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  • 1. Anders, Brattström
    et al.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Fredrik, Bjerding
    Franzén, Markus
    2007. The future for the cloded apollo (P. mnemosyne) in Blekinge2007Inngår i: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 128, s. 81-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Action plan for the conservation of handmaid (Dysauxes ancilla) (in Swedish)2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Department of Cell and Organism Biology, Lund.
    Ecology and conservation of the moth Dysauxes ancilla2004Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Genetic status and fluctuating asymmetry in an endangered population of the moth Dysauxes ancilla L. (Lepidoptera: Ctenuchidae)2000Inngår i: Journal of Insect Conservation, Vol. 4, s. 93-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Habitat utilization by ovipositing females and larvae in an endangered population of the moth Dysauxes ancilla (Lepidoptera: Ctenuchidae)2003Inngår i: Journal of Research of the Lepidoptera, Vol. 37, s. 47-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Population structure and movement patterns within an isolated and endangered population of the moth Dysauxes ancilla L. (Lepidoptera, Ctenuchidae): implication for conservation2002Inngår i: Journal of Insect Conservation, Vol. 6, s. 57-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    The discrepancy between between food plant preference and suitability in the moth Dysauxes ancilla2003Inngår i: Web Ecology, Vol. 4, s. 7-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Petersson, J.
    County Administrative Board of Kalmar.
    Stedt, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    What do population viability analyses tell about the future for Baltic Dunlin Calidris alpina schinzii and Montagu’s Harrier Circus pygargus on Öland?2010Inngår i: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 20, s. 93-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Population viability analysis (PVA) has become an important tool in conservation biology. Even though detailed outcomes of PVA:s are constrained by data quality, it is a useful approach when the objective is exploratory, aiming to identify important parameters for viability or to guide future field work on endangered species. In this study we perform PVA:s based on scarce data to explore viability of two endangered bird species, Baltic Dunlin and Montagu’s Harrier, on Öland. Our simulation results underline that both species are under severe threats, with a median time to extinction of 24 years in Baltic Dunlin and 63 years in Montagu’s Harrier. Sensitivity analyses show that population growth rate is the most important factor for the model outcome in both species. Since there are no apparent threats for adult birds on Öland, this suggests that conservation measures should focus on improving conditions for successful breeding on the island. In additional simulations we explore some threats in more detail. In the case of Baltic Dunlin nest predation of eggs and chicks increase the extinction risk. In Montagu’s Harrier viability increases if breeding attempts within agricultural areas are detected and safeguarded. In order to enhance the PVA model, and build a stage-structured model, we suggest that detailed data on fecundity and survival should be collected.

  • 9.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ehrig, Anja
    Lindeborg, Mats
    Dinnetz, Patrik
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Food plant density, patch isolation and vegetation height determine occurrence in a Swedish metapopulation of the marsh fritillary butterfly Euphydryas aurinia2007Inngår i: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 11, s. 343-350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Inter-individual variation in colour patterns in noctuid moths characterizes long-distance dispersers and agricultural pests2019Inngår i: Journal of applied entomology, ISSN 0931-2048, E-ISSN 1439-0418, Vol. 143, nr 9, s. 992-999Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A high capacity for long‐distance dispersal is a key to success for species confronted with environmental heterogeneity, habitat modification, fragmentation and loss. However, dispersal capacity is difficult to quantify and therefore poorly known in most taxa. Here, we report on a test for an association of variation in dispersal capacity with variable colouration of noctuid moths. First, using data from 12 experienced lepidopterologists, we showed that despite variation among experts in average assessments, different species are consistently classified as having non‐variable, variable or highly variable colour patterns when assessed by different experts. We then compared the incidence of non‐resident species with high inter‐individual variation in colour patterns recorded on the isolated island Utklippan (n = 47), with that in a species pool of potential long‐distance dispersers from the nearest mainland (n = 295). Species with high inter‐individual colour pattern variation were over‐represented on the island compared with species having non‐variable colouration. This finding constitutes rare evidence from the wild of long‐distance dispersal, measured on a spatial scale relevant for moths when tracking habitats in fragmented and changing landscapes or when keeping pace with environmental challenges associated with climate change. Finally, we showed that Swedish noctuid moths classified as agricultural pests (n = 28) had more variable colour patterns compared with non‐pests (n = 368). The majority of agricultural pests were also recorded on the isolated island, an outcome that is indicative of pest species having high dispersal capacity. Data on colour pattern variation may thus offer a simple and cost‐effective proxy to estimate dispersal capacity and can also help identify potential pest species. Our findings are potentially useful when modelling and predicting population and range dynamics of species in spatiotemporally heterogeneous environments, with direct implications for conservation biology and pest management.

  • 11.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Ecological characteristics associated with high mobility in night-active moths2013Inngår i: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 271-279Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility is an important factor influencing the range and persistence of local populations. However, mobility is very difficult to measure empirically and thus is poorly known in most taxa. Since ecological characteristics have been suggested as good estimators of mobility, we here explore the association between ecological characteristics and mobility. We surveyed night-active moths on a Swedish island, situated 16 km from the mainland, and compared ecological characteristics of the non-resident moths found on the island with those of a species pool of assumed potential vagrants from the neighbouring mainland. Species associated with high mobility were characterised by a large range, a high population density, an activity period during warm temperatures and by being habitat generalists or preferring open habitats. The generally assumed view of poly- and oligophagous species being more mobile than monophagous species was obscured by the effect of population density. Poly- and oligophagous species had higher population densities than did monophagous species, which probably explain their higher mobility found in this study. Our result highlights the need to consider the influence of ecological characteristics on mobility. This in turn will have implications for an increased understanding of distribution patterns, population persistence and how to prioritise conservation actions, especially since habitats and climate are under dramatic changes. In taxa where data on mobility are poor, ecological characteristics can be used as a proxy for mobility.

  • 12.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Franzén, Markus
    Department of Community Ecology, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Halle, Germany.
    Mobility is related to species traits in noctuid moths2011Inngår i: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 36, s. 369-376Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. 1. Mobility is important for the understanding of how species survive infragmented landscapes and cope with increasing rates of habitat and climate change.However, mobility is a difficult trait to explore and is poorly known in most taxa.Species traits have been studied in relation to range shifts, extinction risks, andresponses to habitat area and isolation, and have also been suggested as good estimatorsof mobility. Here we explore the relation between mobility and species traits in noctuidmoths.2. We sampled noctuid moths by an automatic light-trap on an island far out in theBaltic Sea. We compared traits of the non-resident species on the island with traits ofa species pool of assumed potential migrants from the Swedish mainland.3. Mobility was significantly related to adult activity period, length of flightperiod, and the interaction between host-plant specificity and distribution area. Widelydistributed host-plant generalists were more mobile than host-plant specialists withmore restricted distribution, and species with an adult activity period in August toSeptember moved to the island to a higher extent than species with an adult activityperiod in May to July. Our results remained qualitatively robust in additional analyses,after controlling for phylogeny and including all species recorded on the island, exceptfor the trait ‘length of flight period’.4. Our results highlight the importance of the relation between mobility and speciestraits. Noctuid moths with certain traits move over longer distances than earlier known.This finding is important to include when predicting range dynamics in fragmentedand changing landscapes, and when conservation measures of species are devised.

  • 13.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Colour pattern variation can inform about extinction risk in moths2017Inngår i: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 72-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory posits that species with inter-individual variation in colour patterns should beless vulnerable to extinction, compared with species that do not vary in colour. Toevaluate this prediction, we explored whether differences in colour pattern diversitywas associated with extinction risk, using red-list status for more than 350 species ofnoctuid moths in Sweden. We also evaluated six other species characteristics thathave been proposed to influence extinction risk namely: host plant niche breadth,habitat type, area of occupancy, body size, overwintering life-history stage and lengthof flight activity period. We found that species with variable colour patterns hadreduced extinction risk overall compared with species having non-variable colourpatterns, and that this difference was pronounced more strongly among species havingsmaller areas of occupancy. There were also significant associations with hostplant niche breadth and habitat type, extinction risk being lower on average in polyphagousspecies and in generalist species that occupied different habitat types. Thesefindings represent the first evidence for insects that variable colouration is associatedwith reduced extinction risks. Information on colour pattern variation is readily availablefor many taxa and may be used as a cost-effective proxy for endangerment inthe work of halting national and global biodiversity loss.

  • 14.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Pettersson, Lars B
    Lund University.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    With that diet, you will go far: trait-based analysis reveals a link between rapid range expansion and a nitrogen-favoured diet.2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, nr 1750, artikkel-id 20122305Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent global change has had a substantial influence on the distribution of organisms, and many species are currently expanding their ranges. To evaluate the underlying processes, long-term data with good geographic resolution are essential. One important but generally overlooked data source is offered by the taxon-specific national catalogues of first provincial records that are kept in many countries. Here, we use such data to quantify trait-based influences on range expansion in Swedish butterflies and moths between 1973 and 2010. Of 282 species meeting pre-defined quality criteria, 170 expanded their northern range margin, with a mean expansion rate of 2.7 km per year. The analyses demonstrate that habitat and diet generalists, forest species and species active during warm conditions have expanded their ranges more rapidly than other species. Notably, range expansion in diet specialists was positively related to a nitrogen-favoured larval diet, an effect not found among oligo- or polyphagous species. In contrast to the general view, this shows that specialist species can undergo rapid range expansion. We suggest that increased areas of nitrogen-rich habitat, and increased availability of a nitrogen-favoured diet, are among the most important drivers of range expansions, potentially having far-reaching consequences for a wide variety of organisms.

  • 15.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Faster poleward range shifts in moths with more variable colour patterns2016Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, s. 1-8, artikkel-id 36265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Range shifts have been documented in many organisms, and climate change has been implicated asa contributing driver of latitudinal and altitudinal range modifications. However, little is known aboutwhat species trait(s) allow for faster environmental tracking and improved capacity for distributionexpansions. We used data for 416 species of moths, and show that range limits in Sweden have shifted tothe north by on average 52.4 km per decade between 1973 and 2014. When also including non-expandingspecies, average expansion rate was 23.2 km per decade. The rate of boundary shifts increased withincreasing levels of inter-individual variation in colour patterns and decreased with increasing latitude. Theassociation with colour patterns indicate that variation in this functionally important trait enables speciesto cope with novel and changing conditions. Northern range limits also increased with average abundanceand decreased with increasing year-to-year abundance fluctuations, implicating production of dispersersas a driver of range dynamics. Studies of terrestrial animals show that rates of poleward shifts differbetween taxonomic groups, increase over time, and depend on study duration and latitude. Knowledge ofhow distribution shifts change with time, location, and species characteristics may improve projections ofresponses to climate change and aid the protection of biodiversity

  • 16.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Variable coloration is associated with dampened population fluctuations in noctuid moths2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, nr 1808, s. 1-9, artikkel-id 20142922Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory and recent reviews state that greater genetic and phenotypic variation should be beneficial for population abundance and stability. Experimental evaluations of this prediction are rare, of short duration and conducted under controlled environmental settings. The question whether greater diversity in functionally important traits stabilizes populations under more complex ecological conditions in the wild has not been systematically evaluated. Moths are mainly nocturnal, with a large variation in colour patterns among species, and constitute an important food source for many types of organisms. Here, we report the results of a long-term (2003-2013) monitoring study of 115 100 noctuid moths from 246 species. Analysis of time-series data provide rare evidence that species with higher levels of inter-individual variation in colour pattern have higher average abundances and undergo smaller between-year fluctuations compared with species having less variable colour patterns. The signature of interspecific temporal synchronization of abundance fluctuations was weak, suggesting that the dynamics were driven by species-specific biotic interactions rather than by some common, density-independent factor(s). We condude that individual variation in colour patterns dampens population abundance fluctuations, and suggest that this may partly reflect that colour pattern polymorphism provides protection from visually oriented predators and parasitoids.

  • 17.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Polic, Daniela
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sunde, Johanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Variable colour patterns indicate multidimensional, intraspecific trait variation and ecological generalization in moths2020Inngår i: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 43, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal colour patterns long have provided information about key processes that drive the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of biological diversity. Theory and empirical evidence indicate that variation in colour patterns and other traits among individuals generally improves the performance of populations and species, for example by reducing predation risk, increasing establishment success, improving resilience to environmental change, and decreasing risk of extinction. However, little is known about whether and how variation in colour pattern among species is associated with variation in other phenotypic dimensions. To address this issue, we analysed associations of colour pattern with morphological, behavioural and life-history traits on the basis of data for nearly 400 species of noctuid moths. We found that moths with more variable colour patterns had longer flight activity periods, more diverse habitats and a greater number of host plant species than species with less variable colour patterns. Variable coloration in adult noctuid moths therefore can be considered as indicative of broader niches and generalist diets. Colour pattern variability was not significantly associated with overwintering stage or body size (wing span), and it was independent of whether the colour pattern of the larvae was non-variable, variable or highly variable. Colour pattern variation during the larval stage tended to increase as the duration of the flight activity period increased, but was independent of the length of the larval period, diet breadth and habitat use. The realization that information on colour pattern variation in adult moths, and possibly other organisms, offers a proxy for niche breadth and dietary generalization can inform management and conservation biology.

  • 18. Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Species traits predict island occupancy in noctuid moths2012Inngår i: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 155-163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowing how species’ traits relate to processes that underlie occupancy patterns such as colonisation and population persistence, is important for our understanding of how species survive in fragmented and changing landscapes. We used automatic UV light-traps to sample noctuidmoths on two remote islands, and compared traits of island occupants with those of a species pool from mainland southeast Sweden. Widely distributed species, generalist species, species with a long adult activity period and species active late in the summer had higher probability of occupancy on the remote islands. The results were consistent between islands. The traits of host plant specificity and species with an adult activity period during late summer remained robust and were statistically significant after controlling for any possible phylogenetic bias. This indicates that species exhibiting those traits survive better when habitat and climate changes. It is crucial to includeour results in; (1) conservation planning, e.g. when devising conservation measures in fragmented landscapes; (2) for predictions of future occupancy patterns; and (3) ecosystem impact assessments, e.g. the importance of moths as pollinators, herbivores and being the functional link between parasitoids, plants, consumers and predators.

  • 19.
    Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Variable color patterns influence continental range size and species-area relationships on islands2019Inngår i: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 1-11, artikkel-id e02577Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been hypothesized that species with more variable color patterns should have higher establishment success and be less sensitive to environmental changes and local extinction compared with species that do not vary in color. This difference in colonization/extinction balance should manifest as larger continental range distributions and modulate the species-area relationship on true islands. We evaluated these predictions using data for 1216 species of butterflies and moths that differed with regard to inter-individual variation in color pattern. We show that species with more variable color patterns have larger continental range sizes in Europe compared with non-variable species. We also provide rare evidence that the slope of the species-area relationship on islands is steeper for species having non-variable color patterns, suggesting that to preserve 60% of non-variable species would require an area twice as large compared to what would be needed to preserve 60% of variable species. Our findings suggest that combining information on ecological characteristics with presence/absence data from small and medium sized islands can help identify traits that drive species range patterns at the continental scale, and that individual variation in color pattern can be used as a proxy for ecological generalization and the ability to cope with environmental change.

  • 20.
    Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany ; Lund University.
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Species-area relationships are controlled by species traits2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 5, artikkel-id e37359Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The species-area relationship (SAR) is one of the most thoroughly investigated empirical relationships in ecology. Two theories have been proposed to explain SARs: classical island biogeography theory and niche theory. Classical island biogeography theory considers the processes of persistence, extinction, and colonization, whereas niche theory focuses on species requirements, such as habitat and resource use. Recent studies have called for the unification of these two theories to better explain the underlying mechanisms that generates SARs. In this context, species traits that can be related to each theory seem promising. Here we analyzed the SARs of butterfly and moth assemblages on islands differing in size and isolation. We tested whether species traits modify the SAR and the response to isolation. In addition to the expected overall effects on the area, traits related to each of the two theories increased the model fit, from 69% up to 90%. Steeper slopes have been shown to have a particularly higher sensitivity to area, which was indicated by species with restricted range (slope  = 0.82), narrow dietary niche (slope  = 0.59), low abundance (slope  = 0.52), and low reproductive potential (slope  = 0.51). We concluded that considering species traits by analyzing SARs yields considerable potential for unifying island biogeography theory and niche theory, and that the systematic and predictable effects observed when considering traits can help to guide conservation and management actions.

  • 21. Karlsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Malmgren, Jan
    Estimating viability and sensitivity of the great crested newt Triturus cristatus at a regional scale.2007Inngår i: Web Ecology, ISSN 1399-1183, E-ISSN 1399-1183, Vol. 7, s. 63-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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