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  • 101.
    Ferreira, Marisa Borges
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal;Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Pereira, Paulo Alexandre
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal;University of Minho, Portugal.
    Parreira, Marta
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Sousa, Ines
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Figueiredo, José
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Cerqueira, João José
    University of Minho, Portugal;Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho, Portugal.
    Relationships between neuropsychological and antisaccade measures in multiple sclerosis patients2018In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 6, p. 1-18, article id e5737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Stroop test is frequently used to assess deficits in inhibitory control in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). This test has limitations and antisaccade eye movements, that also measure inhibitory control, may be an alternative to Stroop.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to investigate if the performance in the antisaccade task is altered in patients with MS and (ii) to investigate the correlation between performances in neuropsychological tests, the Stroop test and the antisaccade task.

    Methods

    We measured antisaccades (AS) parameters with an infrared eye tracker (SMIRED 250 Hz) using a standard AS paradigm. A total of 38 subjects diagnosed with MS and 38 age and gender matched controls participated in this study. Neuropsychological measures were obtained from the MS group.

    Results

    Patients with MS have higher error rates and prolonged latency than controls in the antisaccade task. There was a consistent association between the Stroop performance and AS latency. Stroop performance but not AS latency was associated with other neuropsychological measures in which the MS group showed deficits.

    Conclusions

    Our findings suggest that AS may be a selective and independent measure to investigate inhibitory control in patients with MS. More studies are necessary to confirm our results and to describe brain correlates associated with impaired performance in the antisaccade task in people diagnosed with MS.

  • 102.
    Filipsson, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    EvoTears® effekt på tårfilmens lipidskikt över tid2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 103.
    Finnman, Louise
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Förekomsten av refraktionsfel hos befolkningen mellan 10-35 år i Guatemala2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of hyperopia and myopia among people aged 10-35 years in Guatemala. Also to investigate the prevalence of refractive errors in various occupational groups.

    Methods: The study was conducted from March 28 to April 9 during a journey with Vision For All. The measurements were performed in the area around Antigua and Alta Verapaz with binocular subjective refraction. Spherical equivalent refractive errors were used to quantify ametropia. The ametropia was defined as hyperopia SE > +0,75 D and myopia SE < -0,75 D. The equipment used consisted of flippers (+1,00 to +2,50 D), Snellen Eye Chart with tumbling E, trial lenses, trial frame and protocol.

    Results: 503 people participated (311 women and 192 men) aged 10-35 years. The prevalence of hyperopia was highest at 30 %, 19 % had myopia and 51 % had emmetropia. The incidence of myopia was highest in the age group between 16-20 years at 27 %. The most common refractive error associated with occupation was hyperopia.

    Conclusions: The results showed a higher prevalence of hyperopia than myopia among the population aged 10-35 years in Guatemala. The most common refractive error in the various occupational groups was hyperopia. Similar results with a higher prevalence of hyperopia can be seen in earlier studies from Central- and South America.

  • 104.
    Finnström, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Fixationsdisparitet: En jämförelse av tre olika tester2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare three clinical tests used for measuring fixation disparity. The correlation between fixation disparity and phoria was evaluated and the repeatability for each method.This study included 19 subjects (aged from 20 to 31 years); all had functional binocular vision. The order of the tests in the examination was chosen to prevent fatigue from effecting the results. Following case history, binocular refraction, and phoria measurements at distance and near, the examination proceeded in measurement of fixation disparity with each of the three tests; three measurements were performed for each, and averaged. The examination concluded with measurements of NPC, amplitude of accommodation and vergences.Eleven of 19 subjects had FD to some degree according to Mallett, Saladin or Wesson. Since the Mallett unit only measures the associated phoria, the results could not be used in this study.This study shows a significant difference in measured FD between Wesson and Saladin (p=0.027). A Bland-Altman analysis showed a significant difference between the results; it showed that the higher the fixation disparity the greater the difference between the two measurements (p <0.0001). The repeatability was good for Wesson (ICC = 0.95) and Mallett (ICC = 0.87), however lower for Saladin (ICC = 0.71). A One Way- RM ANOVA showed no significant difference between the three measurements for each method. FD deviated in the same direction as the measured phoria for 47 % of the subjects; 10 % had FD that deviated in the opposite direction from the measured phoria. Wesson and Saladin showed no significant correlation to the phoria: Wesson (Pearsson r = 0.15; p = 0.11), and Saladin (Pearsson r = 0.17; p= 0.08).The study shows that there is a significant difference in the results of fixation disparity between the Saladin card and the Wesson card indicating that these methods can’t be used interchangeably. Repeatability was better for Mallett and Wesson but not so good for Saladin. There was a significant correlation between phoria and fixation disparity in means of the direction of deviation i.e. an exophoria is often followed by an exo fixation disparity.In a clinical setting, it might be advisable to adopt one single method and not compare results with those obtained by other instruments.

  • 105.
    Forsberg, Matilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Skillnad i konjunktivala papiller hos kontaktlinsbärare vs. icke-kontaktlinsbärare2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Vid förändringar i konjunktivas struktur vid infektioner, inflammationer och allergi kan det uppstå ojämnheter i det övre ögonlocket, dessa kallas papiller. En papill är ett område som innehåller eosinofiler och neutrofiler och beror på konjunktival hypertrofi. Papiller kan uppkomma av olika anledningar. Det kan till exempel bero på mekanisk påverkan på grund av linsbärande. För att bli av med eventuella papiller kan patienten ordineras linsvila.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att genom evertering undersöka den palpebrala konjunktivan och ta reda på om kontaktlinsbärare har mer konjunktivala papiller än icke-kontaktlinsbärare.

    Metod: I studien deltog 38 försökspersoner i åldrarna 19-26 år. Försökspersonerna delades in i två olika grupper, kontaktlinsbärare och icke-kontaktlinsbärare. För att räknas som kontaktlinsbärare skulle de bära kontaktlinser minst 1 dag per vecka. För att räknas som icke-kontaktlinsbärare skulle de bära kontaktlinser mindre än en dag per vecka. Samtliga patienters ögonlock everterades och fotograferades. Sedan graderades bilderna med hjälp av Efrons graderingsskala i 0,1-steg. Den palpebrala konjunktivan delades in i fem zoner för att lättare kunna beskriva var på ögonlocket eventuella papiller fanns.

    Resultat: Studien visade att förekomsten av konjunktivala papiller inte är större hos kontaktlinsbärare än hos icke-kontaktlinsbärare. Mängden papiller skiljde sig inte inom zonerna, dock skiljde det sig mellan zonerna. På det högra ögat var det mest papiller i zon 4, alltså nasalt. På det vänstra ögat var det mest papiller i zon 1, alltså där den palpebrala konjunktivan viks.

    Slutsats: Studien påvisar vikten av att göra en grundlig undersökning vid varje kontaktlinstillpassning. Om detta inte görs och papiller upptäcks vid återbesök, kan optikern omöjligt veta om papillerna beror på kontaktlinsen eller om de fanns där redan innan. 

  • 106.
    Forsman, L. Davies
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst ; Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linköping University.
    Simonsson, U. S. H.
    Uppsala University.
    Bruchfeld, J.
    Karolinska Inst ; Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna.
    Larsson, M.
    Linköping University.
    Jureen, P.
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden.
    Sturegard, E.
    Regional and University Laboratories, Region Skåne.
    Giske, C. G.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp.
    Angeby, K.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp;Univ W Indies.
    Intra- and Extracellular Activities of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole against Susceptible and Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis2014In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 58, no 12, p. 7557-7559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the activity of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). The MIC distribution of SXT was 0.125/2.4 to 2/38 mg/liter for the 100 isolates tested, including multi- and extensively drug-resistant isolates (MDR/XDR-TB), whereas the intracellular MIC90 of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) for the pansusceptible strain H37Rv was 76 mg/liter. In an exploratory analysis using a ratio of the unbound area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h over MIC (fAUC(0-24)/MIC) using >= 25 as a potential target, the cumulative fraction response was >= 90% at doses of >= 2,400 mg of SMX. SXT is a potential treatment option for MDR/XDR-TB.

  • 107.
    Fournstedt, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Jämförelse mellan Scheimpflug imaging och anterior segment OCT i mätning av Corneal tjocklek.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare corneal thickness measured both centrally and midperipherally, between two instruments using different measuring principles. The study also looked at correlation between corneal thickness and intraocular pressure (IOP).

    Methods: Central and midperipheral corneal thickness was measured on the right eyes of 31 subjects with two different instruments. Instruments were Scheimpflug-camera from Bon Sirius and an AS/OCT from Optos. Measurements were taken on central cornea (CCT) and midperipheral (nasal (NCT), temporal (TCT), superior (SCT) and inferior (ICT)) at a distance of 1.75 mm from the apex. Mean age of the subjects was 23.6 ± 4.5 years. (19-44 years). A CT-80A non-contact tonometer (NonCT) from Topcon was used to measure the intraocular pressure (IOP).

    Results: A mean-value for central corneal thickness was calculated to 542.4 µm and 540.4 µm for Bon Sirius and AS/OCT repectively. Remaining measured points had mean-values for corneal thickness of, NCT: 577.7 µm & 558.5 µm. TCT: 555.0 µm & 545.2 µm. SCT: 585.7 µm & 554.5 µm. ICT: 563.0 µm & 548.9 µm, respectively. Mean-difference for CCT was 2.4 µm and it showed a significant difference between the two instruments with a p-value of 0.007. Remaining measured points all showed a significant difference of p<0.05. NCT: 19.2 µm. TCT: 9.8 µm. SCT: 31 µm. ICT: 14 µm. A correlation between IOP and CCT measured in both Sirius and AS/OCT was positive with r = 0.7 and p<0.05.

    Conclusion: The results showed that Sirius gives higher values for corneal thickness then ASOCT in all five measurement points. The results show that these instruments can be used interchangeably when measuring central corneal thickness. However, caution should be used when measuring midperipheral corneal thickness as the there is a significant differences between these two instruments.

  • 108.
    Fredin, Patrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Correlation between Corneal Radius of Curvature and Corneal Eccentricity2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The primary aim of this study was to find if there is any correlation between the corneal radius of curvature and its eccentricity.

    Method: 45 subjects participated in this study, 24 emmetropes, 18 myopes and three hyperopes. All subjects were free of ocular abnormalities and had no media opacities. All the subjects had normal ocular health and good visual acuity of 1.0 or better for both distance and near. The values for eccentricity and corneal radius of curvature were obtained by using a Topcon CA-100F Corneal Analyzer.

    Results: For the 4.5 mm zone the only significant correlation between corneal radius of curvature and eccentricity was obtained for the mean of the meridian (p = 0.007). On the other hand, we found no significant correlation for the average of two meridians or for meridian 1 and meridian 2 separately in the 8.0 mm zone.

    Conclusions: We found no correlation between the corneal radius of curvature and the eccentricity for both zones. In addition, no correlation could be found between the spherical equivalent of the refractive errors and the corneal eccentricity. The reason for not finding any significant correlation between the two entities could be due to factors such as smaller sample size and poor distribution of refractive errors in the sample. Moreover, there may be other factors that could influence the overall corneal shape like eye shape, axial length and corneal diameter, which was not evaluated in this study.

  • 109.
    Fridlund, Jimmy
    et al.
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital ; Linköping University.
    A microbiological method for determining serum levels of broad spectrum β-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients2016In: Journal of Microbiological Methods, ISSN 0167-7012, E-ISSN 1872-8359, Vol. 129, p. 23-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Recent studies show that suboptimal blood levels of β-lactam antibiotics are present in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A common reference method for assessing drug concentrations is liquid chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry (LC-MS) which is highly accurate but rarely available outside reference centres. Thus, our aim was to develop a microbiological method for monitoring β-lactam antibiotic serum levels which could be used at any hospital with a microbiological laboratory. Methods The method was developed as a 96-well broth microdilution format to assess the concentrations of cefotaxime (CTX), meropenem (MER), and piperacillin (PIP). Patient serum containing antibiotics were diluted in suspensions of bacteria with known minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Serum antibiotic concentrations were calculated by dividing the MIC with the dilution factor at which the serum inhibited growth of the bacterial suspension. Serum (n = 88) from ICU patients at four hospitals in south-east Sweden were analysed and compared to LC-MS analysis. Results The overall accuracy and precision for spiked samples and patient samples was within the pre-set target of ± 20.0% for all drugs. There was a significant correlation between the microbiological assay and LC-MS for the patient samples (CTX: r = 0.86, n = 31; MER: r = 0.96, n = 11; PIP: r = 0.88, n = 39) and the agreement around the clinical cut-off for CTX (4.0 mg/l), MER (2.0 mg/l) and PIP (16.0 mg/l) was 90%, 100% and 87%, respectively. Conclusion The microbiological method has a performance for determination of serum levels of meropenem, piperacillin and cefotaxime suitable for clinical use. It is an inexpensive method applicable in any microbiology laboratory.

  • 110.
    Fung, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Sklerala linsers påverkan på ögats aberrationer hos patienter med keratokonus eller astigmatism2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur sklerala linser påverkar ögats aberrationer hos patienter med keratokonus eller astigmatism.

    Metod: 18 ögon därav tre med keratokonus och resterande med astigmatism ≥ 1,50 D undersöktes i denna studie. Aberrationsmätningar utfördes med en COAS-HD VR aberrometer, innan och 30 minuter efter isättning av skleral lins. Resultatet analyserades med parat t-tester.

    Resultat: Deltagarna delades in i två grupper, patienter med astigmatism och patienter med keratokonus. Gruppen med astigmatism bestod av 15 ögon med astigmatism mellan -1,63 D och -4,92 D. Det var en statistiskt signifikant minskning vid bärandet av sklerala linser då medelvärdet sjönk från -2,85 ± 1,11 D till -1,00 ± 0,62 D (p <0,01). En minskning av högre ordningens aberrationer visades då medelvärde av HOA RMS (3:e t.o.m. 6:e ordningen) sjönk från 0,151 ± 0,046 µm till 0,134 ± 0,037 µm, dock var denna minskning ej statistisk signifikant (p=0,28). Gruppen med keratokonus bestod av tre ögon med astigmatism mellan -2,62 D och -4,82 D. Även för denna grupp var det en statistiskt signifikant minskning där medelvärdet av cylinderstyrkan sjönk från -3,60 ± 1,12 D till -0,75 ± 0,68 D (p <0,01). HOA RMS sjönk från 0,660 ± 0,332 µm till 0,317 ± 0,034 µm, dock var denna minskning ej statistisk signifikant (p=0,19).

    Slutsats: Sklerala linser minskar både lägre och högre ordningens aberrationer hos personer med astigmatism och keratokonus. Förändringen av högre ordningens aberrationer var dock inte statiskt signifikant (p> 0,05).

  • 111. Garvin, Peter
    et al.
    Nilsson, Evalill
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Kristenson, Margareta
    The joint subclinical elevation of CRP and IL-6 is associated with lower health-related quality of life in comparison to no elevation or elevation of only one of the biomarkers2016In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 213-221Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Gerhardsson, Ida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Visus hos äldre bilförare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 113.
    Gierow, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Kacz, Lucyna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effect of Age and Gender on Dry Eye according to Tests and Symptoms2018In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, no 9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Gierow, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Larsson, Nathalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Boström, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Comparison oF Different Tests for Evaluation of the Meibomian Glands2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Gustafsson, Karolina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Påverkas pupilldiametern av ögats refraktiva status?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Understanding how pupil size changes under different light conditions is important for refractive surgery, in contact lens fitting, as well as in the development of multifocal contact lenses. It is therefore of great value to have good measurement results and trustworthy methods. The accuracy and repeatability of the instruments used for these measurements are also critical.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a potential relationship between the pupil diameter and the eye's refractive error with the use of the pupilometer incorporated within Sirius. A secondary purpose arose during the study, to evaluate the repeatability of the instrument Sirius. The null hypothesis of this study was; that pupil diameter is greater in myopes than hyperopes and emmetropes - that one would see a decrease in pupil diameter from myopes to emmetropes and also a decrease in pupil diameter from emmetropes to hyperopes.

    Method: There were 64 participants who took part in this study, aged between 20 to 36 years. Of these, three were excluded because they did not fit the inclusion criteria. The participants were divided into three different groups according to their spherical equivalent refractive errors: there were 26 myopes (range -7.75 D to -0.75 D), 17 emmetropes (range -0.50 D to +0.50 D), and 18 hyperopes (range + 0.75 D to + 5.75 D). Both eyes was measured. Pupil diameter was first measured in Sirius in a darkened room, where the computer was the only light source and the screen's brightness was dimmed. An objective refraction was done with the use of an autorefractor to get an estimated refractive value. Thereafter, retinoscopy was performed in a trial frame with a retinoscopy rack or loose trial lenses. The participants with higher astigmatism were also controlled with the use of the Jackson cross-cylinder. The pupil response was checked in all participants following pupil diameter measurements, to ensure that both eyes did not exhibit pupil defects. The result was analyzed with Excel and GraphPad Prism.

    Results: Since this study did not find any difference between the right and left eye, the data analysis was performed for right eye only. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of spherical equivalent power for myopes was -2.75 ±1.95 D, emmetropes -0.06 ±0.37 D and hyperopes +1.51 ±1.37 D. This study showed a weak trend between refractive error and pupil diameter, but no significant correlation between pupil diameter and the refractive state of the eye was evident, irrespective of lighting conditions; scotopic (p = 0.38), mesopic (p = 0.17) or photopic (p = 0.16). As expected, a clear decrease in pupil diameter with increased illumination intensity was found. A variance analysis (one-way, repeated measures ANOVA) was performed on the three different measurement in each illumination level, to confirm the repeatability of Sirius. The ICC values were 0.94 for scotopic, 0.87 for mesopic and 0.95 for photopic lighting conditions.

    Conclusuion: The study shows no significant correlation between pupil diameter and the refractive state of the eye over the range of -7.75 D to + 5.75 D. In this study, we also investigated the repeatability of the measurements values obtained with Sirius using the ICC; this showed that Sirius has a good repeatability in measuring pupil diameter in all three light levels.

  • 116.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Läshastighet på datorskärm med färgade overlays2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate reading speed on a computer screen and if it can be improved by using coloured overlays, and also if there is any difference in reading speed on printed paper and computer screen.

    Methods: The participants (n=30) read a Wilkins rate of reading test translated into Swedish, where the number of words read out loud in one minute was compared when reading on a paper without overlay and on a computer screen with and without an overlay. This study was performed on students aged 18-31 years.

    Results: This study shows that there is no significant difference in reading speed between reading on a printed paper and on a computer screen (p=0.508). The participants read 1.6 ± 13.3 words/min more on the computer screen than on the paper. A significant difference however was found in reading on a computer screen with and without coloured overlay (p=0.008). The reading speed increased with 4.7 ± 9.1 words/min with a coloured overlay.

    Conclusions: The reading speed on paper is similar to the reading speed on computer screen. The reading speed on the computer screen can be increased by placing a coloured overlay in front of the text.

  • 117.
    Gustavsson, Ida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hur smink påverkar ögat och kontaktlinsen - en pilotstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka smink påverkar kontaktlinsen och ögast främre segment vid bärande av mjuka korttidsslinser.

    Metod: De medverkande fick använda smink en vecka och vara utan smink en vecka. Efter varje testperiod noterades eventuella beläggningar och skador på linserna och vanliga ögonkomplikationer graderades. Inför varje testperiod fick deltagarna vara utan linser från och med kvällen innan och de fick ett nytt par linser och ett nytt linsetui.

    Resultat: Det fanns ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan testperioderna gällande ögonkomplikationerna, förutom vid palpebral konjunktival ojämnhet som visade sig ha ett högre medelvärde efter sminkperioden jämfört med  den sminkfria perioden.  En lins hade skador efter den osminkade perioden och en lins hade skador efter sminkperioden. Beläggningar återfanns i större utsträckning efter smink-veckan, men skillnaden var inte statistisk signifikant.  

    Slutsats:Studien visar på att smink inte påverkar kontaktlinsen eller ögat, förutom palpebrala konjunktiva, negativt efter en vecka sminkanvändning.

  • 118.
    Gustavsson, Linn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Bedömning av ögats ackommodativa respons- en jämförelse mellan aberrometri och dynamisk retinoskopi2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om det finns några skillnader i den ackommodativa responsen när den fastställs med tre olika mätmetoder. De utvalda metoderna för denna studie var dynamisk retinoskopi i form av Nott och Monocular Estimation Method (MEM) samt en COAS-HD VR aberrometer.

    Metod: 29 personer (7 män och 22 kvinnor) deltog i studien, vars medelålder var 23,6 ± 3,1 år. På varje enskild patient gjordes en subjektiv refraktion med en efterföljande mätning av dess ackommodativa respons med tre olika mätmetoder på ett 40 centimeters arbetsavstånd. Resultaten av studien analyserades med hjälp av Repeated Measures-ANOVA och ett post-hoc test i form av Sidak´s. Överensstämmelsen mellan metoderna redovisades därefter visuellt i form av ett Bland-Altman plot.

    Resultat: Det visade sig att alla tre metoder gav liknande värden på den ackommodativa responsen, vilket resulterade i att det inte fanns en statistiskt signifikant skillnad mellan metoderna (p = 0,1103) enligt Repeated Measures-ANOVA. Bland-Altman plot visade på att metoderna ej kan användas ombytligt i syftet att mäta ackommodativ respons, då det var för brett mellan övre och undre gränsen för överensstämmelse metoderna emellan.

    Slutsats: Resultatet av denna studie visar att det inte finns någon statistiskt signifikant skillnad i den ackommodativa respons som uppmätts med Nott, MEM och COAS-HD VR. Det visade sig att metoderna inte kan användas ombytligt i syftet att mäta den ackommodativa responsen, då en dålig överenstämmelse fanns mellan metoderna. 

  • 119.
    Guthrie, Philip
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Är det någon skillnad mellan Sirius & Wave Analyzer Medica 700 vid pakymetri och topografiska mätningar?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att jämföra korneala mätningar tagna med två olika topografiska mätinstrument (Sirius & Wave Analyzer Medica 700) och att utvärdera om dessa två instrument kan användas utbytbart.

    Metod: Det var 23 stycken deltagare i denna studie som var indelade i två grupper. Det var 17 stycken deltagare i grupp A som hade en normal kornea och i grupp B var det 6 stycken deltagare som hade en onormal kornea. Tre upprepade mätningar utfördes på det högra ögat för alla deltagare med båda instrumenten. Förutom på en deltagare som hade keratokonus i hens vänstra öga. De simulerade K (Sim-K) parametrarna som innehåller ”Flattest” (Kf), ”Steepest” (Ks) och ”Average” K (Km) analyserades. Dessutom togs den centrala korneas tjocklek också med båda mätinstrumenten och utvärderades.

    Resultat: En skillnad mellan de uppmätta värdena för de två mätinstrumenten hittades. Mellan dessa två mätinstrument var medelvärdet av skillnaden i grupp A för parametrarna Kf, Ks och Km ungefär 0,1mm. I grupp B var medelvärdet av skillnaden för parametrarna Kf, Ks och Km ungefär 0,15mm. För pachymetri var medelvärdet av skillnaden för de två mätinstrumenten 23µm för grupp A och 31µm för grupp B.

    Slutsats: De två topografiska mätinstrumenten visade en statistiskt signifikant skillnad i mätning utav korneala parametrarna. Trots att det var en statistiskt signifikant skillnad när man jämförde Sim-K för båda mätinstrumenten var skillnaden kliniskt obetydlig för de deltagare som hade en frisk kornea. Därför kan båda utav dessa mätinstrument användas utbytbart för att mäta keratometri i friska ögon.

  • 120.
    Göransson, Julia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    En jämförande studie av ackommodation mellan glasögon och kontaktlinser hos myoper2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Contact lenses increase the accommodative demand in myopes. The purpose of this study is to investigate if the increase of accommodative demand becomes greater after 30 minutes of reading when shifting between spectacles and contact lenses.

    Method: 15 myopes participated in the study, 14 women and 1 man. The participants' average refractive error was -2.49 ± 1.71D and all read at least 1.0 at 6 m and 6p at 40 cm with spectacles and contact lenses. Each subject participated on two separate occasions, first with spectacles and then with contact lenses. The accommodative response, amplitude and facility were measured before and after 30 minutes of reading at the distance of 33 cm, on both occasions. The results were compiled in Microsoft Office Excel, where the mean, standard deviation, standard error and paired t-test were used to analyze the results.

    Result: The accommodative response increases significantly with contact lenses and the increase was greater after 30 minutes of reading. The accommodative amplitude shows a significant decrease in contact lenses and more after reading. The accommodative facility shows no significance. High standard deviations show varied results among participants and several of the participants were below normal values ​​for the accommodative facility.

    Conclusion: Myopes accommodative requirements increases with contact lenses use as compared to spectacles. The accommodative effort after 30 minutes of short distance reading is greater in contact lenses than spectacles.

  • 121.
    Hammar, Tora
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    eMedication – improving medication management using information technology2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Medication is an essential part of health care and enables the prevention andtreatment of many conditions. However, medication errors and drug-relatedproblems (DRP) are frequent and cause suffering for patients and substantial costsfor society. eMedication, defined as information technology (IT) in themedication management process, has the potential to increase quality, efficiencyand safety but can also cause new problems and risks.In this thesis, we have studied the employment of IT in different steps of themedication management process with a focus on the user's perspective. Sweden isone of the leading countries when it comes to ePrescribing, i.e. prescriptionstransferred and stored electronically. We found that ePrescribing is well acceptedand appreciated by pharmacists (Study I) and patients (Study II), but that therewas a need for improvement in several aspects. When the pharmacy market inSweden was re-regulated, four new dispensing systems were developed andimplemented. Soon after the implementation, we found weaknesses related toreliability, functionality, and usability, which could affect patient safety (StudyIII). In the last decade, several county councils in Sweden have implementedshared medication lists within the respective region. We found that physiciansperceived that a regionally shared medication list generally was more complete butoften not accurate (Study IV). Electronic expert support (EES) is a decisionsupport system which analyses patients´ electronically-stored prescriptions in orderto detect potential DRP, i.e. drug-drug interactions, therapy duplication, highdose, and inappropriate drugs for geriatric or pediatric patients. We found thatEES detected potential DRP in most patients with multi-dose drug dispensing inSweden (Study V), and that the majority of alerts were regarded as clinicallyrelevant (Study VI).For an improved eMedication, we need a holistic approach that combinestechnology, users, and organization in implementation and evaluation. The thesissuggests a need for improved sharing of information and support for decisionmaking, coordination, and education, as well as clarification of responsibilitiesamong involved actors in order to employ appropriate IT. We suggestcollaborative strategic work and that the relevant authorities establish guidelinesand requirements for IT in the medication management process.

  • 122.
    Hammar, Tora
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Förändringar i informationsrisker vid övergång från lokal till gemensam läkemedelslista2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En viktig utgångspunkt för en säker läkemedelsanvändning är att informationen om en patients ordinationer är tillgänglig, korrekt, fullständig och aktuell. Läkemedelslistor som är gemensamma för olika vårdinstanser och aktörer anges ofta som en väg för att ge en säkrare läkemedelsanvändning, en väg som många landsting valt att gå, och en väg som planeras för Sverige nationellt. Det är oklart vilka de egentliga konsekvenserna blir av att övergå från lokal till gemensam läkemedelslista. Hur förändras informationen kring läkemedelsordinationer? Vilka informationsrisker minskar, vilka ökar och vilka risker kvarstår? Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva förändringar i informationsrisker utifrån aspekterna riktighet, tillgänglighet och konfidentialitet (1) upplevda vid övergång från lokal läkemedelslista till en landstingsgemensam läkemedelslista och (2) väntade vid framtida införande av en nationell gemensam läkemedelslista. Studien gjordes som en beskrivande kvalitativ intervjustudie utifrån läkarnas perspektiv. Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med sju läkare från fyra olika landsting som varit med om en övergång från lokal till gemensam läkemedelslista.

    Studien visade att övergången från lokal till gemensam läkemedelslista upplevdes förbättra patientsäkerheten genom ökad tillgänglighet och potential att ge en ökad riktighet. Överlag var listorna mer fullständiga men med en ökad mängd inaktuella läkemedel, ofta orsakad av att läkare arbetar på olika sätt med läkemedelslistan. En gemensam läkemedelslista upplevdes innebära en ökad risk att kränka patienters integritet och ökade krav på IT-säkerhet för att skydda informationens konfidentialitet. Dock upplevde läkarna att få patienter fann det besvärande utan snarare var förvånade över att läkare inte alltid haft tillgång till all information. Risker för händelser som kan skapa problem med tillgängligheten fanns både före och efter införandet av gemensam läkemedelslista. Avbrotten är enligt läkarna sällsynta, men ofta saknas reservrutiner när avbrotten inträffar. Dospatienternas läkemedelsinformation var överlag något som alla läkare tog upp som särskilt problematiskt eller riskfyllt då läkemedelslistorna i journalsystemet ofta var helt felaktiga för dospatienter och att det samtidigt inte var helt tydligt i journalsystemet om en patient var dospatient. Trots att stora delar av sjukvården inom ett landsting eller en region har en gemensam lista kvarstår problemet att listan oftast inte är gemensam med kommunen, inte är gemensam med apoteken och i de flesta fall inte utgör patientens egen källa om läkemedelsordinationer.

    Vid övergången till en nationell läkemedelslista kunde liknande förändringar väntas som vid övergången till gemensam läkemedelslista regionalt. En stor skillnad är att det inte är hela journalen som blir gemensam. Läkarnas behov av en nationell lista varierade, liksom deras uppfattningar om hur den bäst skulle användas och implementeras. En nationell läkemedelslista har potentialen att öka patientsäkerheten men det är viktigt att vara medveten om att en gemensam läkemedelslista inte löser alla problem, behov av läkemedelsgenomgångar och kommunikation med patient och mellan vårdgivare kvarstår. För att implementeringen av en nationell läkemedelslista ska lyckas måste man utgå från professionens behov av den nationella listan i det kliniska arbetet och utifrån dem fastställa tydliga rutiner för hur listan ska föras in och användas.

  • 123.
    Hammar, Tora
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Implementation of a shared medication list: physicians’ views on availability, accuracy and confidentiality2014In: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, ISSN 2210-7703, E-ISSN 2210-7711, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 933-942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Physicians, patients and others involved need to have accurate information on patients’ current drug prescriptions available, and have that information protected from unauthorized access. During the past decade, many counties in Sweden have implemented regionally shared medication lists within health care. Objective The aim of this study was to describe physicians’ views on changes in accuracy, availability and confidentiality in the transition from local medication lists to a regionally shared medication list. Setting Health care units in four different counties of Sweden after the transition from local medication lists to a regionally shared medication list. The shared medication list was an integrated part of the electronic health record system in the respective counties, but the system and implementation process varied. Methods Physicians (n = 7) with experience of transition from local medication lists to a regionally shared medication list were interviewed in a semi-structured manner. Main outcome measure: Physicians’ views on changes in information risks, focusing on accuracy, availability and confidentiality. Results The transition from local medication lists to a shared medication list increased the availability of information: from being time consuming or not possible to access from other care givers to most information being available in one place. A regionally shared medication list was perceived as having the potential to provide a greater accuracy of information, but not always: the shared medication list was perceived as more complete but with more non-current drugs. On the other hand, a shared medication list implied an increased risk of violating patient privacy, placing greater demands on IT security in order to protect the confidentiality of information. Conclusion Physicians perceived a regionally shared medication list to increase the availability of information about current prescriptions and potentially the accuracy but may decrease the confidentiality of information. To implement a shared medication list, we recommend providing clear description of responsibilities and routines for normal activities as well as back-up routines, consider IT-security and data protection early, involve patients to improve the accuracy of the list as well as to monitor and evaluate the implementation.

  • 124.
    Hammar, Tora
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Lidström, Bodil
    Swedish EHlth Agcy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Eiermann, Birgit
    Karolinska Inst ; Swedish EHlth Agcy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Potential drug related problems detected by electronic expert support system in patients with multi-dose drug dispensing.2014In: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, ISSN 2210-7703, E-ISSN 2210-7711, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 943-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Drug related problems (DRPs) are frequent and cause suffering for patients and substantial costs for society. Multi-dose drug dispensing (MDDD) is a service by which patients receive their medication packed in bags with one unit for each dose occasion. The clinical decision support system (CDSS) electronic expert support (EES) analyses patients’ prescriptions in the Swedish national e-prescription repository and provides alerts if potential DRPs are detected, i.e. drug–drug interactions, duplicate therapy, drug-disease contraindications, high dose, gender warnings, geriatric, and paediatric alerts. Objective To analyse potential DRPs in patients with MDDD, detected by means of EES. Setting A register study of all electronically stored prescriptions for patients with MDDD in Sweden (n = 180,059) March 5–June 5, 2013. Method Drug use and potential DRPs detected in the study population during the 3 month study period by EES were analysed. The potential DRPs were analysed in relation to patients’ age, gender, number of drugs, and type of medication. Main outcome measure Prevalence of potential DRPs measured as EES alerts. Results The study population was on average 75.8 years of age (±17.5, range 1–110) and had 10.0 different medications (±4.7, range 1–53). EES alerted for potential DRPs in 76 % of the population with a mean of 2.2 alerts per patient (±2.4, range 0–27). The older patients received a lower number of alerts compared to younger patients despite having a higher number of drugs. The most frequent alert categories were drug–drug interactions (37 % of all alerts), duplicate therapy (30 %), and geriatric warnings for high dose or inappropriate drugs (23 %). Psycholeptics, psychoanaleptics, antithrombotic agents, anti-epileptics, renin-angiotensin system agents, and analgesics represented 71 % of all drugs involved in alerts. Conclusions EES detected potential DRPs in the majority of patients with MDDD. The number of potential DRPs was associated with the number of drugs, age, gender, and type of medication. A CDSS such as EES might be a useful tool for physicians and pharmacists to assist in the important task of monitoring patients with MDDD for potential DRPs.

  • 125.
    Hammar, Tora
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Lidström, Bodil
    Swedish eHealth Agency.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University.
    Eiermann, Birgit
    Karolinska Institutet ; Swedish eHealth Agency.
    Potential drug-related problems detected by electronic expert support system: physicians’ views on clinical relevance2015In: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, ISSN 2210-7703, E-ISSN 2210-7711, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 941-948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Drug-related problems cause suffering for patients and substantial costs. Multi-dose drug dispensing is a service in which patients receive their medication packed in bags with one unit for each dose occasion. The electronic expert support system (EES) is a clinical decision support system that provides alerts if potential drug-related problems are detected among a patients’ current prescriptions, including drug–drug interactions, therapy duplications, high doses, drug-disease interactions, drug gender warnings, and inappropriate drugs and doses for geriatric or pediatric patients. Objective The aim of the study was to explore physicians’ views on the clinical relevance of alerts provided by EES. Furthermore we investigated if physicians performed any changes in drug treatment following the alerts and if there were any differences in perceived relevance and performed changes between different types of alerts and drugs. Setting Two geriatric clinics and three primary care units in Sweden. Method Prescribed medications for patients (n = 254) with multi-dose drug dispensing were analyzed for potential drug-related problems using EES. For each alert, a physician assessed clinical relevance and indicated any intended action. A total of 15 physicians took part in the study. Changes in drug treatment following the alerts were later measured. The relationship between variables was analyzed using Chi square test. Main outcome measure Physicians’ perceived clinical relevance of each alert, and changes in drug treatment following the alerts. ResultsPhysicians perceived 68 % (502/740) of EES alerts as clinically relevant and 11 % of all alerts were followed by a change in drug treatment. Clinical relevance and likelihood to make changes in drug treatment was related to the alert category and substances involved in the alert. Conclusion In most patients with multi-dose drug dispensing, EES detected potential drug-related problems, with the majority of the alerts regarded as clinically relevant and some followed by measurable changes in drug treatment.

  • 126.
    Hammar, Tora
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Patients' views on electronic patient information leaflets2016In: Pharmacy Practice, ISSN 1885-642X, E-ISSN 1886-3655, Vol. 14, no 2, article id 702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Information in society and in health care is currently undergoing a transition from paper to digital formats, and the main source of information will probably be electronic in the future. Objective: To explore patients’ use and perceptions of the patient information leaflet included in the medication package, and their attitude towards a transition to an electronic version. Methods: The data was collected during October to November 2014 among individuals in South-Eastern Sweden, using a questionnaire (n=406, response rate 78%) and interviews (n=15). Results: The questionnaire showed that the majority of the respondents (52%) occasionally read the patient information leaflet, 37% always read it, and 11% never read it. Almost half of the patients (41%) were positive towards reading the patient information leaflet electronically while 32% were hesitant and 26% neutral. A majority of the patients would request to get the patient information leaflet printed at the pharmacy if it was not included in the package. There were differences in attitude related to age and gender. The interviews showed that patients had mixed views on a transition to an electronic patient information leaflet. The patients perceived several positive aspects with an electronic patient information leaflet but were concerned about elderly patients. Conclusion: Although many were positive towards reading the patient information leaflet electronically, the majority prefer the patient information leaflet in paper form. Providing appropriate and useful eHealth services for patients to access the patient information leaflet electronically, along with education, could prepare patients for a transition to electronic patient information leaflet. © 2016, Grupo de Investigacion en Atencion Farmaceutica. All rights reserved.

  • 127.
    Hammar, Tora
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ohlson, Mats
    Med Prod Agcy, Uppsala.
    Hanson, Elizabeth
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Implementation of information systems at pharmacies – a case study from the re-regulated pharmacy market in Sweden2015In: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, ISSN 1551-7411, E-ISSN 1934-8150, Vol. 11, no 2, p. E85-E99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    When the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated in 2009, Sweden moved from one state-owned pharmacy chain to several private pharmacy companies, and four new dispensing systems emerged to replace the one system that had previously been used at all Swedish pharmacies for more than 20 years.

    Objectives

    The aim of this case study was to explore the implementation of the new information systems for dispensing at pharmacies.

    Methods

    The vendors of the four dispensing systems in Sweden were interviewed, and a questionnaire was sent to the managers of the pharmacy companies. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to 350 pharmacists who used the systems for dispensing prescriptions.

    Results

    The implementation of four new dispensing systems followed a strict time frame set by political decisions, involved actors completely new to the market, lacked clear regulation and standards for functionality and quality assurance, was complex and resulted in variations in quality. More than half of the pharmacists (58%) perceived their current dispensing system as supporting safe dispensing of medications, 26% were neutral and 15% did not perceive it to support a safe dispensing. Most pharmacists (80%) had experienced problems with their dispensing system during the previous month. The pharmacists experienced problems included reliability issues, usability issues, and missing functionality.

    Conclusion

    In this case study exploring the implementation of new information systems for dispensing prescriptions at pharmacies in Sweden, weaknesses related to reliability, functionality and usability were identified and could affect patient safety. The weaknesses of the systems seem to result from the limited time for the development and implementation, the lack of comprehensive and evidence-based requirements for dispensing systems, and the unclear distribution of quality assurance responsibilities among involved stakeholders.

  • 128.
    Hansson, Petra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Utvärdering av ögontorrhetsparametrar och synskärpa hos patienter som fått Visian ICL implanterat2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Visian Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) is a lens implanted into the posterior chamber as an intraocular lens. It is effective for moderate to high ametropia correction. The ICL increases contrast sensetivity and the method is reversible (Iagarashi et al., 2014).

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dry eye parameters and visual acuity in Visian ICL patiens and then compare with a previous study about LASIK to see which method that gave the least impact on the patients tear film, and to examine with which method patients experienced least dry eye problems.

    Method: A group of six patients who had ICL lenses implanted were examined on the day of the surgery and then about three weeks after surgery. The same examination was conducted before and after surgery, an OSDI questionnaire containing 12 questions about dry eye symptoms, lipid layer, NITBUT and tear meniscus were evaluated using a Tearscope, and visual acuity measured and compared with their preoperative fully corrected visual acuity.

    Results: 5 people felt that they had less dry eye symptoms postoperatively. 6 eyes showed a thinner lipid layer postoperatively, 2 eyes had a thicker lipid layer postoperatively and 4 eyes had an unchanged lipid layer. 5 eyes showed a thinner tear meniscus postoperatively, 2 eyes showed a thicker tear meniscus postoperatively and 5 eyes showed an unchanged result. The mean NITBUT significantly increased from 16.8±6,7 to 20.3±8,9 seconds postoperatively, an increase of 3.2 seconds. 2 eyes had a poorer visual acuity postoperatively, 4 eyes showed an improved visual acuity postoperative and 6 eyes shows an unchanged result.

    Conclusion: This study indicates that the Visian ICL is a good and safe method of vision correction and that the method provides fewer side effects regarding dry eye symptoms than LASIK.

  • 129.
    Hattini, Ahmed
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    En litteraturstudie om de senaste behandlingsalternativen för keratoconus.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att hitta de senaste behandlingsmodaliteterna som finns tillgängliga för behandling av keratoconus genom att genomföra en litteraturstudie.

    Metod: En enkel sökfråga för keratoconusbehandling gjordes i databasen av National Library of Medicine Website (pubmed.gov). Olika filter användes för att få resultat inom de senaste 5 åren. De var uppdelade enligt ämnet för varje artikel i tre kategorier: Icke-kirurgisk hantering, kirurgisk hantering och strategier för hantering och protokoll av keratoconus.

    Resultat: Totalt 459 artiklar erhölls. Av alla dessa valdes 18 ut för den nuvarande studie. Fyra artiklar var i den icke kirurgisk kategori, 12 artiklar i kirurgisk kategori, medan två var i kategorin om strategier för hantering och protokoll av keratoconus. Icke-kirurgiska modaliteter för behandling av mild till måttlig keratoconus har fortfarande stor inverkan, särskillt med tillkomsten av nya hybridlinser. Kirurgisk behandling av avancerade fall av keratoconus ger fortfarande bra resultat. Utvecklingen av hanteringsprotokollet och hanteringsstrategier har nått nya fronter baserade på de olika behandlingsalternativen som finns tillgänliga idag.

    Slutsats: En genomgripande förbättring kan ses vid behandling av keratoconus de senaste åren, tack vare nya tekniker och utveckling av gamla. Optiker tillsammans med ögonläkare har sin roll i att förbättra livskvaliteten hos keratoconus patienter.

  • 130.
    Helgesson, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hur påverkar färgade kontaktlinser färgseendet?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how tinted contact lenses affect color vision and which wavelengths of the visible light that is transmitted through them.

     

    A total of 30 people in the range from 19 to 52 years were included in this study. They had refractive errors from about +5.00 D to -10.00 D and no cylinder power over

    -0.75 D. An eye exam was made and their current power was put in a trial frame, the eye that was not examined was occluded. A Farnsworth D-15 color arrangement test was made to examine color vision without tinted contact lenses and was then repeated with each of the three plano contact lenses in the colors Blue, Green and Sherry. A Spectrophotometer was used to measure the transmittance of visible light through the contact lenses.

     

    There was a significant difference with the Blue contact lens on the mean error score (p < 0.05) compared to without contact lens. With the contact lenses Green and Sherry was there no significant difference (p > 0.05 for both). The transmittance through the Blue contact lens had a minimum at 590 nm, Green at 600 nm and Red at both 510 nm and 540 nm. Both the Green and Red contact lenses the transmittance decreased considerably after 530 nm and 480 nm respectively.

     

    There was a significant difference in color vision with the Blue contact lens, but no difference with the Green and Red contact lenses. Tinted contact lenses have no direct effect on color vision when measuring with a Farnsworth D-15 color arrangement test. The transmittance decreased most at the complementary color of each contact lens, but with the Green and Red contact lenses the transmittance also decreased in the blue range of the visible wavelengths.

  • 131.
    Hellström, Lina
    et al.
    Kalmar County Council.
    Johansson Östbring, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Patients with coronary heart disease who have negative beliefs about their medicines report lower adherence2019In: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, ISSN 2210-7703, E-ISSN 2210-7711, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 343-343Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 132.
    Hellström, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Council.
    Throfast, Victoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    General beliefs about medicines among independent elderly adults in Sweden: data from an RCT2017In: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, ISSN 2210-7703, E-ISSN 2210-7711, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 223-224, article id PH009Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 133.
    Henrysson, Ida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus Univ, Dept Med & Optometry, Bergen, Norway..
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Binocular Vision, Reading Ability and Associated Symptoms in School Children2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 530-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between binocular vision, reading ability and any associated symptoms in School Children.

    Methods: The study was conducted in a School in western Sweden. A sample of 54 Children aged between 10 and 12 years were invited to participate in this study. A consent form and a letter with information was sent to their parents. Children with at least 20/25 and N6 visual acuity and good Stereopsis were included. After receiving consent forms, 27 Children participated in all the measurements. Amplitude of accommodation was measured using push-up method both monocularly and binocularly. Accommodative facility was measured using ± 2.00 D flippers at 40 cm both monocularly and binocularly. Near point of convergence was measured using a Royal Air Force (RAF) ruler and both break and recovery points were documented. All the Children performed a group of reading ability tests to detect whether they have any reading difficulties. A questionnaire called "The College of Optometrists in Vision Development Quality of Life (COVD-QOL)" was filled by their parents together with their Children. A score of 20 or more is considered as symptomatic.

    Results: Mean amplitude of accommodation was OD 10.8 ± 4.0 D, OS 11.8 ± 4.1 D and OU 14.2 ± 3.7 D. Amplitude of accommodation was low in terms of Hofstetter's formula. Based on age, 59% of the Children were below expected value. The accommodative facility was lower than expected, with mean values of OD 5.5 ± 4.0 cpm, OS 5.5 ± 4.0 cpm and OU 5.0 ± 3.5 cpm. Mean near point of convergence was 6.0 ± 5.4 cm for break and 6.6 ± 5.9 cm for recovery. In the reading ability tests all the Children had normal values. Three Children received ≥ 20 points on the symptom questionnaire COVD-QOL, which is considered to be high. All of these three Children had values below normal limits for the amplitude of accommodation and/or the accommodative facility. Regression analysis showed no significant correlation between binocular vision tests, reading ability and symptom score (r < 0.6; p > 0.05).

    Conclusions: Amplitude of accommodation and accommodative facility was lower than expected values for their age. Near point of convergence values reached the expected normal level. There was no significant correlation between binocular vision tests, reading ability and associated symptoms in this sample of Swedish Children.

  • 134.
    Hernandez-Moreno, Laura
    et al.
    University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Moreno Perdomo, Natacha
    Hospital Santa Maria Maior E.P.E-Barcelos, Portugal.
    Aleman, Tomas S.
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Absent Foveal Pit, Also Known as Fovea Plana, in a Child without Associated Ocular or Systemic Findings2018In: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine, ISSN 2090-6722, E-ISSN 2090-6730, p. 1-5, article id 2146826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to describe a case of bilateral foveal hypoplasia in the absence of other ophthalmological or systemic manifestations. We characterize the case of a 9-year-old Caucasian male who underwent full ophthalmologic examination, including functional measures of vision and structural measurements of the eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 0.50 logMAR in the right eye and 0.40 logMAR in the left eye. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a lack of foveal reflex that was further investigated. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) confirmed the absence of foveal depression (pit). OCT images demonstrated the abnormal structure of retina in a region in which we expected a fovea; these findings were decisive to determine the cause of reduced acuity in the child.

  • 135.
    Hernández-Moreno, Laura
    et al.
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Senra, Hugo
    Univ Essex, UK;Univ Coimbra, Portugal.
    Lewis, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Moreno, Natacha
    Hosp Santa Maria Maior EPE, Portugal.
    Linhares, João
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Santana, Rui
    Univ NOVA, Portugal.
    Lima Ramos, Pedro
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Marques, Ana Patrícia
    Univ NOVA, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Cost‐effectiveness of basic vision rehabilitation (The basic VRS‐effect study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial2020In: Ophthalmic & physiological optics, ISSN 0275-5408, E-ISSN 1475-1313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Purpose To investigate the cost-effectiveness of a basic vision rehabilitation service (basic-VRS) in Portugal. We designed a parallel group, randomised controlled trial whose aim is to compare the effects and costs of ?usual low vision care? with a ?basic-VRS intervention? on self-reported visual ability and other psychosocial and health-related quality-of-life outcomes. Methods The trial will recruit participants that meet the following inclusion criteria: (1) visual acuity between 0.4?1.0 logMAR in the better-seeing eye, (2) cause of vision loss is diabetic retinopathy or age-related macular degeneration, (3) 18 years or older and iv) live in the community (not in nursing homes or other type of institution). Participants will be randomised to one of the study arms consisting of immediate intervention and delayed intervention. The delayed intervention group will receive ?usual care? or no intervention in the first 12 weeks. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and retinal structure will be assessed during the study. Results The primary outcome measure is visual ability, which will be evaluated with the Massof Activity Inventory, we expect that the intervention will raise the overall person measure or visual ability. Reading, health-related quality-of-life, anxiety and depression and social support will be also assessed. The analysis will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat basis. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed to provide information about the cost per unit of utility. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention we will adopt the perspective of the healthcare system. Conclusion This study will provide additional evidence about the effects of basic-VRS on self-reported visual ability. Findings from this study should also contribute to better planning of low vision provision and, consequently, may contribute to reduce barriers to basic-VRS.

  • 136.
    Holmgren, Christina M.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Abdon, Nils J.
    Hudiksvall Hospital, Sweden.
    Bergfeldt, Lennart B.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Edvardsson, Nils G.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan D.
    University of Borås, Sweden;Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Leif G.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Changes in Medication Preceding Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest Where Resuscitation Was Attempted2014In: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, ISSN 0160-2446, E-ISSN 1533-4023, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 497-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe recent changes in medication preceding out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) where resuscitation was attempted. Methods: OHCA victims were identified by the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Register and linked by means of their unique 10-digit personal identification numbers to the Prescribed Drug Register. We identified new claimed prescriptions during a 6-month period before the OHCA compared with those claimed in the period 12 to 18 months before. The 7-digit Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical codes of individual drugs were used. The study period was November 2007-January 2011. Results: OHCA victims with drugs were (1) older than those who did not claim any drugs in any period (70 +/- 16 years vs. 54 +/- 22 years, P < 0.001), (2) more often women (34% vs. 20%, P < 0.001), and (3) had more often a presumed cardiac etiology (67% vs. 54%, P < 0.001). The OHCA victims were less likely to have ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation as the first recorded ;rhythm (26% vs. 33%, P < 0.001) or to survive 1 month (9% vs. 17%, P < 0.0001). New prescriptions were claimed by 5122 (71%) of 7243 OHCA victims. The most frequently claimed new drugs were paracetamol (acetaminophen) 10.3%, furosemide 7.8%, and omeprazole 7.6%. Of drugs known or supposed to cause QT prolongation, ciprofloxacin was the most frequent (3.4%) altogether; 16% had a new claimed prescription of a drug included in the "qtdrugs.org" lists. Conclusions: Most OHCA victims had new drugs prescribed within 6 months before the event but most often intended for diseases other than cardiac. No claims can be made as to the causality.

  • 137.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ericson, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Magnusson, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Swedish Family Care Competence Centre (NKA).
    Barn som anhöriga: ekonomisk studie av samhällets långsiktiga kostnader2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att barn och unga lever i hem med missbruk och/eller allvarlig sjukdom medför direkta och indirekta kostnader för samhället på kort och lång sikt. Denna hälsoekonomiska studie är en beräkning av samhällets årliga kostnad för den andel av befolkningen som vuxit upp som barn som anhörig till förälder med psykisk sjukdom eller missbruk av alkohol eller narkotika.

  • 138.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    The impact of increasing polypharmacy on prescribed drug expenditure: A register-based study in Sweden 2005-2009.2013In: Health Policy, ISSN 0168-8510, E-ISSN 1872-6054, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 166-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    To analyse the impact of the observed increase in the prevalence in polypharmacy on the development of prescribed drug expenditure (PDE) in a national population during five years.

    METHODS:

    A register-based study of all prescribed drugs and PDE for the entire Swedish population during a 3-month period in 2005 and 2009, respectively. The prevalence of "polypharmacy" and "excessive polypharmacy" was defined as the proportion of patients receiving five or more (PD≥5) and ten or more (PD≥10) prescribed drugs during a 3-month period, respectively.

    RESULTS:

    Between 2005 and 2009, the prevalence of polypharmacy increased by 8.3% (from 11.1% to 12.0%), and the prevalence of excessive polypharmacy by 9.9% (from 2.4% to 2.6%). Total PDE increased by 4.8% in real prices. For the group of patients with polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy, PDE increased by 6.2%, and 7.3%, respectively. A simulation, in which the increase in polypharmacy was neutralised, resulted in no increase in total PDE.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The increase in the prevalence of polypharmacy has a substantial impact on the increase in PDE and can explain the entire increase in PDE in Sweden during 2005 to 2009. For clinicians and healthcare stakeholders, it is important to monitor and guidance the further development in multiple medication therapy, so that the cost associated with increasing polypharmacy will not exceed its benefits.

  • 139.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hellström, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ericson, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Trends in Inappropriate Drug Therapy Prescription in the Elderly in Sweden from 2006 to 2013: Assessment Using National Indicators2014In: Drugs & Aging, ISSN 1170-229X, E-ISSN 1179-1969, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 379-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Medication for elderly patients is often complex and problematic. Several criteria for classifying inappropriate prescribing exist. In 2010, the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare published the document "Indicators of appropriate drug therapy in the elderly" as a guideline for improving prescribing for the elderly. Objective The aim of this study was to assess trends in the prescription of inappropriate drug therapy in the elderly in Sweden from 2006 to 2013 using national quality indicators for drug treatment. Methods Individual-based data on dispensed prescription drugs for the entire Swedish population aged >= 65 years during eight 3-month periods from 2006 to 2013 were accumulated. The data were extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Eight drug-specific quality indicators were monitored. Results For the entire population studied (n = 1,828,283 in 2013), six of the eight indicators showed an improvement according to the guidelines; the remaining two indicators (drugs with anticholinergic effects and excessive polypharmacy) remained relatively unchanged. For the subgroup aged 65-74 years, three indicators showed an improvement, four indicators remained relatively unchanged (e.g. propiomazine, and oxazepam) and one showed an undesirable trend (anticholinergic drugs) according to guidelines. For the older group (aged >= 75 years), all indicators except excessive polypharmacy showed improvement. Conclusion According to the quality indicators used, the extent of inappropriate drug therapy in the elderly decreased from 2006 to 2013 in Sweden. Thus, prescribers appear to be more likely to change their prescribing patterns for the elderly than previously assumed.

  • 140.
    Idh, Jonna
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Andersson, Blanka
    Linköping University.
    Lerm, Maria
    Linköping University ; Karolinska Institutet.
    Raffetseder, Johanna
    Linköping University.
    Eklund, Daniel
    Linköping University.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Werngren, Jim
    Public Health Agency Sweden.
    Mansjo, Mikael
    Public Health Agency Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Tommy
    Linköping University.
    Stendahl, Olle
    Linköping University.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linköping University ; Kalmar County Hospital.
    Reduced susceptibility of clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to reactive nitrogen species promotes survival in activated macrophages2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 7, article id e0181221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Drugs such as isoniazid (INH) and pretomanid (PRT), used against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are active partly through generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The aim of this study was to explore variability in intracellular susceptibility to nitric oxide (NO) in clinical strains of M. tuberculosis. Method Luciferase-expressing clinical M. tuberculosis strains with or without INH resistance were exposed to RNS donors (DETA/NO and SIN-1) in broth cultures and bacterial survival was analysed by luminometry. NO-dependent intracellular killing in a selection of strains was assessed in interferon gamma/lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophages using the NO inhibitor L-NMMA. Results When M. tuberculosis H37Rv was compared to six clinical isolates and CDC1551, three isolates with inhA mediated INH resistance showed significantly reduced NO-susceptibility in broth culture. All strains showed a variable but dose-dependent susceptibility to RNS donors. Two clinical isolates with increased susceptibility to NO exposure in broth compared to H37Rv were significantly inhibited by activated macrophages whereas there was no effect on growth inhibition when activated macrophages were infected by clinical strains with higher survival to NO exposure in broth. Furthermore, the most NO-tolerant clinical isolate showed increased resistance to PRT both in broth culture and the macrophage model compared to H37Rv in the absence of mutational resistance in genes associated to reduced susceptibility against PRT or NO. Conclusion In a limited number of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates we found a significant difference in susceptibility to NO between clinical isolates, both in broth cultures and in macrophages. Our results indicate that mycobacterial susceptibility to cellular host defence mechanisms such as NO need to be taken into consideration when designing new therapeutic strategies.

  • 141.
    Ingling, Allen W
    et al.
    Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Muller, Matthew S
    Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Green, Jason J
    Indiana Univ, USA.
    Gast, Thomas
    Aeon Imaging, USA ; Indiana Univ, USA.
    Haggerty, Bryan
    Indiana Univ, USA.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Indiana Univ, USA.
    Clendenon, Jeffrey
    Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Stanfield, Kenneth A
    Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Elsner, Ann E
    Aeon Imaging, USA ; Indiana Univ, USA.
    Fixation stability readily obtained from confocal color fundus imaging2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 515-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeStabile fixation underpins most visual tasks such as reading, and is important for accurate assessment of visual function and treatment. Retinal imaging instruments average images over time to improve the signal to noise ratio, discarding useful eye movement data. We determined whether the frame-to-frame motion of the retina during non-mydriatic color fundus imaging could provide fixation stability measures, e.g. Bivariate Contour Ellipse Area (BCEA). MethodsNon-mydriatic color fundus images were acquired using the Digital Light Ophthalmoscope (DLO). Twenty subjects with varied fundus pigmentation were tested without mydriasis. The DLO uses a digital light projector with LED light sources to provide the illumination for both confocal imaging and fixation stimuli. The DLO projects a series of lines across the fundus that is synchronized to the 2D CMOS sensor, providing high contrast confocal imaging. Monochromatic 40 deg images were acquired with alternating red and green LED illumination at 14.3 Hz and overlayed to present a pseudo-color image to the operator in real time. To reduce pupil constriction and patient discomfort, the green LED was long-pass filtered with a 570 nm filter. A 1.5mm entrance pupil and time-averaged power of &lt;30 uW were used. Images were aligned automatically with custom software (MATLAB) using cross-correlation and 2D translation. A canvas of twice the image size was used to allow image alignment despite moderate eye movements. Blinks and large saccades were discarded and BCEA was computed. ResultsThe image alignment algorithm successfully aligned nearly all the frames, rejecting 3.7%, and allowing fixation stability to be computed from color fundus image data. The BCEA for 1 standard deviation was 2.97 log minarc2 for all subjects and both the red and yellow-orange illumination. There was no difference between the BCEA for red or yellow-orange illumination (t = .86). ConclusionsThe color DLO records sufficiently high quality images to reliably calculate measures of fixation stability. Despite recruiting an especially challenging population that included dark fundi, small pupils, high refractive errors, and media issues, we achieved success in all subjects tested to date.

  • 142.
    Jannesson, Marina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Påverkas det intraokulära trycket i ögat vid dynamisk träning?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 143.
    Johansson, Linus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Kontaktlinsbärandets effekt och inverkan på tårosmolariteten2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur kontaktlinsanvändande påverkar tårosmolariteten. Men även se om det skiljer sig mellan höger- och vänster öga samt mellan män och kvinnor.

    Metod: Innan mätningarna genomfördes en urvalsprocess där de som uppfyllde ålders-kraven fick svara på TERTC-DEQ, symptomenkät för ögontorrhet. Totalt deltog 30 personer i studien (8 män och 22 kvinnor i åldrarna 19-34 år, med en snittålder på 22,9 +/-3). Sammanlagt genomfördes fyra stycken mätningar vid två olika tillfällen, två på höger och två på vänster öga. Proven på tårfilmen gjordes lateralt i tårmenisken ovanför den nedre ögonlockskanten.

    Resultat: Ett t-test gjordes för att utvärdera huruvida osmolaritetsvärdet förändrades med och utan kontaktlinser för både höger- (OD) och vänster öga (OS). Det fanns ingen signifikant statistisk skillnad mellan värdena för varken OD (P=0,2) eller OS (P=0,12). Ingen korrelationen åt vilken riktning osmolariteten förändrades kunde inte heller ses. OD och OS jämfördes och ingen statistisk skillnad fanns, ytterligare jämfördes könen och inte heller här kunde någon signifikant statistisk skillnad ses, varken med (P=0,66) eller utan kontaktlinser (P=0,33).

    Slutsats: Det Finns inget statistisk signifikant samband mellan ett förändrat osmolaritetsvärde och normalt kontaktlinsbärande, dvs. kontaktlinser påverkar inte osmolariteten i tårfilmen. Inte heller ses det någon skillnad mellan höger- och vänster öga. Vidare framkommer det i studien att det inte finns någon skillnad mellan män och kvinnor.

  • 144.
    Johansson, Maja
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Komfortskillnad mellan sfäriska och asfäriska stabila linser vid initial tillpassning2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att jämföra den initiala komforten mellan sfäriska och asfäriska stabila linser då uppfattningen har varit att asfäriska linser (med sin mer följsamma passform) borde vara bekvämare.

    Metoder: Studien omfattade 30 deltagare med en medelålder på 26 år. Med hjälp av topografens (Topcon CA-100) kontaktlinstillpassningsprogramvara valdes en sfärisk A- design lins (från Nordiska Lins) och en asfärisk A90 lins (från Expert Optik, Sverige) ut med passande parametrar. Linserna sattes i vardera öga utan att försökspersonen visste vilken lins som var vilken. Efter 5 respektive 15 minuter fick patienten, med hjälp av en modifierad VAS-skala, avgöra hur linserna kändes både i höger och vänster öga.

    Resultat: Ingen signifikant skillnad i komforten mellan de asfäriska och sfäriska linserna varken observerades efter 5 (p=0,78) eller 15 (p=0,84) minuter. Överlag ökade komforten både för de asfäriska och för de sfäriska linserna efter att de suttit i en stund; komforten ökade med 0,9 enheter för de asfäriska respektive 1,1 enheter för de sfäriska linserna mellan 5 och 15 minuters bärtid. Det fanns en signifikant skillnad i komfort för den enskilda asfäriska linsen mellan första och andra graderingstillfället (p=0,015) och samma gällde de sfäriska (p=0,0001).

    Slutsats: Resultatet visar ingen markant skillnad i initial komfort på stabila linser med dessa olika typer av designer; en multikurvig asfärisk samt en trekurvig sfärisk lins. Med detta i åtanke behöver man inte, ur ett komfortmässigt perspektiv, ta hänsyn till den specifika designen vid tillpassning med moderna stabila linser. 

  • 145.
    Johansson, Oskar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Gierow, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Morgan, Philip
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Trends in Swedish Contact Lens Prescribing 20172019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Poster display 2: TRENDS IN SWEDISH CONTACT LENS PRESCRIBING 2017

    Presenter: Oskar Johansson

    Authors: OSKAR JOHANSSON1 , PHILP MORGAN2 , PETER GIEROW1

    Affiliation:1) Linnaeus University 2) University of Manchester

    Key words: Contact lens, fitting, lens type

    Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate the trends of contact lens prescribing among Swedish optometrists in 2017.

    Methods: A standardized survey form developed by Morgan er al. was distributed to Swedish optometrists usingtheir professional organizations, optometry chains, direct email, and by hand directly. They were asked to fill out theform for the next ten contact lens patients after receiving the survey. Information was collected regarding the dayof fitting, age, sex, lens material, design, frequency of replacement, wear frequency, modality and type of caresystem. A weighting system is employed to account for the volume of activity undertaken by the respondents,calculated by the time period required to achieve 10 fits. All the forms and data were analyzed at the University of Manchester.

    Results: 57 forms were returned, including 562 fits. The mean age of the patients was 37 yrs, and 65 % were female.83 % were fitted for full-time wear and 27 % were managed as new fits. Soft contact lenses is the most fitted modalityand represents 97.8 % of all new fits and 93.6 % of all refits. Rigid contact lens fits represents therefore in grand total5.3 % with 2.2 % of the new fits and 6.4 % of the refits. About two-thirds of soft lenses prescribed were siliconehydrogels. Of the different designs, spherical lenses were most widely fitted, with toric lenses on at least one eyecoming right after. Extended wear accounts for 10.6 % of the fittings. Multi-purpose solutions were the most popularregimen prescribed at 99.4 %.

    Conclusions: When compared with data from Norway and Denmark, it is evident that daily disposables are morepopular in these countries (74 %), whereas in Sweden it is monthly replacements (58 %). Otherwise, the results aresimilar to what has been reported from other parts of the world.

  • 146.
    Johansson, Oskar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Morgan, Philip
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Gierow, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Trends in Swedish Contact Lens Prescribing 20172019In: Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science, ISSN 1891-0882, E-ISSN 1891-0890, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose was to evaluate the trends of contact lens prescribing among Swedish optometrists in 2017.

    Materials and Methods: A standardized survey form was distributed to Swedish optometrists using their professional organisations, optometry chains, direct email, and by hand directly. They were asked to fill out the form for the ten contact lens fits performed after receipt of the survey form. Information was collected regarding age and sex of patient, fit/refit, lens design and material, modality and solution prescribed.

    Results: 57 forms were returned detailing 562 fits. The mean age of the patients was 37 yrs, and 65 % were female. 83 % were fitted for full-time wear and 27 % were managed as new fits. 94.7 % were soft contact lens fits and silicone hydrogel was the dominating material.

    Conclusions: When compared with data from Norway and Denmark, it is evident that daily disposables are more popular in these countries (74 %), whereas in Sweden it is monthly replacements (58 %). Otherwise, the results are similar to what has been reported from other parts of the world.

  • 147.
    Johansson, Pauline
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Nilsson, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nursing students' experience of using a personal digital assistant (PDA) in clinical practice: an intervention study2013In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 1246-1251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    A personal digital assistant (PDA) is a multifunctional information and communication tool allowing nursing students to keep up to date with expanding health related knowledge.

    Objectives

    This study was aimed at exploring nursing students' experience of using a PDA in clinical practice.

    Method

    In this intervention study, nursing students (n=67) used PDAs during a period of 15weeks, replied to questionnaires, and participated in focus group interviews.

    Results

    The PDA was found to support nursing students in clinical practice and to have the potential to be a useful tool with benefits for both the patients and for the students. The PDA was regarded as useful, and was presumed to imply increased confidence and time savings, and contribute to improved patient safety and quality of care.

    Conclusions

    With available mobile technology, nursing students would be able to access necessary information, independent of time and place. Therefore, it is important that stakeholders and educators facilitate the use of PDAs to support nursing students during their clinical practice, in order to prepare them for their future work, and to continuously improve the safety and quality of healthcare.

  • 148.
    Johansson, Pauline
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Using advanced mobile devices in nursing practice - the views of nurses and nursing students2014In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 220-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced mobile devices allow registered nurses and nursing students to keep up-to-date with expanding health-related knowledge but are rarely used in nursing in Sweden. This study aims at describing registered nurses’ and nursing students’ views regarding the use of advanced mobile devices in nursing practice. A cross-sectional study was completed in 2012; a total of 398 participants replied to a questionnaire, and descriptive statistics were applied. Results showed that the majority of the participants regarded an advanced mobile device to be useful, giving access to necessary information and also being useful in making notes, planning their work and saving time. Furthermore, the advanced mobile device was regarded to improve patient safety and the quality of care and to increase confidence. In order to continuously improve the safety and quality of health care, advanced mobile devices adjusted for nursing practice should be further developed, implemented and evaluated in research.

  • 149.
    Johansson, Pauline
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wilde Björling, Camilla
    Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Östlund, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Widell, Ingela
    Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Stefan
    Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Tablet computers as a mean to strengthen patients undergoing radiotherapy2015In: Presented at the 6th International Carers Conference - Care and caring: future proofing the new demographics, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 3-6, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 150.
    Johansson Östbring, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Eriksson, T.
    Lund Univ.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hellström, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Patient-centered medication review in coronary heart disease: impact on beliefs about medicines2014In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 13, p. S15-S15Article in journal (Other academic)
1234567 101 - 150 of 309
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