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  • 1.
    Ahonen, Ari
    et al.
    Finnish Competition Authority, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    On the cultural locus of management theory industry: perspectives from autocommunication2009Ingår i: Management & Organizational History, ISSN 1744-9359, E-ISSN 1744-9367, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 427-443Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last century, a whole new ’industry’ legitimized its locus as more books and articles in more and more magazines and journals offered more ’new’ concepts and frameworks for the efficient running of organizations. In the article it is suggested that this management theory industry serves a wider cultural call. According to the interpretation presented, the management theory industry feeding the management wisdom of the efficient running of organizations is serving an internal, therapeutic, mission. In this sense, the thousands of studies and writings on the management and efficient running of organizations can be seen as communication not only to others but also to oneself. It is thus suggested that the idea of autocommunication, introduced by the Soviet semiotic Yuri M. Lotman, can be applied when trying to understand why the management theory industry gains its legitimacy again and again even though the promised fundamental changes and reforms of actual working life have remained modest. © 2009 SAGE (Los Angeles, London, New Delhi and Singapore).

  • 2.
    Blomberg, Annika
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Pohjanpää, Heikki
    Realmachinery Oy, Finland.
    Antecedents of organizational creativity: drivers, barriers or both?2017Ingår i: Journal of Innovation Management, E-ISSN 2183-0606, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 78-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews academic journal articles and scholarly books focusing on organizational creativity and constructs a schematic representation of the antecedents of organizational creativity, i.e. of the associated drivers and barriers. The literature on organizational creativity is reviewed using a traditional review technique. The focus is especially on more recent developments of the discourse, and therefore this work can be labeled as a state-of-the-art review. The review shows that drivers have clearly been studied more extensively than barriers. It was also recognized that the predominant approach among organizational creativity scholars is to dichotomize the factors influencing organizational creativity, more specifically to discuss the antecedents of creativity mostly from the viewpoint of drivers. In some cases, the antecedents are discussed from the perspective of barriers, but only rarely has it been recognized that the very same factor may either enhance or inhibit creativity. In this paper, such factors are called ‘either-or factors’. The paper suggests that the organizational creativity discourse should acknowledge that it is not enough to understand what enhances organizational creativity but also which kind of issues inhibit it and, especially, which factors may work either against or toward creativity under different circumstances. The review suggests that the majority of factors are most likely either-or by nature, although it has been overlooked in the discourse due to the dichotomizing tendency.

  • 3.
    Borg, Kristiina
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). University of Turku, Finland.
    Good Bye line organization: we take a step towards an activity based future2017Ingår i: Paper presented at Hallinnon ja kuntatutkimuksen tiedepäivät 2017, Tampere, Finland, November 16-17, 2017, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    People have expectations for knowledge-intensive organizations and physical spaces. Institutionalized assumptions like expectations, reputation, images and other visual features produce image of the products of knowledge-intensive organizations and the organization´s level of expertise. (Alvesson 2001, p.870).  In this study, the case organization is a Finnish public-sector pension organization. Organization is in cultural change, because its´ position as pension monopoly is opening. Currently, the Head quarter – the physical building and the office space – indicates hierarchy and experience. Everything (physical elements and artifacts of people´s behavior) expresses hierarchy and power. Basically, the size of the rooms and the floor number tells how important employers´ job title is in the organization hierarchy.

    This research is based visual methods. Empirical data is based author´s reflection as a project manager, interviews of management, pictures, photos, observations, workshop materials and corporate documents. Analysis of visuals can provide a new way of looking working life and organizational hierarchy. According to Eriksson and Kovalainen (2014, 343) equally interesting new field of business research is the analysis of spaces and places which embody cultural and shared values and assumptions and industrial tacit knowledge. (Eriksson & Kovalainen 2014, 343). The concept of activity based office is different from a conventional open space office layout because it offers a high diversity of workplaces depending on the activity. The multi-space work concept can easily be adapted with low-cost to changing requirements. (Boutellier, Ullman, Schreiber, Naef 2008, 378).

    The data analysis is still on going and the results are tentative, but nevertheless, the analysis indicates that process of cultural change takes long period and it can be hard for employees. After a year observation, the hierarchy levels are opening and people´s way of working is coming more digital. Empirical data shows activity based office reinforcing group performance and having positive impact in group processes.

  • 4.
    Hyvönen, Timo
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Performance evaluation and performance measurement in universities2012Ingår i: Paper presented at the Nordic Accounting Conference 2012, Copenhagen, Denmark, November 15-16, 2012, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Hyvönen, Timo
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Performance measurement of academic staff: evidence from four fields of science2013Ingår i: Paper presented at the 9th International Management Control Research Conference, Breukelen, The Netherlands, September 14-16, 2013, Management Control Association , 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Hyvönen, Timo
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Qualitative and quantitative performance evaluation in universities2012Ingår i: Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Accounting, Auditing & Management in Public Sector Reforms, Milan, Italy, September 4-6, 2012, EIASM , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Hyvönen, Timo
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Designing perfect means to kill creativity?: performance measurement in universities and its effects on work motivation2012Ingår i: Paper presented at the 28th EGOS Colloquium: "Design!?", Helsinki, Finland, July 5-7, 2012, EGOS , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Blomberg, Annika
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Roslender, Robin
    University of Dundee, UK.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Under surveillance?: performance measurement, governance and self-governance in academic work2017Ingår i: Paper presented at the 21st International Research Society for Public Management (IRSPM) Conference, Budapest, Hungary, April 19-21, 2017, IRSPM , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade or so, performance measurement (PM) has become an everyday activity in the higher education sector. Owing to the adoption of PM, previously collegial university management has taken steps towards a managerial model that emphasizes accountability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. However, the new judgmental PM systems seem to undermine important aspects of academic work, such as creativity and quality of work and cause increased stress and pressure to publish.

    Foucault invites us to look at the ways various techniques of power and control impact and structure human behavior. His concept of ‘governmentality’ refers to the organizational governance, but also to self-governance, which the individuals under the organizational governance engage in. According to Foucault individuals internalize the norms, ideals and targets of the control system, and start to self-discipline and regulate their own behavior accordingly. Internalizing the control mechanisms makes individuals aim at achieving a ‘normative self’, which at least in the context of academic work remains out of reach for many academics. Somewhat surprisingly, however, it has been found that found that despite dissatisfaction and disquiet, most academics are complicit with the demands of performance measurement. However, the genuine interest in the work itself – the labor of love – is being stretched and at the risk of being lost. 

    In this paper, we use the framework of Michel Foucault in looking at the ways in which various techniques of control impact and structure human behavior, and aim at problematizing the use of PM practices in the context of academic work. We examine the PM systems introduced into universities in the Foucauldian sense as forms of surveillance and self-surveillance, and explore how academics deal with the norms and ideals of the PM system. The empirical data of the study consists of open-ended questions collected from a large survey for university employees collected in 2015 with 672 respondents. The analysis is still ongoing, but the preliminary results show that the PM impacts the university employees’ relationship with their work. Partly, it seems to have guided the academics’ working towards the ideals of PM, yet there are also those who resist the PM ideals. 

  • 9.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Blomberg, Annika
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Roslender, Robin
    University of Dundee, UK.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). University of Turku, Finland.
    Under surveillance?: performance measurement, governance and self-governance in academic work2017Ingår i: Paper presented at Hallinnon ja kuntatutkimuksen tiedepäivät 2017, Tampere, Finland, November 16-17, 2017, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, performance measurement (PM) has become an everyday activity in higher education. Owing to the adoption of PM, previously collegial university management has taken steps towards a managerial model. As a result, the new judgmental PM systems seem to undermine important aspects of academic work, such as creativity and quality of work and cause increased stress and pressure.

    Foucault invites us to look at the ways various techniques of power and control impact and structure human behavior. His concept of ‘governmentality’ refers to the organizational governance, but also to self-governance, which the individuals under the organizational governance engage in. According to Foucault individuals internalize the norms, ideals and targets of the control system, and start to self-discipline and regulate their own behavior accordingly. Internalizing the control mechanisms makes individuals aim at achieving a ‘normative self’, which at least in the context of academic work remains out of reach for many academics. It has been found that found that despite dissatisfaction and disquiet, most academics are complicit with the demands of performance measurement. However, the genuine interest in the work itself is being stretched and at the risk of being lost.

    We use the framework of Foucault in looking at the ways in which various techniques of control impact and structure human behavior, and aim at problematizing the use of PM practices in the context of academic work. The empirical data of the study consists of open-ended questions from a large survey for university employees collected in 2015 with 672 respondents. The results show that the PM impacts the university employees’ relationship with their work.

  • 10.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Management-by-results and performance indicators in Finnish universities: the viewpoint of work motivation2012Ingår i: Paper presented at the Nordic Conference on Higher Education and Research, Espoo, Finland, February 9-10, 2012, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Management-by-results and performance measurement in universities: implications for work motivation2014Ingår i: Studies in Higher Education, ISSN 0307-5079, E-ISSN 1470-174X, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 574-589Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article focuses on the effects of management-by-results from the perspective of the work motivation of university employees. The study is based on extensive survey data among employees at Finnish universities. According to the results, performance measurement is based on quantitative rather than qualitative measures, and the current management-by-results system has a negative effect on work motivation among experts. The motivation to engage in creative, knowledge-intensive work, such as the work carried out at universities, is typically intrinsic. In the light of the empirical findings of the study it seems that management-by-results is in conflict with intrinsic motivation and the very essence of the expert work undertaken in universities.

  • 12.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Pirullinen tulosjohtaminen yliopistoissa: tuloksista numeroihin?2014Ingår i: Siinä missä tutkimus löytää kompleksisia ongelmia, me vastaamme kouluttamalla luovia ongelmanratkaisijoita: HITTI – Hyvinvointipalvelujen innovatiivinen johtaminen ja kehittäminen (2011–2014) -projektin loppuraportti / [ed] Arja Lemmetyinen & Reeta Hautaniemi, University of Turku , 2014, s. 20-22Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Tulosohjaus, työmotivaatio ja akateemisen uran houkuttelevuus2012Ingår i: Paper presented at the 2nd Seminar on Higher Education and Innovation Research: University in Transition, Helsinki, April 12, 2012, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Tulosohjaus yliopistojen asiantuntijatyössä2012Ingår i: Innostava yliopisto: kohti uudistavaa yliopistojohtamista / [ed] Pirjo Ståhle & Antti Ainamo, Helsinki: Gaudeamus, 2012, 1, s. 56-77Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Grossi, Giuseppe
    Kristianstad University.
    Measuring performance in Finnish universities: struggling with institutional complexity2016Ingår i: Paper presented at the 20th International Research Society for Public Management (IRSPM) Conference, Hong Kong, China, April 13-15, 2016, IRSPM , 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last thirty years, institutional and socio-economic development and globalization have played a crucial role in changes seen in the higher education sector. These changes have impacted aspects such as governance, organization, financing, management systems, and the academic and social legitimacy of universities (Burke & Associates, 2005).

    Previous studies have focused on changes in performance measurement (PM) and the management of universities, for example in the implementation of PM, the assessment of academic performance (Lewis, 2014), the use of key performance indicators (Guthrie & Neuman, 2007), and the measurement of institutional and individual performance (Modell, 2006; Kallio & Kallio, 2014; ter Bogt & Scapens, 2012). The common factor in these studies seems to be a transition in institutional logics from academic to business logics (Pettersen, 2015).

    In line with this recent development, universities in Nordic countries have faced increased competition for students, researchers, and resources and they are now managed using different PM tools (Vakkuri & Meklin, 2003; Kallio et al., forthcoming). Universities are complex and heterogeneous organizations characterized by the multiplicity of ‘institutional logics’ that compete, shift, and interact (Thornton & Ocasio, 2008). 

    The present study uses institutional logics to analyze how the renewal of the PM system in Finnish universities has led to a change in the operating logics of individual university employees. The study is based on a survey conducted in 2015 including 672 respondents from three different universities in Finland. The preliminary analysis revealed that despite the way in which university employees’ perceive the PM system in use, this system has initiated a change in the institutional logics of individual researchers and lecturers.

  • 16.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Grossi, Giuseppe
    Kristianstad University ; Kozminski University, Poland.
    Performance measurement in universities: ambiguities in the use of quality versus quantity in performance indicators2017Ingår i: Public Money & Management, ISSN 0954-0962, E-ISSN 1467-9302, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 293-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance measurement (PM) is now common in Western universities. This is also the case in Finland, where a new funding scheme was implemented to ensure that quality was included in universities’ PM. However, this paper shows that the quality indicators in use are, in practice, quantitative. The paper is based on a large survey and has implications for university PM systems in Finland and internationally.

  • 17.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Grossi, Giuseppe
    Kristianstad University.
    Performance measurement in universities: quantity vs. quality2015Ingår i: Paper presented at the 8th Conference on Performance Measurement and Management Control, Nice, France, September 30-October 2, 2015, EIASM , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, performance measurement (PM) tools and practices have been implemented at literally hundreds of universities in Western countries. Accordingly, PM practices have been adopted in practice in all countries infected by New Public Management (NPM) doctrine. The seemingly well-intentioned reforms—designed to improve universities’ economy, efficiency and effectiveness—have led to widespread criticism among scholars, ranging from fierce resistance and loud outbursts to somewhat more analytical and theoretical arguments. Most scholars who study university management in general and university PM systems in particular have recognized there are many more cons than pros in the recent developments. Scholars see PM systems in universities as structures of attention rather than formal systems of accountability.

    This study reports empirical findings for university PM in Finland and concentrates on the problems of measuring quality aspects in universities and in academic work. The principal empirical data of this study were gathered in 2010 and 2012 from 12 faculties in three Finnish multidisciplinary universities. The data were collected with an Internet-based survey questionnaire sent to all employees in the chosen faculties.

    This study reports which PM indicators Finnish university personnel would prefer in their own work in terms of quality and quantity, and how the Finnish Ministry of Education & Culture (MOE) has implemented quality aspects in the ministry’s PM system. The MOE’s PM systems, which define the actual amount of funding an individual university receives, have largely been copied by individual universities’ and faculties’ internal PM systems that evaluate academics’ performance. The funding scheme for universities is vast and complicated, and different types of outputs and their respective indicators are only loosely coupled with different types of funding.

  • 18.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Hyvönen, Timo
    University of Turku, Finland.
    The effects of performance measurement on university employees work: evidence from four fields of science2013Ingår i: Paper presented at the 22nd Nordic Academy of Management Conference, Reykjavik, Iceland, August 21-23, 2013, Nordic Academy of Management , 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Ylijoki (2005), owing to the adoption of NPM the previously collegial university management has taken steps towards the ‘managerialistic model’ that emphasises “accountability, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, marketization and quality assessment in academic work” (see also ter Bogt and Scapens, 2012). As practical manifestations of this, new management doctrines and tools such as management-by-results and performance measurement systems have been introduced into university management across the western countries. While most of the extant studies on the higher education reforms focus on the macro level, we decided to ask from individual university employees how they themselves have experience the adoption of these metrics-based management doctrines. Thus, we asked from 2,780 employees of 12 faculties of three universities in Finland how performance measurement and management-by-results affect their work (response rate 33.6 per cent). This question was presented on open question basis as a part of a wide Internet-based survey questionnaire. As the theoretical basis according to which the empirical findings are interpreted we have adopted the idea of institutional logics put forward by Thornton and Ocasio (2008). The analysis indicates that the majority of the respondents perceive the effects of metric-based management either clearly negative or rather unsubstantial when it comes to motivation and career development.

  • 19.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). University of Turku, Finland.
    Tienari, Janne
    Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Ethical dilemmas caused by performance measurement in universities: exploring the experiences of Finnish scholars2018Ingår i: Paper presented at the 10th International EIASM Public Sector Conference, Lund, Sweden, September 4-6, 2018, EIASM , 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Tienari, Janne
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Hyvönen, Timo
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Ethos at stake: performance management and academic work in universities2016Ingår i: Human Relations, ISSN 0018-7267, E-ISSN 1741-282X, Vol. 69, nr 3, s. 685-709Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education has been subject to substantial reforms as new forms of performance management are implemented in universities across the world. Extant research suggests that in many cases performance management systems have disrupted academic life. We complement this literature with an extensive mixed methods study of how the performance management system is understood by academics across universities and departments in Finland at a time when new management principles and practices are being forcefully introduced. While our survey results enabled us to map the generally critical and negative view that Finnish scholars have of performance management, the qualitative inquiry allowed us to disentangle how and why our respondents resent the ways and means of measuring their work, the assumptions that underlie the measurement, and the university ideal on which the performance management system is rooted. Most significantly, we highlight how the proliferation of performance management can be seen as a catalyst for changing the very ethos of what it is to be an academic and to do academic work.

  • 21.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Ammattilaisbyrokratiat tehokkuuden aikakaudella: tasa­painoilua asiantuntijaeetoksen ja tehokkuuspaineiden välillä2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [fi]

    Tässä väitöskirjatutkimuksessa tarkastellaan asiantuntijaorganisaatioita – erityisesti suomalaisia julkisomisteisia yliopisto- ja sairaalaorganisaatioita – tilanteessa, jossa pääasiassa näiden organisaatioiden ulkopuolelta tulevat paineet pakottavat niitä omaksumaan tehokkuusajattelun. Tutkimuksen lähtökohtana on ajatus siitä, että sairaala- ja yliopisto-organisaatiot, jotka Mintzbergin (1979) klassista terminologiaan soveltaen ovat malli-esimerkkejä organisaatiotyypistä, jota kutsutaan ammattilaisbyrokratiaksi, muistuttavat monilta keskeisiltä ominaispiirteiltään toisiaan. Puhuttaessa ammattilaisbyrokratioista, tutkimuksessa viitataan nimenomaisesti julkisiin sairaaloihin ja yliopistoihin. Tutkimus koostuu kahdesta osasta: viidestä referee-menettelyn läpikäyneestä, julkaistusta, empiirisestä osatutkimuksesta sekä ne yhteen vetävästä, tutkimuksen kokonaisargumentin muodostavasta, teoreettisesta synteesiosasta. Siinä missä jokaisessa osatutkimuksessa on oma kysymyksenasettelunsa, tutkimuksen synteesiosassa ammattilaisbyrokratioiden kohtaamaan tehokkuuspaineeseen liittyen esitetään kolme kokoavaa tutkimuskysymystä:

    i) Miten ammattilaisbyrokratiat ovat kyenneet omaksumaan tehokkuusajattelun?

    ii) Miksi tehokkuusajattelun omaksuminen on vaikeaa ammattilaisbyrokratioissa?

    iii) Mitä tehokkuusajattelun omaksuminen ammattilaisbyrokratioissa edellyttäisi?

    Tutkimuksessa todetaan, että tehokkuusajattelun omaksuminen on yliopisto- ja sairaalaorganisaatioille erittäin vaikeaa, sillä tehokkuusajattelu, ainakin niin kuin se uuden julkisjohtamisen (NPM) yhteydessä on mielletty, ei ole perinteisesti kuulunut näiden ammattilaisbyrokratioiden toimintalogiikkaan, eikä siten myöskään niiden avainryhmien professionaaliseen eetokseen. Koska tehokkuuden yksiselitteinen määritteleminen ammattilaisbyrokratioiden tapauksessa on lisäksi poikkeuksetta erittäin haasteellista, tutkimuksessa esitetyn tulkinnan mukaan yliopisto- ja sairaalaorganisaatiot päätyvät monessa tapauksessa omaksumaan ratkaisuja, rakenteita ja käytäntöjä, jotka paremminkin seremoniallisesti ilmentävät tehokkuutta, kuin todellisuudessa muuttavat niiden perinteisiä käytäntöjä, ainakaan operatiivisen asiantuntijatyön tasolla.

    Analyysissä päädytään johtopäätökseen, jonka mukaan tehokkuusajattelun omaksumisen haasteet ammattilaisbyrokratioissa palautuvat lopulta sellaisiin ammatillisen työn institutionalisoituneisiin piirteisiin, joiden muuttaminen on paitsi kyseenalaista, myös itsessään varsin pitkällinen ja vaikea prosessi. Sairaala- ja yliopisto-organisaatioiden professionaalinen henkilöstö suhtautuu tehokkuusajattelun implementointiin omaan asiantuntijatyöhönsä pääsääntöisesti varsin kriittisesti, vaikka erityisesti sairaala-organisaatioiden tapauksessa toiminnan yleisen tehokkuuden kehittämisen tarve hyväksytäänkin. Sairaalaorganisaatioissa keskeisessä roolissa olevan lääkärikunnan osalta tehokkuusajattelun primääriksi uhkakuvaksi tutkimuksessa tulkitaan profession vallan, erityisesti hallinnollisen päätäntävallan, menettämisen uhka lääkärikunnan ulkopuolisille ammattijohtajille. Vastaavasti yliopistoissa opetus- ja tutkimustyötä tekevän henkilöstön osalta keskeiseksi tehokkuusajattelun uhkakuvaksi tulkitaan huoli numerojohtamisesta: jo itsessään yliopistotyöhön sopimattoman tulosjohtamisen muuttumisesta itsetarkoitukselliseksi numeroiden tuottamiseksi.

    Tehokkuusajattelun aito, seremoniallisuuden ylittävä omaksuminen edellyttäisi yliopisto- ja sairaalaorganisaatioiden keskeisten ammattilaisryhmien, yliopistoissa tutkimus- ja opetushenkilökunnan ja sairaalaorganisaatioissa lääkärikunnan, professionaalisen eetoksen ja asiantuntijaidentiteetin muutosta. Lisäksi tehokkuusajattelun omaksuminen edellyttäisi institutionaalisen logiikan muutosta, jonka myötä sairaala- ja yliopisto-organisaatiot eivät enää ilmentäisi niinkään perinteistä ammattilaisbyrokratia-arkkityyppiä, vaan jotakin muuta, toistaiseksi mahdollisesti tuntematonta ammattilaisorganisaation arkkityyppiä.

    Tutkimuksessa esitetyn tulkinnan mukaan yliopistoissa ja sairaalaorganisaatioissa tehokkuuspaineen seurauksena toistaiseksi tapahtuneet, lähinnä hallintoon, päätöksen-tekoon ja uraan liittyvät muutokset ilmentävät siirtymää kohti markkinaorientoituneempaa toimintatapaa. Kyseessä on kuitenkin paremminkin jonkinlainen organisaatiokentän evoluutio, kuin varsinainen institutionaalisen logiikan muutos. Ammattilaisbyrokratioissa operatiivisella tasolla tapahtuneet muutokset ovat olleet toistaiseksi vähäisempiä kuin niiden hallinnossa tapahtuneet muutokset. Tämä on merkittävää, sillä ammattilaisbyrokratian tapauksessa operatiivinen ydin on organisaation keskeinen osa ja operatiivisen ytimen ammattilaiset ovat perinteisesti käyttäneet omaan työhönsä liittyen merkittävämpää valtaa kuin strategisen huipun johtajat. Todellista valtaa ammattilaisbyrokratioissa käyttävät siten edelleen ammattilaiset itse, eivätkä niinkään organisaatioiden formaalissa esimiesasemassa olevat johtajat.

    Managerialismi on kuitenkin kiistatta kaventanut erityisesti yliopistojen tapauksessa kollegiaalisuutta ja demokraattista päätöksentekoa. Organisaatioiden ylätasolla tapahtuneet muutokset ovat myös luoneet eräänlaisen kahden kriteeristön ongelman: ammattilaisbyrokratioissa vaikuttavat toisaalta ammattikuntien omat perinteiset toiminnallisen tuloksellisuuden ja laadunarvioinnin kriteerit, toisaalta tulosjohtamisen mukanaan tuomat ammattikuntien ulkopuolisten, ei-ammattilaisten, laatimat kriteerit. Yleinen suuntaus vaikuttaa olevan, että ammattilaisbyrokratioiden tuottavuuden ja laadun kriteerit määritellään yhä enemmän rahoittajien, ei niinkään ammattilaisten tai heidän professionaalisten järjestöjensä toimesta.

    Tutkimuksen käytännölliset johtopäätökset ammattilaisbyrokratioiden tehokkuuden näkökulmasta voi tiivistää seuraavasti. Toisin kuin sairaalaorganisaatioissa, yliopisto-organisaatioissa ammattilaisbyrokratiaan kohdistuva tehokkuuspaine ei ammattilaisten omasta näkökulmasta näyttäydy aina legitiiminä. Ulkopuolisten toimijoiden kehittämien ja säätämien, tehokkuuteen tähtäävien käytäntöjen, toimintamallien ja lakien valuviat ovat seurausta ennen kaikkea siitä, että niiden laatijat eivät ymmärrä riittävästi ammattilaisbyrokratioiden toimintalogiikkaa. Tämän myötä tehostamispyrkimykset johtavat usein juuri päinvastaiseen tulokseen kuin mihin niillä on tähdätty – toiminta muuttuu näennäisesti tehokkaammaksi, mutta ammattilaisbyrokratian ydintoiminnan näkökulmasta mahdollisesti aiempaa tehottomammaksi. Niitä ohjauskeinoja ja välineitä, joilla ammattilaisbyrokratioita johdetaan, tulisikin arvioida uudelleen; olisi kriittisesti tarkasteltava soveltuvatko ne ylipäätään luonteeltaan sisäisesti motivoituneen ja professionaalisen eetoksen ohjaaman asiantuntijatyön johtamiseen. Ammattilaisbyrokratioita ei ylipäätään voi johtaa niiden erityisluonteen vuoksi kuten useimpia muita organisaatioita, ylhäältä alas, vaikka managerialististen käytäntöjen viimeaikainen omaksuminen ammattilaisbyrokratioissa siihen nimenomaisesti tähtää.

  • 22.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Ensikäden kokemuksia akateemisesta johtajuudesta: [Review of] Ilkka Niiniluoto, Ulla-Maija Forsberg &Aino-Maija Evers (toim.) Akateemisen johtamisenydinkysymyksiä. Helsingin yliopistonhallinnon julkaisuja 88. Unigrafia. 2014. 213 s.2015Ingår i: Työelämän tutkimus, ISSN 0788-091X, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 163-165Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Pirullisia ongelmia kaaoksen reunalla: [Review of] Vartiainen P., Ollilla, S., Raisio, H. &Lindell, J. (2013) Johtajana kaaoksen reunalla. Kuinka selviytyä pirullisista ongelmista? Gaudeamus 2013. (155 s)2014Ingår i: Työelämän tutkimus, ISSN 0788-091X, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 93-95Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Taboos in corporate social responsibility discourse2007Ingår i: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 74, nr 2, s. 165-175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporations today have been engineered by CEOs and other business advocates to look increasingly green and responsible. However, alarming cases such as Enron, Parmalat and Worldcom bear witness that a belief in corporate goodness is still nothing other than naive. Although many scholars seemingly recognize this, they still avoid touching on the most sensitive and problematic issues, the taboos. As a consequence, discussion of important though problematic topics is often stifled. The article identifies three ‘grand’ taboos of CSR discourse and explicitly raises them for discussion. They are the taboos of amoral business, continuous economic growth, and the political nature of CSR. It is suggested that CSR can only be as advanced as its taboos. The critical potential of the field remains underdeveloped as a consequence of the taboos, and in many cases the CSR discourse merely produces alluring but empty rhetoric about sustainability and responsible business.

  • 25.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Tehokkuuspaine ja julkisen sairaalaorganisaation institutionaalisen logiikan muutos2015Ingår i: Erikoislääkäri, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 94-96Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 26.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Revisiting professional bureaucracy: adoption of a new PM system in the Finnish universities2018Ingår i: Paper presented at the Qualitative Research in Accounting and Management Journal Workshop: “Governing by numbers: audit culture and contemporary tales of universities' accountability”, Warsaw, Poland, October 25-26, 2018, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Univ Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO). Univ Turku, Finland.
    Blomberg, Annika
    Univ Turku, Finland.
    From professional bureaucracy to competitive bureaucracy - redefining universities' organization principles, performance measurement criteria, and reason for being2020Ingår i: Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management/Emerald, ISSN 1176-6093, E-ISSN 1758-7654, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 82-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This purpose of this study is to understand how the spread of audit culture and the related public sector reforms have affected Finnish universities' organization principles, performance measurement (PM) criteria and ultimately their reason for being. Design/methodology/approach Applying extensive qualitative data by combining interview data with document materials, this study takes a longitudinal perspective toward the changing Finnish higher education field. Findings The analysis suggests the reforms have altered universities' administrative structures, planning and control systems, coordination mechanisms and the role of staff units, as well as the allocation of power and thus challenged their reason for being. Power has become concentrated into the hands of formal managers, while operational core professionals have been distanced from decision making. Efficiency in terms of financial and performance indicators has become a coordinating principle of university organizations, and PM practices are used to steer the work of professionals. Because of the reforms, universities have moved away from the ideal type of professional bureaucracy and begun resembling the new, emerging ideal type of competitive bureaucracy. Originality/value This study builds on rich, real-life, longitudinal empirical material and details a chronological description of the changes in Finland's university sector. Moreover, it illustrates how the spread of audit culture and the related legislative changes have transformed the ideal type of university organization and challenged universities' reason for being. These changes entail significant consequences regarding universities as organizations and their role in society.

  • 28.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Blomberg, Annika Johanna
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Physical space, culture and organisational creativity: a longitudinal study2015Ingår i: Facilities, ISSN 0263-2772, E-ISSN 1758-7131, Vol. 33, nr 5-6, s. 389-411Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore the potential positive effects of the design of a physical organisational environment on the emergence of an organisational culture conducive to organisational creativity. Design/methodology/approach - The study is based on an in-depth, longitudinal case study, the aim being to enhance understanding of how a change in physical space, including location, spatial organisation and architectonic details, supports cultural change. Findings - It is suggested that physical space plays an implicit yet significant role in the emergence of a culture conducive to organisational creativity. It appears from the case analysis that there are three aspects of culture in particular, equality, openness and collectivity, that may be positively affected by the design of an organisation’s physical environment. Practical implications - The careful choice, planning and design of an organisation’s physical location, layout and style can advance the appearance of an organisational culture conducive to creativity. Originality/value - The paper describes a longitudinal study comparing a case organisation before and after a change in its physical environment. The longitudinal data illustrates how a change in the spatial environment contributes to the emergence of a culture conducive to organisational creativity.

  • 29.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Grossi, Giuseppe
    Kristianstad University.
    Ambiguities in university performance measurement: the Finnish case2015Ingår i: Paper presented at 23rd Nordic Academy of Management Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 12-14, 2015, Nordic Academy of Management , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, performance measurement (PM) tools and practices have been implemented at literally hundreds of universities in Western countries. Accordingly, PM practices have been adopted in practice in all countries infected by New Public Management (NPM) doctrine. The seemingly well-intentioned reforms—designed to improve universities’ economy, efficiency and effectiveness—have led to widespread criticism among scholars, ranging from fierce resistance and loud outbursts  to somewhat more analytical and theoretical arguments. Most scholars who study university management in general and university PM systems in particular have recognized there are many more cons than pros in the recent developments. Scholars see PM systems in universities as structures of attention rather than formal systems of accountability.

    This study reports empirical findings for university PM in Finland and concentrates on the problems of measuring quality aspects in universities and in academic work. As in many other Western countries, the Finnish higher education sector has been broadly affected by NPM-related reforms. However, Finnish universities are especially responsive to new government reforms since, by law, all universities are publicly owned and administered.

    The principal empirical data of this study were gathered in 2010 and 2012 from 12 faculties in three Finnish multidisciplinary universities. The data were collected with an Internet-based survey questionnaire sent to all employees in the chosen faculties. The answers to the following open-survey question were used as the principal date: “What kind of quantitative and qualitative indicators should be used to assess performance in universities?”

    This study reports which PM indicators Finnish university personnel would prefer in their own work in terms of quality and quantity, and how the Finnish Ministry of Education & Culture (MOE) has implemented quality aspects in the ministry’s PM system. The MOE’s PM systems, which define the actual amount of funding an individual university receives, have largely been copied by individual universities’ and faculties’ internal PM systems that evaluate academics’ performance.

    In light of the responses, the issue of qualitative and quantitative measurements is crucial. The current indicators set by the MOE are mainly quantitative, which seems to upset many. In the responses, the problems of university PM are highlighted. For instance, different degrees or research activities are almost impossible to measure together, but in the Finnish PM system, they are, in a way that may seem unproblematic for someone not familiar with the realities of university work. In reality, the same performance criteria might demand very different types of resources in different faculties. The funding scheme for universities is vast and complicated, and different types of outputs and their respective indicators are only loosely coupled with different types of funding.

    If we look more closely at the MOE’s university funding scheme, roughly speaking, all quality indicators are quantitative. Although the original purpose of the University Act was to provide independence to individual universities to define their own practices and policies, curiously it seems that the university reforms have, instead, increased homogeneity in PM practices in the Finnish university field.

  • 30.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Grossi, Giuseppe
    University of Kristianstad.
    Engblom, Janne
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Measuring performance in Finnish universities: a longitudinal analysis of the institutional change2017Ingår i: Paper presented at the Performance Measurement Association Australasia (PMAA) Conference 2017, Dunedin, New Zealand, March 1-3, 2017, PMAA , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last thirty years, institutional and socio-economic development and the phenomenon ofglobalization have played a crucial role in changes seen in the higher education sector. Thesechanges have impacted aspects such as governance, organization, financing, management systems,and the academic and social legitimacy of universities (Burke & Associates, 2005).

    Previous studies have focused on changes in performance measurement (PM) and the managementof universities, for example in the implementation of PM (Deem, 1998; Shun et al, 2006; Broadbent,2007), the assessment of academic performance (Kanji et al, 2010), the use of key performanceindicators (Ball & Halwachi, 1987; Lewis et al, 2000; Guthrie and Newman, 2007), and themeasurement of institutional and individual performance (Modell, 2003, 2005, 2006; Taylor, 2001;Kallio & Kallio, 2014; Ter Bogt & Scapens, 2012). The common factor in these studies seems to be atransition in institutional logics from academic logics to business logics (see Pettersen, 2015).

    In line with this recent development, universities in Nordic countries have faced increasedcompetition for students, researchers, and resources and they are now managed using different PMtools (see Vakkuri & Meklin, 2003; Kallio et al., forthcoming). Universities are complex andheterogeneous organizations characterized by the multiplicity of ‘institutional logics’ that compete,shift, and interact (Friedland & Alford, 1991; Thornton & Ocasio, 2008).

    The present study uses institutional logics to analyze how the renewal of the PM system in Finnishuniversities has led to a change in the operating logics of individual university employees. The studyis based on a survey conducted in 2015 including 672 respondents from three different universitiesin Finland. The preliminary analysis revealed that despite the way in which university employees’perceive the PM system in use, this system has initiated a change in the institutional logics ofindividual researchers and lecturers.

  • 31.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kuoppakangas, Päivikki
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Bandwagoning municipal enterprises: institutional isomorphism and the search for the Third Way2013Ingår i: Policy Studies, ISSN 0144-2872, E-ISSN 1470-1006, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 19-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, the number of municipal enterprises in Finland has almost tripled. This paper attempts to understand the phenomenon related to the recent mushrooming of municipal enterprises. This is done by three empirical case analyses of university hospital laboratories. In two of the three case organisations, there is very little indication that any strategy or other rational reasoning would explain the adoption of municipal enterprise form, and the analysis suggests that institutional isomorphism plays an essential role in the adoption of the municipal enterprise form. Moreover, there are signs that the search for the Third Way’ of some local politicians, especially in the case of some early mover organisations, like the third case organisation of this study, might have triggered the development which has led to the bandwagon effect. The popularity of New Public Management (NPM) and the promises of the NPM mantra, suggesting, e.g. efficiency, cost-effectiveness and more flexible management, might lead the public administration decision-makers to believe in the superiority of certain business-like organisational forms. However, the decision-makers themselves might be surprised to learn how thin the evidence to back up the expectations concerning NPM reforms might be. The organisational transformation, such as the adoption of the municipal enterprise form, might lead to an outcome where public organisations become increasingly similar without necessarily becoming more efficient.

  • 32.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Laasonen, Salla
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Vihanto, Martti
    University of Turku, Finland.
    The Janus face of sustainable foreign direct investments2008Ingår i: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 198-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we take a critical perspective on the phenomenon known as Sustainable Foreign Direct Investments (SFDIs). With the pulp and paper sector in Latin America as an illustrative example, we examine how the behaviour of firms is constrained by societal norms and how the greenness and sense of responsibility is constructed within SFDIs. Because of the lack of generally approved metrics for defining SFDIs and the ambiguity of the concept of sustainability, we argue that there are seldom rational arguments for far-going optimism, as far as SFDIs are concerned. We find that greenness and responsibility manifest themselves to no greater extent in SFDIs than in other business contexts. We suggest that the most important and urgent task is to increase the transparency of Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) and to continue to develop international standards and to metrics that could be used to reliably determine the sustainability of these investments. Copyright © 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 33.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Nordberg, Piia
    University of Turku, Finland.
    The evolution of organizations and natural environment discourse: some critical remarks2006Ingår i: Organization & environment, ISSN 1086-0266, E-ISSN 1552-7417, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 439-457Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors analyze some of the developments and weaknesses in organizational environmental studies and make an effort to evaluate the fields current status, role, and future prospects. During recent years, the field of management and organizational studies has witnessed environmental research gaining a secure foothold, especially in quantitative terms. It is questionable, however whether it is actually organizational environmental studies that has arrived or whether the discourse is in fact only a minor annex or a slight modification of the same old themes in management and organizational studies. This is because of the fact that it is still too early to say that organizations and natural-environment-related research would have been able to develop its own theory base and legitimate posture in relation to the management and organizational studies.

  • 34.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Nordberg, Piia
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Ahonen, Ari
    University of Turku, Finland ; Monopolies Unit, Finnish Competition Authority, Finland.
    ‘Rationalizing sustainable development’: a critical treatise2007Ingår i: Sustainable Development, ISSN 0968-0802, E-ISSN 1099-1719, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 41-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the themes of rationality and legitimation in the discourse of sustainable development. We start by constructing ideal types of interpretation of sustainable development (weak and strong) and rationality (value rationality and instrumental rationality) as conceptual and theoretical ‘tools’ for our further analysis. We then discuss the role of and analyze the construction of rationality and legitimation in the sustainable development discourse. We explore the ways in which rationality and legitimation are constructed to support one’s own interpretation, and, on the other hand, how the rationality and legitimacy of the opposing interpretations are nullified. We then discuss the basis of prudent decision-making, and the possibilities and problems that are bound up in the concept of sustainable development. The paper concludes by stating that when it comes to sustainable development neither societal decision-making nor the actions based on it is currently prudent. 

  • 35.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Sandström, Johan
    Örebro University.
    Academic writing as autocommunication: the case of doctoral dissertations on CSR2009Ingår i: Culture and Organization, ISSN 1475-9551, E-ISSN 1477-2760, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 75-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore the self-oriented rather than socially-oriented reasons why a doctoral dissertation in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is written. We base our article on Yuri M. Lotman’s idea on autocommunication which we use as tool in analysing a group interview conducted with six doctoral students studying in the field of CSR. We suggest that autocommunicational aspects might play a much more important role in rationalized Western culture and science than is often realized, and our main thesis is that one essential reason for writing a doctoral dissertation in the field of CSR might be to communicate with oneself and that this even might contain a therapeutic dimension. Implications for students, supervisors and future research are discussed at the end of the article.

  • 36.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). University of Turku, Finland.
    Tevameri, Terhi
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Vähätalo, Mervi
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Nurses' organizational roles: stakeholders’ expectations2018Ingår i: Professions & Professionalism, ISSN 1893-1049, E-ISSN 1893-1049, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 1-17, artikel-id e1973Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analysed stakeholders’ organizational role expectations for nurses. We defined organizational role expectations as a set of informal expectations in behavioural patterns and formal expectations in work tasks related to a certain position in the organization. A qualitative study was conducted, and content analysis was applied to 150 articles published in a Finnish nursing trade journal. We identified five general organizational role expectations of patients and their relatives, physicians and other healthcare professionals, the work community, the nursing association, and legislators in our analysis: “the alongside stroller,” “the patients’ advocate,” “the reliable colleague and team member,” “the expert and skills developer,” and “the organizational underdog.” This study explores these nursing roles and links stakeholder perspective to the organizational role expectations in professional services.

  • 37.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Vähätalo, Mervi
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Institutionaalisen logiikan muutos terveydenhuollon ammattihenkilöiden kokemana2016Ingår i: Paper presented at Hallinnon tutkimuksen päivät 2016, Kuopio, Finland, November 24-25, 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [fi]

    Tutkimuksen kiinnostuksen kohteena ovat terveydenhuollon organisaatioiden johtamiskäytännöt ja toimintalogiikat. Perinteisesti yksityisen ja julkisen sektorin on ajateltu noudattavan erilaisia toimintalogiikoita. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan terveydenhuollon ammattilaisten mielikuvia yksityisen ja julkisen sektorin organisaatioista: niissä vallitsevista toimintatavoista, arvoista ja johtamiskäytännöistä. Tutkimus toteutettiin sähköisenä Webropol -kyselynä eräässä yksityisomisteisessa suomalaisessa terveydenhuoltoalan organisaatiossa. Kyselyyn vastasi 775 lääkäri- ja hoitajataustaista terveydenhuollon ammattilaista. Tutkimustulosten perusteella voidaan todeta, että terveydenhuollon ammattilaiset näkevät sekä eroja että yhtäläisyyksiä julkisen ja yksityisen sektorin toimintakäytännöissä. Vastaajien mielestä molemmilla sektoreilla ilmeni mm. taloudellisten arvojen korostamista hyvän hoidon kustannuksella. Suurimmat erot yksityisen ja julkisen sektorin välillä puolestaan liittyivät johtamis- ja organisointikäytäntöihin. Tulosten perusteella voidaan todeta, että niin yksityiseen kuin julkiseen sektoriin kohdistuu vastaajien mielikuvissa yhtäläisiä tehokkuuspaineita. Toiminnan päämäärien ja tavoitteiden osalta professionaalinen toimintalogiikka näyttää osin liudentuneen ja vastaajien näkemyksen mukaan sekä yksityisellä että julkisella sektorilla korostetaan yhtäläisesti markkinalogiikan periaatteita. Näyttää kuitenkin siltä, että johtamis- ja organisointikäytännöt eivät ole seuranneet toimintalogiikan muutosta vaan julkisella sektorilla vallitsee vastaajien näkemyksen mukaan edelleen perinteinen hierarkkinen johtamiskulttuuri.

  • 38.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Vähätalo, Mervi
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Reviewing the reviews: the use of systematic review method in academic journal articles2012Ingår i: Paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Evaluation for Practice, Pori, Finland, June 18-20, 2012, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 39.
    Mattila, Eija
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Kohti verkostomaista julkishallintoa: sivistystoimen johtaminen tulevaisuuden kunnassa2018Ingår i: Hallinnon Tutkimus, ISSN 0359-6680, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 111-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines municipal educational and cultural services as well as the changing work tasks of local educational and cultural leaders from the perspective of networks. The framework of the study is the so-called “future municipality,” which refers to municipalities after the implementation of the national health and social services reform. Local educational and cultural leaders as well as other experts were interviewed in order to understand the effects that the reform has on municipal educational and cultural services, on the one hand, and on networks in which educational and cultural leaders will operate in the future municipality, on the other. The reform requires that health and social services become the responsibility of regions, and educational and cultural services consequently become the largest remaining task for municipalities. The informants suggested that the reform causes network-based operations to continue to grow as municipalities’ resources decrease and as their knowhow becomes scattered. The analysis also suggests that network operations as well as their very nature are changing. Professional and operational networks are becoming increasingly important, while traditional hierarchical and formal networks are losing their relative importance. From the theoretical standpoint, the informants’ responses reflected collaboration – the deepest form of network relationship. However, the current practices that the informants described exemplify cooperation and coordination, that is, more traditional forms of network relationship.

  • 40.
    Palomäki, Jari
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Yleistämisen ongelma liiketaloustieteessä2012Ingår i: Paper presented at Suomen Filosofisen Yhdistyksen kollokvio 2012, Helsinki, Finland, January 9-10, 2012, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 41.
    Siekkinen, Taru
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Miksi tohtorit lähtevät yliopistoista?2018Ingår i: Paper presented at Sosiologipäivät 2018, Joensuu, Finland, March 15-16, 2018, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [fi]

    Yliopistot ovat keskeisessä asemassa kun tarkastellaan tiedon tuottamista yhteiskunnassa (Välimaa, Papatsiba & Hoffman 2016). Tohtorit jotka lähtevät yliopistoista työskentelemään muualle, ovat tärkeässä roolissa siirtämässä tietoa yliopistoista muille sektoreille – sekä muihin yliopistoihin. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan tekijöitä, jotka työntävät ihmisiä pois yliopistoista, sekä vetävät heitä sinne. Kansainvälisessä tutkimuksessa tästä ilmiöstä käytetään käsitteitä ”push and pull -factors” (esim. Johnsrud & Rosser 2002; Zhou & Volkvein 2004).

    Tutkimus liittyy nelivuotiseen Suomen Akatemian rahoittamaan hankkeeseen ”Exiting Academics in Networked Knowledge Societies, EANKS”, 2016–2020, joka toteutetaan Jyväskylän yliopiston Koulutuksen tutkimuslaitoksen ja Tampereen yliopiston johtamiskorkeakoulun yhteistyönä.

    Tutkimuksen aineisto koostuu haastatteluista sekä kyselyaineistosta. Haastatteluaineistona on 41 haastattelua, joissa on haastateltu yliopiston keskijohtoa, yliopistoista lähteneitä henkilöitä ja johtavassa asemissa olevia henkilöitä yksityisen ja julkisen sektorin organisaatioista. Sähköinen kysely toteutetaan helmikuun alussa 2018. Kysely lähetetään noin 4900 henkilölle, jotka ovat 34 vuosien 2005–2010 aikana olleet työsuhteessa suomalaiseen yliopistoon tohtorin tutkinnon suorittamisen jälkeen, mutta lähteneet työskentelemään muualle.

    Haastattelujen alustavaan analyysiin perustuen voidaan todeta, että yliopistoista lähtemisen syyt liittyvät joko organisaatioon ja työhön, tai yksilön henkilökohtaisiin syihin. Nämä syyt ovat sidoksissa toisiinsa. Esimerkiksi palkkaus, resurssien puute, byrokratian määrä, lyhyet työsuhteet ja kilpailu ovat organisaatioon ja työhön liittyviä syitä. Yksilöllisiä syitä ovat esimerkiksi oma kiinnostuksen puute työtehtäviä kohtaan ja halu kokeilla jotain muuta.

  • 42.
    Tevameri, Terhi
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Hoitajan organisatorisen roolin tutkimus ammattilehtikirjoitusten pohjalta: menetelmänä diskurssi - vai sisällönanalyysi?2015Ingår i: Paper presented at Hallinnon tutkimuksen päivät 2015, Tampere, Finland, November 27, 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Tevameri, Terhi
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Organizational role expectations for nurses2016Ingår i: Paper presented at the 20th International Research Society for Public Management (IRSPM) Conference, Hong Kong, China, April 13-15, 2016, IRSPM , 2016, IRSPM , 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study analyzes nurses’ manifold organizational role. The organizational role is viewed both from the formal role perspective and from the point of view of the expectations of and perceptions on nurses’ behavior in organizations.

    Data and Methods: The data consists of approximately 150 articles published in a Finnish nurse trade journal from January 2014 to June 2015. The trade journal was chosen for source of data as it deals diversely with themes connected to nurses’ work and nursing at the practical level. Qualitative content analysis was applied while analyzing the data.

    Results: The study recognizes several formal and informal organizational roles of nurses. These roles can be labeled as follows: “the alongside stroller,” “the patients' advocate,” “the colleague,” “the organizational underdog,” and “the expert and skills developer.” 

    Conclusions: This study generates new knowledge about the characteristics of nurses’ role at the organizational level and combines both formal and informal perspectives. Even though the nurses’ role naturally varies across organizations and positions, some general role characteristics can be provided.

    Contribution to Public Management: The study contributes to nurse education, for instance in terms of the aims and content of nurse education. The results of the study can be also utilized in nurse management in public healthcare organizations, especially when redesigning and changing the work of nurses.

  • 44.
    Tevameri, Terhi
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kuoppakangas, Päivikki
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Organisatoriset dilemmat ja niiden rekonsiliaatiot sairaalaorganisaatiossa2016Ingår i: Paper presented at Hallinnon tutkimuksen päivät 2016, Kuopio, Finland, November 24-25, 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 45.
    Vähätalo, Mervi
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Challenges of public procurement: measuring the processes or the outcome2015Ingår i: Paper presented at the 19th International Research Society for Public Management (IRSPM) Conference, Birmingham, UK, March 30-April 1, 2015, IRSPM , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Public procurement has been considered as an important instrument in triggering innovations and thereby supporting public economy. In recent years, innovation supportive procurement practices have been studied. However, conducting the public procurement of innovations is said to be challenging and several barriers that prohibit innovation in public procurement have also been reported. Due to the significant role of health and social services in public economy, we found it important to study whether innovation supportive procurement practices are used in health and social services. In addition, we studied the possible barriers to the public procurement of innovations in this context. We interviewed eighteen public purchasers from three different municipalities. Results revealed that innovation supportive purchasing practices were emerging in health and social services. However, purchasers reported several barriers to it. Many of the barriers were similar to those found in the previous studies. In addition results revealed barriers that were related to health and social service context in particular, such as the uncertainty of demand, challenges in outcome definition and measurement, the rigid regulation of the context, multiple supplier and complex environment as well as ethical sensitivity of the context. Results have significance when evaluating the applicability of public procurement of innovations in health and social service context.

  • 46.
    Vähätalo, Mervi
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Enhancing innovations in public procurement2014Ingår i: Paper presented at the PASCAL workshop on Cities learning together – Public administration as a domain for smart solutions, Tampere, Finland, June 12-13, 2014, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Vähätalo, Mervi
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Managing supply chains in modular services: case study from health and social services2015Ingår i: Paper presented at the 6th International seminar on service architecture and modularity, Helsinki, Finland, January 15-16, 2015, IRSPM , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Vähätalo, Mervi
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Modularity: supporting innovations in public procurement2014Ingår i: Paper presented at the 5th International seminar on service architecture and modularity, Copenhagen, Denmark, January 16-17, 2014, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Vähätalo, Mervi
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Organising health services through modularity2015Ingår i: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 925-945Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyse the way in which the factors influencing a transformation towards or away from modularity, according to general modular systems theory, appear in the context of health services, and the extent to which the special characteristics of health services might support or prevent its application.

    Design/methodology/approach - The arguments constructed in the study are based on the theme of modularity, reflected against the special characteristics of health services identified in the context of health economics.

    Findings - The results include 11 proposition pairs that direct health services both towards and away from modularity.

    Research limitations/implications - Health services are highly heterogeneous in nature and the authors illustrate this with a wide range of examples from elderly care as the authors discuss the application of modularity in this context. Nevertheless, the authors recognise that modularity might suit some health services better than others. The findings provide potentially important information to health service managers and providers, enabling them to understand how modularity would benefit health service provision and where contradictions are to be expected.

    Originality/value - This study contributes to the discourse on service modularity in general, and complements the literature on modularity with reference to both public and private health services.

  • 50.
    Vähätalo, Mervi
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Public procurement for innovations: barriers in health and social services2017Ingår i: Paper presented at the 21st International Research Society for Public Management (IRSPM) Conference, Budapest, Hungary, April 19-21, 2017, IRSPM , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Public procurement is considered a tool for both purchasing services and triggering innovation. However, public procurement for innovations (PPI) is considered to be a challenging process. Studies concerning PPI have been conducted from perspectives of e.g. risk management (Kalvet & Lember, 2010); demand-side policies (Edler & Georghiou, 2007; Edquist & Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, 2012); policy instruments (Vecchiato & Roveda, 2014; Georghiou et al., 2014); and practices that support or induce barriers to innovations (Rolfstam, 2012; Edler et al., 2011; Uyarra et al., 2014). However, very few studies explore PPI in health and social services (Yeow & Edler, 2012; Pelkonen & Valovirta, 2015). 

    According to the extant literature, innovations can be supported by using certain types of procurement practices e.g. outcome-based specifications, early interactions with suppliers, and requirements for innovation in tenders (Edler et al., 2011; Uyarra et al., 2014; Georghiou et al., 2014). By contrast, barriers that are said to prohibit PPI include e.g., over-specified tenders, the overall complexity of the procurement process, and the lack of early interaction between purchasers and providers (Uyarra et al., 2014). Furthermore, also context-related characteristics create challenges within PPI. For instance, in health and social services, manifold laws guide service production, which, in turn, influence the process of procurement (Pelkonen & Valovirta, 2015). Given the financial significance of public procurement of health services in the European Union, it is surprising how sparse academic research about PPI in health and social services has been. This paper explored public procurement in health and social services and the barriers to PPI. Following research questions were comprised: what innovations supportive procurement practices are applied in health and social services and what barriers prohibit their application? 

    The empirical data were collected with 18 interviews from four purchasing organizations in Finnish municipalities. These organizations used different strategies in organizing and in procuring health and social services. Analysis revealed that innovations supportive purchasing practices were emerging in this field. However, added to the barriers already mentioned in the extant literature, also several context-related barriers preventing PPI were found. Context-related barriers included uncertainty of demand, rigid regulation of context, an ethically sensitive context, multiple suppliers, and complex environments, as well as challenges in outcome definition and measurement. For example, according to the purchasers, uncertainty of demand prevented long contracts. Despite the fact that outcome based procurement would allow providers to adjust to demand, purchasers were unwilling to use it because of problems in defining the outcome in health and social services.

    Purchasers described dreadful stories about the risks related to innovation supportive procurement practices and therefore used more traditional and “safe” practices. Purchasers have been blamed for avoiding risks too extensively and active risk management has been highlighted (Kalvet & Lember, 2010; Elder et al., 2015). However, in the context of health and social services, there are excessive financial and ethical risks that can result from unwanted service outcomes. Perhaps general recommendations should not be provided either in PPI or in risk management, instead more studies presenting context-specific good practices could be needed.

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