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  • 101.
    Danylenko, Antonina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Decision Algebra: A General Approach to Learning and Using Classifiers2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Processing decision information is a vital part of Computer Science fields in which pattern recognition problems arise. Decision information can be generalized as alternative decisions (or classes), attributes and attribute values, which are the basis for classification. Different classification approaches exist, such as decision trees, decision tables and Naïve Bayesian classifiers, which capture and manipulate decision information in order to construct a specific decision model (or classifier). These approaches are often tightly coupled to learning strategies, special data structures and the special characteristics of the decision information captured, etc. The approaches are also connected to the way of how certain problems are addressed, e.g., memory consumption, low accuracy, etc. This situation causes problems for a simple choice, comparison, combination and manipulation of different decision models learned over the same or different samples of decision information. The choice and comparison of decision models are not merely the choice of a model with a higher prediction accuracy and a comparison of prediction accuracies, respectively. We also need to take into account that a decision model, when used in a certain application, often has an impact on the application's performance. Often, the combination and manipulation of different decision models are implementation- or application-specific, thus, lacking the generality that leads to the construction of decision models with combined or modified decision information. They also become difficult to transfer from one application domain to another. In order to unify different approaches, we define Decision Algebra, a theoretical framework that presents decision models as higher order decision functions that abstract from their implementation details. Decision Algebra defines the operations necessary to decide, combine, approximate, and manipulate decision functions along with operation signatures and general algebraic laws. Due to its algebraic completeness (i.e., a complete algebraic semantics of operations and its implementation efficiency), defining and developing decision models is simple as such instances require implementing just one core operation based on which other operations can be derived. Another advantage of Decision Algebra is composability: it allows for combination of decision models constructed using different approaches. The accuracy and learning convergence properties of the combined model can be proven regardless of the actual approach. In addition, the applications that process decision information can be defined using Decision Algebra regardless of the different classification approaches. For example, we use Decision Algebra in a context-aware composition domain, where we showed that context-aware applications improve performance when using Decision Algebra. In addition, we suggest an approach to integrate this context-aware component into legacy applications.

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  • 102.
    Danylenko, Antonina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Decisions: Algebra, Implementation, and First Experiments2014In: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 20, no 9, p. 1174-1231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classification is a constitutive part in many different fields of Computer Science. There exist several approaches that capture and manipulate classification information in order to construct a specific classification model. These approaches are often tightly coupled to certain learning strategies, special data structures for capturing the models, and to how common problems, e.g. fragmentation, replication and model overfitting, are addressed. In order to unify these different classification approaches, we define a Decision Algebra which defines models for classification as higher order decision functions abstracting from their implementations using decision trees (or similar), decision rules, decision tables, etc. Decision Algebra defines operations for learning, applying, storing, merging, approximating, and manipulating models for classification, along with some general algebraic laws regardless of the implementation used. The Decision Algebra abstraction has several advantages. First, several useful Decision Algebra operations (e.g., learning and deciding) can be derived based on the implementation of a few core operations (including merging and approximating). Second, applications using classification can be defined regardless of the different approaches. Third, certain properties of Decision Algebra operations can be proved regardless of the actual implementation. For instance, we show that the merger of a series of probably accurate decision functions is even more accurate, which can be exploited for efficient and general online learning. As a proof of the Decision Algebra concept, we compare decision trees with decision graphs, an efficient implementation of the Decision Algebra core operations, which capture classification models in a non-redundant way. Compared to classical decision tree implementations, decision graphs are 20% faster in learning and classification without accuracy loss and reduce memory consumption by 44%. This is the result of experiments on a number of standard benchmark data sets comparing accuracy, access time, and size of decision graphs and trees as constructed by the standard C4.5 algorithm. Finally, in order to test our hypothesis about increased accuracy when merging decision functions, we merged a series of decision graphs constructed over the data sets. The result shows that on each step the accuracy of the merged decision graph increases with the final accuracy growth of up to 16%.

  • 103. de Lemos, Rogerio
    et al.
    Giese, Holger
    Müller, Hausi A.
    Shaw, Mary
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Litoiu, Marin
    Schmerl, Bradley
    Tamura, Gabriel
    Villegas, Norha M.
    Vogel, Thomas
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Baresi, Luciano
    Becker, Basil
    Bencomo, Nelly
    Brun, Yuriy
    Cukic, Bojan
    Desmarais, Ron
    Dustdar, Schahram
    Engels, Gregor
    Geihs, Kurt
    Goschka, Karl M.
    Gorla, Alessandra
    Grassi, Vincenzo
    Inverardi, Paola
    Karsai, Gabor
    Kramer, Jeff
    Lopes, Antonia
    Magee, Jeff
    Malek, Sam
    Mankovskii, Serge
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Mylopoulos, John
    Nierstrasz, Oscar
    Pezze, Mauro
    Prehofer, Christian
    Schaefer, Wilhelm
    Schlichting, Rick
    Smith, Dennis B.
    Sousa, Joao Pedro
    Tahvildari, Ladan
    Wong, Kenny
    Wuttke, Jochen
    Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems: A Second Research Roadmap2013In: Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems II: International Seminar, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, October 24-29, 2010 Revised Selected and Invited Papers / [ed] Rogério de Lemos, Holger Giese, Hausi A. Müller, Mary Shaw, Springer, 2013, Vol. 7475, p. 1-32Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this roadmap paper is to summarize the state-of-the-art and identify research challenges when developing, deploying and managing self-adaptive software systems. Instead of dealing with a wide range of topics associated with the field, we focus on four essential topics of self-adaptation: design space for self-adaptive solutions, software engineering processes for self-adaptive systems, from centralized to decentralized control, and practical run-time verification & validation for self-adaptive systems. For each topic, we present an overview, suggest future directions, and focus on selected challenges. This paper complements and extends a previous roadmap on software engineering for self-adaptive systems published in 2009 covering a different set of topics, and reflecting in part on the previous paper. This roadmap is one of the many results of the Dagstuhl Seminar 10431 on Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems, which took place in October 2010.

  • 104.
    de Oliveira, Ricardo Ramos
    et al.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Martins, Rafael Messias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Simao, Adenilso da Silva
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Impact of the Vendor Lock-in Problem on Testing as a Service (TaaS)2017In: 2017 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CLOUD ENGINEERING (IC2E 2017), IEEE, 2017, p. 190-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing as a Service (TaaS) is a new business and service model that provides efficient and effective software quality assurance and enables the use of a cloud for the meeting of quality standards, requirements and consumer's needs. However, problems that limit the effective use of TaaS involve lack of standardization in writing, execution, configuration and management of tests and lack of portability and interoperability among TaaS platforms - the so-called lock-in problem. The lock-in problem is a serious threat to software testing in the cloud and may become critical when a provider decides to suddenly increase prices, or shows serious technical availability problems. This paper proposes a novel approach for solving the lock-in problem in TaaS with the use of design patterns. The aim to assist software engineers and quality control managers in building testing solutions that are both portable and interoperable and promote a more widespread adoption of the TaaS model in cloud computing.

  • 105.
    Dika, Elona
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Kurti, Arianit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. Interactive Institute Swedish ICT .
    Use of a Smart TV as a Platform for Social Engagement for Senior Citizens2015In: 7th ICT innovations Conference 2015: Web proceedings / [ed] Suzana Loshkovska, Saso Koceski, Skopje, Macedonia: Association for Information and Communication Technologies , 2015, p. 96-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of studies investigating computer use or other technologies used by senior citizens has progressively increased in the last twenty years. The interest stems from a diverse range of research disciplines including human computer interaction, education, and many others. Senior citizens generally have a positive attitude towards technology, and they are willing to use the product if they need it. Positive attitudes are also more likely to be expressed towards devices used every day at home, such as the television, microwave etc. Even if those devices are now typically digital, senior citizens are familiar and comfortable with them. These characteristics drive us to offer a solution by rethinking the use of some existing technologies and making them more affordable and accessible to older people. It is offered on a TV, something that senior citizens are familiar and comfortable with and which most of them have it at home. On this research we report our experience on developing a prototype service using smart TV application specifically tailored for the senior citizens needs and requirements. Based on the findings, we can conclude that there was great acceptance from senior citizens for the support of daily living and the ability to control their daily activities provided by this service.

  • 106.
    Dressler, Danny
    et al.
    AIMO AB, Sweden.
    Liapota, Pavlo
    Softwerk AB, Sweden.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Data Driven Human Movement Assessment2019In: Intelligent Decision Technologies 2019: Proceedings of the 11th KES International Conference on Intelligent Decision Technologies (KES-IDT 2019), Volume 2 / [ed] Ireneusz Czarnowski; Robert Howlett; Lakhmi C. Jain, Springer, 2019, p. 317-327Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality assessment of human movements has many of applications in diagnosis and therapy of musculoskeletal insufficiencies and high performance sport. We suggest five purely data driven assessment methods for arbitrary human movements using inexpensive 3D sensor technology. We evaluate their accuracy by comparing them against a validated digitalization of a standardized human-expert-based assessment method for deep squats. We suggest the data driven method that shows high agreement with this baseline method, requires little expertise in the human movement and no expertise in the assessment method itself. It allows for an effective and efficient, automatic and quantitative assessment of  arbitrary human movements.

  • 107.
    Dressler, Danny
    et al.
    AIMO AB, Sweden.
    Liapota, Pavlo
    Softwerk AB, Sweden.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Towards an automated assessment of musculoskeletal insufficiencies2019In: Intelligent Decision Technologies 2019: Proceedings of the 11th KES International Conference on Intelligent Decision Technologies (KES-IDT 2019), Volume 1 / [ed] Ireneusz Czarnowski; Robert Howlett; Lakhmi C. Jain, Springer, 2019, p. 251-261Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper suggests a quantitative assessment of human movements using inexpensive 3D sensor technology and evaluates its accuracy by comparing it with human expert assessments. The two assessment methods show a high agreement. To achieve this, a novel sequence alignment algorithm was developed that works for arbitrary time series.

  • 108.
    Egel, Jill
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Internet of Things and its Business Models 2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is the next phase in the evolution of the internet, where everyday objects are connected to the internet, and obtain the capacity to communicate with other devices and sense their environment. Especially the IIoT is one of the most talked about industrial business concepts since the recent years, companies try to focus on business models and operational efficiency. That is why this thesis focuses on researching the industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). There is already a lot of information about the common Internet of Things but still a gap in research in the business perspective, especially surrounding the concept of business models for the IIoT. The goal of this project is to investigate different kinds of business models, how they work and how feasible they are. The need to research possible business models for an IIoT framework, as traditional business models are relevant for this study, such as the Business Model Canvas which has been proposed by Alexander Osterwalder or the Business Model Navigator by Oliver Gassmann. But there is still a lack of literature covering the business models for the IIoT. Therefore, after researching the concept of IIoT from a business perspective, I identified some useful criteria and suitable business models. With a qualitative literature study, I was able to develop an IIoT business model framework, based on the dynamics and complexity of the IIoT concept, which incorporates business strategies and provides companies with a flexible approach. The business model framework can be used in any business which is working in the industrial context. To demonstrate how the business model framework works for the IIoT, I clarified how suitable business models can improve the current business model of the very prominent and successful company Tesla. The results show how the framework of IIoT business models can be used to increase profit and work efficiently as a company. The models can also be formed to only highlight single components of an already existing business model, as it offers great flexibility, which is highly valuable in the fast evolving and innovative IIoT phenomenon.

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  • 109.
    Ekneling, Sanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sonestedt, Tilian
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Georgiadis, Abraham
    Manomotion AB, Sweden.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Chana, Julio
    Manomotion AB, Sweden.
    Magestro: Gamification of the Data Collection Process for Development of the Hand Gesture Recognition Technology2018In: Adjunct Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), IEEE, 2018, p. 417-418Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this demo, explores the enhancement of the data collection and data annotation processes via gamilication. For the use case of Hand Tracking (HT) and Gesture Recognition (GR) we have created an Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) application that implements both the collection and annotation task. Similar to other popular "Simon Says" games such as Guitar hero, the game versions of the app were easily understood and used by users. Based on previous results, the game versions were widely adopted by the users because of their novelty and entertainment value.

  • 110.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Mining job ads to find what skills are sought after from an employers' perspective on IT graduates2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 conference on Innovation & technology in computer science education, ACM Publications, 2014, p. 354-354Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We mine job ads to discover what skills are required from an employers' perspective. Some obvious trends appear, such as skills related to web and mobile technology. We aim to uncover more detailed information as the study continues to allow course content to better match the expressed needs.

  • 111.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    TDMentions: A Dataset of Technical Debt Mentions in Online Posts2019In: 2019 IEEE/ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TECHNICAL DEBT (TECHDEBT 2019), IEEE, 2019, p. 123-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term technical debt is easy to understand as a metaphor, but can quickly grow complex in practice. We contribute with a dataset, TDMentions, that enables researchers to study how developers and end users use the term technical debt in online posts and discussions. The dataset consists of posts from news aggregators and Q&A-sites, blog posts, and issues and commits on GitHub.

  • 112.
    Espadoto, Mateus
    et al.
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Martins, Rafael Messias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Hirata, Nina S. T.
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Telea, Alexandru C.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Towards a Quantitative Survey of Dimension Reduction Techniques2019In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dimensionality reduction methods, also known as projections, are frequently used in multidimensional data exploration in machine learning, data science, and information visualization. Tens of such techniques have been proposed, aiming to address a wide set of requirements, such as ability to show the high-dimensional data structure, distance or neighborhood preservation, computational scalability, stability to data noise and/or outliers, and practical ease of use. However, it is far from clear for practitioners how to choose the best technique for a given use context. We present a survey of a wide body of projection techniques that helps answering this question. For this, we characterize the input data space, projection techniques, and the quality of projections, by several quantitative metrics. We sample these three spaces according to these metrics, aiming at good coverage with bounded effort. We describe our measurements and outline observed dependencies of the measured variables. Based on these results, we draw several conclusions that help comparing projection techniques, explain their results for different types of data, and ultimately help practitioners when choosing a projection for a given context. Our methodology, datasets, projection implementations, metrics, visualizations, and results are publicly open, so interested stakeholders can examine and/or extend this benchmark.

  • 113.
    Ezeani, Callistus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    A Framework for MultiFactorAuthentication on Mobile Devices.- A Bayesian Approach2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The most authentication mechanism used in certain domains like home banking, infrastructure surveillance, industrial control, etc. are commercial off the Shelf (COTS) solutions. These are packaged solutions which are adapted to satisfy the need of the purchasing organization, Microsoft, for example, is a COTS software provider. Multifactor Authentication (MFA) is COTS. MFA in the context of this research provides a framework to improve the available techniques. This framework is based on biometrics and as such presents, an alternative to complement the traditional knowledge-based authentication techniques. With an overview based on the probability of failure to enroll(FTE), this research work evaluates available approaches and identifies promising avenues in utilizing MFA in modern mobile devices. Biometrics removes heuristic errors and probability adjustment errors by providing the full potential to increase MFA in mobile devices. The primary objective is to Identify discrepancies and limitation commonly faced by mobile owners during authentication.

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    Anyibaba_Thesis
  • 114.
    Fagerholm, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Time series analysis and forecasting: Application to the Swedish Power Grid2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    n the electrical power grid, the power load is not constant but continuouslychanging. This depends on many different factors, among which the habits of theconsumers, the yearly seasons and the hour of the day. The continuous change inenergy consumption requires the power grid to be flexible. If the energy provided bygenerators is lower than the demand, this is usually compensated by using renewablepower sources or stored energy until the power generators have adapted to the newdemand. However, if buffers are depleted the output may not meet the demandedpower and could cause power outages. The currently adopted practice in the indus-try is based on configuring the grid depending on some expected power draw. Thisanalysis is usually performed at a high level and provide only some basic load aggre-gate as an output. In this thesis, we aim at investigating techniques that are able topredict the behaviour of loads with fine-grained precision. These techniques couldbe used as predictors to dynamically adapt the grid at run time. We have investigatedthe field of time series forecasting and evaluated and compared different techniquesusing a real data set of the load of the Swedish power grid recorded hourly throughyears. In particular, we have compared the traditional ARIMA models to a neuralnetwork and a long short-term memory (LSTM) model to see which of these tech-niques had the lowest forecasting error in our scenario. Our results show that theLSTM model outperformed the other tested models with an average error of 6,1%.

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  • 115.
    Fakhraddin, Haider
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Toward IoT: Implementation of WSN based MQTT Data Protocol2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human seeks the maximum profits with least efforts in each and every single life aspect. The development of technology starting with the machine-to-machine concept to reduce human interface with manufacturing processes, hence reducing errors, cost and time. The development enters a new era of connecting those machines and devices to internet, and furthermore make part of data processing and analysis at those machine or devices parts. This concept is what is known nowadays as the Internet of Things (IoT). In this thesis, design for a proposed system is introduced. MQTT messaging protocol used as the data exchange protocol to aggregate the data from WSN that incorporated local and remote sensor. ATmega 328 microcontroller unit, NodeMCU development board, SIM800L GSM module and DHT11 sensor modules where used to implement the nodes while Raspberry Pi 3B was used to implement a gateway that acts as the MQTT broker in order to aggregate the data. The proposed system has been implemented and tested successfully. The power consumption for the remote sensor nodes consumed only 20 mWh and the response time for the data transferred within the system’s network from the remote sensor node to the server is about 7 milliseconds with a total error of 0.11%. The system shows an excellent performance and provide a simple solution to link remote sensors which are out of the gateway’s local network coverage.

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  • 116.
    Fellman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lincke, Alisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Berge, Elias
    Hypocampus AB, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Predicting Visuospatial and Verbal Working Memory by Individual Differences in E-Learning Activities2020In: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 5, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-learning is being considered as a widely recognized option to traditional learning environments, allowing for highly tailor-made adaptive learning paths with the goal to maximize learning outcomes. However, for being able to create personalized e-learning systems, it is important to identify relevant student prerequisites that are related learning success. One aspect crucial for all kind of learning that is relatively unstudied in relation to e-learning is working memory (WM), conceptualized as the ability to maintain and manipulate incoming information before it decays. The aim of the present study was to examine how individual differences in online activities is related to visuospatial- and verbal WM performance. Our sample consisted of 98 participants studying on an e-learning platform. We extracted 18 relevant features of online activities tapping on Quiz accuracy, Study activity, Within-session activity, and Repetitive behavior. Using best subset multiple regression analyses, the results showed that individual differences in online activities significantly predicted verbal WM performance (p < 0.001, R2Adjusted = 0.166), but not visuospatial WM performance (p = 0.058, R2Adjusted= 0.065). The obtained results contribute to the existing research of WM in e-learning environments, and further suggest that individual differences in verbal WM performance can be predicted by how students interact on e-learning platforms.

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  • 117.
    Feng, Nicole C.
    et al.
    Harvard Medical School, USA.
    Ryan, Eliza
    Harvard Medical School, USA.
    Tewele, Mhretab Kidane
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Tusch, Erich S.
    Harvard Medical School, USA.
    McFeeley, Brittany M.
    Harvard Medical School, USA.
    Carlsson, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Krister
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Daffner, Kirk R.
    Harvard Medical School, USA.
    Feasibility of an at-home, web-based, interactive exercise program for older adults2019In: Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions (TRCI), ISSN 2352-8737, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 825-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Increased physical exercise is linked to enhanced brain health and reduced dementia risk. Exercise intervention studies usually are conducted at facilities in groups under trainer supervision. To improve scalability, accessibility, and engagement, programs may need to be structured such that individuals can execute and adjust routines in their own homes.

    Methods: One hundred eighty-three healthy older adults from two sites (the United States and Sweden) were screened. One hundred fifty-six subjects (mean age 73.2), randomly assigned to one of four interventions (PACE-Yourself physical exercise program, mindfulness meditation, or Cogmed® adaptive or nonadaptive computerized working memory training) began the study. All interventions were structurally similar: occurring in subjects' homes using interactive, web-based software, over five weeks, ∼175 minutes/week. In the PACE-Yourself program, video segments presented aerobic exercises at different pace and intensity (P&I). The program paused frequently, allowing subjects to indicate whether P&I was "too easy," "too hard," or "somewhat hard." P&I of the subsequent exercise set was adjusted, allowing subjects to exercise at a perceived exertion level of "somewhat hard." Program completion was defined as finishing ≥60% of sessions.

    Results: A high percentage of participants in all groups completed the program, although the number (86%) was slightly lower in the PACE-Yourself group than the other three. Excluding dropouts, the PACE-Yourself group had a lower adherence rate of 93%, compared with the other three (∼98%). Over the five weeks, PACE-Yourself participants increased exercising at the highest intensity level, consistent with augmented aerobic activity over time. The number of exercise sessions completed predicted the postintervention versus preintervention increase in self-reported level of physical activity.

    Discussion: This study supports the feasibility of a home-based, subject-controlled, exercise program in which P&I is regulated via real-time participant feedback, which may promote self-efficacy. Further study is needed to determine if similar results are found over longer periods and in more diverse populations.

  • 118.
    Ferati, Mexhid
    et al.
    Oslo and Akershus University, Norway.
    Kurti, Arianit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science. Interactive Institute Swedish ICT.
    Vogel, Bahtijar
    Malmö University.
    Raufi, Bujar
    South East European University, Macedonia.
    Augmenting requirements gathering for people with special needs using IoT: A position paper2016In: CHASE '16: Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering, ACM Press, 2016, p. 48-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements gathering are an important aspect of application development, especially when users are people with special needs. Traditionally, this process is being conducted using conventional methods, such as interviews, workshops and questionnaires. These approaches, however, are unable to grasp the full context when collecting data from the communities of people with special needs, mainly because of the difficult access to participants and incomprehensiveness of the data gathered. To mitigate such issues, in this position paper, we argue that existing traditional methods could be complemented by means of Internet of Things. The immense amount of data gathered from various devices interconnected could help generate meaningful data that will complement the usually insufficient amount collected using traditional methods. This new approach is, however, associated with challenges that are discussed along with a possible scenario on how data complementing from traditional and the indirect method could be done. 

  • 119.
    Ferati, Mexhid
    et al.
    South East European University, Macedonia.
    Raufi, Bujar
    South East European University, Macedonia.
    Kurti, Arianit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Vogel, Bahtijar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Accessibility Requirements for Blind and Visually Impaired in a Regional Context: An Exploratory Study2014In: 2014 IEEE 2nd International Workshop on Usability and Accessibility focused Requirements Engineering (UsARE) / [ed] Shah Rukh Humayoun, Norbert Seyff, Nauman A. Qureshi, Anna Perini, Achim Ebert, David Callele, and Simone D. J. Barbosa, IEEE Press, 2014, p. 13-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the time when we are debating the Internet as a human right, an access to basic online information is a challenge for blind and visually impaired community. Steps taken for their digital inclusion, such as, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) are often insufficient. In this paper we present initial requirements gathered during three workshops organized with various stakeholders coming from three different countries. Initial results suggest that the context of use and the cultural dimension play a crucial role in making digital content accessible for this community. Additionally, a one-solution-fits-all model is inadequate without considering levels of visual impairment when providing customized web and mobile experience. Finally, we lay out challenges that with comprehensive requirements gathering in the future, could address various problems that blind and visually impaired face.

  • 120.
    Ferati, Mexhid
    et al.
    Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Vogel, Bahtijar
    Malmö University.
    Kurti, Arianit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. Interactive Institute Swedish ICT.
    Raufi, Bujar
    South East European University, Macedonia.
    Astals, David Salvador
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Web Accessibility for Visually Impaired People: Requirements and Design Issues2016In: Usability- and Accessibility-Focused Requirements Engineering: First International Workshop, UsARE 2012, Held in Conjunction with ICSE 2012, Zurich, Switzerland, June 4, 2012 and Second International Workshop, UsARE 2014, Held in Conjunction with RE 2014, Karlskrona, Sweden, August 25, 2014, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Ebert, Achim; Humayoun, Rukh Shah; Seyff, Norbert; Perini, Anna; Barbosa, D.J. Simone, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 79-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to web content continues to be a challenge for the visually impaired, as the needs of such community are very diverse. The access is further hindered by the fact that designers continue to build websites non-compliant with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG). To better understand the needs of the visually impaired community, three workshops were organized with various stakeholders coming from three different countries. The results from the workshops suggest that one-solution-fits-all model is inadequate without considering the levels of visual impairment when providing customized web experience. A set of requirements devised from the workshops guided the process of building a middleware prototype. Using eight adaptation techniques, the prototype provides the required user experience based on users level of visual impairment. Preliminary evaluation of the middleware suggests that several adaptation techniques perform better with non-WCAG compliant websites compared to those being compliant.

  • 121.
    Filieri, Antonio
    et al.
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Maggio, Martina
    Lund University.
    Angelopoulos, Konstantinos
    University of Brighton , UK.
    D'Ippolito, Nicolás Roque
    Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina Author.
    Gerostathopoulos, Ilias Th
    Technical University of Munich, Faculty of Informatics, Germany .
    Hempel, Andreas Berndt
    Hoffmann, Henry C.
    University of Chicago, United States.
    Jamshidi, Pooyan
    Carnegie Mellon University, United States .
    Kalyvianaki, Evangelia
    University of London, UK.
    Klein, Cristian
    Umeå University.
    Křikava, Filip
    Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, Czech .
    Misailović, Saša
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro Vittorio
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Ray, Suprio
    University of New Brunswick, Canada .
    Molzam Sharifloo, Amir
    Universitat Duisburg-Essen, Germany .
    Shevtsov, Stepan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Ujma, Mateusz
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Vogel, Thomas
    Hasso-Plattner-Institut fur Softwaresystemtechnik, Germany.
    Control strategies for self-adaptive software systems2017In: ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, ISSN 1556-4665, E-ISSN 1556-4703, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 24Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pervasiveness and growing complexity of software systems are challenging software engineering to design systems that can adapt their behavior to withstand unpredictable, uncertain, and continuously changing execution environments. Control theoretical adaptation mechanisms have received growing interest from the software engineering community in the last few years for their mathematical grounding, allowing formal guarantees on the behavior of the controlled systems. However, most of these mechanisms are tailored to specific applications and can hardly be generalized into broadly applicable software design and development processes. This article discusses a reference control design process, from goal identification to the verification and validation of the controlled system. A taxonomy of the main control strategies is introduced, analyzing their applicability to software adaptation for both functional and nonfunctional goals. A brief extract on how to deal with uncertainty complements the discussion. Finally, the article highlights a set of open challenges, both for the software engineering and the control theory research communities.

  • 122.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) applicata agli Autonomous Systems2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of artificial intelligence applied to autonomous systems has in recent years aroused growing interest at the international level, and it is expected that this interest will continue to grow in the coming years [34]. It is a fairly well known fact that in the past many technologies now used in the civil field have seen the light, more or less secretly, in the military sector. Consider, for example, the so-called ARPANET, developed by the US defense department, which anticipated the modern Internet, but also algorithms for data encryption, thermal cameras, and many other commonly used technologies. Today the scenario has partly changed, shifting the leadership of innovation towards other domains, since there is a considerable boost to the technological development in the civil field with the advance of connected society paradigms like Smart-City and Industry 4.0. One example is related to the self-driving vehicles, born in the military sector, which are developing more rapidly in the civil sphere with the attractive self-driving cars. It is therefore important to transfer enabling technologies from one domain to another (cross-fertilization) and to draw appropriately from the outside (open innovation). This is achieved through studies and researches such as the one addressed by this monograph. The objective of this study is to analyze the principles, the basic methodologies and the operational tools of artificial intelligence applied to autonomous systems, at the modeling and technology level, in order to replace human-controlled vehicles with autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicles (e.g. drones) in high-risk operating environments, as well as to reduce human errors and to speed up response times, for example in operations command and control centers. The study presents an overview of the information fusion approaches to enable artificial cognition, mentioning several relevant applications in the military field, already at an advanced phase of development or even at an embryonic level. These approaches can be used to strengthen weapon systems and defense means, with greater ability to adapt to the operational context for the dynamic management of uncertainties and unforeseen events, as well as for experiential evolution and learning. Future applications include not only self-driving vehicles and smart weapons, but also the strengthening of soldiers through prosthetics and exoskeletons. Many of the future projections have been formalized by the working group on Symbiotic Autonomous Systems – which the writer is a member of – of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), enclosed in a special White Paper [34]. The present study addresses the impact of the Artificial Intelligence (AI) on the use of the military instrument when this technology will be applied to military assets and weapon systems, taking into account the different declinations of AI, including: • deterministic (semi)autonomous systems implemented through Boolean logical operators (eg Event Trees); • (semi)Autonomous systems based on probabilistic / stochastic models for the representation of knowledge and inference (eg Bayesian Networks); • (semi)Autonomous systems based on trained artificial neuronal models (ANN, Artificial Neural Networks). These approaches are based on different models of machine learning, which can be supervised or not. They apply to classification and clustering approaches in modern data analysis approaches, particularly in the presence of large amounts of information (big data analytics). This study distinguishes between semi-autonomous AI models, which require the confirmation of decisions by human operators (DSS, Decision Support Systems), and complete autonomy, which presents predictability problems impacting the verification and validation process and therefore system safety. These are the cases in which the aforementioned ethical, procedural, normative and legal implications are more relevant [1]. The introduction of autonomous systems equipped with artificial intelligence involves transformations also at the level of military logistics, which can be interpreted in two directions. On the one hand, it is necessary to plan the procurement of enabling technologies, the so-called deployable systems based on secure wireless networks, and the updating of systems to support complete digitalisation, which is an essential pre-requisite for the adoption of the instrument. The other side of the coin is the use of a higher level of automation in military logistics, supported by the AI. Here we can mention the automatic multi-objective optimization algorithms for decision support (eg genetic and evolutionary programming), the computation of the most efficient paths (in terms of time, energy, etc.), the dynamic definition of optimization priorities, as well as aspects of resilience through automatic re-planning of the route in the event of interruptions on the predefined trajectory. For all that has been said so far, it is clear that the development of the AI will have consequences on the future organization of the armed forces, both for the conduct of the operations and for the structure and numbers of the defense sector. As in other areas subject to automation through the use of new digital technologies, even in the military one the human role of decision supervision, feedback and control of high-level operations will remain decisive for many years. At the same time, however, the need for training and specialization in line with the complete computerization will arise, with significant impacts in terms of information security (or cybersecurity), which will require increasingly specific skills. The fact that complete autonomy would be possible in the event of unavailability of personnel in control centers implies not only a higher level of security, but also the possibility of reducing organizational redundancies by dedicating resources to different and more specialized tasks. As already underlined, there are significant ethical and legal implications related to future decision-making processes for the choice of using force through a weapon system governed by an artificial intelligence, potentially endowed with a high level of autonomy. It is therefore essential to define clear and shared limitations and conditions of autonomy for the verifiability and traceability of the decision-making process. In particular, in order to govern decision-making and prevent ambiguities, it is essential to apply the well-known RACI (Responsible Accountable Consulted Informed) paradigm, which defines for each action who is responsible for its implementation, who is associated with its administrative / legal responsibility, who will have to be consulted for further information and possible approval, and finally who will have to be simply, but obligatorily, informed. All aspects related to international safety certifications that regulate design, development and verification of systems whose malfunctions can impact on the safety of people are also essential. Many of the current reference standards are no longer adequate if we consider the current and anticipated evolution of AI, and therefore they will have to be adjusted accordingly.

  • 123.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Sistemi autonomi simbiotici e sicurezza2019In: Mondo Digitale, ISSN 1720-898X, no 80Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the security of the interactions between machines and humans in the context of Symbiotic Autonomous Systems (SAS). In particular, the paper will provide an overview of the security in interconnected devices, including cybersecurity and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) security. We will also mention some recent security developments related to the Internet of Things (IoT).

  • 124.
    Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Gaglione, A
    Mazzino, N
    Mazzocca, N
    Pragliola, C
    La security nei sistemi di trasporto a guida vincolata: analisi del rischio e strategie di protezione2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Marrone, Stefano
    Univ Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy.
    Nardone, Roberto
    Univ Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Petrillo, Alberto
    Univ Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Santini, Stefania
    Univ Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Vittorini, Valeria
    Univ Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Towards Railway Virtual Coupling2018In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway, Ship Propulsion and Road Vehicles & International Transportation Electrification Conference (ESARS-ITEC) / [ed] IEEE, IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 126.
    Forsgren, Robert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Petersson Vasquez, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    REGTEST - an Automatic & Adaptive GUI Regression Testing Tool.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software testing is something that is very common and is done to increase the quality of and confidence in a software. In this report, an idea is proposed to create a software for GUI regression testing which uses image recognition to perform steps from test cases. The problem that exists with such a solution is that if a GUI has had changes made to it, then many test cases might break. For this reason, REGTEST was created which is a GUI regression testing tool that is able to handle one type of change that has been made to the GUI component, such as a change in color, shape, location or text. This type of solution is interesting because setting up tests with such a tool can be very fast and easy, but one previously big drawback of using image recognition for GUI testing is that it has not been able to handle changes well. It can be compared to tools that use IDs to perform a test where the actual visualization of a GUI component does not matter; It only matters that the ID stays the same; however, when using such tools, it either requires underlying knowledge of the GUI component naming conventions or the use of tools which automatically constructs XPath queries for the components. To verify that REGTEST can work as well as existing tools a comparison was made against two professional tools called Ranorex and Kantu. In those tests, REGTEST proved very successful and performed close to, or better than the other software.

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  • 127.
    Frankeline, Tanyi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Attack Modeling and Risk Assessments in Software Defined networking (SDN)2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a technology which provides a network architecture with three distinct layers that is, the application layer which is made up of SDN applications, the control layer which is made up of the controller and the data plane layer which is made up of switches. However, the exits different types of SDN architectures some of which are interconnected with the physical network. At the core of SDN, the control plane is physically and logically separated from the data plane. The controller is connected to the application layer through an interface known as the northbound interface and to the data plane through another interface known as the southbound interface. The centralized control plane uses APIs to communicate through the northbound and southbound interface with the application layer and the data plane layer respectively. By default, these APIs such as Restful and OpenFlow APIs do not implement security mechanisms like data encryption and authentication thus, this introduces new network security threats to the SDN architecture. This report presents a technique known as threat modeling in SDN. To achieve this technique, attack scenarios are created based on the OpenFlow SDN vulnerabilities. After which these vulnerabilities are defined as predicates or facts and rules, a framework known as multihost multistage vulnerability analysis (MulVAL) then takes these predicates and rules to produce a threat model known as attack graph. The attack graph is further used to performed quantitative risk analysis using a metric to depict the risks associated to the OpenFlow SDN model

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  • 128.
    Franzén, Emil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Utveckling av dynamiskt verktyg mot REST-API i C#2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In February 2018 the students Andreas Karlsson and Emil Franzén contacted Danfoss Power Solutions in Älmhult, shortly after they were offered to perform a thesis. A thesis about developing an SDK in the programming language C# for Danfoss Power Solutions newly developed API, PLUS+1 System API 2.0. As a part of the thesis a mini service tool was to be created to show the powers of the SDK and then evaluate the SDK by letting a company perform a usability test. By the end of May an SDK was delivered written in C# along with a mini service tool for use in demonstration. But because of time issues there were no usability test performed.

  • 129.
    Garcia-Valls, Marisol
    et al.
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Spain.
    Perez-Palacin, Diego
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Pragmatic cyber physical systems design based on parametric models2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 144, p. 559-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptive nature of cyber physical systems (CPS) comes from the fact that they are deeply immersed in the physical environments that are inherently dynamic. CPS also have stringent requirements on real-time operation and safety that are fulfilled by rigorous model design and verification. In the real-time literature, adaptation is mostly limited to off-line modeling of well known and predicted transitions; but this is not appropriate for cyber physical systems as each transition can have unique and unknown characteristics. In the adaptive systems literature, adaptation solutions are silent about timely execution and about the underlying hardware possibilities that can potentially speed up execution. This paper presents a solution for designing adaptive cyber physical systems by using parametric models that are verified during the system execution (i.e., online), so that adaptation decisions are made based on the timing requirements of each particular adaptation event. Our approach allows the system to undergo timely adaptations that exploit the potential parallelism of the software and its execution over multicore processors. We exemplify the approach on a specific use case with autonomous vehicles communication, showing its applicability for situations that require time-bounded online adaptations.

  • 130.
    Georgiadis, Abraham
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Analysis of the user experience in a 3D gesture-based supported mobile VR game2017In: VRST '17 Proceedings of the 23rd ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, ACM Publications, 2017, article id 47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this paper, explored the enhancement of User Experience (UX) by introducing a novel gesture-based controller in a mobile multiplayer Virtual Reality (VR) game. Using only the smartphone's RGB camera, the image input was used for both gesture analysis, capable of understanding user actions, as well as segmenting the real hand that was illustrated in the Virtual Environment (VE). Users were also able to share the VR space by cooperating in a survival-strategy scenario. The results from the user studies indicated that both the bare hand controller and the addition of another player in the VR scene, affected the experience for the participants. Users had a stronger feeling of presence in the VE when participated with an other user, and the visual representation of their hand in the VR world made the interactions seem more natural. Even though, there is still a number of limitations, this project nodes this approach capable of offering a natural and engaging solution of VR interaction, capable of rich UX while maintaining a low entry level for the end users.

  • 131.
    Gerasimou, Simos
    et al.
    University of York, UK.
    Calinescu, Radu
    University of York, UK.
    Shevtsov, Stepan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science. KU Leuven, Belgium.
    UNDERSEA: An Exemplar for EngineeringSelf-Adaptive Unmanned Underwater Vehicles2017In: 2017 IEEE/ACM 12th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS), IEEE, 2017, p. 83-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in embedded systems and underwater communications raised the autonomy levels in unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) from human-driven and scripted to adaptive and self-managing. UUVs can execute longer and more challenging missions, and include functionality that enables adaptation to unexpected oceanic or vehicle changes. As such, the simulated UUV exemplar UNDERSEA introduced in our paper facilitates the development, evaluation and comparison of self-adaptation solutions in a new and important application domain. UNDERSEA comes with predefined oceanic surveillance UUV missions, adaptation scenarios, and a reference controller implementation, all of which can easily be extended or replaced.

  • 132.
    Ghazi, Ahmad Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Börstler, Jörgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Information Sources and Their Importance to Prioritize Test Cases in the Heterogeneous Systems Context2014In: Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement / [ed] Barafort, Béatrix; O'Connor, Rory. V.; Poth, Alexander; Messnarz, Richard, Springer, 2014, Vol. 425, p. 86-98Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Testing techniques proposed in the literature rely on various sources of information for test case selection (e.g., requirements, source code, system structure, etc.). The challenge of test selection is amplified in the context of heterogeneous systems, where it is unknown which information/data sources are most important.

    Contribution: (1) Achieve in-depth understanding of test processes in heterogeneous systems; (2) Elicit information sources for test selection in the context of heterogeneous systems. (3) Capture the relative importance of the identified information sources.

    Method: Case study research is used for the elicitation and understanding of which information sources are relevant for test case privatization, followed by an exploratory survey capturing the relative importance of information sources for testing heterogeneous systems.

    Results: We classified different information sources that play a vital role in the test selection process, and found that their importance differs largely for the different test levels observed in heterogeneous testing. However, overall all sources were considered essential in test selection for heterogeneous systems.

    Conclusion: Heterogeneous system testing requires solutions that take all information sources into account when suggesting test cases for selection. Such approaches need to be developed and compared with existing solutions.

  • 133.
    Gil de la Iglesia, Didac
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    A Formal Approach for Designing Distributed Self-Adaptive Systems2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering contemporary distributed software applications is a challenging task due to the dynamic operating conditions in which these systems have to function. Examples are dynamic availability of resources, errors that are difficult to predict, and changing user requirements. These dynamics can affect a number of quality concerns of a system, such as robustness, openness, and performance. The challenges of engineering software systems with such dynamics have motivated the need for self-adaptation. Self-adaptation is based on the principle of separation of concerns, distinguishing two well defined systems: a managed system that deals with domain specific concerns and a managing system that deals with particular quality concerns of the managed system through adaptation with a feedback loop. State of the art in self- adaptation advocates the use of formal methods to specify and verify the system's behavior in order to provide evidence that the system's goals are satisfied. However, little work has been done on the consolidation of design knowledge to model and verify self-adaptation behaviors.

    To support designers, this thesis contributes with a set of formally specified templates for the specification and verification of self-adaptive behaviors of a family of distributed self-adaptive systems. The templates are based on the MAPE-K reference model (Monitor-Analyze-Plan-Execute plus Knowledge). The templates comprise: (1) behavior specification patterns for modeling the different MAPE components of a feedback loop, and (2) property specification patterns that support verification of the correctness of the adaptation behaviors. The target domain are distributed applications in which self-adaptation is used for managing resources for robustness and openness requirements. The templates are derived from expertise with developing several self-adaptive systems, including a collaborative mobile learning application in which we have applied self-adaptation to make the system robust to degrading GPS accuracy, and a robotic system in which we apply self-adaptation to support different types of openness requirements. We demonstrate the reusability of the templates in a number of case studies. 

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  • 134.
    Gil de la Iglesia, Didac
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Sollervall, Håkan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Zbick, Janosch
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Delgado, Yeray Real
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Mazarico, Carlos Sirvent
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Combining web and mobile technologies to support sustainable activity design in education2015In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Aachen: CEUR-WS.org , 2015, Vol. 1411, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe an approach for designing and developing technological solutions to support teachers in creating their own outdoor teaching activities. We elaborate on one particular case, TriGO, in which primary school students perform outdoor tasks to experience concepts and constructions in the field of mathematics. The application designs and an initial evaluation of the developed technological solutions is provided based on the results obtained from school activities performed with more than 10 teachers and 50 students.

  • 135.
    Gil de la Iglesia, Didac
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    SA-MAS: Self-Adaptation to Enhance Software Qualities in Multi-Agent Systems2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 international conference on Autonomous agents and multi-agent systems (AAMAS 2013) / [ed] Ito, Jonker, Gini, Shehory, The International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (IFAAMAS), 2013, , p. 2p. 1159-1160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering multi-agent systems (MAS) is known to be a complex task. One of the reasons lays in the complexity to combine multiple concerns that a MAS has to address, such as system functionality, coordination, robustness, etc. A well-recognized approach to manage system complexity is the use of self-adaptation (SA). Self-adaptation extends a system with support to monitor and adapt itself to realize a concern of interest (optimization, fault-tolerance, etc.). We present SA-MAS, an architectural approach that integrates MAS with SA. We present a reference model for SA-MAS and illustrate it with an excerpt from our research.

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  • 136.
    Gilson, Fabian
    et al.
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM). Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    When Natural Language Processing Jumps into Collaborative Software Engineering2019In: 2019 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE COMPANION (ICSA-C 2019), IEEE, 2019, p. 238-241Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering is an intrinsically collaborative activity, especially in the era of Agile Software Development. Many actors are partaking in development activities, such that a common understanding should be reached at numerous stages during the overall development life-cycle. For a few years now, Natural Language Processing techniques have been employed either to extract key information from free-form text or to generate models from the analysis of text in order to ease the sharing of knowledge across all parties. A significant part of these approaches focuses on retrieving lost domain and architectural knowledge through the analysis of documents, issue management systems or other forms of knowledge management systems. However, these post-processing methods are time-consuming by nature since they require to invest significant resources into the validation of the extracted knowledge. In this paper, inspired by collaborative tools, bots and Natural Language extraction approaches, we envision new ways to collaboratively record and document design decisions as they are discussed. These decisions will be documented as they are taken and, for some of them, static or behavioural models may be generated on-the-fly. Such an interactive process will ensure everyone agrees on critical design aspects of the software. We believe development teams will benefit from this approach because manual encoding of design knowledge will be reduced and will not be pushed to a later stage, when not forgotten.

  • 137.
    Gimenez, Alfredo
    et al.
    University of California, USA.
    Gamblin, Todd
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA.
    Jusufi, Ilir
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Bhatele, Abhinav
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA.
    Schulz, Martin
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA.
    Bremer, Peer-Timo
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA.
    Hamann, Bernd
    University of California, USA.
    MemAxes: Visualization and Analytics for Characterizing Complex Memory Performance Behaviors2018In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 2180-2193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Memory performance is often a major bottleneck for high-performance computing (HPC) applications. Deepening memory hierarchies, complex memory management, and non-uniform access times have made memory performance behavior difficult to characterize, and users require novel, sophisticated tools to analyze and optimize this aspect of their codes. Existing tools target only specific factors of memory performance, such as hardware layout, allocations, or access instructions. However, today's tools do not suffice to characterize the complex relationships between these factors. Further, they require advanced expertise to be used effectively. We present MemAxes, a tool based on a novel approach for analytic-driven visualization of memory performance data. MemAxes uniquely allows users to analyze the different aspects related to memory performance by providing multiple visual contexts for a centralized dataset. We define mappings of sampled memory access data to new and existing visual metaphors, each of which enabling a user to perform different analysis tasks. We present methods to guide user interaction by scoring subsets of the data based on known performance problems. This scoring is used to provide visual cues and automatically extract clusters of interest. We designed MemAxes in collaboration with experts in HPC and demonstrate its effectiveness in case studies.

  • 138.
    Gkalfas, Christos
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Studying the impact of a mobile application in food waste reduction, circular economy, and social interaction inside the community.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social and ecological sustainability applications are a significant way to bring equality, equity, and happiness in society. Food waste and food security are two of the most significant problems the people have to tackle the next years. In every country, there are huge problems regarding the food waste which cause serious health problems and pollution not only in the atmosphere but in the subsoil as well. Contrary to that, there is a countless number of people facing food security issues every day across the globe. These problems occurred in Greece as well due to the modern way of living on one hand and the financial crisis on the other. A combination of technological ideas in the economic field of the circular economy could be applied to succeed in sustainable solutions.

    In this thesis, a literature search conducted in order to identify similar problems in Greece. There are very worrying statistics that indicate the massive food waste that is happening in Greek households. Additionally, the literature search for food security and unemployment reveals the significant problem occurred in society as a result of the financial crisis. An additional search in the field of the circular economy reveals excellent solutions in the agricultural machinery sharing and refactoring that could be applied locally, exploiting the existing infrastructure of the community. These solutions help small and young farmers to improve their financial situations. The author is exploring the effects of the financial crisis in the local economy in an effort to apply technological solutions in a form of a mobile application to interconnect people and make the donation, sharing and job search easier for the community. The ultimate goal of this study is to develop an application that could help the community to move towards social and ecological sustainability.

    Even though the ideas applied in this thesis are fresh to the community in the author’s region, the results of this work indicate that there are significant support and willingness to contribute. The development efforts are focusing on a mobile application where its features are focusing on the best possible interconnection among people of the community. Participants believe that the application interconnection along with the features provided, like the food donation, food sales, machinery sharing and job search among people of the community, could bring positive results reducing the food waste, promoting the circular economy, and toning the local economy in general. The data have shown that the author is moving towards the right path in his first attempt to present these ideas to the community in his region. Every participant in this study embraces his efforts finding potential value in the provided features of the application.

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  • 139.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Hagelbäck, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Ardö, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Automatic Classification of Swedish Metadata Using Dewey Decimal Classification: A Comparison of Approaches2020In: Journal of Data and Information Science, ISSN 2096-157X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 18-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    With more and more digital collections of various information resources becoming available, also increasing is the challenge of assigning subject index terms and classes from quality knowledge organization systems. While the ultimate purpose is to understand the value of automatically produced Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) classes for Swedish digital collections, the paper aims to evaluate the performance of six machine learning algorithms as well as a string-matching algorithm based on characteristics of DDC.

    Design/methodology/approach

    State-of-the-art machine learning algorithms require at least 1,000 training examples per class. The complete data set at the time of research involved 143,838 records which had to be reduced to top three hierarchical levels of DDC in order to provide sufficient training data (totaling 802 classes in the training and testing sample, out of 14,413 classes at all levels).

    Findings

    Evaluation shows that Support Vector Machine with linear kernel outperforms other machine learning algorithms as well as the string-matching algorithm on average; the string-matching algorithm outperforms machine learning for specific classes when characteristics of DDC are most suitable for the task. Word embeddings combined with different types of neural networks (simple linear network, standard neural network, 1D convolutional neural network, and recurrent neural network) produced worse results than Support Vector Machine, but reach close results, with the benefit of a smaller representation size. Impact of features in machine learning shows that using keywords or combining titles and keywords gives better results than using only titles as input. Stemming only marginally improves the results. Removed stop-words reduced accuracy in most cases, while removing less frequent words increased it marginally. The greatest impact is produced by the number of training examples: 81.90% accuracy on the training set is achieved when at least 1,000 records per class are available in the training set, and 66.13% when too few records (often less than 100 per class) on which to train are available—and these hold only for top 3 hierarchical levels (803 instead of 14,413 classes).

    Research limitations

    Having to reduce the number of hierarchical levels to top three levels of DDC because of the lack of training data for all classes, skews the results so that they work in experimental conditions but barely for end users in operational retrieval systems.

    Practical implications

    In conclusion, for operative information retrieval systems applying purely automatic DDC does not work, either using machine learning (because of the lack of training data for the large number of DDC classes) or using string-matching algorithm (because DDC characteristics perform well for automatic classification only in a small number of classes). Over time, more training examples may become available, and DDC may be enriched with synonyms in order to enhance accuracy of automatic classification which may also benefit information retrieval performance based on DDC. In order for quality information services to reach the objective of highest possible precision and recall, automatic classification should never be implemented on its own; instead, machine-aided indexing that combines the efficiency of automatic suggestions with quality of human decisions at the final stage should be the way for the future.

    Originality/value

    The study explored machine learning on a large classification system of over 14,000 classes which is used in operational information retrieval systems. Due to lack of sufficient training data across the entire set of classes, an approach complementing machine learning, that of string matching, was applied. This combination should be explored further since it provides the potential for real-life applications with large target classification systems.

  • 140.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Hagelbäck, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Ardö, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Automatic classification using DDC on the Swedish Union Catalogue2018In: Proceedings of the 18th European Networked Knowledge Organization Systems (NKOS 2018) Workshop, Porto, Portugal, September 13, 2018 / [ed] Philipp Mayr, Douglas Tudhope, Joseph Busch, Koraljka Golub, Marjorie Hlava & Marcia Zeng, CEUR-WS.org , 2018, p. 4-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With more and more digital collections of various information re- sources becoming available, also increasing is the challenge of assigning subject index terms and classes from quality knowledge organization systems. While the ultimate purpose is to understand the value of automatically produced Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) classes for Swedish digital collections, the paper aims to evaluate the performance of two machine learning algorithms for Swe- dish catalogue records from the Swedish union catalogue (LIBRIS). The algo- rithms are tested on the top three hierarchical levels of the DDC. Based on a data set of 143,838 records, evaluation shows that Support Vector Machine with linear kernel outperforms Multinomial Naïve Bayes algorithm. Also, using keywords or combining titles and keywords gives better results than using only titles as input. The class imbalance where many DDC classes only have few records greatly affects classification performance: 81.37% accuracy on the training set is achieved when at least 1,000 records per class are available, and 66.13% when few records on which to train are available. Proposed future research involves an exploration of the intellectual effort put into creating the DDC to further improve the algorithm performance as commonly applied in string matching, and to test the best approach on new digital collections that do not have DDC assigned.

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  • 141.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Hagelbäck, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Ardö, Anders
    Automatic classification Using DDC on the Swedish Union Catalogue2019In: European DDC Users Group, EDUG, Annual Meeting 9-10 May 2019: National Library of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Hagelbäck, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Ardö, Anders
    Automatic subject classification of Swedish DDC: Impact of tuning and training data set2019In: 19th European NKOS Workshop, 23rd TPDL: Oslo, 12 September 2019, Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services/Structures, NKOS , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation builds on the NKOS 2018 presentation of automatically produced Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) classes for Swedish union catalogue (LIBRIS). Based on a dataset of 143,838 records, Support Vector Machine with linear kernel outperforms Multinomial Naïve Bayes algorithm. Impact of features shows that using keywords or combining titles and keywords gives better results than using only titles as input. Stemming only marginally improves the results. Removed stop-words reduced accuracy in most cases, while removing less frequent words increased it marginally. Word embeddings combined with different types of neural networks (Simple linear network, Standard neural network, 1D convolutional neural network, Recurrent neural network) produced worse results than Naïve Bayes /Support Vector Machine, but reach close results. The greatest impact is produced by the number of training examples: 81.37% accuracy on the training set is achieved when at least 1,000 records per class are available, and 66.13% when few records on which to train are available.

  • 143.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Hansson, Joacim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    LNU as a Unique iSchool2016Other (Other academic)
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    poster
  • 144.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Herault, Romain Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Lundman, Madeleine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Increasing visibility of culture through online information services: The case of Småland2019In: Presented at iConference 2019: Inform, include, inspire. March 31 - April 3, Maryland, USA, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural events are of increasing importance as value creators in our society. They can serve to promote the attractiveness of a region, to increase social interactions and the quality of life and, not the least, to boost local economies. Today, a comprehensive and up-to-date online overview of cultural events in Småland, a region in southeastern Sweden, is missing mainly due the fact that information is distributed across different actors, communication channels and different media (e.g. individual organizers, commercial vendors, community calendars, newspapers calendars).

    The ultimate purpose of our research is to significantly increase access to information and awareness of cultural attractiveness in Småland using innovative web technologies, both for its inhabitants as well as tourists. Reporting on the first stage of the project, this paper focuses on the exploration of requirements to design a mobile application and a website.

    First guidelines for the design of web and mobile interfaces have been in existence since the early 2000s (Weiss, 2003) and have been updated accordingly to reflect the evolution of technology and the evolution of web and mobile applications. In order to get users to use the application or website, they need to be simple, easy to understand, and present meaningful information to the user (Rubino et al., 2014).

    Functionalities for a cultural event app and/or website include those referring to general ones pertinent to any user-friendly app and specific ones related to information on cultural events. General major functionalities identified in the literature include:

    • Clear and concise way of displaying the content (Boiano et al., 2012);

    • Interactive and quick responding interfaces (ibid.);

    • An interface which is easy to understand with few controls (Gena et al., 2013);

    • The ability to share information, write reviews and connect, which in turn will make the application more visible for the general public (ibid.); and,

    • Utilising user-generated content (ratings, tags, comments, and so on) as a source of information about a user, and for adaptation and recommendation purposes (ibid.).

    Our methodological approach involved three major steps. First, an interview with cultural events providers, using contemporary art as a use case, was conducted in order to identify initial needs and requirements for building the two types of interfaces. The interviews were conducted with two representatives of a governmental institution promoting contemporary art in the region, called Nya Småland (in English New Småland, http://www.nyasmaland.se/9/). After the first round of interviews, initial mock-ups of the interfaces were built, followed by another round of interviews to gain insights and feedback on those designs. Themes in the interviews focused on requirements, functionalities, cultural event providers in the different regions and user groups. The interviewees said that it is generally important to make contemporary art galleries and their activities visible to a wider audience through a good-quality app and a web site. It is often hard to reach the public with cultural events; one reason could be lack of money for advertising. The information gathered from the interviews was then used when creating a new round of refined mock-ups.

    In conclusion, the interviewees consider a quality app and a website for cultural events on contemporary art an important way in which to increase visibility of cultural events in the region and beyond. In addition, preserving information about past events for future uses is considered important, especially for journalists, politicians and journalists. Future research efforts will focus on developing an interactive prototype and gain feedback from content providers and a range of potential end user groups.

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    Poster
  • 145.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Digital Humanities as a Cross-Sector and Cross-Discipline Initiative: Prospects in the Linnaeus University Region2016In: The 3rd International Conference on Behavioral, Economic, and Socio-Cultural Computing Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, 11-13 November, 2016 (BESC 2016), IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 136-137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This position paper presents and analyses thecross-sector and cross-disciplinary Digital Humanities Initiativeat Linnaeus University along the axes of its strengths,weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Our long-term vision is tocreate a leading education in this field and to establish a leadingresearch regional centre that combines in novel ways alreadyexisting expertise from different departments and facultiesworking in close collaboration and co-creation with people anddifferent organizations (both public and private sector) from thesurrounding society.

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    fulltext
  • 146.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Lundman, Madeleine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Herault, Romain Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Increasing visibility of culture through online information services: The case of Småland2019In: BOBCATSSS 2019: Information and technology transforming lives:connection, interaction, innovation: Proceedings / [ed] Gordana Gašo, Mirna Gilman Ranogajec, Jure Žilić, Madeleine Lundman, Tampere: European Association for Library and Information Education and Research , 2019, p. 458-470Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural events are of increasing importance as value creators in our society. They can serve to promote the attractiveness of a region, to increase social interactions and the quality of life and, not the least, to boost local economies. The ultimate purpose of our research is to significantly increase awareness of cultural attractiveness in Småland using innovative web technologies, both for its inhabitants as well as tourists. Reporting on the first stage of the project, this paper focuses on the exploration of requirements to design a mobile application and a website of cultural events in the region with contemporary art as a use case. 

    Our methodological approach involved three major steps. First, interviews with cultural event providers, with focus on contemporary art, were conducted in order to identify initial needs and requirements for building the two types of interfaces.The interviews were conducted with two representatives of a governmental institution promoting contemporary art in the region, called Nya Småland (in English New Småland, http://www.nyasmaland.se/9/). After the first round of interviews, initial mock-ups of the interfaces were built, followed by another round of interviews to gain insights and feedback on those designs. Themes in the interviews addressed requirements and functionalities, both from perspectives of cultural event providers as well as those of user groups. The interviewees agreed that it is generally important to make contemporary art galleries and their activities visible to a wider audience through a good-quality app and a web site. It is often hard to reach the public with cultural events; one reason could be lack of money for advertising. 

    In conclusion, the interviewees consider a quality app and a website for cultural events on contemporary art an important way in which to increase visibility of cultural events in the region and beyond. In addition, preserving information about past events for future uses is considered important, especially for journalists and politicians. Future research efforts will focus on developing an interactive prototype and acquiring feedback from content providers and a range of potential end user groups.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 147.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Ping Huang, Marianne
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Tolonen, Mikko
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Bergsland, Andreas
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    Mats, Malm
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Nordic Hub of DARIAH-EU: A DH Ecosystem of Cross-Disciplinary Approaches2017In: Presented at Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 2nd Conference, Gothenburg, 14–16 March 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION

    The particular exploration of new ways of interactions between society and Information Communication Technologies (ICT) with a focus on the Humanities has the potential to become a key success factor for the values and competitiveness of the Nordic region, having in mind recent EU and regional political discussions in the field of Digital Humanities (European Commission, 2016; Vetenskapsrådet’s Rådet för forskningens infrastrukturer, 2014). Digital Humanities (DH) is a diverse and still emerging field that lies at the intersection of ICT and Humanities, which is being continually formulated by scholars and practitioners in a range of disciplines (see, for example, Svensson & Goldberg, 2015; Gardiner & Musto, 2015; Schreibman, Siemens, & Unsworth, 2016). The following are examples of current areas of fields and topics: text-analytic techniques, categorization, data mining; Social Network Analysis (SNA) and bibliometrics; metadata and tagging; Geographic Information Systems (GIS); multimedia and interactive games; Music Information Retrieval (MIR); interactive visualization and media.

    DARIAH-EU (http://dariah.eu), is Europe’s largest initiative on DH, comprising over 300 researchers in 18 countries, thereby opening up opportunities for international collaboration and projects. Among the Nordic countries, Denmark is the full partner with four universities, Copenhagen, Aarhus, Aalborg and University of Southern Denmark (DARIAH-DK). Danish DARIAH-EU activities are facilitated by the national DH Infrastructure DIGHUMLAB, hosted at the DARIAH-DK coordinating institution, Aarhus University. Sweden’s first academic institution, Linnaeus University, joined in May 2016 as a collaborative partner. Finland (University of Helsinki) and Norway (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) also became collaborative partners, in November 2016. The Nordic Hub of DARIAH-EU (DARIAH-Nordic) held its first meeting on 8 November in Växjö, Sweden, in connection with the International Symposium on Digital Humanities (Växjö, 7-8 November, https://lnu.se/en/research/conferences/international-digital-humanities-symposium/).

    The Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries (DHN) organisation was established in 2015 in order to create a venue for interaction and collaboration between the Nordic countries, including the Baltic countries. The ambitions behind the DHN initiative thus largely overlap with the recently formed Nordic Hub of DARIAH-EU. The panel would like to present different perspectives on Nordic contributions to DH as well as the aims of the DARIAH-Nordic and discuss possible joint opportunities and challenges in Nordic DH. With its tradition in supporting the Humanities research and development, Nordic countries may serve as a bastion for (Digital) Humanities. The Nordic Hub of DARIAH-EU and DHN may pave the way forward towards reaching that aim.

    A DH ECOSYSTEM OF CROSS-DISCIPLINARY APPROACHES

    Mats Malm (previous chair of DHN) will present the visions and ambitions behind DHN and the recently established Centre for Digital Humanities at the University of Gothenburg, which will start a Master programme in Digital Humanities in the autumn of 2017. While both the Centre for Digital Humanities and DHN aim at broad inclusiveness, he will here focus on the use of textual databases for re-examining the history and cultural heritage of the Nordic countries. This implies collaboration on common textual resources and technologies for mining, at the same time as it raises a number of questions concerning cross-disciplinarity and exchange of perspectives and methods.

    Mikko Tolonen will present the ongoing developments at the University of Helsinki (and in Finland) regarding Digital Humanities. This includes the recently launched Heldig (Digital Humanities Centre, https://www.helsinki.fi/en/researchgroups/helsinki-digital-humanities) and how it can relate to collaboration in DARIAH-EU. Tolonen will particularly discuss the relationship between the Digital Humanities infrastructure designed to be implemented at the University of Helsinki and how it relates to ongoing grassroot research projects.

    Andreas Bergsland will discuss the role that the arts might play within Digital Humanities. As a starting point, he will take the work that has been done at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU): establishing ARTEC, an interdisciplinary task force at the intersection of art and technology. He will argue how some of ARTEC’s initiatives might have both opportunities and challenges partly converging with those of the DH field, but might also expand and enrich current practices. One such initiative, Adressaparken, is a commons area in Trondheim for exploration of sensor-based digital storytelling and an open arena for test and experimentation of new experiences and new digital media. While most DH initiatives in Europe seem to focus on computational humanities projects, Bergsland will explore the unique potential of integrating artistic and creative practices into DH/ARTEC initiatives at NTNU.

    Koraljka Golub and Marcelo Milrad will present and analyse the cross-sector and cross-disciplinary Digital Humanities Initiative at Linnaeus University (LNU) along the axes of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Their long-term vision is to: 1) create a leading and innovative educational programme in this field; and, 2) to establish a prominent research regional centre that combines in novel ways already existing expertise from different departments and faculties working in close collaboration and co-creation with people and different organizations (both public and private sector) from the surrounding society. The main goals of this new initiative (launched in February 2016) at the first phase (12-15 months) are twofold; first, to establish the foundations for the creation of a DH educational programme and second, to carry out research and create an innovation centre at the wider region surrounding LNU, encompassing east southern Sweden. A combination of cross-disciplinary, cross-sector and international aspects would provide a solid ground to build a more or less unique international distance Master-level programme. Addressing future societal challenges would be eventually possible, 1) by highly skilled professionals whose education has been markedly enhanced by practice-informed education, and, 2) through joint, cross-sector innovation.

    Marianne Ping Huang will present DARIAH-EU related activities in a Danish and European context, focusing on initiatives for cultural creative participation, including born digital cultural data and a presentation of open cross-sectoral innovation with DARIAH-EU Humanities at Scale (2015-2017). DARIAH-EU will set up its new Innovation Board in 2017 and host the first DARIAH-EU Innovation Forum with the Creativity World Forum in Aarhus, November 2017, intersecting with Aarhus European Capital of Culture 2017. DARIAH-EU’s move towards digitally enhanced public humanities, closer collaboration with GLAM (Galleries, Libraries, Archives, Museums) institutions, and public-private innovation will be discussed in light of the scope of DH and the Nordic Hub of DARIAH-EU.

    DISCUSSION POINTS: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES

    The great breadth of cross-disciplinary and organizational initiatives presented above presents significant potential for DH in Nordic countries. Major opportunities lie in the collaborative democratic tradition that supports re-combining already existing expertise and resources encompassing 1) different universities, 2) various disciplines, and 3) the wider community through input from related public and private sectors. These points serve to unite and consolidate already existing expertise in order to create new constellations for collaboration leading to new knowledge and products (expertise, education, research, public and relevant commercial services). Possibilities to collaborate across Nordic countries can take place at a number of levels, including joint research and innovation, education efforts, expertise and experience exchange, bringing in international views to address more regional challenges. Ensuing important value for the general public could be a (re)-affirmation of the value of humanities in particular, and academic practices in general.

    Challenges would be discussed in terms of the emerging job market, the low number of students pursuing carriers in humanities at the Master level (e.g., in Sweden), and the fact that DH as a field is still in its infancy, leading to it being quite difficult to get funding and grants to carry out long-term research that sustain our efforts over time. Related to sustainability is the question on how to promote a dialogue and collaboration with potential industrial partners in order to run collaborative projects that go beyond just research. Not the least, epistemological, conceptual and terminological differences in approaches by the different disciplines and sectors may present further challenges and therefore may require additional resources to reach an understanding. Further, while there is a strong collaborative spirit across Nordic countries, there will certainly be administrative issues with cross-university collaboration as the current working structures are based on individual units.

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  • 148.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Jusufi, Ilir
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Ardö, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Automatic subject classification for improving retrieval in a Swedish repository2017In: ISKO UK Conference 2017: Knowledge Organization: what's the story?, 11 – 12 September 2017, London, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent adoption of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) in Sweden has ignited discussions about automated subject classification especially for digital collections, which generally seem to lack subject indexing from controlled vocabularies. This is particularly problematic in the context of academic resource retrieval tasks, which require an understanding of discipline-specific terminologies and the narratives behind their internal ontologies. The currently available experimental classification software have not been adequately tested and their usefulness is unproven especially for Swedish language resources. We address these issues by investigating a unifying framework of automatic subject indexing for the DDC, including an analysis of suitable interactive visualisation features for supporting these aims. We will address the disciplinary narratives behind the DDC in selected subject areas and the preliminary results will include an analysis of the data collection and a breakdown of the methodology. Major visualisation possibilities in support of the classification process are also outlined. The project will contribute significantly to Swedish information infrastructure by improving the findability of Swedish research resources by subject searching, one of the most common yet the most challenging types of searching.

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  • 149.
    Green, Rebecka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Instruktionsfilm i undervisning: Utformningen av en mall för ett grafiskt användargränssnitt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Video tutorials is common in teaching environments. Some tutorial producers record a simple screen recording while others add graphical elements to attract the user's attention to specific parts of the screen. Currently, no guidelines exist on how a video tutorial should be presented. Guidelines would not only help the producers but more importantly, the users. 

    In this study, two platforms using video tutorials were analysed; LinkedIn Learning and SkillShare. These platforms were analysed to collect requirements that, together with a literature study, specified the requirements later used for the design of the prototype. The prototype was examined by 14 students using the A/B-testing method, as well as being reviewed by an expert within human computer interaction (HCI).

    The result of this study indicates that graphical elements is an important part of video tutorials, as they help the users to focus on important and relevant elements explained by the instructor. A result from the study is a list of recommendations for video tutorials.

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  • 150.
    Griffith, Ioseff
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Procedural Narrative Generation Through Emotionally Interesting Non-Player Characters2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Procedural content generation is a technique used to produce a wide range of computer-generated content in many industries today, the video game industry in particular. This study focuses on how procedural content generation can be applied to create emotionally interesting non-player characters and through this, generate narrative snippets that can immerse and interest a reader. The main points examined are how to achieve this using a modular approach to personality and behaviour, how well readers can distinguish whether motivations and interactions are generated by a computer or written by a human, and to what degree a reader can be immersed in a computer-generated narrative. Procedural narrative could help to reduce workload on large projects or lower costs, and is an area in which there is much room for further research. To answer these problems, a literature review of existing techniques for the creation of emotionally interesting non-player characters was conducted and used to design and construct a prototype implementation for generating procedural narrative. The output of this narrative was dressed up to match the style of a human text and A/B testing was conducted utilising a survey in order to evaluate and compare responses to the two texts. Ultimately, the results showed very little difference between the perception of the human-written text and the computer-written text, with the only aspects found lacking in the computer-written text being clarity of emotion and foreshadowing.

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