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  • 1.
    Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Variable color patterns influence continental range size and species-area relationships on islands2019Ingår i: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 1-11, artikel-id e02577Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been hypothesized that species with more variable color patterns should have higher establishment success and be less sensitive to environmental changes and local extinction compared with species that do not vary in color. This difference in colonization/extinction balance should manifest as larger continental range distributions and modulate the species-area relationship on true islands. We evaluated these predictions using data for 1216 species of butterflies and moths that differed with regard to inter-individual variation in color pattern. We show that species with more variable color patterns have larger continental range sizes in Europe compared with non-variable species. We also provide rare evidence that the slope of the species-area relationship on islands is steeper for species having non-variable color patterns, suggesting that to preserve 60% of non-variable species would require an area twice as large compared to what would be needed to preserve 60% of variable species. Our findings suggest that combining information on ecological characteristics with presence/absence data from small and medium sized islands can help identify traits that drive species range patterns at the continental scale, and that individual variation in color pattern can be used as a proxy for ecological generalization and the ability to cope with environmental change.

  • 2.
    Heuschele, Jan
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; Lund University, Sweden;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Ekvall, Mikael T.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bianco, Giuseppe
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Lund University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Context-dependent individual behavioral consistency in Daphnia2017Ingår i: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 8, nr 2, artikel-id e01679Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of consistent individual differences in behavior, often termed “personality,” for adapting and coping with threats and novel environmental conditions has advanced considerably during the last decade. However, advancements are almost exclusively associated with higher-order animals, whereas studies focusing on smaller aquatic organisms are still rare. Here, we show individual differences in the swimming behavior of Daphnia magna, a clonal freshwater invertebrate, before, during, and after being exposed to a lethal threat, ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We show consistency in swimming velocity among both mothers and daughters of D. magna in a neutral environment, whereas this pattern breaks down when exposed to UVR. Our study also, for the first time, illustrates how the ontogenetic development in swimming and refuge-seeking behavior of young individuals eventually approaches that of adults. Overall, we show that aquatic invertebrates are far from being identical robots, but instead they show considerable individual differences in behavior that can be attributed to both ontogenetic development and individual consistency. Our study also demonstrates, for the first time, that behavioral consistency and repeatability, that is, something resembling “personality,” is context and state dependent in this zooplankter taxa.

  • 3.
    van Toor, Mariëlle L.
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany;University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Newman, Scott H.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Vietnam.
    Takekawa, John Y.
    U.S. Geological Survey, USA;National Audubon Society, USA.
    Wegmann, Martin
    University of Würzburg, Germany.
    Safi, Kamran
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany;University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Temporal segmentation of animal trajectories informed by habitat use2016Ingår i: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. 1-16, artikel-id e01498Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most animals live in seasonal environments and experience very different conditions throughout the year. Behavioral strategies like migration, hibernation, and a life cycle adapted to the local seasonality help to cope with fluctuations in environmental conditions. Thus, how an individual utilizes the environment depends both on the current availability of habitat and the behavioral prerequisites of the individual at that time. While the increasing availability and richness of animal movement data has facilitated the development of algorithms that classify behavior by movement geometry, changes in the environmental correlates of animal movement have so far not been exploited for a behavioral annotation. Here, we suggest a method that uses these changes in individual–environment associations to divide animal location data into segments of higher ecological coherence, which we term niche segmentation. We use time series of random forest models to evaluate the transferability of habitat use over time to cluster observational data accordingly. We show that our method is able to identify relevant changes in habitat use corresponding to both changes in the availability of habitat and how it was used using simulated data, and apply our method to a tracking data set of common teal (Anas crecca). The niche segmentation proved to be robust, and segmented habitat suitability outperformed models neglecting the temporal dynamics of habitat use. Overall, we show that it is possible to classify animal trajectories based on changes of habitat use similar to geometric segmentation algorithms. We conclude that such an environmentally informed classification of animal trajectories can provide new insights into an individuals' behavior and enables us to make sensible predictions of how suitable areas might be connected by movement in space and time.

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