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  • 1.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Swecden.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Linköpings universitet.
    Entrepreneurship in rural areas: The role of women?2017Ingår i: Paper presented at: 31st RENT Conference, Lund, 16-17 NOV 2017, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management , 2017, s. 1-20Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Can governments support both women and entrepreneurship?2014Ingår i: Diana International Research Conference 2014: Stockholm, June 15-17 2014, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in Sweden as well as in the other Scandinavian countries was largely formulated as state feminism. The women’s movement has cooperated with feminists in the state, resulting in societies that count as the most gender equal in the world. The Scandinavian countries are consistently ranked in the top position on international gender equality indices. The state has provided a large publicly financed welfare sector that both employs many women, and makes it possible to combine work and family through family friendly policies. The last decade has seen a political change influenced by neoliberal thought, in which politicians hand over welfare state responsibilities to the market, and instead encourage entrepreneurship, not least among women. The Swedish government has since 20 years back programs and policies to promote women’s entrepreneurship. The Swedish state has during the same period shrunk the public sector and privatized many operations in services and care, which traditionally employ many women. Instead, women are encouraged to start businesses in former public sectors. Empirical studies suggest however, that all of the increase of women’s entrepreneurship in these sectors is within low-paid, micro service businesses, typically child minding.

    Traditional state feminism has also changed character. Instead of public regulations, market solutions are advocated. In this paper we ask how to theorize this change from a feminist theory perspective; we ask what the implications for feminist action are, and we ask what consequences for women’s position in society are. We use research literature and policy texts as our empirical material and conduct a critical literature analysis. We conclude that the entrepreneurship discourse challenges, and possibly weakens state feminism and feminist action as we have known it in the Scandinavian countries, but may also offer new forms of feminist resistance, on market terms. 

  • 3.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Entrepreneurship for Equality?2013Ingår i: The International Helix conference 2013, Linköping, Sweden, June, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    From feminism to FemiInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state.2016Ingår i: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 369-392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in the Nordic countries was primarily formulated in terms of ‘state feminism’. The women’s movement cooperated with feminist government officials and politicians, resulting in societies that can be considered to be the most gender-equal societies in the world. Historically, the state provided for a large publicly-financed welfare sector which made it possible for many women to combine work and family through the state’s implementation of family-friendly policies, while simultaneously providing employment opportunities for many women. However, since the financial crisis of the 1990s, there has been a political change influenced by neo-liberal thought, in which politicians have handed over the welfare state’s responsibilities to the market, and, instead, the politicians have encouraged entrepreneurship, not least among women. Further to this development, there has been a change in emphasis from entrepreneurship (understood as starting and running a business) to entrepreneurialism which, in addition to a belief in the efficacy of market forces, also contains a social dimension where individuals are supposed to be flexible and exercise choice. In this article, we ask whether this entails a change in the feminist project in the Nordic countries, and if so, what the likely consequences are for this project, both in practice and in research. In order to answer this question, we reviewed existing Nordic research on women’s entrepreneurship and examined how this body of work conceptualizes entrepreneurship, gender, the state, and equality. We also considered whether any trends could be identified. We relate our findings to recent changes in government policy and conclude that the current discourse on entrepreneurship challenges, and possibly weakens, state feminism, but we also conclude that this discourse may also provide space for new forms of feminist action, in market terms. We coin the term FemInc.ism to denote feminist action through enterprise and we discuss a number of important challenges that research on this phenomenon is faced with.

  • 5.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Is institutional support for women’s entrepreneurship feminist?2014Ingår i: Gender, Work & Organization: Abstracts 1-376, John Wiley & Sons, 2014, s. 142-142Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in Sweden as well as in the other Scandinavian countries was largely formulated as state feminism. The women's movement has cooperated with feminists in the state, resulting in societies that count as the most gender equal in the world. The Scandinavian countries are consistently ranked in the top position on international gender equality indices. The state has provided a large publicly financed welfare sector that both employs many women, and makes it possible to combine work and family through family friendly policies. The last decade has seen a politica l change influenced by neoliberal thought, in which politicians hand over welfare state responsibilities to the market, and instead encourage entrepreneurship, not least among women. The Swedish government has since 20 years back programs and policies to promote women's entrepreneurship. The Swedish state has during the same period shrunk the pub lic sector and privatized many operations in services and care, which traditionally employ many women. Instead, women are encouraged to start businesses in former public sectors. Empirica l studies suggest however, that all of the increase of women 's entrepreneurs hip in these sectors is within low-paid, micro service businesses, typically child minding.

    Traditional state feminism has also changed character. Instead of public regulations, market solutions are advocated. In this paper we ask how to theorize this change from a feminist theory perspective; we ask what the implications for feminist action are, and we ask what consequences for women's position in society are. We use research literature and policy texts as our empirical material and conduct a critical literature analysis. We conclude that the entrepreneurship discourse challenges, and possibly weakens state feminism and feminist action as we have known it in the Scandinavian countries, but may also offer new forms of feminist resistance, on market terms.

  • 6.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm university.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Nordregio, Stockholm.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping university.
    Will business ownership support gender equality?2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current Swedish as well as international policy advocates an increase inwomen’s business ownership. The reasons center around economic growth:women start businesses at a lower rate than men, and are therefore seen asan untapped resource in stagnant economies. Busienss ownership is advo-cated as a viable alternative to unemployment. Women’s business owner-ship is further seen as instrumental in the neo-liberal transformation of thepublic sector, with privatization of former public commitments in educa-tion and care. In developing countries the arguments center around pov-erty alleviation – help to self-help is advocated. Feminist arguments suchas equal distribution of power and influence among men and women arelargely absent, and a discussion of the allocation of unpaid, domestic workbetween men and women is also absent. The discussion on entrepreneur-ship and the discussion on feminism seem to live side by side, with littleexchange between them. Neither feminist theory, nor extant entrepreneur-ship theory adequately account for feminist agency and activism within aglobalized market economy, in which discourses of entrepreneurship, in-novation and economic growth take precedence. Doing so would implychallenges of and developments of concepts like enterprise, gender, growth,competition, agency, feminist activism and gender equality. In this paperwe seek to bridge and combine feminist and entrepreneurship theories innew ways. We suggest a feminist theoretical understanding of current dis-courses, practices and policies regarding entrepreneurship and women’sentrepreneurship.

  • 7.
    Alkhaled, Sophie
    et al.
    Univ Lancaster, UK.
    Berglund, Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Stockholm University.
    "And now I'm free': Women's empowerment and emancipation through entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia and Sweden2018Ingår i: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 30, nr 7-8, s. 877-900Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical perspectives have called for the study of women's entrepreneurship as a route to social change. This social turn' claims women are empowered and/or emancipated through entrepreneurship with limited problematisation of how these interchangeably used concepts operate. Using an institutional perspective in combination with a narrative approach, we investigate women entrepreneurs' life stories on their road to freedom' where entrepreneurial activity enables them to break free' from particular gendered constraints. Through juxtaposing women's narratives in the contexts of Saudi Arabia and Sweden, the relationship between empowerment and emancipation is disentangled and (re)conceptualised. The findings distinguish between empowerment narrated as individual practices to achieve freedom for the self within institutional structures and emancipation as narrated as a wish to challenge and change structures of power and reach collative freedom. The yearning for collective emancipation propels women's stories of entrepreneurship by raising expectations for entrepreneurship as a vehicle for institutional change. Such stories may fascinate and inspire others to engage in entrepreneurial endeavours to become empowered, but whether they reach emancipation remains an empirical question to be answered. The performative dimension of entrepreneurial narratives is, however, their ability to turn emancipation into an (un)reachable object of desire, with a quest for even more individual empowerment and entrepreneurial activity, at the same time excluding other forms of human conduct as conducive for change.

  • 8.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Stockholm University.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Linköping University.
    Women's entrepreneurship, neoliberalism and economic justice in the postfeminist era: a discourse analysis of policy change in Sweden2018Ingår i: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 531-556Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, there has been investment in women's entrepreneurship policy (WEP) in Sweden, which continued until 2015. During the same period, Sweden assumed neoliberal policies that profoundly changed the position of women within the world of work and business. The goals for WEP changed as a result, from entrepreneurship as a way to create a more equal society, to the goal of unleashing women's entrepreneurial potential so they can contribute to economic growth. To better understand this shift we approach WEP as a neoliberal governmentality which offers women 'entrepreneurial' or 'postfeminist' subject positions. The analysis is inspired by political theorist Nancy Fraser who theorized the change as the displacement of socioeconomic redistribution in favour of cultural recognition, or identity politics. We use Fraser's concepts in a discourse analysis of Swedish WEP over two decades, identifying two distinct discourses and three discursive displacements. Whilst WEP initially gave precedence to a radical feminist discourse that called for women's collective action, this was replaced by a postfeminist neoliberal discourse that encouraged individual women to assume an entrepreneurial persona, start their own business, compete in the marketplace and contribute to economic growth. The result was the continued subordination of women business owners, but it also obscured or rendered structural problems/solutions, and collective feminist action, irrelevant.

  • 9. Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Johansson, Anders W.Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. LEO.
    Arenor för entreprenörskap2008Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Johansson, Anders W.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Dark and bright effects of a polarized entrepreneurship discourse... and the prospects of transformation.2012Ingår i: Societal Entrepreneurship: Positioning, Penetrating, Promoting / [ed] Berglund, Karin, Johannisson, Bengt and Schwartz, Birgitta, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, s. 163-186Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 11. Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Johansson, Anders W
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Entrepreneurship and Conscientization in Processes of Regional Development2007Ingår i: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 499-525Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Johansson, Anders W.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Industrial Renewal - or Beyond?: Emerging Entrepreneurship Theory Based on Practioners' Questions2011Ingår i: Studies in Industrial Renewal: Coping with Changing Contexts / [ed] Segelod, E., Berglund, K., Bjurström, E., Dahlquist, E., Jallén, L. and Johansson, U., Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2011, s. 369-380Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 13. Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Johansson, Anders W.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Who can an entrepreneur be?2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Mälardalen University.
    To play or not to play : that is the question: Gender perspectives on entrepreneurship and innovation2010Ingår i: Gender, Work and Organization, 6th international interdisciplinary conference, 21st - 23rd June, 2010: Conference stream : Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Growth: Gender perspectives, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    To play or not to play: that is the question: Entrepreneuring as gendered play2015Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 206-218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How can play be used to unravel the discourse of the gendered hero entrepreneur and instead describe mundane entrepreneuring? Further, how can the doing of gendered social orders be problematized when entrepreneuring is equated with play? In this article we answer these questions by engaging with the French social theorist Caillois’ (1961)conceptualization of play as being at the heart of all higher culture. Two ethnographic cases act as our vehicle in analysing play as entrepreneuring. From a rich description of these cases we find that it is not a question of playing or not playing, but about how to play. All four forms of play described by Caillois are present, which illustrates the variation of entrepreneuring and the richness of activities conducted in the ‘doing of entrepreneurship’. Further, both ways of playing discussed by Caillois are found. Whilst these two ways are interrelated on a continuum in the theory of play, they have been separated in entrepreneurship discourse, where they underpin the tendency to differentiate between the hero entrepreneur and ordinary people. Finally, we engage in a more interpretive and reflective discussion on entrepreneuring as performative acts through which social orders can be not only reproduced but also transformed.

  • 16.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Stockholm University.
    Verduijn, Karen
    VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Introduction: challenges for entrepreneurship education2018Ingår i: Revitalizing entrepreneurship education: adopting a critical approach in the classroom / [ed] Karin Berglund & Karen Verduijn, Routledge, 2018, 1, s. 3-24Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Stockholm University.
    Verduijn, KarenVU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Revitalizing entrepreneurship education: adopting a critical approach in the classroom2018Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within mainstream scholarship, it's assumed without question that entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education are desirable and positive economic activities. Drawing on a wide range of theoretical approaches and political-philosophical perspectives, critical entrepreneurship studies has emerged to ask the questions which this assumption obscures. Students of entrepreneurship need to understand why and how entrepreneurship is seen as a moral force which can solve social problems or protect the environment, or even to tackle political problems. It is time to evaluate how such contributions and insights have entered our classrooms. How much - if any - critical discussion and insight enters our classrooms? How do we change when students demand to be taught "how to do it", not to be critical or reflexive?If educators are to bring alternative perspectives into the classroom, it will entail a new way of thinking. There is a need to share ideas and practical approaches, and that is what the contributions to this volume aim to do and to illuminate new ways forward in entrepreneurship education.

  • 18.
    Fayolle, Alain
    et al.
    Emlyon Business School, France.
    Landström, HansLund University.Gartner, William B.Babson College, USA.Berglund, KarinStockholm University.
    Institutionalization of Entrepreneurship Research2018Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Fayolle, Alain
    et al.
    Emlyon Business School, France.
    Landström, Hans
    Lund University.
    Gartner, William B.
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark ; California Lutheran University, USA.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm Business School.
    The institutionalization of entrepreneurship: questioning the status quo and re-gaining hope for entrepreneurship research2016Ingår i: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 28, nr 7-8, s. 477-486Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we briefly identify three main challenges/issues that should be taken into consideration in the institutionalization of entrepreneurship research: (1) recognizing the complexity of the phenomenon under study; (2) producing interesting, relevant and useful research results for all stakeholders; and (3) developing a critical posture in research. Following the discussion of these challenges/issues we introduce the five contributions to the Special Issue that, in different ways, problematize and challenge mainstream research and approaches. These articles use ‘dissensus discourses’, apply critical, ideological and paradigmatic stances and in some cases underline the importance of contextual factors.

  • 20.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Johansson, Anders W.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Rosell, Erik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Schwartz, Birgitta
    Stockholm University.
    Stenberg, Rebecca
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Organizing Societal Entrepreneurship: A Cross-Sector Challenge2015Ingår i: Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development Research / [ed] Paula Kyrö, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, 1, s. 130-154Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Allying and expanding the diverse fields of entrepreneurship and sustainable development research is a modern day imperative. The Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development Research cuts through the different approaches and perspectives of the two fields to point the way ahead for research on sustainable entrepreneurship, outlining the motivation, intentions and impact of ecopreneurs in a local, national and global context.

    This Handbook paints an illuminating picture of the historic and current understanding of the bond between entrepreneurship and sustainable development. The authors explore the basic contradictions between the two fields and outline the transformative role entrepreneurship can play in achieving sustainable development. 45 expert researchers and their research communities from 16 countries across Europe, Africa, Australia and North America provide original and informative contributions on a variety of issues, from women’s empowerment to climate change and organic farmers to ecotourism.

    With current and authorative contributions spanning the globe, this Handbook will inspire researchers, teachers and policy-makers to compose their own understanding and contribution on the fast expanding field of entrepreneurship and sustainable development.

  • 21.
    Johansson, Anders W
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. LEO.
    Berglund, Karin
    Entreprenörskap och innovationer i skolans värld2008Ingår i: Innovationer och entreprenörskap - perspektiv på omvandling och förnyelse i offentlig verksamhet, 2008Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22. Lindhult, Erik
    et al.
    Berglund, Karin
    Johansson, Anders W.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Partnerskap som socialt entreprenörskap.2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Linköping University.
    In the name of women?: Feminist readings of policies for women's entrepreneurship in Scandinavia2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 50-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy actors seeking to stimulate entrepreneurship sometimes give special attention to women. It is not given, however, that policy initiatives for women entrepreneurs necessarily contribute to gender equality, to social change for women - such as enhancing entrepreneurship as a means to women's wellbeing and financial or other independence - or to gendered change of society. We claim that the outcomes depend on the premises behind the policies. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an analysis of the feminist approaches that are taken in policies for women's entrepreneurship in the Scandinavian countries. We analyse how these policies argue for women's entrepreneurship, how they position women, and what assumptions they hold with respect to women and their businesses. We analyse and compare state-level polices that have been implemented by the national governments in three Scandinavian countries; Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, during the period 2005-2015. A comprehensive analytical tool, building on six different feminist theoretical approaches, is developed. We find that, even if a liberal feminist perspective is present, along with elements of other feminist approaches, polices give precedence to economic growth in a non-feminist fashion. Over time, economic growth becomes the key focus, while feminist approaches are silenced. We observe that, in the name of supporting women, the actual aim of policies for women entrepreneurs often seems to be economic growth, and women are seen merely as an untapped, and yet not fully adequate, resource. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Skoglund, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University ; University of Exeter, UK.
    Berglund, Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Stockholm University.
    Entrepreneurship and the enterprising self: creating alternatives through entrepreneurship education?2018Ingår i: Revitalizing entrepreneurship education: adopting a critical approach in the classroom / [ed] Karin Berglund & Karen Verduijn, Routledge, 2018, 1, s. 158-177Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kvinnors företagande i landsbygdskommuner med fokus på Småland och Öland: en kvantitativ kartläggning inom ramen för forskningsprojektet "Kvinnors företagande för en levande landsbygd"2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    En livskraftig landsbygd med tillgång till arbetskraft, arbetstillfällen och välfärdsservice är en aktuell samhällsfråga. Företagandets omfattning på landsbygden är en aspekt som kan ha betydelse för landsbygdskommunernas sårbarhet. Syftet med rapporten är att utveckla kunskap om kvinnors entreprenörskap på landsbygden, som kan ligga till grund för att stimulera landsbygdsutveckling, jämställdhet och vidare forskning, exempelvis genom kvalitativa forskningsmetoder.

    Med hjälp av en databasstudie beskrivs och analyseras omfattningen och karaktären av kvinnors företagande på landsbygden. Till viss del studeras också likheter och skillnader i företagandet mellan kvinnor födda i Sverige och kvinnor födda utomlands, samt mellan kvinnor och män.

    Företagandet är mer omfattande bland de sysselsatta kvinnorna på landsbygden än bland de sysselsatta kvinnorna i tätorterna. Skillnaderna i omfattningen av kvinnors företagande är små mellan olika typer av landsbygdskommuner – de som är avlägset belägna, mycket avlägset belägna eller belägna nära en större stad. Resultaten indikerar snarare att det är kommunernas företagskaraktär eller tradition av företagande som avgör andelen företagare per sysselsatta. Kartläggningen pekar mot att arbetslöshet kan vara ett incitament för företagande – något starkare för de utlandsfödda kvinnorna än för kvinnorna födda i Sverige. Skogsförvaltning och blandat jordbruk är bland de vanligaste näringsgrenarna för både kvinnor och män på landsbygden. I övrigt är dock företagandet mycket könssegregerat med avseende på bransch. De tio vanligaste näringsgrenarna för kvinnor och män skiljer sig markant åt. Kvinnors företag är mest representerade i Hår- och kroppsvård, Restaurangverksamhet, Redovisning och bokföring, Konsultverksamhet avseende företags organisation, Fysioterapeutisk verksamhet samt Litterärt och konstnärligt skapande. Mäns vanligaste näringsgrenar är mer relaterade till landsbygdens kontext av mark- och naturresurser. Kvinnors företag är små, 76 procent är soloföretag och lönsamheten varierar stort. De näringsgrenar där kvinnors företag redovisar högst lönsamhet är i de numerärt mansdominerade näringsgrenarna inom tillverkningsindustrin. Resultaten indikerar därmed könssegregering och hierarki med avseende på arbets- och resursfördelning.

    Kvinnor på landsbygden är mer benägna att vara företagare än anställda om de är gifta, har hemmavarande barn eller en utbildningsnivå lägre än den eftergymnasiala. Det kan tolkas som att företagandet är en lösning för att kombinera arbetsliv med ansvar för hem och barn. De företagande kvinnornas disponibla inkomster är i genomsnitt lägre än för kvinnor med anställning, för män som är företagare och för män med anställning. Att vara gift innebär för kvinnor en lägre disponibel inkomst, men för män en högre disponibel inkomst jämfört med att att inte vara gift. Resultaten visar dock att det inte är de individrelaterade faktorerna som mest bidrar till skillnader i disponibel inkomst, utan, näringsgren och antalet sysselsatta. Manligt könskodade näringsgrenar och stora företag ger högre inkomst. Den övergripande slutsatsen är att företagandet på landsbygden är traditionellt könssegregerat och hierarkiserat, i fråga om resursfördelning.

  • 26.
    Wettermark, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kårfors, André
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Lif, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wickström, Alice
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wiessner, Sofie
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Stockholm University, Sweden.
    On vulnerability and possibility in critical entrepreneurship education: mutual learning between students and teachers2018Ingår i: Revitalizing entrepreneurship education: adopting a critical approach in the classroom / [ed] Karin Berglund & Karen Verduyn, Routledge, 2018, s. 211-227Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Every time we go in to teach we take a deep breath before entering the classroom and remind ourselves that one or two students in there are likely to know more about the subject than we do. This could be because of their previous experiences and knowledge, or because their gaze from the outside is sharper than ours. At times this exposure of our vulnerability is intimidating for us - we want to be “good”, knowledgeable teachers who make a real contribution. At other times we see outstanding students as a resource and a source of inspiration. Which interpretation comes more naturally depends, we think, on how secure we feel on the topic, but also on how the students function as a group - whether they are defensive and competitive, or curious and willing to share their learnings. In this chapter we will report on a course in which the latter state emerged, and we will suggest that it is precisely because of the presence of those outstanding students that we, as teachers, have the opportunity to learn and develop our courses. We will also suggest that a similar logic of seeing the encounter with others as an opportunity for development can, and should, be incorporated into the teaching of entrepreneurship - not least because entrepreneurship is often circumscribed as creative, curious and open-minded, as an activity to explore new paths or disclose “new worlds” (Spinosa et al., 1999).

  • 27.
    Wettermark, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lif, Oskar
    Stockholm University.
    Wickström, Alice
    Stockholm University.
    Wiessner, Sofie
    Stockholm University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Stockholm University.
    On vulnerability in critical entrepreneurship education: mutual learning between students and teachers2018Ingår i: Revitalizing entrepreneurship education: adopting a critical approach in the classroom / [ed] Karin Berglund & Karen Verduijn, Routledge, 2018, 1, s. 211-227Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
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