high-level components in the product line architecture. We use a commercially available tool to analyse dependencies in the source code. The automatic classification of types is compared to a manual classification by the developer, and all mismatches are reported. To evaluate the method, we inspect the source code and look for a pre-defined set of architectural problems in all types. We compare the set of types that contained problems to the set of types where the manual and automatic classification disagreed to determine precision and recall. We also investigate what changes are needed to correct the found mismatches by either designing and implementing changes in the source code or refining the automatic classification. Our evaluation shows that the simple method is effective at detecting architectural problems in a product line of four games. The method is lightweight, customisable and easy to implement early in the development cycle.

  • 25.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Evolution and Evaluation of the Model-View-Controller Architecture in Games2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Games and Software Engineering, USA: IEEE Press, 2015, s. 8-14Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In game software it is important to separate game play code from rendering code to ease transitions to new technologies or different platforms. The architectural pattern Model-View-Controller (MVC) is commonly used to achieve such separation. We investigate how the MVC architectural pattern is implemented in five game projects from a small development studio. We define a metrics-based quality model to assess software quality goals such as portability and rendering engine independence and perform an architectural analysis. The analysis reveals three different evolutions of the pattern. We also assess the quality and find that 1. The evolutions of the architecture differ in quality and 2. An architectural refactoring to a newer version of the architecture increases the software quality.

  • 26.
    Shpak, Oleksandr
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    A Method to Test the Information Quality of Technical Documentation on Websites2014Inngår i: 14th International Conference on Quality Software (QSIC), IEEE Press, 2014, s. 296-304Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In software engineering, testing is one of the corner-stones of quality assurance. The idea of software testing can be applied to information quality as well. Technical documentation has a set of intended uses that correspond to use cases in a software system. Documentation is, in many cases, presented via software systems, e.g., web servers and browsers, and contains software, e.g., Javascript for user interaction, animation, and customization, etc. This makes it difficult to find a clear-cut distinction between a software system and technical documentation. However, we can assume that each use case of a technical documentation involves retrieval of some sort of information that helps a user answer a specific questions. To assess information testing as a method, we implemented QAnalytics, a tool to assess the information quality of documentation that is provided by a website. The tool is web-based and allows test managers and site owners to define test cases and success criteria, disseminate the test cases to testers, and to analyze the test results. This way, information testing is easily manageable even for non-technical stakeholders. We applied our testing method and tool in a case study. According to common perception, the website of Linnaeus University needs to be re-engineered. Our method and tool helped the stakeholders identify what information is presented well and which parts of the website that need to change. The test results allowed the design and development effort to prioritize actual quality issues and potentially save time and resources.

  • 27.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Olsson, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Detailed recordings of student programming sessions2015Inngår i: ITiCSE '15: Proceedings of the 2015 ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, ACM Press, 2015, s. 328-328Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Observation is important when we teach programming. It can help identify students that struggle, concepts that are not clearly presented during lectures, poor assignments, etc. However, as development tools become more widely available or courses move off-campus and online, we lose our ability to naturally observe students. Online programming environments provide an opportunity to record how students solve assignments and the data recorded allows for in-depth analysis. For example, file activities, mouse movements, text-selections, and text caret movements provide a lot of information on when a programmer collects information and what task is currently worked on. We developed CSQUIZ to allow us to observe students on our online courses through data analysis. Based on our experience with the tool in a course, we find recorded sessions a sufficient replacement for natural observations.

  • 28.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Olsson, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Fine-Grained Recording of Student Programming Sessions to Improve Teaching and Time Estimations2015Inngår i: IFIP TC3 Working Conference “A New Culture of Learning: Computing and next Generations” / [ed] Andrej Brodnik, Cathy Lewin, 2015, s. 264-274Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To have direct observation of students during an online programming course is impossible. This makes it harder for teachers to help struggling students. By using an online programming environment we have the opportunity to record what the students actually do to solve an assignment. We can analyse the recordings and provide teachers with valuable information. We developed and used an online programming toolwith fine-grained event logging to observe how our students solve problems. Our tool provides descriptive statistics and accurate replays of a student’s programming sessions, including mouse movements. We used the tool in a course and collected 1028 detailed recordings. We compare fine-grained logging with existing coarsegrained logging solutions to estimate assignment-solving time. We find that time aggregations are improved by including time for active reading and navigation enabled by the increased granularity. We also divide the time users spent into editing (on average 14.8%), active use (on average 37.8%), passive use (on average 29.0%), and also estimate time used for breaks (on average 18.2%).Finally wesee a correlation between early student submission results and students that hand in later, but also see an example where the results differ significantly.

  • 29.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Olsson, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Fine-Grained Recording of Student Programming Sessions to Improve Teaching and Time Estimations2016Inngår i: International journal of engineering education, ISSN 0949-149X, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 1069-1077Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not possible to directly observe how students work in an online programming course. This makes it harder for teachers to help struggling students. By using an online programming environment, we have the opportunity to record what the students actually do to solve an assignment. These recordings can be analyzed to provide teachers with valuable information. We developed such an online programming tool with fine-grained event logging and used it to observe how our students solve problems. Our tool provides descriptive statistics and accurate replays of a student's programming sessions, including mouse movements. We used the tool in a course and collected 1028 detailed recordings. In this article, we compare fine-grained logging to existing coarse-grained logging solutions to estimate assignment-solving time. We find that time aggregations are improved by including time for active reading and navigation, both enabled by the increased granularity. We also divide the time users spent into editing (on average 14.8%), active use (on average 37.8%), passive use (on average 29.0%), and estimate time used for breaks (on average 18.2%). There is a correlation between assignment solving time for students who pass assignments early and students that pass later but also a case where the times differ significantly. Our tool can help improve computer engineering education by providing insights into how students solve programming assignments and thus enable teachers to target their teaching and/or improve instructions and assignments.

  • 30.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Olsson, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    University of Gothenburg.
    The challenge of teaching students the value of programming best practices2014Inngår i: Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education Conference 2014 / [ed] Åsa Cajander and Mats Daniels and Tony Clear and Arnold Pears, ACM Publications, 2014, s. 347-347Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the benefits of our programming assignments in correlation to what the students learn and show in their programming solutions. The assignments are supposed to teach the students to use best practices related to program comprehension, but do the programming assignments clearly show the benefits of best practices? We performed an ex- periment that showed no significant result which suggests that the assignments did not emphasise the value of best practices. As lecturers, we understand that constructing as- signments that match the sought after outcome in students learning is a complex task. The experiment provided valu- able insights that we will use to improve the assignments to better mirror best practices. 

  • 31.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    How Tool Support and Peer Scoring Improved Our Students' Attitudes Toward Peer Reviews2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, New York, NY, USA: ACM Publications, 2017, s. 311-316Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We wanted to introduce peer reviews for the final report in a course on Software Testing. The students had however experienced issues with peer reviews in a previous course which made this a challenge. To get a better understanding of the situation, we distributed a pre-questionnaire to the students. 48 of the 83 students provided their expectations on peer reviews. To deal with some of the perceived issues, we developed a peer review tool where we introduce anonymity, grading of reviews, teacher interventions, as well as let students score and comment on the reviews they receive. In total, 67 reports were submitted by 83 students and 325 reviews were completed. The post-questionnaire was answered by 48 students (not necessarily the same respondents as for the pre-questionnaire as both were collected anonymously). While 27 of the students expected incorrect feedback only 13 students agreed to have got incorrect feedback in the post-questionnaire. The students reported that they found the feedback from their peers more valuable (+15%) than expected, and 88% of the students reported that they learned from doing peer reviews. Overall, we find that the students' attitudes towards peer reviews have improved.

  • 32.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Visualizing programming session timelines2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction, ACM Publications, 2018, s. 106-107Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning programming with tutor tools has grown in popularity. These tools present programming assignments and provide feedback in the form of test-cases and compilation errors. Our timeline visualization of data from one such tool allows us to tell a story about what files were accessed and for how long, in what order files were edited, grown or shrunk, what errors the student ran into, and how those errors were addressed. This can be done without a need to read and replay the entire programming session. In sum, the tool has been used to visualize logs from students that tried to solve programming assignments and we find interesting stories that can help us improve how we address new assignments.

  • 33.
    Ulan, Maria
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Multi-criteria Ranking Based on Joint Distributions: A Tool to Support Decision Making2019Inngår i: Perspectives in Business Informatics Research.BIR 2019: 18th International Conference on Business Informatics Research / [ed] Pańkowska M., Sandkuhl K, Springer, 2019, s. 74-88Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sound assessment and ranking of alternatives are fundamental to effective decision making. Creating an overall ranking is not trivial if there are multiple criteria, and none of the alternatives is the best according to all criteria. To address this challenge, we propose an approach that aggregates criteria scores based on their joint (probability) distribution and obtains the ranking as a weighted product of these scores. We evaluate our approach in a real-world use case based on a funding allocation problem and compare it with the traditional weighted sum aggregation model. The results show that the approaches assign similar ranks, while our approach is more interpretable and sensitive.

  • 34.
    Ulan, Maria
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Hönel, Sebastian
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Martins, Rafael Messias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Quality Models Inside Out: Interactive Visualization of Software Metrics by Means of Joint Probabilities2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2018 Sixth IEEE Working Conference on Software Visualization, (VISSOFT), Madrid, Spain, 2018 / [ed] J. Ángel Velázquez Iturbide, Jaime Urquiza Fuentes, Andreas Kerren, and Mircea F. Lungu, IEEE, 2018, s. 65-75Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing software quality, in general, is hard; each metric has a different interpretation, scale, range of values, or measurement method. Combining these metrics automatically is especially difficult, because they measure different aspects of software quality, and creating a single global final quality score limits the evaluation of the specific quality aspects and trade-offs that exist when looking at different metrics. We present a way to visualize multiple aspects of software quality. In general, software quality can be decomposed hierarchically into characteristics, which can be assessed by various direct and indirect metrics. These characteristics are then combined and aggregated to assess the quality of the software system as a whole. We introduce an approach for quality assessment based on joint distributions of metrics values. Visualizations of these distributions allow users to explore and compare the quality metrics of software systems and their artifacts, and to detect patterns, correlations, and anomalies. Furthermore, it is possible to identify common properties and flaws, as our visualization approach provides rich interactions for visual queries to the quality models’ multivariate data. We evaluate our approach in two use cases based on: 30 real-world technical documentation projects with 20,000 XML documents, and an open source project written in Java with 1000 classes. Our results show that the proposed approach allows an analyst to detect possible causes of bad or good quality.

  • 35.
    Ulan, Maria
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Introducing Quality Models Based On Joint Probabilities: Introducing Quality Models Based On Joint Probabilities2018Inngår i: ICSE '18 Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceeedings, IEEE, 2018, s. 216-217Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-dimensional goals can be formalized in so-called quality models. Often, each dimension is assessed with a set of metrics that are not comparable; they come with different units, scale types, and distributions of values. Aggregating the metrics to a single quality score in an ad-hoc manner cannot be expected to provide a reliable basis for decision making. Therefore, aggregation needs to be mathematically well-defined and interpretable. We present such a way of defining quality models based on joint probabilities. We exemplify our approach using a quality model with 30 standard metrics assessing technical documentation quality and study ca. 20,000 real-world files. We study the effect of several tests on the independence and results show that metrics are, in general, not independent. Finally, we exemplify our suggested definition of quality models in this domain.

  • 36.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    Current Practice in Mobile Learning: A Survey of Research Method and Purpose2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 8th World Conference on Mobile Learning / [ed] Metcalf, D., Hamilton, A., Graffeo, C., 2009, s. 103-111Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a survey of published research in mobile learning. We investigated 76 papers from mLearn 2007 and 2008, and classified them according to two dimensions: research method and research purpose. Research methods and purposes are important parts of how research is conducted. Alas, opinions and approaches towards research differ greatly. The classified papers are evenly distributed among the research methods investigated, with one exception, being few in Basic research. In terms of research purpose, papers aimed to describe were well represented while there was a lack of papers targeting evaluation. Papers recounting both Basic research and research done to evaluate are imperative since they help a research field to mature and also help researchers to avoid repeating known pitfalls. This maturity, in turn, will lead to better scalability and sustainability for future research efforts in the community of mobile learning.

  • 37.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    Project PodCast2007Inngår i: The 5th New Zealand Computer Science Research Student Conference, 2007Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 38.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    The Quest for Equilibrium: Towards an Understanding of Scalability and Sustainability for Mobile Learning2008Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The research presented in this thesis investigates the concept of sustainability in relation to mobile learning initiatives. Sustainability is seen as a key concept for mobile learning to gain acceptance. In linking sustainability to scalability, a term used to describe how well something can grow to suit an increasing complexity, a representation of this process is provided. In this thesis, this process is called ``the quest for equilibrium.''

    A study was conducted of an actual mobile learning initiative that involved introducing podcasts as a supplement to traditional lectures in higher education. In following this initiative, thorough data gathering was conducted, utilizing the process of iterative cycles that characterizes the action research approach. In accordance, a literature survey was conducted, whereby leading publications in mobile learning were classified and analyzed according to the following criteria: Reflections, Frameworks, Scalability, and Sustainability.

    As the mobile learning system evolved from idea to an actual empirical study, trying to understand this process became important. The insights gained during this research were used to develop a conceptual model that is based on the notion that the two concepts of Scalability and Sustainability can be linked to each other.

    This conceptual model is presented describing how a mobile learning system evolves, from Idea, to Experiment, to Project, to Release. Further, each of the stages in this evolution is described by using four areas of concern: Technology, Learning, Social, and Organization.

    Using the experience from a specific mobile learning initiative to define a conceptual model that then is used to describe the same initiative, was a way to bring together practice, theory, and research, thus provide reliable evidence for the model itself.

    The conceptual model can serve as a thinking tool for mobile learning practitioners, to help address the complexity involved when undertaking new efforts and initiatives in this field.

  • 39.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    Understanding Scalability and Sustainability in Mobile Learning: A Systems Development Framework2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of mobile technologies combined with access to content almost everywhere and every time allows people to experience new situations regarding learning in a wide variety of situations. Mobile learning brings the promise of learning "on the move" by allowing learners to take control over time and space, thus making learning "more natural". The field of mobile learning has rapidly evolved in the last ten years and many initiatives have been conducted worldwide. However, research results indicate that few of these efforts have produced any lasting outcomes. It is evident that these initiatives are faced with inherently complex settings and that the outcomes might not live up to their prom- ises; will not be adopted and, hence, will not become sustainable.

    Many of the complex issues faced by mobile learning initiatives are similar to those faced by the development of information systems. This latest statement suggests that an improved development practice might hold one piece of the key to sustainable mobile learning. The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to investigate the relation between information systems development practice and mobile learning development; and if methods and models originated within information systems development can be used to strengthen mobile learning initiatives. In order to investigate this relation, this thesis studies several mobile learning initiatives with a particular focus on how and why development and research was initiated and conducted. Concepts found in mobile learning practices are strengthened by providing a theoretical perspective with roots in information systems development. The outcomes of the studies presented in this thesis indicate that the development practice of mobile learning initiatives can be redefined in order to achieve more sustainable results.

    The core of this thesis consists of eight peer-reviewed scientific publications that have been presented at different international conferences. Five of the papers explore the field of mobile learning and its practice while the other three publications present the central ideas that serve as the basis for the proposed framework, how it has been developed, and the motivations behind its creation.

    The main contribution of this thesis is a novel development framework aimed at researchers and practitioners in the field of mobile learning. The framework defines the life-cycle of a mobile learning initiative and identifies the importance of emphasizing the concepts of scalability and sustainability during the development process. This may be a way to reduce the complexity inherent to mobile learning and its settings, and a means to improve the outcomes of coming mobile learning initiatives in terms of long lasting usable results.

  • 40.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    Alexander, Jason
    Was it Pod Worthy?2007Inngår i: Proceedings of 30th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Department of Computer Sciences, University of Tampere, Finland , 2007, s. 10-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Students and teaching staff in higher education are constantly looking for new tools to help them study and teach more efficiently. The University of Canterbury began ProjectPodcast to introduce podcasting to a number of subjects as an add-on to the current course curriculum. Podcasting is being used to enhance mobile learning and enthuse both students and lecturers. Previous podcasting evaluations show that there exists a need for both audio content from lectures, or so called “LectureCasts” as well as supplementary material or “Sup!Casts”. In this study, the evaluation of ProjectPodcast will be performed in-house. We have chosen an established six step methodology to avoid criticisms that often arise when evaluations are performed by internal members of the project. The evaluation is aimed at both the student population as well as the lecturing staff in order to gain knowledge about their impressions of podcasting. Prior podcasting

    surveys have received low response rates, due to the choice of time, location and medium. Hence, our evaluation plan has been created with the goal of encouraging feedback from students and lecturers. In this paper we present our preparatory plan for evaluating ProjectPodcast.

  • 41.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    Bell, Tim
    Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Cockburn, Andy
    Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Green, Richard
    Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Podcasts as a Supplement in Tertiary Education: An Experiment With Two Computer Science Courses2009Inngår i: Podcasting in Education / [ed] Mahashabde, K.E., India: ICFAI Books , 2009, 1Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The current generation of undergraduate students are enthusiastic adopters of mobile technologies, and some of these technologies offers significant opportunities for broadening the times, places and manner that students study and learn. One of these is podcasting, which greatly eases distribution of content to portable devices, giving the students opportunity for anytime, anywhere learning. However, most educational podcasts do not take advantage of the potential of podcasting. In this paper we discuss the issues surrounding the use of podcasting for higher education. We report our experiences using podcasts to supplement two undergraduate Computer Science courses, and we provide tips for others considering the use of podcasts in education.

  • 42.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Uppsala University.
    A Framework to Guide and Structure the Development Process of Mobile Learning Initiatives2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th World Conference on Mobile Learning, 2010, s. 184-191Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile learning has yet to move on from small-scale trials to sustained deployment. One reason for this is the highly complex and multi-disciplinary setting that the initiatives operate within. They must deal with a wide range of issues such as software, hardware, people, learning, organizations and so on. At the same time, there is little support. Few frameworks to guide the development process exist. This article presents one such framework that was developed based on theories from software and systems development as well as practical experience from mobile learning. The framework divides the development into four Areas of Concern and introduces a life cycle of the mobile learning initiative. It further offers means to guide the development of the initiative and to find key issues that needs to be addressed in order to achieve sustainability. The framework presents a holistic view of mobile learning and is designed as an aid to all practitioners in mobile learning, no matter their background.

     

  • 43.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    A Meta-model Describing the Development Process of Mobile Learning2009Inngår i: Advances in Web Based Learning: – ICWL 2009 / [ed] Spaniol, M., Li, Q., Klamma, R., and Lau, R., Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer , 2009, s. 454-463Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a meta-model to describe the development process of mobile learning initiatives. These initiatives are often small scale trials that are not integrated in the intended setting, but carried out outside of the setting. This results in sustainability issues, i.e., problems to integrate the results of the initiative as learning aids. In order to address the sustainability issues, and in turn help to understand the scaling process, a meta-model is introduced. This meta-model divides the development into four areas of concern, and the life cycle of any mobile learning initiative into four stages. The meta-model was developed by analyzing and describing how a podcasting initiative was developed, and is currently being evaluated as a tool to both describe and evaluate mobile learning initiatives. The meta-model was developed based on a mobile learning initiative, but the meta-model itself is extendible to other forms of technology-enhanced learning.

  • 44.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    A Survey of Research Methods and Purposes in Mobile Learning2011Inngår i: International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, ISSN 1941-8647, E-ISSN 1941-8655, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 1-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a survey of published research in mobile learning. We investigated 114 papers from mLearn 2005, 2007, and 2008, and classified them according to two dimensions: research method and research purpose. Research methods and purposes are important parts of how research is conducted. Alas, opinions and approaches towards research differ greatly. The classified papers are evenly distributed among the research methods investigated, with one exception, being few in Basic research. In terms of research purpose, papers aimed to describe the research were well represented while there was a lack of papers targeting evaluation. Papers recounting both Basic research and research done to evaluate are imperative since they help a research field to mature and also help researchers to avoid repeating known pitfalls. This maturity, in turn, will lead to better scalability and sustainability for future research efforts in the community of mobile learning.

  • 45.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Uppsala University.
    Addressing Sustainability for Research Initiatives in Mobile Learning through Scalability2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 8th IASTED International Conference on Web-Based Education / [ed] Uskov, V., ACTA Press, 2009, s. 7-12Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding research initiatives in the field of mobile learning involves dealing with complexity. It is important to gather knowledge on how to nurse these attempts. To develop ideas and reach wide deployment of novel mobile learning is of great value. In this paper there is a discussion of the factors that describe attributes of mobile learning research initiatives and an investiga- tion of whether these are sustainable or not, and what this means. Sustainability for mobile learning initiatives is essential for the wide acceptance from both public and academia. The paper also addresses scalability of mobile learning research initiatives. Scalability is a term used to describe how well something can grow to suit an increasing complexity, and is addressed as a possibility to reflect on good ideas. Scalability is important in order to reach sustainability. Finally, this paper introduces a model that illustrates the evolutionary life cycle of a mobile learning research initiative. The model presents four evolution stages and these are: Idea, Experiment, Project, and Release.

  • 46.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Asked and Answered: Communication Patterns of Experts on an Online Forum2013Inngår i: Proceedings IRIS36: August 11-14 2013 at Gran, Norway, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of network structure for social relations dates back half a century. Nowadays people form social networks offline as well as online. At an online community people are connected trough information exchange of sorts. Interest groups form often forums to aid each other and discuss things. Programmers are no exception and a question and answer site called Stack Overflow has been up and running since 2008. Our focus is to find patterns of how people interact on this online community and see if we can find expert users. We find 4 different ways to categorize experts, which result in different rankings. We also investigate how expertise is divided among topics, and find some overlap with the global ranking. 

  • 47.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Uppsala University.
    Bringing a Framework to Tackle the Development Process in Mobile Learning2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference at Centre for Philosophy, Technology, and Social Systems / [ed] Basden, A., Haftor, D., and Grobler, L.M.J., 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study that was conducted of the devel- opment process of an initiative that used podcasts (i.e., digital audio-files) to supplement lectures in higher education. A thorough data gathering was conducted using the iterative cycles of the action research approach. The empirical data was analyzed and this analysis resulted in a framework that shows how sustainability and scalability are linked. The framework also shows how an initiative is developed from Idea, to Trial, to Project, to Release, and how each of these stages can be described using four areas of concern, namely, Technology, Learning, Social, and Or- ganization. Using the experience from a specific mobile learning initiative to define a framework that is then used to conceptualize the development process is a way to bring together practice, theory, and research, and thus provide reliable evidence for the framework itself. The framework captures the development process and the relevant context in a unified theoretical attempt and is suitable for practitioners dealing with initiatives in the field of mobile learning.

  • 48.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Uppsala University.
    Dealing with Stakeholders in Mobile Learning: A Study of Three Initiatives2009Inngår i: Proceeedings of the 32nd Information Systems Resaerch Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS'32) / [ed] Molka-Danielsen, J., Molde University College , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to reach viable design for initiatives in mobile learning and researchers are faced with a magnitude of factors to consider. The work to identify and access stakeholders and acknowledge their requirement is a difficult task. Most mobile learning initiatives often follow an evolutionary development process where the system is constructed, evaluated, and refined in increments. During this process, the stakeholders and their needs might change, so even if there was an initial understanding, it might not be correct after one or more increments. In this paper we studied three initiatives with a focus on how they dealt with stakeholders during the development process and finds that the three initiatives deal with stakeholders in an on-demand fashion. New groups of stakeholders are considered when needed, and this leads to a development process that is a mix between sequential and evolutionary, which results in inflexible system solutions. In order to improve on this, stakeholders need to be regarded in a more inclusive fashion, where they are considered as part of the entire development process.

  • 49.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Uppsala University.
    Extracting and expressing experience with mobile learning: lessons learned2010Inngår i: International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, ISSN 1746-725X, E-ISSN 1746-7268, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 428-439Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many published results in the field of mobile learning focus on isolated technology solutions or a specific trial rather than to reflect on the overall work practice and development process of whole initiative/s. Exchanging knowledge from past experiences is often done informally between researchers in mobile learning. Making the knowledge gained explicit is of great value, as it can provide a pre-understanding for others. This paper analyses and reflects on three mobile learning initiatives with respect to how these address technology, context and stakeholders. From this, six lessons are extracted: reuse as much as possible, consider how to work around bad/broken network connections, do not underestimate the need for data management, take advantage of situated learning, evaluate to validate the result and identify and include all stakeholders. These lessons can serve as considerations for researchers when undertaking new initiatives in mobile learning.

  • 50.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Introducing Podcasts to the Educational Palette of a Dual-Mode Course2012Inngår i: Proceedings 2012 17th IEEE International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technology in Education, WMUTE 2012, IEEE, 2012, s. 112-116Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Distance students can suffer from feelings of isolation, which can result in dropouts from lack of motivation to continue the course. Previous studies have shown that the use of podcasts can help reduce this feeling of isolation. Podcasts can also help make studies more flexible, which can aid students with a busy schedule. To evaluate podcasts in distance higher education, we provided the students with four types of podcasts: LectureCasts, TutorialCasts, ReviewCasts and ExtraCasts. We produced 54 podcasts during the course. The students perceived all of the types of podcasts helpful, but preferred the TutorialCasts. These focused on solving actual problems, and the students said that they learned a lot by these. We found that it takes a lot of resources to produce good podcasts and any attempt to introduce them should be budgeted accordingly. We also found that there are still several technical challenges to overcome, from local infrastructure to subscriptions models and device compatibility.

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