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  • 1.
    Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Grjibovski, A. M.
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway;University of Tromsø, Norway;Northern State Medical University, Russia.
    Hagströmer, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Patterson, E.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sjöström, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Congestion road tax and physical activity2010Ingår i: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0749-3797, E-ISSN 1873-2607, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 171-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Large-scale policy and environmental changes, such as congestion road taxes, may be a way to promote active transportation. PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the potential effect of a congestion road tax on physical activity. METHODS: Baseline data were collected during October-November 2003, follow-up data in May 2006, and analysis was performed in September 2008. The short self-administered version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity. Data from those with access to motorized vehicles in the Stockholm region (n=165), where the tax was in place, were compared with those from the Goteborg/Malmo regions (n=138). Within each region before and during the road tax implementation, the data were analyzed for differences in time spent at different intensity levels of physical activity, in addition to sitting, as well as for changes in reported time in overall (weighted) physical activity. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the magnitude of the changes of the intensity levels of physical activity, weighted overall physical activity, or sitting, between Stockholm and Goteborg/Malmo. Among those exposed to the congestion road tax and with access to motorized vehicles, an increase in moderate physical activity (p=0.036); overall physical activity (p=0.015); and a reduction in time spent sitting (p=0.009) was observed. No differences were observed among those unexposed. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study on the influence of a congestion road tax on levels of physical activity, though inconclusive, suggest that policy changes such as a congestion road tax might promote improvements in physical activity levels in individuals with motorized vehicles.

  • 2.
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    et al.
    Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, USA ; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran ; Massachusetts General Hospital, USA.
    Malekshah, Akbar F.
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Pourshams, Akram
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Sharafkhah, Maryam
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Khoshnia, Masoud
    Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Farvid, Mojtaba
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för maskinteknik (MT).
    Abnet, Christian C.
    National Cancer Institute, USA.
    Kamangar, Farin
    Morgan State University, USA.
    Dawsey, Sanford M.
    National Cancer Institute, USA.
    Brennan, Paul
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, France.
    Pharoah, Paul D.
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA.
    Willett, Walter C.
    Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, USA ; Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA ; Harvard University, USA.
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Dietary Protein Sources and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: The Golestan Cohort Study in Iran2017Ingår i: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0749-3797, E-ISSN 1873-2607, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 237-248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Dietary protein comes from foods with greatly different compositions that may not relate equally with mortality risk. Few cohort studies from non-Western countries have examined the association between various dietary protein sources and cause-specific mortality. Therefore, the associations between dietary protein sources and all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality were evaluated in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran. Methods: Among 42,403 men and women who completed a dietary questionnaire at baseline, 3,291 deaths were documented during 11 years of follow up (2004-2015). Cox proportional hazards models estimated age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for all cause and disease-specific mortality in relation to dietary protein sources. Data were analyzed from 2015 to 2016. Results: Comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile, egg consumption was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.79, 0.97, ptrend=0.03). In multivariate analysis, the highest versus the lowest quartile of fish consumption was associated with reduced risk of total cancer (HR=0.79, 95% CI=0.64, 0.98, ptrend=0.03) and gastrointestinal cancer (HR=0.75, 95% CI=0.56, 1.00, ptrend=0.02) mortality. The highest versus the lowest quintile of legume consumption was associated with reduced total cancer (HR=0.72, 95% CI=0.58, 0.89, ptrend=0.004), gastrointestinal cancer (HR=0.76, 95% CI=0.58, 1.01, ptrend=0.05), and other cancer (HR=0.66, 95% CI=0.47, 0.93, ptrend=0.04) mortality. Significant associations between total red meat and poultry intake and allcause, cardiovascular disease, or cancer mortality rate were not observed among all participants. Conclusions: These findings support an association of higher fish and legume consumption with lower cancer mortality, and higher egg consumption with lower all-cause mortality. (C) 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Sallis, James F
    et al.
    Bowles, Heather R
    Bauman, Adrian
    Ainsworth, Barbara E
    Bull, Fiona C
    Craig, Cora L
    Sjöström, Michael
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Lefevre, Johan
    Matsudo, Victor
    Matsudo, Sandra
    Macfarlane, Duncan J
    Gomez, Luis F
    Inoue, Shigeru
    Murase, Norio
    Volbekiene, Vida
    McLean, Grant
    Carr, Harriette
    Heggebo, Lena K
    Tomten, Heidi
    Bergman, Patrick
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at Novum, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neighborhood environments are related to physical activity among adults in 11 countries2009Ingår i: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0749-3797, E-ISSN 1873-2607, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 484-490Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Understanding environmental correlates of physical activity can inform policy changes. Surveys were conducted in 11 countries using the same self-report environmental variables and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, allowing analyses with pooled data.

    Methods

    The participating countries were Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, China (Hong Kong), Japan, Lithuania, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the U.S., with a combined sample of 11,541 adults living in cities. Samples were reasonably representative, and seasons of data collection were comparable. Participants indicated whether seven environmental attributes were present in their neighborhood. Outcomes were measures of whether health-related guidelines for physical activity were met. Data were collected in 2002–2003 and analyzed in 2007. Logistic regression analyses evaluated associations of physical activity with environmental attributes, adjusted for age, gender, and clustering within country.

    Results

    Five of seven environmental variables were significantly related to meeting physical activity guidelines, ranging from access to low-cost recreation facilities (OR=1.16) to sidewalks on most streets (OR=1.47). A graded association was observed, with the most activity–supportive neighborhoods having 100% higher rates of sufficient physical activity compared to those with no supportive attributes.

    Conclusions

    Results suggest neighborhoods built to support physical activity have a strong potential to contribute to increased physical activity. Designing neighborhoods to support physical activity can now be defined as an international public health issue.

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