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  • 1.
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Continuous system based on rice husks for biodegradation of a simulated textile waste water containing azo dyes2013Ingår i: Continuous system based on rice husks for biodegradation of a simulated textile waste water containing azo dyes, International Water Association, Elsevier, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Microbial treatment of textile wastewater applicable in developing countries2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Biotreatment of actual textile wastewater in a continuous biofilter and the associated bacterial and fungal microflora.Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile processes use many different chemicals, most of which ends up in wastewater. Coloring of clothes is a particularly troublesome process since both azo and anthraquinone dyes are recalcitrant to degradation, causing environmental concerns. Hence, there is a great need to investigate and develop safe and applicable systems to the water demanding industry, such as textile mills in developing countries.

    In the present study biodegradation of actual textile wastewater (containing azo and anthraquinone dyes) was evaluated in biofilters. Indigenous decolourants from rice husks were used in bioreactors and the degradation was analyzed with spectrophotometer and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to monitor metabolites, especially in the form of aromatic amines. Chemical characteristics of the water were and bacterial and fungal community composition was monitored by denaturing gradient gel glectrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and subsequent sequencing of the 16S rRNA and ITS gene fragments.

    The indigenous microflora consistently performed over 90% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of 67 h. The molecular fingerprinting revealed the presence of bacteria such as Clostridium, Pseudomonadales, Xenophilus, Paenibacillus, Acinetobacter and Sphingomonas, all known to carry genes for azoreductases.  Furthermore, results showed that fungi were present in the biofilter, and were predominant in the aerobic reactors.

    Collectively, these results indicate that the developed biofilter with rice husks support a mixed microbial community of both bacteria and fungi, with key features contributing to an efficient and reliable degradation performance of actual textile wastewater.

  • 4.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Microbial biotreatment of actual textile wastewater in a continuous sequential rice husk biofilter and the microbial community involved2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id e0170562Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile dying processes often pollute wastewater with recalcitrant azo and anthraquinone dyes. Yet, there is little development of effective and affordable degradation systems for textile wastewater applicable in countries where water technologies remain poor. We determined biodegradation of actual textile wastewater in biofilters containing rice husks by spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The indigenous microflora from the rice husks consistently performed >90% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of 67 h. Analysis of microbial community composition of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene fragments in the biofilters revealed a bacterial consortium known to carry azoreductase genes, such as Dysgonomonas, and Pseudomonas and the presence of fungal phylotypes such as Gibberella and Fusarium. Our findings emphasize that rice husk biofilters support a microbial community of both bacteria and fungi with key features for biodegradation of actual textile wastewater. These results suggest that microbial processes can substantially contribute to efficient and reliable degradation of actual textile wastewater. Thus, development of biodegradation systems holds promise for application of affordable wastewater treatment in polluted environments.

  • 5.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Microbial diversity in a continuous system based on rice husks for biodegradation of the azo dyes Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Black 52013Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 130, s. 681-688Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study the degradation of two common azo dyes used in dye houses today, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 2 was evaluated in biofilters. In two experiments, bioreactors performed over 80% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of only 28.4 h with little production of metabolites. Molecular analyses showed a diverse and dynamic bacterial community composition in the bioreactors, including members of the Bacteroidetes, Acinetobacter (Gammaproteobacteria) and Clostridium (Firmicutes) that possess the capacity to reduce azo dyes. Collectively, the results indicate that the development of mixed bacterial communities from natural biomaterials contributes to an efficient and robust degradation performance in bioreactors even at high concentration of dyes.

  • 6.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Biodegradation of azo and anthraquinone dyes in continuous systems2011Ingår i: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 65, nr 1, s. 227-237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to develop a complete microbiological model system for the treatment of wastewater

    from textile mills in developing countries. Arti

    fi

    cial wastewater was treated by microorganisms growing

    on wood shavings from Norway spruce during unsterile conditions. The microorganisms were inoculated

    from forest residues. Mixtures of the azo dyes Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 2 were degraded in

    batch as well as continuous experiments. Reactive Red 2 mixed with the anthraquinone dye Reactive

    Blue 4 was also treated in the continuous system. The system consisted of three reservoirs

     

     

    e the fi

    rst two

    with an anaerobic environment and the third with an aerobic. The dye concentrations were 200 mg l

     

     

    1

    of

    each dye in the continuous system and the retention time was approximately 4 days and 20 h per

    reservoir. Samples from the process were analysed with spectrophotometer and LC/MS to monitor the

    degradation process. 86-90% of the colour was removed after a treatment of 4 days and 23 h in the

    continuous process. Two metabolites were found in the outlets of reactors one and two, but they were

    degraded to below the detection limit in the aerobic reactor.

     

     

     

  • 7.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design. Avdelningen för Bioenergiteknik.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design. Avdelningen för Bioenergiteknik.
    Biodegradation of azo dyes by natural microflora from forest residues chips cultivated on Swedish soft wood chips2008Ingår i: 16th European Biomass Conference& Exhibition, 2-6 June 2008, Valencia,Spain, ETA-Forence renewable energies , 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By use of wood chips as a carrier and coal donator, azo dyes are biodegraded by the native microflora inhabiting forest residues chips from the south east part of Sweden. Due to background emissions from the forest residues chips the microflora are successfully transferred to soft sood chips from Norwegian spruce (picea abis) and Scots pine (pinus sylvestris). The azo dyes used in this study are reactive red 2 and reactive black 5 in combined artifical wastewater. The dyes are at a concentration of 200 mg/l degraded within 20 days with additional yeast extract of 1 g/l and 30 days without.

  • 8.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Biodegradation of Textile Dyes Based on Wood Carriers2010Ingår i: Proceedings of Linnaeus SCO-TecH'10 / [ed] Fabio Kaczala, Sandrine Arzur, Ida Tjäder, William Hogland, Linnaeus University , 2010, s. 267-277Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodegradation of textile dyes from the azo class by Bjerkandera sp.and microbial consortium from forest residues. Bjerkandera’s degradation ability was evaluated in unsterile environment and put out of competition from the microbial consortium inhabiting forest residues. Microorganisms from forest residues were evaluated and transferred to soft wood shavings with maintained biodegrade performance. A continuous system was created containing anaerobic and aerobic parts and a successful degradation was monitored by spectrophotometer and High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  • 9.
    Jansson, Anette
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Pilot-Scale Experiments Using Cultivated Macro Algae for Biogas Production, Part of a Future Seafarm Biorefinery2016Ingår i: 24th EUBCE Online Proceedings 2016: Setting the course for a biobased economy. Held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6 - 9 June 2016, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2016, s. 627-629Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The research is focused on evaluation of substrates not commonly used for biogas production and the development and optimization of processes adjusted to these substrates. This study deals with evaluation of sea weeds (Saccharina Lattisima and Laminaria digitata). Biomethane potential tests (BMP) have shown the methane potential of the algae to be 180-440 l CH4/kg organic material. These potentials are in the same range as potentials found for commonly used substrates such as sewage sludge and slaughterhouse waste. Sampling of produced biogas, substrate and digest were performed by using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) followed by analysis by a Gas Chromatograph with a Mass Spectrometrer (GC-MS) in order to develop a method to be able to characterize, monitor and possibly control the process.

  • 10.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Self-heating properties of softwood samples investigated by using isothermal calorimetry2018Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 111, s. 206-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The investigation focused on obtaining experimental results from the self-heating properties of different softwood samples during lab-scale storage. The samples investigated were a mixture of dried soft wood sawdust, softwood pellets 8 mm in diameter, and aged softwood sawdust stored outdoors for three months. Isothermal calorimetry was used to measure the heat released from the biomass samples and assess the contribution to self-heating during storage. Softwood samples were stored at 20 °C, 50 °C, 55 °C and 60 °C, and the metals manganese, copper and iron were added as a water solution to investigate if the presence of metals would increase the risk of self-heating. For most sample series, the highest levels of heat release were found after approximately 10 days of storage; sample series stored at 50 °C displayed the highest levels. The addition of copper resulted in levels of heat release 135% higher than samples without metal added.

  • 11.
    Santos, Graziely Cristina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET). Univ. Estadual Paulista, Brazil.
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Corso, Carlos Renato
    Univ. Estadual Paulista, Brazil.
    Redox mediator evaluation in the azo dye biodegradation2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Azo dye degradation occurs by means of the oxidation–reduction reactions which have the azo dye acting as final electron acceptor. Some carbon sources can act as electron donors because the products of their metabolism act as redox mediators. In order to enhance the dye biodegradation process, the present study aims to evaluate the decolorization of an artificial wastewater, containing the azo dye Direct Red 75 (DR75), led by a microbial consortium from rice husks, testing the effect in the process of glucose and yeast extract as carbon sources. Samples with and without 0.1 M Sodium phosphate buffer were also analysed. The decolorization was measured by means UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The percentage of decolorization of the samples over the time indicates that the sample with yeast extract, rinse water of rice husks and without buffer presented the best decolorization rate, about 80%. Therefore, the results presented in this study may also suggest that yeast extract is a better carbon source for dye biodegradation than glucose.

  • 12.
    Santos-Pereira, Graziely Cristina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Corso, Carlos Renato
    UNESP - São Paulo State University, Brazil.
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Evaluation of two different carriers in the biodegradation process of an azo dye2019Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The MBBR solution has been applied for the textile wastewater treatment. However, in order to develop cost-effectivesolutions, waste biomass can be used as carrier. Rice husks are agricultural waste which have been used as an adsorbent of dyes;besides, they can provide and sustain suitable microorganism communities for the degradation of dyes. This study aimed toevaluate the biodegradation of the azo dye Direct Red 75 in two treatment systems with different carriers.Methods Bioreactor Awas composed by an anaerobic bioreactor filled with Kaldnes K1 carriers employed in the MBBR technologyand the study was performed in 2 different temperatures, 30 ± 0.5 °C and 21 ± 2 °C. Biofilter B was composed by a sequencedanaerobic-aerobic system with rice husks as carriers and this study was performed at 21 ± 2 °C. The rice husks was also employed asa source of microorganisms in both systems. Decolourization, surface area of the carriers and other parameters were analysed.Results Biofilter B showed high rates of decolorization, mainly over 90% in all HRT tested (24, 48 and 12 h), presenting itself asa stable system, whereas Bioreactors A showed better performances with 48 h of HRT, about 85%for A at 30 ± 0.5 °C and 45%at21 ± 2 °C. With a similar amount of carriers, analyses showed that rice husks had a much larger surface for microorganisms togrow on than Kaldnes K1.Conclusion The Biofilter B is a worthwhile system to be investigated and applied for the decolourization of textile wastewatertreatment; for instance, in developing countries.

  • 13. Türgay, Orcun
    et al.
    Ersöz, Gülin
    Atalay, Süheyda
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Treatment of Azo Dyes in Textile Industry Wastewater by Biological and/or Chemical Methods2011Ingår i: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 79, nr 1, s. 26-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Welander, Ulrika
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Forss, Jörgen
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Decolourization of reactive azo dyes with microorganisms growing on soft wood chips2009Ingår i: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, ISSN 0964-8305, Vol. 63, s. 752-758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The decolourization of a mixture of 200 mg/l each of Reactive Black 5 and Reactive REd 2 dye was studied in batch experiments using microorganisms growing on forest residue wood chips in combination with or without added white-rot fungus, Bjerakndera sp. BOL 13. The study was performed as a first stage in the development of a relatively simple treatement process for textile wastewater, designed to work in developing countries. Forest residue wood chips contain a mixture of fungi and bacteria which is an advantage when complex molecules should be degraded. The wood chips furthermore provide the microorganisms with carbon source which make the addition of e.g. glucose unnecessary. The results showed that the microorganisms growing on the forest residue wood chips decolourized the mixture of the two dyes; adding extra nutrients approximately doubled the decolourization rate. The time needed for decolourization was approximately 18 days when nutrients were added. Lignocellulosic material is complex and so were the analysis, microorganisms were therfore transferred to ordinary soft wood chips from forest residue wood chips, Decolourization was measured with spectrophotometer an in order to determine intermediates HPLC was used.

  • 15.
    Wollak, Birte
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Evaluation of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) as substrate for biogas production in Kalmar County (Sweden)2018Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 111, s. 96-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is an over-fertilized inland sea; the blue mussels have potential to absorb nutrients as well as being a source of renewable energy in the form of biogas. The aim of this study was to evaluate technology to utilize blue mussels for biogas production in a pilot scale. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were anaerobically digested in a two-stage digestion process (430 L), consisting of a percolation bed and an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Frozen mussels with shells were placed in the percolation bed and digestion was performed at 36 oC during 37 days. The methane potential achieved with this technique was 310 L kg-1 volatile solid substances (273.15 K, 101.3 kPa). This result suggests that blue mussels can be efficiently digested in a larger scale and have the potential of contributing to a sustainable energy mix in the Baltic region and at the same time decrease the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea.  No addition of nutrients and no pretreatment of the mussels (peeling) were needed.

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