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  • 1.
    Johansson, Maude
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Postpartum depression, depressive symptoms and parental stress in mothers and fathers 25-30 months after child birth: A family perspective2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the prevalence of postpartum depression and parental stress 25 - 30 months after delivery. The first study was conducted 25 months after delivery. The aims were to investigate the prevalence of postpartum depression and the associations between postpartum depression and parental stress in two areas of study; spouse relationship problems and feelings of incompetence in parenthood. Seven hundred mothers and 646 fathers answered a questionnaire. The results showed that the prevalence of depressive symptoms was more than 11% for mothers and nearly 5% for fathers and that parents with postpartum depressive symptoms experienced more feelings of incompetence and spouse relationship problems than parents without postpartum depressive symptoms.

    The second study included 176 mothers and 146 fathers. The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms, and if parental stress and attachment style affected postpartum depression in mothers and fathers 30 months after birth. The prevalence rate of postpartum depressive symptoms in mothers was 14.9 %, while for fathers it was 11.5 %. We observed a difference with the preoccupied and fearful attachment style in terms of parents with postpartum depressive symptoms and parents without postpartum depressive symptoms. However, the differences were not significant. Furthermore, parental stress outperformed attachment styles as a predictor for postpartum depressive symptoms in both the mothers and the fathers.

    Study III was a qualitative interview study explored the lived experiences of mothers and fathers, their experiences of postpartum depression, and parental stress. Five prominent themes were identified. Both mothers and fathers described experiences of inadequacy as the most stressful. Experiences of problems during pregnancy or a traumatic delivery contributed to depressive symptoms and anxiety in mothers, and affected fathers’ wellbeing.

    Thus, identifying depressive symptoms with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depressive Scale (EPDS), mothers described varying experiences of child health care support. Depressive symptoms seemed to affect the spouses’ relationships. Experiences of emotional problems and insecure upbringing in the parents’ family of origin may contribute to vulnerability that led to long-term problems for mothers.

    The overall conclusion of this thesis was that postpartum depression and parental stress had a significant impact on the everyday lives and that postpartum depression does not seemed to decline 25- 30 months after childbirth.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Maude
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Stenström, Ulf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Massoudi, Pamela
    University of Gothenburg.
    Depressive Symptoms and Parental Stress in Mothers and Fathers 25 Months after birth2017Inngår i: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 65-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, feelings of incompetence and spouse relationship problems and their mutual relations. Data from a Swedish parent–infant population-based cohort 25 months after childbirth was used. A questionnaire containing Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a modified Swedish Parental Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ) regarding depression and parental stress was answered by 646 fathers and 700 mothers. Parents with depressive symptoms experienced more feelings of incompetence and spouse relationship problems than parents without depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms (EPDS 􏰀 12) was more than11% for mothers and nearly 5% for fathers in the sample, 25 months after childbirth. The result indicated that feelings of incompetence and spouse relationship problems could be important constructs for understanding parental stress and depressive symptoms in the parents of young children. In conclusion, it is important that Child Health Care is attentive to both mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms and parental stress after the first year.

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