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  • 1.
    Arvin, Erik
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bregnhøj, Henrik
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Buendia Ucendo, Inmaculada Maria
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Water Education ved DTU: en e-læringplatform i Moodle til individualiseret kompetenceopbygning i samfundets vandsektor2010Ingår i: Læring og Medier, ISSN 1903-248X, E-ISSN 1903-248X, nr 6, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [da]

    Omstruktureringen af kommunerne i forbindelse med amternes nedlæggelse og privatiseringen af det danske samfunds vand- og spildevandsforsyning har givet store omvæltninger og nye udfordringer for mange personalegrupper. I vandbranchen er der derfor i dag et stort behov for individualiseret kompetenceopbygning inden for hele vandets kredsløb, afstrømmet regnvand, overfladevand, grundvand, vandforsyning, spildevandstransport og -rensning samt vandkvalitet og vandhygiejne.

    At behovet for efter- og videreuddannelse er stort beror på et skøn baseret på samtaler med fagpersoner i branchen. Desværre foreligger der ikke konkrete behovsopgørelser, og det er også uklart, hvor stor betalingsviljen til kompetenceudvikling er hos virksomhederne og kommunerne.

    Der er i dag det samme behov for et kompetenceløft på universitetsområdet, fordi der er sket en markant internationalisering, hvorved mange udenlandske studerende følger engelsksprogede masterprogrammer. På Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU) foregår alle masterkurser på engelsk, og ca. halvdelen af de studerende på DTU Miljø's (Institut for Vand og Miljøteknologi) masterkurser er udenlandske gæstestuderende. Det er i dag en væsentlig opgave/problem at sikre, at disse studerende har de nødvendige faglige forudsætninger, når de starter på de planlagte kurser. Ellers sænkes undervisningsniveauet markant, og ressourceforbruget af hjælpelærere øges. Så også her er der brug for tilbud om individualiseret kompetenceopbygning.

    Men også over for de danske studerende er der behov for markante ændringer i undervisningsmetoderne. Der er en klar tendens til, at mange studerende bruger lærebøgerne som referenceværker. En voksende andel af de studerende sidder ikke mere og læser lærebøgerne igennem som i "gamle dage". E-læring kan være et middel til at give effektiv læring til disse mange studerende, der fra barnsben er tilvænnet IT-verdenen.

    I fremtiden vil der blive mere utraditionelle undervisningsbehov. Nogle større virksomheder vil i fremtiden skulle satse mere på salg af integrerede løsninger, f.eks. vand- og spildevandsløsninger for hele byområder. Dette kræver, at der er kompetente personer hos bygherrerne til at drive de fremtidige komplekse systemer. Her kan tilbud om uddannelse af bygherrens personale indgå som en konkurrenceparameter i virksomhedernes tilbud. Og netop her vil et fleksibelt e-læringssystem kunne få stor betydning.

    Målsætningen for udvikling af e-læringssystemet Water Education ved DTU er at opfylde ovennævnte undervisningsbehov. Projektet er i en udviklingsfase, hvorfor de praktiske erfaringer om udvikling af e-læringsmodulerne og brugernes vurderinger af fordele og ulemper er begrænsede. IT- og Telestyrelsen har medfinansieret projektet og deltaget aktivt i følgegruppemøder.

  • 2.
    Baun, Anders
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    A methodology for ranking and hazard identification of xenobiotic organic compounds in urban stormwater2006Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 370, nr 1, s. 29-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a novel methodology (RICH, Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards) for ranking and identification ofxenobiotic organic compounds of environmental concern in stormwater discharged to surface water. The RICHmethod is illustrated as afunnel fitted with different filters that sort out problematic and hazardous compounds based on inherent physico-chemical and biologicalproperties. The outcomes of the RICH procedure are separate lists for both water phase and solid phase associated compounds. Theselists comprise: a justified list of compounds which can be disregarded in hazard/risk assessments, a justified list of stormwater prioritypollutants which must be included in hazard/risk assessments, and a list of compounds which may be present in discharged stormwater,but cannot be evaluated due to lack of data. The procedure was applied to 233 xenobiotic organic chemicals (XOCs) of relevance forstormwater. Of these 233 compounds, 121 compounds were found to be priority pollutants with regard to solids phases (i.e. suspendedsolids, soil, or sediments) when stormwater is discharged to surface water and 56 compounds were found to be priority pollutants withregard to the water phase. For 11% of the potential stormwater priority pollutants the screening procedure could not be carried out due tolack of data on basic physico-chemical properties and/or data on bioaccumulation, resistance to biodegradation, and ecotoxicity. Thetiered approach applied in the RICH procedure and the focus on the phases relevant for monitoring or risk assessment in the aquaticenvironment refines the list of “compounds of concern” when compared to the outcome of existing classification schemes. In this paperthe RICH procedure is focused on effects in the aquatic environment exemplified with xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) found inurban stormwater, but it may be transferred to other environmental compartments and problems. Thus, the RICH procedure can be usedas a stand-alone tool for selection of potential priority pollutants or it can be integrated in larger priority setting frameworks.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Chemical hazard identification and assessment tool for evaluation of stormwater priority pollutants2005Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 47-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of chemical hazards is a critical issue, which have to be dealt with when evaluating different strategies for sustainable handling of stormwater. In the present study, a methodology for identifying the most critical and representative chemical pollutants was developed. A list of selected stormwater priority pollutants (SSPP-list) is the out-put from the procedure. Two different strategies for handling of stormwater were considered; discharge into a surface water recipient and infiltration. However, the same methodology can be used for other types of wastewater and other strategies for handling and treatment. A literature survey revealed that at least 656 xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) could be present in stormwater. In the next step, 233 XOCs were evaluated with respect to the potential for being hazardous towards either aquatic living organisms or humans, or causing technical or aesthetical problems. 121 XOCs were found have at least one of these negative effects, while 26 XOCs could not be assessed due to the lack of data. The hazard assessment showed that 40 XOCs had a PEC/PNEC ratio above one., e.g. they should be considered as priority pollutants. The final step is the expert judgement, which resulted in a final SSPP-list containing 16 selected priority pollutants.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Risk assessment of Xenobiotics in stormwater discharged to Harrestrup Å, Denmark2007Ingår i: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 215, nr 1-3, s. 187-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface waters are highly manipulated in many cities in Europe, and the flow is largely impacted by discharges of stormwater and combined sewer overflow. Toxicity tests shown adverse effects in some of these recipients due to the presence of xenobiotic organic carbons (XOCs). Harrestrup Å, situated in the City of Copenhagen, is one of these recipients, where biotest using algae showed measurable toxicity in eight samples taken in 2003. Twenty-five different XOCs were quantified in the same samples. The present study aimed at identifying the most relevant XOCs out of these 25 to be selected for further analysis with respect to potential source control options.

    Fourteen XOCs (56%) were identified to constitute a potential hazard based on the RICH evaluation (Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards), while 9 XOCs (36%) were found to constitute a hazard towards the aquatic ecosystem based on an environmental-concentration/predicted-no-effect-concentration-quotient. The quantified levels did, however, fulfil the Danish and European surface water quality criteria (QC) and environmental quality standards (ESQ). Thus, although the QC and ESQ are met there is an actual risk due to stormwater-related pollutants. This clearly illustrates that there is a need for monitoring the stormwater quality in order to protect the ecosystems. It also shows that actions are needed to implement source control options and emission barriers.

    Twelve XOCs were selected for further evaluation of possible source control option to be implemented in order to improve the water quality. These are five pesticides (diuron, glyphosate, isoproturon, MCPA, terbutylazine), 4 PAHs (acenaphthene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrene), 3 others (LAS, nonylphenol and dinitro-o-cresol).

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Scholes, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ahlman, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Noutsopoulos, Constantinos
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Selected stormwater priority pollutants: a European perspective2007Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 383, nr 1-3, s. 41-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical characteristics of stormwater are dependent on the nature of surfaces (roads, roofs etc.) with which it comes into contact during the runoff process as well as natural processes and anthropogenic activities in the catchments. The different types of pollutants may cause problems during utilisation, detention or discharge of stormwater to the environment and may pose specific demands to decentralised treatment. This paper proposes a scientifically justifiable list of selected stormwater priority pollutants (SSPP) to be used, e.g., for evaluation of the chemical risks occurring in different handling strategies. The SSPP-list consists of 25 pollutant parameters including eight of the priority pollutants currently identified in the European Water Framework Directive. It contains general water quality parameters (organic and suspended matter, nutrients and pH); metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Pt and Zn); PAH (naphthalene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene); herbicides (pendimethalin, phenmedipham, glyphosate and terbutylazine); and other representative industrially derived compounds (nonylphenol ethoxylates, pentachlorophenol, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, PCB-28 and methyl tert-butyl ether). Tools for flux modelling, enabling calculation of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs), and for ranking the susceptibility of a pollutant to removal within a range of structural stormwater treatment systems or best management practices (BMPs) have been developed, but further work is required to allow all SSPPs to be addressed in the development of future stormwater pollution control measures. In addition, the identified SSPPs should be considered for inclusion in stormwater related monitoring campaigns.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, D. Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Ledin, Anna
    Lund University.
    Lundy, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Wickman, Tonie
    City of Stockholm.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances2011Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 64, nr 10, s. 2109-2118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on “Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority Pollutants” (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECS) have been developed and tested on a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCCA) for selected European priority pollutants (PPs). The SHCCA approach was chosen to facilitate transparency, to mitigate data gaps and to decrease the level of uncertainty in the results. The selected PPs differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in different urban environmental compartment. To achieve the required reduction in PP levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is essential and appropriate combinations of managerial and technological options (source control and treatment) can be highly relevant.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Viavattene, Christophe
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Emission control strategies for short-chain chloroparaffins in two semi-hypothetical case cities2012Ingår i: Urban environment: proceedings of the 10th Urban Environment Symposium / [ed] Sébastien Rauch & Gregory M. Morrison, Springer, 2012, Vol. 19, s. 11s. 213-223Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The short-chain chloroparaffins (SCCP), (C10-13 chloroalkanes) are identified in the European Water Framework Directive, as priority hazardous substances. Within the ScorePP project, the aim is to develop emission control strategies that can be employed to reduce emissions from urban areas into receiving waters. Six different scenarios for mitigating SCCP emissions in two different semi-hypothetical case cities representing eastern inland and northern coastal conditions have been evaluated. The analysis, associated with scenario uncertainty, indicates that the EU legislation, Best Available Technologies (BAT) and stormwater/CSO management were the most favorable in reducing emissions into the environment.

  • 8.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Birch, Heidi
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Comparing chemical analysis with literature studies to identify micropollutants to be treated or upstream source controlled in a catchment of Copenhagen (DK)2012Ingår i: 6th SETAC World Congress/SETAC Europe 22nd Annual Meeting: abstract book, Berlin: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry , 2012, s. 287-288Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK ; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Wickman, Tonie
    City of Stockholm.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Banovec, Primož
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    A source classification framework supporting pollutant source mapping, pollutant release prediction, transport and load forecasting, and source control planning for urban environments2012Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 1119-1130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Implementation of current European environmental legislation such as the Water Framework Directive requires access to comprehensive, well-structured pollutant source and release inventories. The aim of this work was to develop a Source Classification Framework (SCF) ideally suited for this purpose.

    Methods

    Existing source classification systems were examined by a multidisciplinary research team, and an optimised SCF was developed. The performance and usability of the SCF were tested using a selection of 25 chemicals listed as priority pollutants in Europe.

    Results

    The SCF is structured in the form of a relational database and incorporates both qualitative and quantitative source classification and release data. The system supports a wide range of pollution monitoring and management applications. The SCF functioned well in the performance test, which also revealed important gaps in priority pollutant release data.

    Conclusions

    The SCF provides a well-structured approach for European pollutant source and release classification and management. With further optimisation and demonstration testing, the SCF has the potential to be fully implemented throughout Europe.

  • 10.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH). Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Kemiske forureningsstoffer i regnafstrømning fra befæstede overflader2006Ingår i: Vand & Jord, ISSN 0908-7761, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 108-112Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [da]

    Regnafstrømning fra befæstede overflader kan indeholde hundredvis af miljøfremmede stoffer. Institut for Miljøteknologi på DTU har derfor udviklet en problemorienteret metode til på en struktureret og gennemskuelig måde at udarbejde fokuserede lister over problematiske stoffer. Metoden kan lette arbejdet med at implementere Vandrammedirektivet.

  • 11.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes (Lundy), Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Seriki, Kemi
    Veolia Research and Innovation, France.
    Castillo, Luis
    Veolia Research and Innovation, France.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Stockholms Stad.
    Wickman, Tonie
    Stockholms Stad.
    Lecloux, André
    Envicat Consulting, Belgium.
    Atanasova, Natasha
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Kompare, Boris
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Banovec, Primos
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Options de contrôle à la source pour la réduction d'émissions de substances prioritaires en zone urbaine: [ Source control options for reducing emissions of priority pollutants ]2009Ingår i: Techniques Sciences Methodes, Genie Urbain Genie Rural, ISSN 0299-7258, Vol. 104, nr 4, s. 77-87Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [fr]

    L’objectif du projet ScorePP est de développer des stratégies de contrôle à la source complètes et appropriées que les autorités, les villes, les gestionnaires de l’eau et l’industrie chimique pourront utiliser pour réduire les émissions des polluants prioritaires (PP) des milieux aquatiques en zones urbaines. Le travail se focalise sur les 33 substances prioritaires et groupe de substances dangereuses identifiés dans la directive cadre sur l’eau (2000/60/CE). Cependant, cette liste peut être élargie pour inclure d’autres polluants émergents ou être réduite si des composés représentatifs peuvent être identifiés. Le travail initial se concentre sur 67 substances comprenant des substances identifiées dans la directive sur la norme de qualité environnementale européenne (NQE) (2008/105/CE), sur des composés caractéristiques ainsi que plusieurs dérivés organométalliques. L’information sur les propriétés inhérentes, la présence et le devenir environnemental et les questions législatives est disponible à travers une base de données publique. Un système de gestion de données combinant les classifications d’identification chimique (CAS#), les activités économiques (NACE) et les classifications des sources d’émission NOSE-P a également été développé comme base pour la caractérisation spatiale des sources des PP en utilisant le système d’information géographique (SIG). Une autre partie du projet se concentrera sur les modèles dynamiques pour l’évaluation de source/flux à échelle urbaine, sur l’identification des modèles d’émission et sur l’optimisation des programmes de contrôle dans des villes cas. Des comparaisons, se basant sur plusieurs critères de contrôle à la source contre des options de réduction de rejets finaux, en prenant en compte les impacts environnementaux et socio-économiques, seront également abordées. Une autre partie du projet se concentre sur l’acquisition et la génération de données sur les PP dans plusieurs villes cas. Cela permettra d’identifier les sources probables de PP, de cartographier ces sources à l’aide du SIG, de comprendre le flux de certains PP et de proposer des options de contrôle d’émission pour ces villes. Cette base de données permettra, par la suite, de proposer des stratégies de contrôles d’émissions spécifiques pour chaque ville cas.

  • 12.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Vezzaro, Luca
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Birch, Heidi
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Høg, Hans-Henrik
    Albertslund Municipality, Denmark.
    Sharma, Anitha Kumari
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Monitoring, chemical fate modelling and uncertainty assessment in combination: a tool for evaluating emission control scenarios for micropollutants in stormwater systems2012Ingår i: WSUD 2012 - 7th international conference on water sensitive urban design: building the water sensitive community: final program and abstract book, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater discharges can represent significant sources of micropollutants (MP), including heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds that may pose a toxicity risk to aquatic ecosystems. Control of stormwater quality and reduction of MP loads is therefore necessary for a sustainable stormwater management in urban areas, but it is strongly hampered by the general lack of field data on these substances. A framework for combining field monitoring campaigns with dynamic MP modelling tools and statistical methods for uncertainty analysis was hence developed to estimate MP fluxes and fate in stormwater runoff and treatment systems under sparse data conditions.The framework was applied to an industrial/residential area in the outskirts of Copenhagen (Denmark), where stormwater is discharged in a separate channel system discharging to a wet detention pond. Analysis of economic activities and GIS data on land usage allowed characterizing the catchment and identifying the major potential sources of stormwater MP. Monitoring of the pond inlet and outlet, as well as sediment analyses, allowed assessing the current situation and highlighted potential risks for the downstream surface water environment. The collected data was used in combination with an integrated dynamic MP fate model to estimate the MP fluxes in the catchment and the MP fate in the pond over a 10-year period. The model was also used to evaluate the potential effects of anticipated future climate changes as well as different scenarios for reduction of MP emissions while considering the uncertainty of the model predictions.

  • 13.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Sorption of PAHs to humic acid- and iron(III)carbonate particles by using passive dosing vials for investigating the transport of organic contamination in stormwater runoff2013Ingår i: Interdisciplinary Discourse on Current Environmental Challenges, Krakow: SETAC , 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, the growing urbanisation a nd increasing anthropogenic activities in urban areas have turned urban stormwater runoff int o a surface water quality contamination problem. The concerns of urban stormwater runoff as a source of contamination in the receiving surface water (lakes, rivers or sea) have been raised by researchers throughout the world (e.g. Broman et. al., 1987, and Xanthopoulos et. al., 1990), and have in Europe gained increased interest in relation to the implementatio n of the Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EC). Particles (often defined as >0.45 μm) has been foun d to facilitate transport of organic contaminants and metals in stormwater runoff system s, but little is known about the role of the colloidal fraction including nano-sized particl es (0.001-1 μm). Based on the large specific surface area of colloids and nanosized particles, t heir abundance, and knowledge about their facilitated transport of persistent organic polluti on in natural waters, they are likely to diminish the efficiency of engineered treatment sys tems unless appropriately accounted for. In this work organic and inorganic nanosized partic les were investigated for their ability to sorb polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s) in an aqueous solution. These particles were used as indicators for stormwater particles which a re diverse in size and composition. For controlling the sorption onto the particles, passiv e doing vials were used (Birch et. al., 2010). Using passive dosing vials gives the possible to co ntrol freely dissolved analyte by equilibrium partitioning from a preloaded silicone membrane. It has been found that the presence of humic acid particles (80 nm) leads to an increasing amount of two PAHs (fluoranthene and phenanthrene) in the suspension. For iron(III)carbo nate particles (22 nm) sorption experiments are ongoing. Based on these results and a literature review, the importance of including particulate fractions for surface water q uality assessment in relation to the WFD will be discussed.

  • 14.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Removal of stormwater particulates by disc filter technology2013Ingår i: Presented at the 8th International Conference on Planning and Technologies for Sustainable Urban Water Management, Lyon, France, June 23-27, 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend in the Danish society is toward disconnection of stormwater from the combined sewers and, where needed, local treatment using the best available technologies (BAT). The aim here was to assess a fast filtration technology for removal of particulate matter in stormwater with an emphasis on colloidal and nanosized particles. During the project period it rained 8.5 % of the time and the average daily rainfall was 2.9 mm/day. Based on three individual storm events it was found that 95 % of the particles were <10 µm. The nanosized particles (0.01-1.2 µm) were found to be anionic charged and in the size-range of 100 nm. The physical treatment of particle filtration at 10 µm was inadequate to remove the small particles identified in this project. Coagulation with a cationic coagulant and subsequently flocculation is suggested as process improvements technologies.

  • 15.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mørch-Madsen, Andreas
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Effect of Disc Filtration with and without Addition of Flocculent on Nano- and Micro-Particles and Their Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Stormwater2015Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 1306-1323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many municipalities in Denmark and around Europe currently work towards separating stormwater and sewage. In existing urban areas this may imply disconnecting stormwater from the old combined sewer systems suffering from hydraulic overloading and discharging directly to nearby surface waters. Stormwater runoff may, however, be heavily polluted and Best Available Technologies (BAT) are therefore needed to treat the stormwater before discharge. The aim here was to determine the sizes of particles found in stormwater from roads and to evaluate the use of a cationic organic flocculant to increase the size of the particles and thereby increase the removal efficiency of a 10 µm woven polyester disc filter. The samples were collected in connection with a project testing a pilot scale disc filter for treating stormwater runoff. The micro-sized particles were found to be mainly below 10 µm (6.9–19 µm) and nano-sized particles were also observed (ca. 76–228 nm). The flocculent increased the observed particle micrometer sizes by 46% and the removal of particle-associate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) was confirmed. The majority of the particles were, however, still below 10 µm after addition of flocculant, which shows that application of flocculants with the woven disc filter technology for stormwater treatment needs further refinement.

  • 16.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mørch-Madsen, Andreas
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Nano- and microparticles and associated pollutants in stormwater runoff: effects of disc filtration with and without flocculant addition2014Ingår i: Specialist Conference. Advances in particle science and separation: from mm to nm scale and beyond: proceedings, IWA Publishing , 2014, s. 1-11Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Danish municipalities work towards separating stormwater and sewage. But stormwater runoff may be heavily polluted and therefore it is needed to find Best Available Technologies (BAT) to source separate and treat stormwater before discharge into surface waters. The aim here was to determine the sizes of particles found in stormwater from roads and to evaluate the use of a cationic organic flocculant to increase the size of the particles and thereby increase the removal efficiency of a 10 μm disc filter. The samples were collected in connection with a project testing a pilot scale disc filter for treating stormwater runoff. The micro-sized particles were found to be mainly 2.1-19 μm in diameter and nano-sized particles were also observed (86-228 nm). Although the flocculant increased the observed volume of the micro-sized particles by 46%, the majority of the particles where still < 10 μm. Partial removal of particle-associate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was confirmed.

  • 17.
    Nørlem, Mathias
    et al.
    Krüger Veolia Water Technologies, Denmark.
    Fjendbo Petersen, Mette
    Krüger Veolia Water Technologies, Denmark.
    Mørch-Madsen, Andreas
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Kofoed Rasmussen, Lone
    Gladsaxe kommune, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Freja B.
    Nordvand A/S, Denmark.
    Demonstrationsanlæg for filtrering af vejvand for udledning til ferskvandsområde: afrapportering for projekt støttet af VTU‐Fonden2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Sørud, Mai
    et al.
    Krüger Veolia Water Technologies, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Skau Damskier, Sophie
    Nordvand A/S, Denmark.
    Torpenholt Jørgensen, Alex
    Krüger Veolia Water Technologies, Denmark.
    Fjendbo Petersen, Mette
    Krüger Veolia Water Technologies, Denmark.
    Kofoed Rasmussen, Lone
    Gladsaxe kommune, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    DEMFIL - treatment of stormwater for recreational use2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th Nordic Wastewater Conference, Malmö: Svenskt Vatten , 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Decoupling of stormwater (road runoff) in a residential area has been implemented in order to reduce flooding and to increase the hydraulic capacity of a lake with a high recreational value. The object here was to evaluate a disc filter technology in combination with a green polymer for flocculation for its feasibility of particle removal. Secondary, the particulate pollution in the separate road runoff should be assessed.The road runoff was found not to be highly contaminated with particle pollution, here measured as turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS). The particles were generally small (< 10 μm) and negatively charged. The disc filtration was hampered during the winter season and by the large fraction of small particles, but supplementing it with flocculation increased the removal efficiencies. The inlet particle concentrations (mg/L) affected the removal efficiencies, and events with inlet concentrations < 10 mg TSS/L or FNU had no statistically significant removal of the particle pollution whereas the events with the highest concentrations yielded among the highest removal efficiencies. The green polymer is as efficient as previously tested commercial coagulant/ flocculent and the disc technology is promising but need to be further tested with higher hydraulic loadings.

  • 19.
    Vezzaro, Luca
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Dynamic stormwater treatment unit model for micropollutants (STUMP) based on substance inherent properties2010Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 62, nr 3, s. 622-629Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling the removal of micropollutants (MPs) in stormwater treatment systems is essential in a context that is characterized by a general lack of measurements. This paper presents an innovative dynamic model for the prediction of the removal of MPs in stormwater treatment systems (Stormwater Treatment Unit model for Micro Pollutants—STUMP). The model, based on a conceptual model of two-compartment (water and sediment) serial Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactors (CSTRs), can predict the fate of MPs based on their inherent properties, which are often the only information available regarding this kind of substances. The flexible structure of the model can be applied to a wide range of treatment units and substances. Based on the most relevant removal processes (settling, volatilization, sorption, biodegradation, and abiotic degradation), the model allows the dynamic simulation of the MP behaviour in the different compartments of stormwater treatment systems. The model was tested for heavy metals (copper and zinc) and organic substances (benzene and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate). The results show that volatilization plays a big role for removal of benzene while the removal of substances with high sorption capacity is mainly driven by settling. The model was proven to be able to predict the importance of the various fate processes for selected substances with different inherent properties. A thorough assessment of the influence of the various fate process parameters will allow a reliable assessment of the treatment performances for a wide range of MPs.

  • 20.
    Vezzaro, Luca
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Modelling the fate of organic micropollutants in stormwater ponds2011Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, nr 13, s. 2597-2606Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban water managers need to estimate the potential removal of organic micropollutants (MP) in stormwater treatment systems to support MP pollution control strategies. This study documents how the potential removal of organic MP in stormwater treatment systems can be quantified by using multimedia models. The fate of four different MP in a stormwater retention pond was simulated by applying two steady-state multimedia fate models (EPI Suite and SimpleBox) commonly applied in chemical risk assessment and a dynamic multimedia fate model (Stormwater Treatment Unit Model for Micro Pollutants — STUMP). The four simulated organic stormwater MP (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate — IPBC, benzene, glyphosate and pyrene) were selected according to their different urban sources and environmental fate. This ensures that the results can be extended to other relevant stormwater pollutants. All three models use substance inherent properties to calculate MP fate but differ in their ability to represent the small physical scale and high temporal variability of stormwater treatment systems. Therefore the three models generate different results. A Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) highlighted that settling/resuspension of particulate matter was themost sensitive process for the dynamic model. The uncertainty of the estimated MP fluxes can be reduced by calibrating the dynamic model against total suspended solids data. This reduction in uncertainty was more significant for the substances with strong tendency to sorb, i.e. glyphosate and pyrene and less significant for substances with a smaller tendency to sorb, i.e. IPBC and benzene. The results provide support to the elaboration of MP pollution control strategies by limiting the need for extensive and complex monitoring campaigns targeting the wide range of specific organic MP found in stormwater runoff.

  • 21.
    Vezzaro, Luca
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Quantification of uncertainty in modelled partitioning and removal of heavy metals (Cu, Zn) in a stormwater retention pond and a biofilter2012Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 46, nr 20, s. 6891-6903Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies for reduction of micropollutant (MP) discharges from stormwater drainage systems require accurate estimation of the potential MP removal in stormwater treatment systems. However, the high uncertainty commonly affecting stormwater runoff quality modelling also influences stormwater treatment models. This study identified the major sources of uncertainty when estimating the removal of copper and zinc in a retention pond and a biofilter by using a conceptual dynamic model which estimates MP partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases as well as environmental fate based on substance-inherent properties. The two systems differ in their main removal processes (settling and filtration/sorption, respectively) and in the time resolution of the available measurements (composite samples and pollutographs). The most sensitive model factors, identified by using Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA), were related to the physical characteristics of the simulated systems (flow and water losses) and to the fate processes related to Total Suspended Solids (TSS). The model prediction bounds were estimated by using the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) technique. Composite samples and pollutographs produced similar prediction bounds for the pond and the biofilter, suggesting a limited influence of the temporal resolution of samples on the model prediction bounds. GLUE highlighted model structural uncertainty when modelling the biofilter, due to disregard of plant-driven evapotranspiration, underestimation of sorption and neglect of oversaturation with respect to minerals/salts. The results of this study however illustrate the potential for the application of conceptual dynamic fate models base on substanceinherent properties, in combination with available datasets and statistical methods, to estimate the MP removal in different stormwater treatment systems and compare with environmental quality standards targeting the dissolved MP fraction.

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