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  • 1.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Risk perception and worry in environmental decision-making - a case study within the Swedish steel industry2017Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 20, nr 9, s. 1173-1194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is an important issue for the industry in order to fulfil legislation requirements and to be able to use green marketing as a competitive advantage. The Swedish steel industry has implemented a large number of environmental improvements, for example, within energy efficiency, raw materials and recyclability. Technical improvements can help the industry decrease its environmental impact; however, in order to reach sustainable development, more factors need to be considered: an effective environmental decision-making process, for example. This process may be influenced by personal factors such as risk perception and worry, which are factors that will not contribute to an effective decision-making process. The aim of this study was to investigate if personal worry and risk perception influenced environmental decision-making within the Swedish steel industry. Thirty-eight interviews were performed at 10 Swedish steelworks using the Q-methodology. The major perceived environmental risks with the facility and personal worry were assessed, compared to the day-to-day work. It was concluded that the major perceived risks were emissions of carbon dioxide, use of non-renewable energy and emissions of particulate matter. The decision-makers were mainly worried about emissions of carbon dioxide, emissions of dioxin and use of non-renewable energy. The environmental issues that were prioritised in practice (day-to-day work) were emissions of carbon dioxide, emissions of particulate matter and emissions of metals. Even though emissions of carbon dioxide were given the highest priority in the Q-sorts, there was in general no clear relationship between risk perception and personal worry with the prioritised environmental issues at the steelworks. The quantitative analysis of the Q-sorts and the qualitative interviews both showed that the day-to-day work was unaffected by personal worry and risk.

  • 2.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Voxberg, Elin
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Historical exposure to heavy metals in air2017Inngår i: 26th SRA-E annual conference (SRA-E Lisbon 2017): Lisbon, Portugal, June 19-21, 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    The aspect of climate change in risk assessment of contaminated land2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Climate change - an uncertainty factor in risk analysis of contaminated land2011Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, nr 22, s. 4693-4700Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals frequently occur at contaminated sites, where their potential toxicity and persistence require risk assessments that consider possible long-term changes. Changes in climate are likely to affect the speciation, mobility, and risks associated with metals. This paper provides an example of how the climate effect can be inserted in a commonly used exposure model, and how the exposure then changes compared to present conditions. The comparison was made for cadmium (Cd) exposure to 4-year-old children at a highly contaminated iron and steel works site in southeastern Sweden. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches (through probability bounds analysis, PBA) were used in the exposure assessment. Potential climate-sensitive variables were determined by a literature review. Although only six of the total 39 model variables were assumed to be sensitive to a change in climate (groundwater infiltration, hydraulic conductivity, soil moisture, soil:water distribution, and two bioconcentration factors), the total exposure was clearly affected. For example, by altering the climate-sensitive variables in the order of 15% to 20%, the deterministic estimate of exposure increased by 27%. Similarly, the PBA estimate of the reasonable maximum exposure (RME, defined as the upper bound of the 95th percentile) increased by almost 20%. This means that sites where the exposure in present conditions is determined to be slightly below guideline values may in the future exceed these guidelines, and risk management decisions could thus be affected. The PBA, however, showed that there is also a possibility of lower exposure levels, which means that the changes assumed for the climate-sensitive variables increase the total uncertainty in the probabilistic calculations. This highlights the importance of considering climate as a factor in the characterization of input data to exposure assessments at contaminated sites. The variable with the strongest influence on the result was the soil:water distribution coefficient (Kd).

  • 5.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    Berglund, Marika
    Karlsson, Helen
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Challenges in assessing metal exposure around contaminated sites: the example of local vegetable consumption in the Swedish glassworks district2017Inngår i: 26th SRA-E annual conference (SRA-E Lisbon 2017): Lisbon, Portugal, June 19-21, 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    Linköping University.
    Berglund, Marika
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University.
    Hogmalm, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Challenges in assessing the health risks of consuming vegetables in metal-contaminated environments2018Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 113, s. 269-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A great deal of research has been devoted to the characterization of metal exposure due to the consumption of vegetables from urban or industrialized areas. It may seem comforting that concentrations in crops, as well as estimated exposure levels, are often found to be below permissible limits. However, we show that even a moderate increase in metal accumulation in crops may result in a significant increase in exposure. We also highlight the importance of assessing exposure levels in relation to a regional baseline. We have analyzed metal (Pb, Cd, As) concentrations in nearly 700 samples from 23 different vegetables, fruits, berries and mushrooms, collected near 21 highly contaminated industrial sites and from reference sites. Metal concentrations generally complied with permissible levels in commercial food and only Pb showed overall higher concentrations around the contaminated sites. Nevertheless, probabilistic exposure assessments revealed that the exposure to all three metals was significantly higher in the population residing around the contaminated sites, for both low-, medianand high consumers. The exposure was about twice as high for Pb and Cd, and four to six times as high for As. Since vegetable consumption alone did not result in exposure above tolerable intakes, it would have been easy to conclude that there is no risk associated with consuming vegetables grown near the contaminated sites. However, when the increase in exposure is quantified, its potential significance is harder to dismiss - especially when considering that exposure via other routes may be elevated in a similar way.

  • 7.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogmalm, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables: the relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites2015Inngår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 138, s. 181-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs),which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil,in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed toquantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure as-sessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 con-taminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soiland vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted toestimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that con-centrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and mostsamples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) wasassessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about afifth of the study population. Bioconcentrationfactors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasingmetal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected bythe choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be un-acceptable.

  • 8.
    Filipsson, Monika
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Environmental Risk Assessment - Uncertainty, variability and statistical methods2009Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Uncertainty, variability and environmental risk analysis2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The negative effects of hazardous substances and possible measures that can be taken are evaluated in the environmental risk analysis process, consisting of risk assessment, risk communication and risk management. Uncertainty due to lack of knowledge and natural variability are always present in this process. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate some tools as well as discuss the management of uncertainty and variability, as it is necessary to treat them both in a reliable and transparent way to gain regulatory acceptance in decision making.

    The catalytic effects of various metals on the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds during the heating of fly ash were investigated (paper I). Copper showed a positive catalytic effect, while cobalt, chromium and vanadium showed a catalytic effect for degradation. Knowledge of the catalytic effects may facilitate the choice and design of combustion processes to decrease emissions, but it also provides valuable information to identify and characterize the hazard.

    Exposure factors of importance in risk assessment (physiological parameters, time use factors and food consumption) were collected and evaluated (paper II). Interindividual variability was characterized by mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and multiple percentiles, while uncertainty in these parameters was estimated with confidence intervals.

    How these statistical parameters can be applied was shown in two exposure assessments (papers III and IV). Probability bounds analysis was used as a probabilistic approach, which enables separate propagation of uncertainty and variability even in cases where the availability of data is limited. In paper III it was determined that the exposure cannot be expected to cause any negative health effects for recreational users of a public bathing place. Paper IV concluded that the uncertainty interval in the estimated exposure increased when accounting for possible changes in climate-sensitive model variables. Risk managers often need to rely on precaution and an increased uncertainty may therefore have implications for risk management decisions.

    Paper V focuses on risk management and a questionnaire was sent to employees at all Swedish County Administrative Boards working with contaminated land. It was concluded that the gender, age and work experience of the employees, as well as the funding source of the risk assessment, all have an impact on the reviewing of risk assessments. Gender was the most significant factor, and it also affected the perception of knowledge.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Environmental decision-making within the steel industry: the role of individuals’ worries, knowledge and responsibility2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fagergren, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Perception of uncertainties and quality in risk assessments by people working with risk assessments2013Inngår i: Abstracts of the 2013 Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES), and the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ)., 2013, s. Abstract Number : 3978-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background About 80,000 possible contaminated sites have been identified in Sweden. Assessing the risk posed by these sites and, if necessary, remediating the soil is associated with high costs. It is thus important that these assessments are reliable. A problem with current methods is that uncertainty and variability are often not accounted for. Different individuals have different physiology and behaviour and soil composition differs at various sites which can be considered in probabilistic methods. This requires tools that are user-friendly and cost and time-efficient. Information about the perception of risk assessments, uncertainty and tools wanted by people working with risk assessments is therefore needed.

    Aims The aim of this study is to investigate whether people working with risk assessments in practice find that these assessments are of sufficient quality, whether it is important to consider uncertainty and variability and which tools they may need to be able to consider these questions.

    Methods A questionnaire was sent to people working with the risk assessment of contaminated sites at government authorities and consultancies in Sweden. Results The data collected suggest that the majority of respondents find that risk assessment quality in general would need to be improved. Important factors to achieve this include a greater knowledge of the individuals involved in risk assessments, more financial resources, greater knowledge in form of new research and more time. The respondents also find it very important to characterize both uncertainty and variability, and to do this several respondents want more tools such as literature and databases with information about critical exposure factors and manuals.

    Conclusions

    According to personnel involved in the risk assessment of contaminated sites, the quality of the assessment should be enhanced and different tools would be useful to facilitate the characterization of uncertainty and variability.

  • 12.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nyholm, Sofia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Consumption of vegetables and risk perception at contaminated glass works sites in Sweden2013Inngår i: Abstracts of the 2013 Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES), and the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ)., 2013, s. Abstract Number: 3980-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Glass has been produced since the 18th century in Kalmar and Kronoberg counties in an area called the Kingdom of Crystal. The production of glass has been associated with high levels of heavy metals in the soil. The most critical exposure pathways for metals are oral intake of soil, consumption of water and home-produced vegetables. The consumption of home-produced vegetables in particular is a highly site-specific exposure pathway and is therefore of interest to investigate in this geographic area.

    Aims The study aims to investigate to what extent home-produced vegetables are consumed by people living near glass work industries as well as their perception of environmental and health risks and the authorities’ risk communication.

    Methods A questionnaire including questions about personal factors, consumption of vegetables and fruit as well as the perception of risks and risk communication was sent to 300 randomly selected individuals living in areas close to glass works. Results A majority of those questioned, 87%, consume vegetables or fruit from their own garden sometime during the year and more than half of the respondents eat these food items on a regular basis or several times a year. Just over 40% are concerned about that the fruit or vegetables from their own garden may be contaminated with pollutants from the glass works, but an even greater number are concerned that pollution from glass works will affect their health or the environment in general. More than half of the respondents would like to have more information about environmental and health risks.

    Conclusions

    Home-produced vegetables are frequently consumed in areas around glass work industries. Many residents are at the same time concerned and request more information about possible risks. Site-specific studies including quantities and types of vegetables ingested as well as contamination levels are needed to investigate if the exposure is actually of concern.

  • 13.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nyholm, Sofia
    Public Perception of Risks Associated with Contaminated Glassworks sites in South-Eastern Sweden2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Exponeringsfaktorer vid riskbedömning2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Exponeringsfaktorer vid riskbedömning: Inventering av dataunderlag2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Exponering definieras som kontakten mellan ett kemiskt, fysikaliskt eller biologiskt agens och den yttre avgränsningen för en organism. Människors exponering för kemiska ämnen i miljön styrs inte bara av förekomsten av en förorening, utan även av beteende, fysiologiska egenskaper och olika yttre faktorer. De mätbara variabler som används i exponeringsmodeller för att beskriva detta benämns exponeringsfaktorer.

    Den mest omfattande sammanställningen av data för olika exponeringsfaktorer härrör från USA, men det finns även ett par europeiska sammanställningar. Beteenden, fysiologiska egenskaper och yttre miljöfaktorer skiljer dock mellan olika länder. Det finns därför skäl att sammanställa sådana data även för svenskt vidkommande. En sammanställning kan även bidra till en viss standardisering av riskbedömningar.

    I föreliggande rapport redovisas exponeringsfaktorer för olika områden och i stora stycken överensstämmer urvalet med de tidigare nämnda internationella sammanställningarna. Redovisningen och dess omfattning påverkas även i hög grad av tillgången på data. Det innebär exempelvis att variabilitet (naturlig variation) och osäkerhet inte kan anges för alla faktorer. Dessa databrister är särskilt påtagliga vad gäller konsumtion av dricksvatten och hemodlade vegetabilier samt tidsanvändning.

    Dataunderlaget är däremot gott för fysiologiska parametrar som kroppsvikt och hudyta liksom den allmänna konsumtionen av livsmedel. För dessa exponeringsfaktorer redovisas statistiska parametrar som medelvärde, standardavvikelse, skevhet och kurtosis. Dessutom anges osäkerhetsintervall för dessa parametrar. Percentiler utgör ett användbart alternativ för presentera variabilitet (naturlig variation) och även sådana redovisas tillsammans med tillhörande osäkerhetsintervall.

    Ytterligare exponeringsfaktorer som behandlas i rapporten är åldersfördelning och flyttningsfrekvens, boende och byggnader, kontakt med mark och damm och markegenskaper. Förutom tabellerade värden återfinns även referenser till de primära datakällorna så att det är möjligt att själv gå vidare och fördjupa sig i underlaget.

    I rapporten jämförs även insamlade data med remissversionen av den svenska beräkningsmodellen för riktvärden för mark. Jämförelsen med denna modell visar att valda värden för exponeringsfaktorerna ibland motsvarar en bästa skattning (medelvärde/median), ofta en konservativ skattning och ibland en mycket konservativ skattning. Det går inte att utifrån dessa jämförelser dra några säkra slutsatser om dess inverkan på den slutliga riskbedömningen och beslut avseende åtgärder.

    Det är rapportförfattarnas förhoppning att föreliggande sammanställning ska underlätta och påskynda en övergång till riskbedömningsmetoder där variabilitet och osäkerhet kan uppskattas och redovisas kvantitativt.

  • 16.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fagerberg, Maria
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Parents’ risk perception of toxic chemicals in children’s products at daycare centers2015Inngår i: Presented at: Sociology of Risk and Uncertainty Research Networks (ESA) mid-term conference, Risk, Uncertainty and Transition. 8-10 April 2015, Stuttgart, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Henningsson, Marianne
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Humanvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Exposure to contaminated sediments during recreational activities at a public bathing place2009Inngår i: Presentation vid SRA Europe annual meeting i Karlstad, 28 juni-1 juli 2009., 2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Henningsson, Marianne
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Humanvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Exposure to contaminated sediments during recreational activities at a public bathing place2009Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 171, nr 1-3, s. 200-207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    More and more time is spent on recreational activities, but few risk assessments focus specifically on these situations and exposure factor data are often scarce. To assess exposure to contaminants at a public bathing place in an urban environment, we have compiled literature data, conducted observation studies, and analyzed water and sediment samples. The levels of anthropogenic contaminants are high in urban environments and traffic frequently plays an important role. In this study, to characterize variability and uncertainty, the deterministic exposure calculations for metal pollutants were supplemented by a probability bounds analysis for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results from these calculations show that oral intake is the major exposure route for metals, while skin absorption, with present assumptions, is more important for the PAH. The presently measured levels of contaminants, at this public bathing place, cannot be anticipated to cause any significant adverse influence on public health.

  • 19.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Karlsson, Alexandra
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Consumption of home-produced foods in south eastern Sweden: new data for use in exposure assessments2017Inngår i: 26th SRA-E annual conference (SRA-E Lisbon 2017): Lisbon, Portugal, June 19-21, 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Ljunggren, Lill
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gender differences in risk management of contaminated land at a Swedish authority2014Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 353-365Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Any risk analysis process leading to the remediation of contaminated land will be affected by individual judgements. Many contaminated land risk assessments in Sweden are reviewed by the County Administrative Board (CAB), a regional government authority. The cost for risk assessments and eventually remediation is funded by whichever operator is legally responsible; however, when the responsible party is unknown, the cost can be met by government grants. A questionnaire was sent to all employees working with contaminated land at each of Sweden’s CABs to investigate whether gender, age and work experience, as well as funding source, affect the reviewing of risk assessments, and the employees’ perception of knowledge gained from the Sustainable Remediation (Hållbar Sanering) research programme. It was found that gender was the most significant factor, but also age and experience of the employees influenced the respondent’s answers. The reviews of risk assessments also varied depending on funding source.

  • 21.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Samuelsson, Lill
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Variability between individuals when reviewing environmental risk assessments at a public authority2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Undersökning och riskbedömning av Trekantens badplats - Riskkarakterisering2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Undersökning och riskbedömning av Trekantens badplats: Riskkarakterisering2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trekanten är en av Stockholms mer förorenade sjöar. Sedimenten i sjöns djupare delar innehåller höga halter tungmetaller och polycykliska aromatiska kolväten (PAH). Frågan om det kan vara hälsofarligt att komma i kontakt med sedimenten har uppkommit och oron har främst gällt bad vid badplatsen. Det har därför funnits skäl för att närmare utreda föroreningshalterna i anslutning till badplatsen och fastställa om någon hälsofara kan förekomma vid bad.

    I föreliggande rapport redovisas de exponeringsberäkningar och den riskbedömning som har gjorts utifrån de undersökningar som genomfördes under sommaren 2006 och 2007. Undersökningarna har omfattat dels en studie av badvanor, dels provtagning och analys av föroreningar i sediment och ytvatten. Exponeringsberäkningarna baseras även på sammanställningar av modeller och exponeringsfaktorer från den vetenskapliga litteraturen liksom svenska undersökningar. Ett informationsutbyte har även skett med tjänstemän vid det amerikanska naturvårdsverket (U.S. EPA).

    Undersökningarna har visat att föroreningshalterna i sand vid badplatsen och i ytvatten är låga. Halterna av PAH och metaller i sanden var lägre än de generella riktvärdena för förorenad mark som avser känslig markanvändning. Halterna av PAH och metaller (med undantag för krom) i ytvatten var lägre än normerna för dricksvatten.

     Exponeringsberäkningarna har genomförts separat för barn och vuxna. Huvudsakligen avser beräkningarna punktskattningar, dels en bästa skattning, dels en skattning av rimlig maximal exponering. För PAH-föreningar har utvärderingen även kompletterats med en sannolikhetsberäkning för att beskriva variabilitet och osäkerheter i dataunderlaget. Den beräknade exponeringen är i de flesta fall under de toxikologiska referensvärden som har använts.

    Slutsatsen från de genomförda undersökningarna är att exponeringen för PAH och metaller vid bad i sjön Trekanten, vid nu uppmätta halter, inte kan förutses medföra någon ogynnsam påverkan av betydelse för befolkningens hälsa.

  • 24.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Variability and uncertainty in Swedish exposure factors for use in quantitative exposure assessments2011Inngår i: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 108-119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information of exposure factors used in quantitative risk assessments has previously been compiled and reported for U.S. and European populations. However, due to the advancement of science and knowledge, these reports are in continuous need of updating with new data. Equally important is the change over time of many exposure factors related to both physiological characteristics and human behavior. Body weight, skin surface, time use, and dietary habits are some of the most obvious examples covered here. A wealth of data is available from literature not primarily gathered for the purpose of risk assessment. Here we review a number of key exposure factors and compare these factors between northern Europe—here represented by Sweden—and the United States. Many previous compilations of exposure factor data focus on interindividual variability and variability between sexes and age groups, while uncertainty is mainly dealt with in a qualitative way. In this article variability is assessed along with uncertainty. As estimates of central tendency and interindividual variability, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and multiple percentiles were calculated, while uncertainty was characterized using 95% confidence intervals for these parameters. The presented statistics are appropriate for use in deterministic analyses using point estimates for each input parameter as well as in probabilistic assessments.

  • 25.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ljunggren, Stefan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nosratabadi, Reza
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Marika
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Exposure of metals and PAH through local foods and risk of cancer in a historically contaminated glassworks area2019Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 131, s. 1-10, artikkel-id 104985Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Production of crystal glass and colored art glassware have been going on in the south-eastern part of Sweden since the 1700s, at over 100 glassworks and smaller glass blowing facilities, resulting in environmental contamination with mainly arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH). High levels of metals have been found in soil, and moderately elevated levels in vegetables, mushrooms and berries collected around the glassworks sites compared with reference areas. Food in general, is the major exposure source to metals, such as Cd and Pb, and PAHs. Exposure to these toxic metals and PAH has been associated with a variety of adverse health effects in humans including cancer.

    Objective

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of cancer in a cohort from the contaminated glasswork area in relation to long-term dietary intake of locally produced foods, while taking into account residential, occupational and life styles factors.

    Methods

    The study population was extracted from a population cohort of 34,266 individuals who, at some time between the years 1979–2004, lived within a 2 km radius of a glassworks or glass landfill. Register information on cancer incidence and questionnaire information on consumption of local foods (reflecting 30 years general eating habits), life-time residence in the area, life style factors and occupational exposure was collected. Furthermore, blood (n = 660) and urine (n = 400) samples were collected in a subsample of the population to explore associations between local food consumption frequencies, biomarker concentrations in blood (Cd, Pb, As) and urine (PAH metabolite 1-OHPy) as well as environmental and lifestyle factors. The concurrent exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from food was also considered. A case-control study was performed for evaluation of associations between intakes of local food and risk of cancer.

    Results

    Despite high environmental levels of Cd, Pb and As at glasswork sites and landfills, current metal exposure in the population living in the surrounding areas was similar or only moderately higher in our study population compared to the general population. Reported high consumption of certain local foods was associated with higher Cd and Pb, but not As, concentrations in blood, and 1-OHPy in urine. An increased risk of cancer was associated with smoking, family history of cancer, obesity, and residence in glasswork area before age 5 years. Also, a long-term high consumption of local foods (reflecting 30 years general eating habits), i.e. fish and meat (game, chicken, lamb), was associated with increased risk of various cancer forms.

    Conclusions

    The associations between consumption of local food and different types of cancer may reflect a higher contaminant exposure in the past, and thus, if consumption of local food contributes to the risk of acquiring cancer, that contribution is probably lower today than before. Furthermore, it cannot be ruled out that other contaminants in the food contribute to the increased cancer risks observed.

  • 26. Hultgren, Sandra
    et al.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Variability in frequency and quantity of used personal health care products by young people for use in quantitative exposure assessment2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Sahlin, Ullrika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    A risk assessment perspective of current practice in characterizing uncertainties in QSAR regression predictions2011Inngår i: Molecular Informatics, ISSN 1868-1751, Vol. 30, nr 6-7, s. 551-564Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European REACH legislation accepts the use of non-testing methods, such as QSARs, to inform chemical risk assessment. In this paper, we aim to initiate a discussion on the characterization of predictive uncertainty from QSAR regressions. For the purpose of decision making, we discuss applications from the perspective of applying QSARs to support probabilistic risk assessment. Predictive uncertainty is characterized by a wide variety of methods, ranging from pure expert judgement based on variability in experimental data, through data-driven statistical inference, to the use of probabilistic QSAR models. Model uncertainty is dealt with by assessing confidence in predictions and by building consensus models. The characterization of predictive uncertainty would benefit from a probabilistic formulation of QSAR models (e.g. generalized linear models, conditional density estimators or Bayesian models). This would allow predictive uncertainty to be quantified as probability distributions, such as Bayesian predictive posteriors, and likelihood-based methods to address model uncertainty. QSAR regression models with point estimates as output may be turned into a probabilistic framework without any loss of validity from a chemical point of view. A QSAR model for use in probabilistic risk assessment needs to be validated for its ability to make reliable predictions and to quantify associated uncertainty.

  • 28.
    Sahlin, Ullrika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Characterization of variability and uncertainty from QSARs for probabilistic risk assessments within REACH2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hur kan boende i glasriket exponeras för metaller?: Studier över föroreningsspridning och exponering vid Miljöriskgruppen på LNU2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogmalm, Johan
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    The variability in bioconcentration factors and the importance of bioconcentration factors in probabilistic risk assessments2015Inngår i: The Future of Risk Analysis in the Nordic Countries: Lund, Sweden, 16-17 November 2015, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) express contaminant concentration in edible plants as a function of the concentration in soil. Routine risk assessments rarely include site-specific analyses of contaminants in vegetables. Instead a common procedure is to use generic BCFs which are uncertain for several reasons. There is a natural variability in metal uptake in plants. The uptake varies between crops, and depends largely on both geochemical and hydrological conditions of the soil. Despite this many risk assessments in practice use BCFs, without taking into account the influence of geochemical factors.

    A study at the Linnaeus University aimed to quantify the variability in BCFs and to evaluate the implication of this variability for human exposure assessments. Potatoes and lettuce with corresponding soil samples were collected from contaminated glasswork sites and analyzed for cadmium and lead.

    The results indicated that the variability in BCF values was greater than indicated by previous studies (having a larger possible min–max span). The importance of this variability in exposure assessments was, however, most evident at low soil metal concentrations. At high concentrations, BCFs were lower and the variability in calculated exposure was mainly dependent on the soil contamination level. Although the conclusion is that the BCFs is of relatively little importance compared to the concentration in soil, the BCFs is still of equal or greater importance than the other exposure factors included in the calculation of exposure via vegetable consumption. The lower BCFs at high contamination levels also highlight the importance of selecting BCFs that are characterized for relevant contamination levels.

    Much of the variability described in this study may, however, reflect the results of a BCF characterization approach that is uncertain. Thus, BCF characterizations using more precise methods should be prioritized in future studies.

  • 31.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Catalytic effects by metal oxides on the formation and degradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds in fly ash.2008Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 71, nr 6, s. 1135-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated benzenes, dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), and dibenzofurans (PCDF) may be formed below the combustion temperature in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI). Copper catalyzes this formation, possibly by the Deacon reaction. Many other elements are also Deacon catalysts or promoters, and here we report results from a statistically designed experiment with 15 metal oxides added to fly ash and heated at 300 degrees C for 2h in an air atmosphere. A resolution IV fractional factorial design with four replicates was completed in 36 runs with the oxides of magnesium, yttrium, titanium, vanadium, niobium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, and tin. All samples were analyzed for chlorinated benzenes and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance. The addition of copper significantly increased the amounts of the chlorinated benzenes, while cobalt, chromium and vanadium decreased the net formation. The oxides of zinc and iron seemed to have a slightly positive and negative effect respectively. The findings in this study seem to corroborate our previously reported results regarding the different catalytic effects of copper and chromium, and lack of a significant effect by nickel. Besides chromium, it also identifies cobalt and vanadium as potent catalysts for oxidative degradation of the chlorinated aromatic compounds found in MSWI fly ash.

  • 32.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Exposure factors: How to characterize the data?2007Inngår i: Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, San Antonio, Texas, 9-12 december 2007, 2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
1 - 32 of 32
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