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  • 101.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Rangarajan, MaheshAshoka University, India ; University of Delhi, India.
    Nature, Knowledge, and Power in India2009Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology ; Shiv Nadar University, India.
    Rangarajan, Mahesh
    Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, India.
    The Problem2015In: Seminar New Delhi: a monthly symposium, ISSN 0971-6742, no 673, p. 14-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The twenty-first century has brought concerns about the future of the earth and human-nature relations to centre stage. This has happened in ways that make the environment as a theme ubiquitous in our lives.Leaders of both the industrialized and emerging economies talked across the table on global warming in Copenhagen in 2009 and will do so again in Paris later this year. This is a far cry from the first UN Conference on the Human Environment at Stockholm in September 1972 that was attended by only two heads of government from Sweden (the host) and India. It is also unlikely that any world leader would repeat the words of the late Ronald Reagan that, ‘If you have seen one redwood, you’ve seen them all.’ Today, leaders in polities as diverse as Russia and the US, China and South Africa, vie to win for themselves the tag of being earth friendly, green and caring.

  • 103.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences. Uppsala universitet.
    Sivaramakrishnan, KalyanakrishnanYale University, USA.
    Ecological Nationalisms: Nature, Livelihoods, and Identities in South Asia2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The works presented in this collection take environmental scholarship in South Asia into novel territory by exploring how questions of national identity become entangled with environmental concerns in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and India. The essays provide insight into the motivations of colonial and national governments in controlling or managing nature, and bring into fresh perspective the different kinds of regional political conflicts that invoke nationalist sentiment through claims on nature. In doing all this, the volume also offers new ways to think about nationalism and, more specifically, nationalism in South Asia from the vantage point of interdisciplinary environmental studies. The contributors to this innovative volume show that manifestations of nationalism have long and complex histories in South Asia. Terrestrial entities, imagined in terms of dense ecological networks of relationships, have often been the space or reference point for national aspirations, as shared memories of Mother Nature or appropriated economic, political, and religious geographies. In recent times, different groups in South Asia have claimed and appropriated ancient landscapes and territories for the purpose of locating and justifying a specific and utopian version of nation by linking its origin to their nature-mediated attachments to these landscapes. The topics covered include forests, agriculture, marine fisheries, parks, sacred landscapes, property rights, trade, and economic development. Gunnel Cederlof is associate professor of history, Uppsala University, Sweden. K. Sivaramakrishnan is professor of anthropology and international studies and director of the South Asia Center, Jackson School of International Studies, at the University of Washington. The other contributors are Nina Bhatt, Vinita Damodaran, Claude A. Garcia, Urs Geiser, Goetz Hoeppe, Bengt G. Karlsson, Antje Linkenbach, Wolfgang Mey, Kathleen D. Morrison, J. P. Pascal, and Sarah Southwold-Llewellyn.

  • 104.
    Chapman, Joanne R.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Helin, Anu S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wille, Michelle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Uppsala University.
    Atterby, Clara
    Uppsala University.
    Jarhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University.
    Fridlund, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    A Panel of Stably Expressed Reference Genes for Real-Time qPCR Gene Expression Studies of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e0149454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining which reference genes have the highest stability, and are therefore appropriate for normalising data, is a crucial step in the design of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) gene expression studies. This is particularly warranted in non-model and ecologically important species for which appropriate reference genes are lacking, such as the mallard-a key reservoir of many diseases with relevance for human and livestock health. Previous studies assessing gene expression changes as a consequence of infection in mallards have nearly universally used beta-actin and/or GAPDH as reference genes without confirming their suitability as normalisers. The use of reference genes at random, without regard for stability of expression across treatment groups, can result in erroneous interpretation of data. Here, eleven putative reference genes for use in gene expression studies of the mallard were evaluated, across six different tissues, using a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus infection model. Tissue type influenced the selection of reference genes, whereby different genes were stable in blood, spleen, lung, gastrointestinal tract and colon. beta-actin and GAPDH generally displayed low stability and are therefore inappropriate reference genes in many cases. The use of different algorithms (GeNorm and NormFinder) affected stability rankings, but for both algorithms it was possible to find a combination of two stable reference genes with which to normalise qPCR data in mallards. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies in ducks. The fact that nearly all previous studies of the influence of pathogen infection on mallard gene expression have used a single, non-validated reference gene is problematic. The toolkit of putative reference genes provided here offers a solid foundation for future studies of gene expression in mallards and other waterfowl.

  • 105.
    Chi, Xupeng
    et al.
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany.
    Mueller-Navarra, Doerthe C.
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sommer, Ulrich
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany.
    Javidpour, Jamileh
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany ; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark .
    Food quality matters: interplay among food quality, food quantity and temperature affecting life history traits of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) polyps2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 656, p. 1280-1288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the interaction between organisms' life history traits and environmental factors is an essential task in ecology. In spite of the increasing appreciation of jellyfish as an important component in marine ecosystem, there are still considerable gaps in understanding how the phase transition from the benthic polyp to the pelagic medusa stage is influenced by multiple environmental factors, including nutrition. To investigate survival, growth, and phase transition of Aurelia aurita polyps, we designed a factorial experiment manipulating food quantity (20μg C, 5μg C and 1.5μg C polyp−1 every other day), food quality (Artemia salina and two dietary manipulated Acartia tonsa), and temperature (13°C, 20°C, and 27°C). Temperature was the key factor determining phase transition of polyps and negatively affecting their survival rate and growth at 27°C, which reflected a summer heatwave scenario. Furthermore, at polyps' optimum tolerance temperature (20°C) in our study, budding reproduction benefits from high food concentrations. Interestingly, polyps fed with food containing high level highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) were able to compensate for physiological stress caused by the extreme temperature, and could enhance budding reproduction at optimum temperature. Moreover, benthic-pelagic coupling (strobilation) was determined by temperature but affected significantly by food conditions. Mild temperature together with optimum food conditions contributes to inducing more polyps, which may potentially bring about great ephyrae recruitments during overwintering. In contrast, heatwave events can potentially regulate plankton community structure accompanied by changes of nutritional conditions of primary and secondary producers and thus, negatively affect the population dynamics of polyps. We suggest a novel polyp tolerance curve, which can help to understand jellyfish population dynamics in different seasons and ecosystems. This sets up a baseline for understanding how anticipated global warming and food conditions may affect the population size of benthic polyps and consequently pelagic medusae.

  • 106.
    Christel, Stephan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Function and Adaptation of Acidophiles in Natural and Applied Communities2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidophiles are organisms that have evolved to grow optimally at high concentrations of protons. Members of this group are found in all three domains of life, although most of them belong to the Archaea and Bacteria. As their energy demand is often met chemolithotrophically by the oxidation of basic ions and molecules such as Fe2+, H2, and sulfur compounds, they are often found in environments marked by the natural or anthropogenic exposure of sulfide minerals. Nonetheless, organoheterotrophic growth is also common, especially at higher temperatures. Beside their remarkable resistance to proton attack, acidophiles are resistant to a multitude of other environmental factors, including toxic heavy metals, high temperatures, and oxidative stress. This allows them to thrive in environments with high metal concentrations and makes them ideal for application in so-called biomining technologies.

    The first study of this thesis investigated the iron-oxidizer Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans that is highly relevant for boreal biomining. Several unresolved nodes of its sulfur metabolism were elucidated with the help of RNA transcript sequencing analysis. A model was proposed for the oxidation of the inorganic sulfur compound tetrathionate. In a second paper, this species’ transcriptional response to growth at low temperature was explored and revealed that At. ferrivorans increases expression of only very few known cold-stress genes, underlining its strong adaptation to cold environments.

    Another set of studies focused on the environmentally friendly metal winning technology of bioleaching. One of the most important iron-oxidizers in many biomining operations is Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Despite its significance, only a draft genome sequence was available for its type strain.Therefore, in the third paper of this thesis we published a high quality, closed genome sequence of this strain for future use as a reference, revealing a previously unidentified nitrogen fixation system and improving annotation of genes relevant in biomining environments. In addition, RNA transcript and protein patterns during L. ferriphilum’s growth on ferrous iron and in bioleaching culture were used to identify key traits that aid its survival in extremely acidic, metal-rich environments. The biomining of copper from chalcopyrite is plagued by a slow dissolution rate, which can reportedly be circumvented by low redox potentials. As conventional redox control is impossible in heap leaching, paper four explored the possibility of using differentially efficient iron oxidizers to influence this parameter. The facultative heterotrophic Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans was identified as maintaining a redox potential of ~550 mV vs Ag/AgCl, favorable for chalcopyrite dissolution,while L. ferriphilum caused the potential to raise far above this critical value. RNA transcript analysis was used to identify genomic features that may contribute to this behavior.

    Lastly, six fields in Northern Sweden were examined for the presence of acid sulfate soils in the fifth paper. The study revealed three acid sulfate soils. The presence of acidophiles that likely catalyze the production of acid in the soil was confirmed by community 16S gene amplicon analysis. One site that was flooded in a remediation attempt and is therefore anoxic still exhibited similar bacteria, however, these now likely grow via ferric iron reduction. This process consumes protons and could explain the observed rise in pH at this site.

    This thesis examines acidophiles in pure culture, as well as natural and designed communities. Key metabolic traits involved in the adaptation to their habitats were elucidated, and their application in mining operations was discussed. Special attention was paid to acidophiles in chalcopyrite bioleaching and in cold environments, including environmental acid sulfate soils in Northern Sweden.

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  • 107.
    Chryssanthou, E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp.
    Wennberg, H.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Kalmar County Hospital ; Uppsala University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Occurrence of yeasts in faecal samples from Antarctic and South American seabirds2011In: Mycoses (Berlin), ISSN 0933-7407, E-ISSN 1439-0507, Vol. 54, no 6, p. E811-E815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During an expedition to the Southern Argentinean town of Ushuaia, the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic Islands and the Falkland Islands, we collected 94 faecal specimens from wild birds to screen for yeast within the different bird species. The yeast species were identified by morphological features and commercial characterisation kits. From 54% of the specimens, we isolated 122 strains representing 29 yeast species. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lambica and Candida krusei were the most frequently isolated species. We found a plethora of yeasts in birds living in proximity to humans, whereas birds living in more remote areas were colonised with a lower number of fungal species.

  • 108.
    Cinner, Joshua E.
    et al.
    James Cook Univ, Australia.
    Daw, Tim
    Univ E Anglia / Stockholm Univ..
    Huchery, Cindy
    James Cook Univ, Australia.
    Thoya, Pascal
    Kenya Marine & Fisheries Res Inst, Mombasa, Kenya.
    Wamukota, Andrew
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Cedras, Maria
    Seychelles Fishing Author, Victoria, Seychelles.
    Abunge, Caroline
    Wildlife Conservat Soc, Coral Reef Conservat Program, Mombasa, Kenya.
    Winners and Losers in Marine Conservation: Fishers' Displacement and Livelihood Benefits from Marine Reserves2014In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 994-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine reserves can create both benefits and costs to fishers. This article explores the perceptions of fishers in Kenya and Seychelles about displacement, spillover, and overall impacts of local marine reserves on their livelihoods. We test whether these perceptions are different among fishers from different geographic and socioeconomic conditions. Sixty-six percent of fishers had been displaced from marine reserves or coastal development and 90% believed they had caught fishes that spilled over from marine reserves. Poorer fishers in Kenya were both displaced from, and also felt like they benefited from, marine reserves. This highlights how people's experiences with marine reserves, both positive and negative, are affected by a range of social considerations that may not be incorporated in typical evaluations of ecological and economic marine reserve success.

  • 109.
    Comte, Jerome
    et al.
    Uppsala University ; Environm & Climate Change Canada, Canada.
    Berga, Merce
    Uppsala University ; Warnemunde IOW, Germany.
    Severin, Ina
    Uppsala University ; Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Germany.
    Logue, Jürg Brendan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Uppsala University.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University.
    Contribution of different bacterial dispersal sources to lakes: Population and community effects in different seasons2017In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 2391-2404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diversity and composition of lake bacterial communities are driven by the interplay between local contemporary environmental conditions and dispersal of cells from the surroundings, i.e. the metacommunity. Still, a conceptual understanding of the relative importance of the two types of factors is lacking. For instance, it is unknown which sources of dispersal are most important and under which circumstances. Here, we investigated the seasonal variation in the importance of dispersal from different sources (mixing, precipitation, surface runoff and sediment resuspension) for lake bacterioplankton community and population dynamics. For that purpose, two small forest lakes and their dispersal sources were sampled over a period of 10 months. The influence of dispersal on communities and populations was determined by 454 sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and SourceTracker analysis. On the community level direct effects of dispersal were questionable from all sources. Instead we found that the community of the preceding sampling occasion, representing growth of resident bacteria, was of great importance. On the population level, however, dispersal of individual taxa from the inlet could be occasionally important even under low water flow. The effect of sediment resuspension and precipitation appeared small.

  • 110.
    Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA;CSIC, Spain.
    del Carmen Munoz-Marin, Maria
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA;Univ Cordoba, Spain.
    Turk-Kubo, Kendra A.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Royo-Llonch, Marta
    CSIC, Spain.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Acinas, Silvia G.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Zehr, Jonathan P.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    UCYN-A3, a newly characterized open ocean sublineage of the symbiotic N2-fixing cyanobacterium Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa2019In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 111-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The symbiotic unicellular cyanobacterium Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa (UCYN-A) is one of the most abundant and widespread nitrogen (N-2)-fixing cyanobacteria in the ocean. Although it remains uncultivated, multiple sublineages have been detected based on partial nitrogenase (nifH) gene sequences, including the four most commonly detected sublineages UCYN-A1, UCYN-A2, UCYN-A3 and UCYN-A4. However, very little is known about UCYN-A3 beyond the nifH sequences from nifH gene diversity surveys. In this study, single cell sorting, DNA sequencing, qPCR and CARD-FISH assays revealed discrepancies involving the identification of sublineages, which led to new information on the diversity of the UCYN-A symbiosis. 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequencing on single sorted cells allowed us to identify the 16S rRNA gene of the uncharacterized UCYN-A3 sublineage. We designed new CARD-FISH probes that allowed us to distinguish and observe UCYN-A2 in a coastal location (SIO Pier; San Diego) and UCYN-A3 in an open ocean location (Station ALOHA; Hawaii). Moreover, we reconstructed about 13% of the UCYN-A3 genome from Tara Oceans metagenomic data. Finally, our findings unveil the UCYN-A3 symbiosis in open ocean waters suggesting that the different UCYN-A sublineages are distributed along different size fractions of the plankton defined by the cell-size ranges of their prymnesiophyte hosts.

  • 111.
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Stenberg, Li
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Lund University.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Zernova, Ganna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Historical land-use and landscape change in southern Sweden and implications for present and future biodiversity2014In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 18, p. 3555-3570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two major aims of this study are (1) To test the performance of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) to quantify past landscape changes using historical maps and related written sources, and (2) to use the LRA and map reconstructions for a better understanding of the origin of landscape diversity and the recent loss of species diversity. Southern Sweden, hemiboreal vegetation zone. The LRA was applied on pollen records from three small bogs for four time windows between AD 1700 and 2010. The LRA estimates of % cover for woodland/forest, grassland, wetland, and cultivated land were compared with those extracted from historical maps within 3-km radius around each bog. Map-extracted land-use categories and pollen-based LRA estimates (in % cover) of the same land-use categories show a reasonable agreement in several cases; when they do not agree, the assumptions used in the data (maps)-model (LRA) comparison are a better explanation of the discrepancies between the two than possible biases of the LRA modeling approach. Both the LRA reconstructions and the historical maps reveal between-site differences in landscape characteristics through time, but they demonstrate comparable, profound transformations of the regional and local landscapes over time and space due to the agrarian reforms in southern Sweden during the 18th and 19th centuries. The LRA was found to be the most reasonable approach so far to reconstruct quantitatively past landscape changes from fossil pollen data. The existing landscape diversity in the region at the beginning of the 18th century had its origin in the long-term regional and local vegetation and land-use history over millennia. Agrarian reforms since the 18th century resulted in a dramatic loss of landscape diversity and evenness in both time and space over the last two centuries leading to a similarly dramatic loss of species (e.g., beetles).

  • 112.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lundberg Chen, Vivian
    Stockholm University.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University ; Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University.
    Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and their main food, Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis)2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 1475-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) that breed in northern Europe and western Siberia and commonly winter in the Baltic Sea, are threatened by a significant population decrease. The ducks are, by primarily feeding on Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis) while wintering in the Baltic Sea, potentially subjected to high levels of toxic hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). To assess long-tailed ducks exposure to polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), livers of ten long-tailed ducks wintering in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Pattern and levels of analytes in long-tailed ducks (liver) and blue mussels sampled in March and May at nine sites in the Baltic Sea were compared. The geometric mean concentration (ng/g l.w.) in livers of long-tailed ducks and Baltic blue mussels were: ∑2PBPs: 0.57 and 48; ∑2PBAs: 0.83 and 11; ∑7OH-PBDEs: 6.1 and 45; ∑7MeO-PBDEs: 3.8 and 69; ∑7PBDEs: 8.0 and 7.2, respectively. Based on an estimated daily intake of 450 g fresh blue mussel meat, long-tailed ducks daily dietary intake of brominated substances while foraging in the Baltic Sea in March-May was estimated to; 390 ng ∑2PBPs, 90 ng ∑2PBAs, 370 ng ∑7OH-PBDEs, 590 ng ∑7MeO-PBDEs and 59 ng ∑7PBDEs. The low levels of PBPs, PBAs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in the long-tailed duck livers compared to blue mussel, despite a continuous daily intake, suggest that these compounds are poorly retained in long-tailed ducks.

  • 113. Dahlmann, Jens
    et al.
    Rühl, A
    Liebezeit, G
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Evaluation of a bioluminescence assay for detection of nodularin as an alternative to HPLC and protein phosphatase inhibition assay2001In: Harmful algal blooms 2000: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms Hobart, Australia, 7-l 1 February 2000 / [ed] Gustaaf M. Hallegraeff, Susan I. Blackburn, Christopher J. Bolch & Richard J. Lewis, Intergovernemental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO , 2001, p. 296-298Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Davis, Stephen L.
    et al.
    Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Roelke, Daniel L.
    Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Brooks, Bryan W.
    Baylor Univ, USA.
    Lundgren, Veronica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Withrow, Frances
    Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Scott, W. Casan
    Baylor Univ, USA.
    Rotifer-Prymnesium parvum interactions: role of lake bloom history on rotifer adaptation to toxins produced by P-parvum2015In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prymnesium parvum is a harmful algal bloom species present in many inland water bodies of the southcentral USA, but does not form fish-killing blooms in all of them. The present study tested the hypothesis that rotifer grazing of P. parvum might influence the incidence of blooms. Three-day in-lake experiments, which focused on the size fraction of zooplankton dominated by rotifers and natural phytoplankton assemblages inoculated with P. parvum, were conducted during the time of bloom development in 2 reservoirs of the southcentral USA: Lakes Somerville and Whitney, where the latter experiences P. parvum blooms and the former does not. Toxicity at a level lethal to fish was only occasionally observed during these experiments, so our experimental treatments are considered to be at a low-toxicity level. As a whole, rotifers in Lakes Somerville and Whitney selectively grazed P. parvum. Rotifers in Lake Somerville appeared to benefit from this selective grazing, while rotifers in Lake Whitney did not. The differences between rotifer communities from these lakes might be because rotifers from Lake Somerville historically have only been exposed to low levels of toxins produced by P. parvum and were able to develop resistance to these toxins, thus enabling them to persist and perhaps contribute to the suppression of blooms there. The opportunity for this type of microevolutionary adaptation may not occur in lakes where P. parvum blooms and waters reach high toxicity levels, such as those which have occurred historically in Lake Whitney.

  • 115.
    De Palma, Adriana
    et al.
    Imperial College London, UK; Natural History Museum, UK.
    Abrahamczyk, Stefan
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Aizen, Marcelo A.
    National University of Comahue, Argentina.
    Albrecht, Matthias
    Agroscope, Switzerland.
    Basset, Yves
    Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama.
    Bates, Adam
    Nottingham Trent University, UK.
    Blake, Robin J.
    University of Reading, UK.
    Boutin, Céline
    Carleton University, Canada.
    Bugter, Rob
    Wageningen University and Research, Netherlands.
    Connop, Stuart
    University of East London, UK.
    Cruz-López, Leopoldo
    El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Mexico.
    Cunningham, Saul A.
    Darvill, Ben
    Diekötter, Tim
    Dorn, Silvia
    Downing, Nicola
    Entling, Martin H.
    Farwig, Nina
    Felicioli, Antonio
    Fonte, Steven J.
    Fowler, Robert
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Goulson, Dave
    Grass, Ingo
    Hanley, Mick E.
    Hendrix, Stephen D.
    Herrmann, Farina
    Herzog, Felix
    Holzschuh, Andrea
    Jauker, Birgit
    Kessler, Michael
    Knight, M. E.
    Kruess, Andreas
    Lavelle, Patrick
    Le Féon, Violette
    Lentini, Pia
    Malone, Louise A.
    Marshall, Jon
    Pachón, Eliana Martínez
    McFrederick, Quinn S.
    Morales, Carolina L.
    Mudri-Stojnic, Sonja
    Nates-Parra, Guiomar
    Nilsson, Sven G.
    Öckinger, Erik
    Osgathorpe, Lynne
    Parra-H, Alejandro
    Peres, Carlos A.
    Persson, Anna S.
    Petanidou, Theodora
    Poveda, Katja
    Power, Eileen F.
    Quaranta, Marino
    Quintero, Carolina
    Rader, Romina
    Richards, Miriam H.
    Roulston, T’ai
    Rousseau, Laurent
    Sadler, Jonathan P.
    Samnegård, Ulrika
    Schellhorn, Nancy A.
    Schüepp, Christof
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Smith-Pardo, Allan H.
    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf
    Stout, Jane C.
    Tonietto, Rebecca K.
    Tscharntke, Teja
    Tylianakis, Jason M.
    Verboven, Hans A. F.
    Vergara, Carlos H.
    Verhulst, Jort
    Westphal, Catrin
    Yoon, Hyung Joo
    Purvis, Andy
    Predicting bee community responses to land-use changes: effects of geographic and taxonomic biases2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, p. 1-14, article id 31153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land-use change and intensification threaten bee populations worldwide, imperilling pollination services. Global models are needed to better characterise, project, and mitigate bees' responses to these human impacts. The available data are, however, geographically and taxonomically unrepresentative; most data are from North America and Western Europe, overrepresenting bumblebees and raising concerns that model results may not be generalizable to other regions and taxa. To assess whether the geographic and taxonomic biases of data could undermine effectiveness of models for conservation policy, we have collated from the published literature a global dataset of bee diversity at sites facing land-use change and intensification, and assess whether bee responses to these pressures vary across 11 regions (Western, Northern, Eastern and Southern Europe; North, Central and South America; Australia and New Zealand; South East Asia; Middle and Southern Africa) and between bumblebees and other bees. Our analyses highlight strong regionally-based responses of total abundance, species richness and Simpson's diversity to land use, caused by variation in the sensitivity of species and potentially in the nature of threats. These results suggest that global extrapolation of models based on geographically and taxonomically restricted data may underestimate the true uncertainty, increasing the risk of ecological surprises.

  • 116.
    Degerman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Tamario, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Karlstad University, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Occurrence and habitat use of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in running waters: lessons for improved monitoring, habitat restoration and stocking2019In: Aquatic Ecology, ISSN 1386-2588, E-ISSN 1573-5125, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 639-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the management of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in freshwater, it is essential to define important lotic habitats. Electrofishing data from 289 wadeable, hard-bottom sites in 69 Swedish coastal rivers and streams, originally surveyed for salmonid monitoring, were used to evaluate the effects of sampling- and habitat-related factors on eel occurrence. Probability of eel occurrence, as influenced by sampling procedure (sampled area, number of consecutive runs and ambient water temperature) and habitat characteristics (size of catchment, dominating bottom substrate, shade, water velocity, mean depth), was evaluated for small (total length <= 150 mm) and large (>150 mm) yellow eels. Data were analysed in a mixed presence/absence generalized linear model with dispersal (distance to mouth from sampled site), habitat and sampling-related variables as covariates. The two models explained variation in occurrence to 81.5% for small eel and 76.2% for large eel. Probability of eel occurrence decreased with distance from the river mouth, and increased with sampled area, number of runs, water temperature, coarser substrate and size of river. We suggest that future eel habitat restoration should focus on lower reaches of larger rivers with suitable coarse bottom habitats. Stocking of young eel should be carried out in comparable accessible habitats in the upper reaches where eel densities are low. The results also strongly indicate that eel may be sampled together with young salmonids with DC electrofishing in wadeable habitats.

  • 117.
    del Valle, Daniela A.
    et al.
    University of Hawaii, USA.
    Martínez-García, Sandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. University of Hawaii, USA.
    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Kiene, Ronald P.
    University of South Alabama, USA ; Dauphin Island Sea Lab, USA.
    Karl, David M.
    University of Hawaii, USA.
    Methionine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate as sources of sulfur to the microbial community of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre2015In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 103-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methionine (Met) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) are 2 important substrates that can serve as sources of sulfur and carbon to microbial communities in the sea. We studied the vertical and diel distributions and the assimilation rates of dissolved Met (dMet) and dissolved DMSP (dDMSP) into proteins of different microbial groups at Stn ALOHA, in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). Concentrations of dMet never exceeded 50 pM and were at their daily minimum during the night-time (<0.17 pM). dMet assimilation into proteins accounted for <30% of the dMet lost from the dissolved pool, suggesting that other metabolic pathways were also important. Concentrations of dDMSP ranged from 0.35 to 1.0 nM in surface waters and did not present a distinguishable diel pattern. Cell-sorted Prochlorococcus, high nucleic acid (HNA), and low nucleic acid (LNA) non-pigmented bacteria showed a clear diel pattern for dMet and dDMSP assimilation, with higher rates during the night-time. Among the different groups, HNA bacteria had the highest per-cell assimilation rate for dMet and dDMSP, but when accounting for cell numbers in each group, the HNA and LNA bacterial group assimilation rates were comparable for both dDMSP and dMet. Integrated water column (0 to 125 m) dDMSP assimilation rates by the entire microbial assemblage were 1.7- To 5.3-fold faster than those for dMet, suggesting that dDMSP constitutes a more important source of sulfur than dMet to the microbial community of the NPSG during the time of our study.

  • 118.
    Dinasquet, Julie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Copenhagen, Denmark ; Scripps Inst Oceanography, USA.
    Richert, Inga
    Uppsala University ; UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Logares, Ramiro
    CSIC, Spain.
    Yager, Patricia
    Univ Georgia, USA.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University.
    Riemann, Lasse
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mixing of water masses caused by a drifting iceberg affects bacterial activity, community composition and substrate utilization capability in the Southern Ocean2017In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 2453-2467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of icebergs produced from ice-shelf disintegration has increased over the past decade in Antarctica. These drifting icebergs mix the water column, influence stratification and nutrient condition, and can affect local productivity and food web composition. Data on whether icebergs affect bacterioplankton function and composition are scarce, however. We assessed the influence of iceberg drift on bacterial community composition and on their ability to exploit carbon substrates during summer in the coastal Southern Ocean. An elevated bacterial production and a different community composition were observed in iceberg-influenced waters relative to the undisturbed water column nearby. These major differences were confirmed in short-term incubations with bromodeoxyuridine followed by CARD-FISH. Furthermore, one-week bottle incubations amended with inorganic nutrients and carbon substrates (a mix of substrates, glutamine, Nacetylglucosamine, or pyruvate) revealed contrasting capacity of bacterioplankton to utilize specific carbon substrates in the iceberg-influenced waters compared with the undisturbed site. Our study demonstrates that the hydrographical perturbations introduced by a drifting iceberg can affect activity, composition, and substrate utilization capability of marine bacterioplankton. Consequently, in a context of global warming, increased frequency of drifting icebergs in polar regions holds the potential to affect carbon and nutrient biogeochemistry at local and possibly regional scales.

  • 119.
    Donadi, Serena
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sandin, Leonard
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tamario, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Degerman, Erik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Country-wide analysis of large wood as a driver of fish abundance in Swedish streams: Which species benefit and where?2019In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 706-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers are heavily affected by human impacts that threaten many fish species. Among restoration measures, the addition of large wood (LW) in streams has been shown to increase fish abundance, yet which species benefit from LW, to what extent relative to other drivers, and which factors influence LW quantity is not clear, and these uncertainties limit our ability to use LW as an effective restoration measure. Here, a time series (from 1993 to 2016) of electrofishing data, including 3641 streams across Sweden, was used to investigate the beneficial effects of LW on the abundance of juvenile brown trout, Salmo trutta, juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and juvenile and adult sculpins, Cottus gobio and Cottus poecilopus, while accounting for other abiotic and biotic factors, and the drivers of LW abundance at a country-wide scale. Large wood benefitted brown trout, and the effects were greater with decreasing shaded stream surface. LW effects were comparable in magnitude to the positive effects of average annual air temperature and the negative effects of stream depth and predator abundance - factors where the influence was second only to the negative effects of stream width. LW did not benefit salmon abundance, which was correlated positively with stream width and negatively with altitude, nor did it benefit sculpin abundances, which mainly decreased with annual average air temperature and altitude. The quantity of LW strongly diminished with stream width, and, to a lesser extent, with stream depth, altitude, annual average air temperature, and forest age, whereas it increased with stream velocity, slope, and forest cover. The results suggest that LW can be used as an effective restoration tool for brown trout in shallow and narrow streams, especially in areas with little shade. Here, the addition of LW may help to alleviate the impacts of forest clearance and climate change.

  • 120.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Heim, Christine
    Georg August Univ, Germany.
    Roberts, Nick M. W.
    British Geol Survey, UK.
    Zack, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Tillberg, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. University of Gothenburg.
    Broman, Curt
    Stockholm University.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Isotopic evidence for microbial production and consumption of methane in the upper continental crust throughout the Phanerozoic eon2017In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 470, p. 108-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms produce and consume methane in terrestrial surface environments, sea sediments and, as indicated by recent discoveries, in fractured crystalline bedrock. These processes in the crystalline bedrock remain, however, unexplored both in terms of mechanisms and spatiotemporal distribution. Here we have studied these processes via a multi-method approach including microscale analysis of the stable isotope compositions of calcite and pyrite precipitated in bedrock fractures in the upper crust (down to 1.7 km) at three sites on the Baltic Shield. Microbial processes have caused an intriguing variability of the carbon isotopes in the calcites at all sites, with delta C-13 spanning as much as -93.1 parts per thousand (related to anaerobic oxidation of methane) to +36.5 parts per thousand (related to methanogenesis). Spatiotemporal coupling between the stable isotope measurements and radiometric age determinations (micro-scale dating using new high spatial methods: LA-ICP-MS U-Pb for calcite and Rb-Sr for calcite and co-genetic adularia) enabled unprecedented direct timing constraints of the microbial processes to several periods throughout the Phanerozoic eon, dating back to Devonian times. These events have featured variable fluid salinities and temperatures as shown by fluid inclusions in the calcite; dominantly 70-85 degrees C brines in the Paleozoic and lower temperatures (<50-62 degrees C) and salinities in the Mesozoic. Preserved organic compounds, including plant signatures, within the calcite crystals mark the influence of organic matter in descending surficial fluids on the microbial processes in the fracture system, thus linking processes in the deep and surficial biosphere. These findings substantially extend the recognized temporal and spatial range for production and consumption of methane within the upper continental crust. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 121.
    Dunaj, Justyna
    et al.
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Moniuszko-Malinowska, Anna
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Swiecicka, Izabela
    University of Białystok, Poland.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Czupryna, Piotr
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Rutkowski, Krzysztof
    Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, UK.
    Zambrowski, Grzegorz
    University of Białystok, Poland.
    Zajkowska, Joanna
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Grygorczuk, Sambor
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Kondrusik, Maciej
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Świerzbińska, Renata
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Pancewicz, Sławomir
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Tick-borne infections and co-infections in patients with non-specific symptoms in Poland2018In: Advances in Medical Sciences, ISSN 1896-1126, E-ISSN 1898-4002, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of the study was the evaluation of the frequency of infections and co-infections among patients hospitalized because of non-specific symptoms after a tick bite.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole blood, serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from 118 patients hospitalised for non-specific symptoms up to 8 weeks after tick bite from 2010 to 2013 were examined for tick-borne infections. ELISA, Western blot and/or molecular biology (PCR; fla gene; 16S rRNA; sequencing) and thin blood smears (MDD) were used. Control group included 50 healthy blood donors. All controls were tested with PCR and serology according to the same procedure as in patients.

    RESULTS: Out of 118 patients 85 (72%) experienced headaches, 15 (13%) vertigo, 32 (27%) nausea, 17 (14%) vomiting, 37 (31%) muscle pain, 73 (62%) fever and 26 (22%) meningeal signs. 47.5% were infected with at least one tick-borne pathogen. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was confirmed with ELISA, Western blot in serum and/or (PCR (fla gene) in whole blood in 29.7% cases. In blood of 11.9% patients Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA (16S rRNA gene) was detected; in 0.9% patients 1/118 Babesia spp. DNA (18S rRNA gene) was also detected. Co-infections were observed in 5.1% of patients with non-specific symptoms. B. burgdorferi s.l. - A. phagocytophilum co-infection (5/118; 4.2%) was most common. In 1/118 (0.8%) A. phagocytophilum - Babesia spp. co-infection was detected. All controls were negative for examined pathogens.

    CONCLUSIONS: Non-specific symptoms after tick bite may be caused by uncommon pathogens or co-infection, therefore it should be considered in differential diagnosis after tick bite.

  • 122.
    Dupont, Chris L.
    et al.
    J. Craig Venter Institute, USA.
    Larsson, John
    Stockholm University.
    Yooseph, Shibu
    J. Craig Venter Institute, USA.
    Ininbergs, Karolina
    Stockholm University.
    Goll, Johannes
    J. Craig Venter Institute, USA.
    Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes
    Stockholm University.
    McCrow, John P.
    J. Craig Venter Institute, USA.
    Celepli, Narin
    Stockholm University.
    Allen, Lisa Zeigler
    J. Craig Venter Institute, USA.
    Ekman, Martin
    Stockholm University.
    Lucas, Andrew J.
    Hagström, Åke
    University of Gothenburg.
    Thiagarajan, Mathangi
    Brindefalk, Bjorn
    Richter, Alexander R.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Tenney, Aaron
    Lundin, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Tovchigrechko, Andrey
    Nylander, Johan A. A.
    Brami, Daniel
    Badger, Jonathan H.
    Allen, Andrew E.
    Rusch, Douglas B.
    Hoffman, Jeff
    Norrby, Erling
    Friedman, Robert
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Venter, J. Craig
    Bergman, Birgitta
    Functional Tradeoffs Underpin Salinity-Driven Divergence in Microbial Community Composition2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, article id e89549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial community composition and functional potential change subtly across gradients in the surface ocean. In contrast, while there are significant phylogenetic divergences between communities from freshwater and marine habitats, the underlying mechanisms to this phylogenetic structuring yet remain unknown. We hypothesized that the functional potential of natural bacterial communities is linked to this striking divide between microbiomes. To test this hypothesis, metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities along a 1,800 km transect in the Baltic Sea area, encompassing a continuous natural salinity gradient from limnic to fully marine conditions, was explored. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that salinity is the main determinant of dramatic changes in microbial community composition, but also of large scale changes in core metabolic functions of bacteria. Strikingly, genetically and metabolically different pathways for key metabolic processes, such as respiration, biosynthesis of quinones and isoprenoids, glycolysis and osmolyte transport, were differentially abundant at high and low salinities. These shifts in functional capacities were observed at multiple taxonomic levels and within dominant bacterial phyla, while bacteria, such as SAR11, were able to adapt to the entire salinity gradient. We propose that the large differences in central metabolism required at high and low salinities dictate the striking divide between freshwater and marine microbiomes, and that the ability to inhabit different salinity regimes evolved early during bacterial phylogenetic differentiation. These findings significantly advance our understanding of microbial distributions and stress the need to incorporate salinity in future climate change models that predict increased levels of precipitation and a reduction in salinity.

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  • 123.
    Edgren, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Skötselförslag på utvalda nyckelbiotoper i Kalmar och Kronobergs län.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to contribute with suggestions of nature preservation managements of selected forest objects of high nature values managed by the Swedish state-owned forest company Sveaskog. Many forests with high natural potential are relatively rare today due to modern forestry, where wood production is the main purpose. Sveaskog’s policy is to consider and to priority nature conservation on valuable objects. This assessment includes objects that in the future may develop into nature reserves. By identifying key objects of high nature values in the database of Sveaskog, 29 of 69 objects were selected for further field studies in the survey in the area of Hultsfred, Vimmerby and Växjö County. Finally, 19 objects were selected by various reasons. Based on the biological requirements of a number of observed vulnerable species, management strategies in order to improve the flora and fauna at the sites were proposed. From the field studies I consider the majority of the objects were in a relatively good state for preservation of high nature values. However, at a number of sites the ingrowth of spruce has to be reduced and at other sites the amounts of dead wood has to increase. Conclusively, the majority of the studied forest sites of Sveaskog are in a good state for nature preservation, although some need an improved management.

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  • 124. Edler, L.
    et al.
    Aertebjerg, G
    Granéli, Edna
    Lunds Universitet.
    Exceptional plankton blooms in the entrance to the Baltic Sea - the Kattegat and Belt Sea area1982In: ICES C.M. (ICES Conference and Meeting (CM) Documents presented at ICES Annual Science Conferences), Vol. L. 20,Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 125. Edler, L.
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Sjöstedt, B
    Influence of the cooling water system on plankton at Barsebäck nuclear power plant, SW coast of Sweden1980In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 36, p. 26-34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 126. Edler, L
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    Lund University.
    Sjöstedt, B
    Planktologiska undersökningar utanför Barsebäck Kärnkraftverk 1976-19771978Report (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Ejsmond, Anna
    et al.
    Univ Ctr Svalbard, Norway;Univ Bergen, Norway;Jagiellonian Univ, Poland.
    Korlowski, Jan
    Jagiellonian Univ, Poland.
    Ejsmond, Maciej J.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Jagiellonian Univ, Poland.
    Probing of mortality rate by staying alive: The growth-reproduction trade-off in a spatially heterogeneous environment2019In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 2327-2337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many annual plants, mollusks, crustaceans and ectothermic vertebrates, growth accompanies reproduction. The growth curves of these organisms often exhibit a complex shape, with episodic cessations or accelerations of growth occurring long after maturation. The mixed allocation to growth and reproduction has poorly understood adaptive consequences, and the life-history theory does not explain if complex growth in short-lived organisms can be adaptive. We model the trade-off between growth and reproduction in a short-lived organism evolving in a metapopulation. Individuals occupy risky or safe sites throughout their lives, but are uncertain regarding the risk of death. Modelled organisms are allowed to grow and produce offspring at specified time points (moults), although we also consider scenarios that approximate continuous growth and reproduction. Certain combinations of risky to safe sites select for strategies with mixed allocation to growth and reproduction that bet-hedge offspring production in safe and risky sites. Our model shows that spatially heterogeneous environments select for mixed allocation only if safe sites do not become the prevailing source of recruits, for example, when risky sites are frequent. In certain conditions, growth curves are multi-phasic, with allocation to growth that stops, remains constant or accelerates during adult life. The resulting complex growth curves are more likely to evolve in short-lived organisms that moult several times per adult life. Our work shows that spatial heterogeneity can select for growth that accompanies reproduction and provides insights into the adaptive significance of complex growth curves. Short-lived crustaceans are particularly predisposed to exhibit complex growth patterns as an adaptive response to spatially heterogeneous environments. Our results suggest that standard statistical growth models assuming adult growth rate to only decelerate over life are not well suited to approximate growth curves of short-lived crustaceans. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.

  • 128.
    Ejsmond, M. J.
    et al.
    Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Blackburn, N.
    BIORAS, Denmark.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Haecky, P.
    BIORAS, Denmark.
    Andersson, A.
    Umeå University, Sweden;Umeå Marine Science Centre, Sweden.
    Casini, M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Belgrano, A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Modeling vitamin B1 transfer to consumers in the aquatic food web2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, p. 1-11, article id 10045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitamin B-1 is an essential exogenous micronutrient for animals. Mass death and reproductive failure in top aquatic consumers caused by vitamin B-1 deficiency is an emerging conservation issue in Northern hemisphere aquatic ecosystems. We present for the first time a model that identifies conditions responsible for the constrained flow of vitamin B-1 from unicellular organisms to planktivorous fishes. The flow of vitamin B-1 through the food web is constrained under anthropogenic pressures of increased nutrient input and, driven by climatic change, increased light attenuation by dissolved substances transported to marine coastal systems. Fishing pressure on piscivorous fish, through increased abundance of planktivorous fish that overexploit mesozooplankton, may further constrain vitamin B-1 flow from producers to consumers. We also found that key ecological contributors to the constrained flow of vitamin B-1 are a low mesozooplankton biomass, picoalgae prevailing among primary producers and low fluctuations of population numbers of planktonic organisms.

  • 129.
    Ejsmond, Maciej J.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Phillips, Karl P.
    University College Cork, Ireland;Marine Institute, Ireland.
    Babik, Wiesław
    Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Radwan, Jacek
    Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland.
    The role of MHC supertypes in promoting trans-species polymorphism remains an open question2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-4, article id 4362Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 130.
    EK, Hans
    et al.
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Andersson, Solbritt
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Arnebrant, Kristina
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Söderström, Bengt
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Growth and assimilation of NH4+ and NO3- by Paxillus involutus in association with Betula pendula and Picea abies as affected by subtrate pH1994In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 128, no 4, p. 629-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of pH on the growth and assimilation of N-15-labelled ammonium and nitrate was studied in intact ectomycorrhizal systems consisting of Betula pendula Roth and Picea abies (L.) Karst. colonized with a common mycelium of Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. The plants were grown together in Plexiglass observation chambers containing non-sterile peat with three different pH values, 4.0, 5.1 and 6.1. The mycorrhizal mycelium was allowed to grow over a barrier into an area of peat from which plant roots were excluded. Labelled NH4NO3 was supplied, either as (NH4NO3)-N-15 or as (NH4NO3)-N-15, exclusively to the fungal mycelium. Shoots and roots were analyzed for N-15 in total nitrogen while the mycelium was analyzed for N-15 in NH4+, NO3- and free amino acids. The N-15 labelling pattern indicated that ammonium was immediately assimilated into amino acids, primarily glutamine, by the fungal mycelium at the uptake site. The amino acids were then translocated to the mycorrhizal roots. In contrast, nitrate-N was not assimilated in the mycelium but rather transferred to the mycorrhizal roots as nitrate. Mycelial uptake and transfer of N to the spruce and birch seedlings were significantly higher for NH4-N than for NO3-N. No firm conclusions about pH effects on the preferential uptake of ammonium and nitrate could be drawn. However, pH had a pronounced effect on the mycelial growth of P. involutus which was hampered severely at pH 6.1 and to a lesser extent at pH 5.1.

  • 131. Eklund, B.
    et al.
    Svensson, A. P.
    Jonsson, C.
    Malm, T.
    Toxic effects of decomposing red algae on littoral organisms2005In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 621-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large masses of filamentous red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium are regularly washed up on beaches of the central Baltic Sea. As the algal masses start to decay, red coloured effluents leak into the water, and this tinge may be traced several hundred meters off shore. In this study, possible toxic effects of these effluents were tested on littoral organisms from different trophic levels. Effects on fertilisation, germination and juvenile survival of the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were investigated, and mortality tests were performed on the crustaceans Artemia salina and Idotea baltica, as well as on larvae and adults of the fish Pomatoschistus microps. Fucus vesiculosus was the most sensitive species of the tested organisms to the red algal extract. The survival of F. vesiculosus recruits was reduced with 50% (LC50) when exposed to a concentration corresponding to 1.7 g l(-1) dw red algae. The lethal concentration for L baltica, A. salina and P. microps were approximately ten times higher. The toxicity to A. salina was reduced if the algal extract was left to decompose during two weeks but the decline in toxicity was not affected by different light or temperature conditions. This study indicates that the filamentous red algae in the central Baltic Sea may produce and release compounds with negative effects on the littoral ecosystem. The effects may be particularly serious for the key species F. vesiculosus, which reproduce in autumn when filamentous red algal blooms are most severe. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 132.
    Ekstam, Börje
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åtgärdsprogram för skaftslamkrypa Elatine hexandra [Lapierre] DC.2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This action plan provides guidelines for preservation of the endangered plant Elatine hexandra (Six-stamened Waterwort) in Sweden. The action plan is a proposal, not a legally binding document.

    Elatine hexandra is a small, aquatic or amphibious, vascular herb in the family Elatinaceae. In Sweden, it usually appears as a summer annual on the very edge of freshwater lakes or streams. Some populations have over-wintering individuals that occur at depths well below the ice-cover. Typically, the habitat is a moderately wave exposed littoral with inorganic, silty-sandy substrate, covered with a thin layer of mud. The lake habitats have clear water, a near neutral pH and may rep-resent one of the two lake types that are included in the habitat directive, i.e. “Oligotrophic waters containing very few minerals of sandy plains” and “Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters with vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or of the Isoëto-Nanojuncetea”.

    The species has been found in approx. 55 Swedish lakes or running waters since 1980. With a few exceptions, the occurrences are restricted to river basins of southwest Sweden with outlets in Skagerrak and Kattegat (County Administration Boards of Värmland, Västra Götaland, Jönköping, Halland and Kronoberg). In the Swedish red list Elatine hexandra is classified as Endangered (EN).

    The main threats include deteriorating water quality. Eutrophication, acidification and brownification (increase in water color and dissolved organic matter) have adverse effects on growth and reproduction of the species. Other threats include exploitation of shorelines and water level regulations. The action plan proposes measures against deteriorating water quality in lakes with known occurrences of Elatine hexandra. Further, it points out the need for revision and ecological considerations of present water level regulations. Other suggestions aims to increase the conservation awareness among land owners, nature resource managers and municipality planners. These suggestions include production and spread of an information folder and implementation of conservation related information in the database WISS (Water Information System Sweden). WISS is an open information tool used in the planning cycle of river basin management. Finally, the action plan proposes additional investigations of the distribution in lakes and of the presence in seed-banks, as well as field studies on how growth and reproduction is affected by water regulations. With help of these results, lakes suitable for restoration measures can be selected. The action plan is valid for the period 2013-2018 and the costs are estimated to approx. 1 430 000 SEK

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    Åtgärdsprogram för skaftslamkrypa
  • 133.
    Ekstam, Börje
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Beatha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    School of Life Sciences, Södertörn University.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Clinical Bacteriology, Dept of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Predicting risk habitats for the transmission of the small liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum to grazing ruminants.2011In: Geospatial Health, ISSN 1827-1987, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 125-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multiple regression model was used to analyse if the structure of vegetation and soil patches in grazed units (pastures) can be used as explanatory variables to predict the prevalence of Dicrocoelium dendriticum, a common parasite of cattle and sheep, in grazing cattle stocks on the Baltic island of Öland in southern Sweden.

    The scale dependency was evaluated by comparing three levels of spatial resolution of patches. Prevalence data were obtained from slaughtered animals.

    Our models predict that the prevalence of D. dendriticum increases in grazed areas with woody vegetation, whereas moist and wet areas decrease parasite prevalence. The predictive power of the statistical models increased with increasing level of patch resolution. Approximately 42% of the variation in parasite prevalence (angular transformation) was explained by the areal proportion of vegetation types (4th-root-transformed).

    Based on the results obtained, we believe that our model strategy provides a rational and systematic tool to identify habitats that carry risk for D. dendriticum infection of ruminants, and that it can be applied to other parasites with similar life cycles such as Fasciola hepatica.

  • 134.
    El-Sayed, A. M.
    et al.
    Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Canada.
    Delisle, J.
    Canadian Forest Service, Canada.
    De Lury, N.
    Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Canada.
    Gut, L. J.
    Michigan State University, USA.
    Judd, G. J. R.
    Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Canada.
    Legrand, Sacha
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Reissig, W. H.
    New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, USA.
    Roelofs, W. L.
    New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, USA.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Trimble, R. M.
    Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Canada.
    Geographic variation in pheromone chemistry, antennal electrophysiology, and pheromone-mediated trap catch of North American populations of the obliquebanded leafroller2003In: Environmental Entomology, ISSN 0046-225X, E-ISSN 1938-2936, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 470-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The total and relative amounts of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:Ac), (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:Ac), (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ol (Z11-14:OH) and (Z)-11-tetradecenal (Z11-14:Al), and the EAG response of male antennae to these pheromone gland compounds were compared in laboratory reared Choristoneura rosaceana Harris (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from British Columbia, Michigan, Ontario, New York, and Quebec. A field trapping experiment was conducted in each of these locations to determine the effect of Z11-14:Al on the numbers of moths captured. The amount of each of the four pheromone-gland compounds declined successively in moths from British Columbia, Quebec, Ontario, Michigan, and New York. The relative amount of Z11-14:Ac was greatest in moths from New York and smallest in moths from Ontario, whereas the relative amount of E11-14:Ac was greatest in moths from Ontario and smallest in moths from British Columbia. Moths from Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Michigan, and New York contained decreasing relative amounts of Z11-14:OH and Z11-14:Al. There was a trend of increasing antenna] sensitivity to each of the four pheromone-gland compounds in moths from New York, Michigan, Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia. The addition of 1% Z11:Al to a three compound blend of Z11-14:Ac, E11-14:Ac and Z11-14:OH (97:2:1) resulted in a >twofold increase in average trap catch in British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec; this compound had no effect on trap catch in Michigan or New York.

  • 135.
    El-Sayed, Ashraf M.
    et al.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd, New Zealand.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd, New Zealand.
    Suckling, David M.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd, New Zealand;Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Honey Norisoprenoids Attract Bumble Bee, Bombus terrestris, in New Zealand Mountain Beech Forests2018In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 66, no 50, p. 13065-13072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three varieties of honey of different dominant floral origin were found to attract social Hymenoptera, including the large earth bumble bee, Bombus terrestris, in a New Zealand mountain beech forest. This study was undertaken to identify volatile organic compounds that induce the attraction of bumble bees to honeybee (Apis mellifera) honey. We analyzed the chemical composition of the volatile organic compounds produced in three distinct varieties of honey (i.e., manuka, honeydew, and clover honey). The composition of the chemical profile of the three honey varieties differed in the quality and in the ratio of compounds in the headspace. o-Methoxyacetophenone was the main compound in the headspace of all three honey varieties. Among the 40 compounds identified in the headspace in the three varieties, only seven shared compounds (i.e., benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethanol, isophorone, 4-oxoisophorone, and o-methoxyacetophenone) were present in the headspace of the three honey varieties. The relative attractiveness of various blends of the seven common compounds found in the three honey varieties was tested for the attraction to bumble bees in a mountain beech forest. A binary blend of isophorone and 4-oxoisophorone at a ratio of 90:10 was the most attractive blend for both bumble bee workers and queens. A small number of honey bee workers were also attracted to the former binary blend. Our study represents the first identification of a honey-derived attractant for bumble bees and honey bees. The potential application of our finding for monitoring of bumble bees or to enhance crop pollination and help to tackle the current concern of a global pollination crisis is discussed.

  • 136.
    El-Sayed, Ashraf M.
    et al.
    New Zealand Institute of Plant & Food Research, New Zealand.
    Venkatesham, Uppala
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. New Zealand Institute of Plant & Food Research, New Zealand.
    Sporle, Andrew
    New Zealand Institute of Plant & Food Research, New Zealand.
    Perez, Jeanneth
    Macquarie Univ, Australia.
    Taylor, Phillip W.
    Macquarie Univ, Australia.
    Suckling, David M.
    New Zealand Institute of Plant & Food Research, New Zealand;Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Chemical Composition of the Rectal Gland and Volatiles Released by Female Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera:Tephritidae)2019In: Environmental Entomology, ISSN 0046-225X, E-ISSN 1938-2936, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 807-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition of the rectal gland secretion and volatiles emitted by female Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni was investigated. Esters were found to be the main compounds in the gland extracts and headspace, while amides were the minor compounds in the gland extracts and headspace. Ethyl dodecanoate, ethyl tetradecanoate, ethyl (Z9)-hexadecenoate and ethyl palmitate were the main esters in the gland extracts, while ethyl dodecanoate and ethyl tetradecanoate were the main esters in the headspace. Four amides (N-(3-methylbutyl)acetamide), N-(2-methylbutyl)propanamide, N-(3-methylbutyl)propanamide, and N-(3-methylbutyl)-2-methylpropanamide were found in the gland extracts and the headspace. Among the amides, N-(3-methylbutyl)acetamide and N-(3-methylbutyl)propanamide were the main amides in the gland extracts and the headspace.Traces of three spiroacetals were found both in the gland extracts and in the headspace. (E,E)-2,8-Dimethyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane, (E,E)-2-ethyl-8-methyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane, (E,E)-2-propyl-8-methyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane. All compounds found in the headspace were present in the extract of the rectal gland suggesting that the rectal gland is the main source of the headspace volatiles, whose function remains to be elucidated.This is the first comprehensive chemical analysis of the rectal gland secretions and volatiles of female B. tryoni, and further laboratory and field bioassays are required to determine the function of compounds identified in this study. Discovery of the same amides previously identified in the male rectal gland in the female rectal gland raises questions about the pheromonal role previously suggested for these compounds.

  • 137. El-Sayed, Ashraf
    et al.
    Manning, Lee-Anne
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Park, Kye-Chung
    Stringer, Lloyd
    White, Nicola
    Bunn, Barry
    Twidle, Andrew
    Suckling, Max
    Attraction and Antennal Response of the Common Wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), to Selected Synthetic Chemicals in New Zealand Beech Forests2009In: Pest Management Science, ISSN 1526-498X, E-ISSN 1526-4998, Vol. 65, no 9, p. 975-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), and the German wasp, Vespula germanica (F.), are significant problems in New Zealand beech forests (Nothofagus spp.), adversely affecting native birds and invertebrate biodiversity. This work was undertaken to develop synthetic attractants for these species to enable more efficient monitoring and management. RESULTS: Seven known wasp attractants (acetic acid, butyl butyrate, isobutanol, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and 2,4-hexadienyl butyrate) were field tested, and only heptyl butyrate and octyl butyrate attracted significantly higher numbers of wasps than a non-baited trap. Accordingly, a series of straight-chain esters from methyl to decyl butyrate were prepared and field tested for attraction of social wasps. Peak biological activity occurred with hexyl butyrate, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and nonyl butyrate. Polyethylene bags emitting approximately 18.4-22.6 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate were more attractive than polyethylene bags emitting approximately 14.7-16.8 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate in the field. Electroantennogram (EAG) studies indicated that queens and workers of V. vulgaris had olfactory receptor neurons responding to various aliphatic butyrates. CONCLUSION: These results are the first to be reported on the EAG response and the attraction of social wasps to synthetic chemicals in New Zealand beech forests and will enable monitoring of social wasp activity in beech forests. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical industry

  • 138. El-Sayed, Ashraf
    et al.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Twidle, Andrew
    Mitchell, Vanessa
    Manning, Lee-Anne
    Cole, Lyn
    Suckling, David M
    Flores, Fernanda M
    Zaviezo, Tania
    Bergmann, Jan
    Chrysanthemyl 2-acetoxy-3-methylbutanoate: the sex pheromone of the citrophilous mealybug Pseudococcus calceolariae2010In: Tetrahedron Letters, ISSN 0040-4039, E-ISSN 1359-8562, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 1075-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Headspace volatiles collected from virgin females of the citrophilous mealybug, Pseudococcus calceolariae, contain three Compounds not present in the headspace of control samples. The main female-specific compound is identified as[2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropyl]methyl 2-acetoxy-3-methylbutanoate (chrysanthemyl 2-acetoxy-3-methylbutanoate). The other two compounds are identified as [2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropyl]methanol (chrysanthemol) and [2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropyl]methyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoate (chrysanthemyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoate). Traps baited with 100 mu g and 1000 mu g of chrysanthemyl 2-acetoxy-3-methylbutanoate captured 4- and 20-fold more males than traps baited with virgin females.

  • 139. Engkvist, R.
    et al.
    Malm, T.
    Svensson, A.
    Asplund, L.
    Isaeus, M.
    Kautsky, L.
    Greger, M.
    Lanberg, T.
    Makroalgsblomningar längs Ölands kuster, effekter på det lokala näringslivet och det marina ekosystemet. (English title: Macro algal blooms in the central Baltic proper, effects on the economy and the marine ecosystem.)2001Report (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Engkvist, Roland
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Malm, Torleif
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Possible modification of grazing effects by wave action, changing the relative dominance between Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus in the southern Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Engkvist, Roland
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Malm, Torleif
    Tobiasson, Stefan
    Density dependent grazing effects by the Isopod Idotea baltica Pallas on Fucus vesiculosus L in the Baltic Sea2000In: Aquatic Ecology, ISSN 1386-2588, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 253-260Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 142.
    Engkvist, Roland
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Malmfjärden - vatten och biologi 20112013Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    LNU 2013 6 Malmfjarden_vatten_biologi.pdf
  • 143.
    Engstedt, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Anadromous Pike in the Baltic Sea2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pike (Esox lucius) is a major predator and top-down regulator in the Baltic Sea where it exists in two sympatric forms. One spawn in streams and rivers and the other one spawn in the sea. During the last decades, the habitats for both of these forms have developed in a negative way. In some freshwater systems, up to 90 % of the water areas have disappeared, mainly through drainage and straightening of watercourses for agricultural purposes. In the sea, reproduction habitats decrease due to construction of harbours and human activities that create disturbances. The perhaps largest single factor negatively affecting recruitment of pike in the sea is the eutrophication. Bottoms are overgrown with filamentous algae and shallow bays are covered with dense Phragmites belts decreasing the habitats suitable for spawning. Further on, a predator on egg and fish larvae, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has increased in abundance. It is difficult to restore and enhance pike production in the sea and probably the only economically viable alternative is to make restorations in freshwater. However, there is a limited knowledge about the freshwater spawning pike in the Baltic Sea. Thus in this thesis I, together with my coauthors, set out with an aim to increase the knowledge base regarding anadromous pike behaviour.

    We found that pike of natal freshwater origin were common in the Baltic Sea. Through Sr:Ca studies in otoliths, about 45 % of the pike were interpreted to be of freshwater origin. The majority of the pike had emigrated out of freshwater at a length below 6 cm. These results indicate that freshwater recruitment is successful, contrasting the vast areas available for spawning in the sea. This creates incitements that restoration measures in these watercourses could have a significant effect on the pike population in the Baltic Sea.

    Further, in four streams running out in the Baltic Sea, more than three thousand pike were marked to study spawning migration. About 30-40 % returned to the same river the subsequent year. Most of the pike used the lower parts of the stream for spawning. The homing of pike to a watercourse indicate that freshwater pike in the Baltic Sea consist of specific populations and this is crucial information when taking decisions on fish restoration measures.

    Three wetlands adjacent to streams were restored for pike production. The most successful restoration involved minimal digging, with flooded grasslands providing optimal conditions for spawning. The first spawning season after restoration increased the pike production hundredfold.

    In conclusion, the anadromous pike are numerous in the Baltic Sea. To compensate for the decline in pike populations in the sea, “pike-factories” created along the coastline are probably the most justifiable option.

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    fulltext
  • 144.
    Engstedt, Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Engkvist, Roland
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Elemental fingerprinting in otoliths reveals natal homing of anadromous Baltic Sea pike (Esox lucius L.)2014In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 313-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the element pattern in the otoliths of a migratory fish species that inhabit the coastal areas in the brackish of the Baltic Sea. The northern pike (Esox lucius) show migratory behaviour, spawning in streams and rivers and foraging in the sea. We examined spawning migration in four nearby streams in the south-west part of the Baltic. Otolith analysis by microPIXE revealed unique elemental patterns (Sr, Zn, Br, Co and Mn) for the juveniles in each of the different streams. The strontium signal in the otolith of the juveniles was used as an indicator of freshwater origin and the time spent in the stream. Adult pike in their migrating spawning phase were caught in each of the streams. The elemental composition in otoliths in their freshwater phase (using juvenile pike in the streams as references) was determined. A principal component analysis showed that the elemental fingerprint during the freshwater phase several years back in time was similar for the adult fish and for juveniles inhabiting the stream today. The results indicated natal homing of the adults to a specific stream, a conclusion that was strengthened by the fact that marked fish returned to spawn over consecutive years. Anadromous pike in the Baltic Sea may thus be divided in subpopulations. The results of the study may have implications for fishery management, as pike in the Baltic Sea cannot be seen as homogenous population.

  • 145.
    Engstedt, Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Strontium (Sr) uptake from water and food in otoliths of juvenile pike (Esox lucius L.)2012In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, ISSN 0022-0981, E-ISSN 1879-1697, Vol. 418-419, p. 69-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strontium (Sr) or Sr:Ca ratio in otoliths has been widely used in the last decade to describe the migration

    histories of fish between fresh and marine waters. However, reference experimental studies of particular

    species and waters are necessary to confirm the underlying assumptions and evaluate the applicability of

    this tool to field data. Laboratory experiments indicated that juvenile, anadromous pike (Esox lucius L.)

    from the Baltic Sea reared in successively increasing salinities (from 0 to 7) for 110 d accumulated Sr

    in their otoliths according to a positive relationship with waterborne Sr. When the pike were given prey

    fish from brackish (7) environments, the otolith Sr:Ca ratio increased more than in fish given prey

    from freshwater lakes. Pike held at constant salinity (7) and given prey fish from the same salinity

    environment had an Sr:Ca ratio of 6.9Å~103. The ratio decreased successively for fish given prey

    from freshwater (4.4Å~103) or kept in freshwater and given food from brackish water (3.1Å~103).

    Fish exposed to freshwater and given prey fish from freshwater displayed no increase in Sr:Ca ratio

    (1.6Å~103). The experiments demonstrated that the Sr:Ca ratio may be used to describe the migration

    history of pike between rivers and the Baltic Sea. The maximum Sr:Ca value for pike given marineorigin

    food corresponded to those of fish collected from the Baltic Sea.

  • 146.
    Engstedt, Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Habitat restoration: A sustainable key to management2018In: Biology and Ecology of Pike / [ed] Christian Skov and Anders Nilsson, Boca Ratón: CRC Press, 2018, 1, p. 248-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Engstedt, Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stenroth, Patrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ljunggren, Lars
    Fiskeriverket.
    Elfman, Mikael
    Lunds universitet, Kärnfysik.
    Assessment of natal origin of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea using Sr:Ca in otoliths2010In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 89, p. 547-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spawning habitat of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea include brackish water bays, brooks and rivers. Elevated salinity concentrations are one of several stressors that might increase the use and importance of freshwater habitats for spawning. In the Baltic Sea, one of the largest brackish seas in the world, freshwater species like pike, perch (Perca fluviatilis), whitefish (Coregonus sp), bream (Abramis brama), ide (Leuciscus idus), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and burbot (Lola iota) all undertake spawning migrations to freshwater. However, over the last decades populations densities of these species have declined, and recruitment failure has been argued to be at least part of the problem. The importance of brooks and rivers as spawning areas for these species have not been quantified and set in relation to spawning success in brackish bays. In this study, we collected 175 adult pike (Esox lucius) on their foraging grounds in the sea. Fish were collected in two regions on the Baltic coast, more than 600 km apart. Subsequently we determined their origin (freshwater or marine) using otolith chemistry. Sagittal otoliths were analysed for strontium using the PIXE-method. The results show that 80 of the 175 pike were recruited in freshwater, and several of the larger specimens showed reoccurring migration behaviour. Data show that freshwater is an important recruitment habitat for Baltic Sea pike, suggesting that habitat improvements in rivers entering the Baltic Sea might significantly contribute to population restoration.

  • 148.
    Eriksen, B
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Molau, U
    University of Gothenburg.
    Svensson, Mikael
    University of Gothenburg.
    Reproductive strategies in two arctic Pedicularis species (Scrophulariaceae)1993In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 154-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of a number of reproductive traits in two sympatric species of Pedicularis in northern Swedish Lapland, the subarctic-alpine P lapponica and the artic P hursuta, revealed that the life-history strategies of the two species differ profoundly High fruit set and low seed abortion rate, as m P hursuta, is common in arctic plants in late-thawing habitats and represents a case of extreme adversity selection rather than an indication of a ruderal life-history strategy Pedicularis lapponica, on the other hand, is a typical K-strategist (or stress-tolerator) requiring a longer period of growth for optimal reproduction Occuring at both low and high altitudes in the area, P lapponica tends to increase in self-compatibility with altitude, which is interpreted as an adaptation to lower pollinator visitation frequency in arctic environments The variation in length of the protruding part of the style in P lapponica is shown to be correlated with exposure to light Predispersal seed predation is severe m P lapponica at low altitudes, where the capsules are attacked by fly and moth larvae At high altitudes, a minor proportion of the capsules of P lapponica experience predation and only from flies, while P hursuta is completely unpredated

  • 149.
    Erland, Susanne
    et al.
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Söderström, Bengt
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Andersson, Solbritt
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Effects of liming on ectomycorrhizal fungi infection Pinus sylvestris L .2. Growth-rates in pure culture at different pH values compared to growth-rates in symiosis with the host plant1990In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 115, no 4, p. 683-688Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 150.
    F de Carvalho, Wanderson
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Contribution of phagotrophy versus autotrophy to Prymnesium parvum growth under nitrogen and phosphorus sufficiency and deficiency2010In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 9, p. 105-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to test the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sufficiency and deficiency on mixotrophy in Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyta). A parvum was grown with and without algal prey (Rhodomonas salina) and observed for 120 h. Detection and enumeration of cells containing food vacuoles with prey (i.e. phagotrophy) was based on flow cytometric detection of fluorescence of an acidotropic probe. Overall, the presence of R. salina increased phagotrophy in P. parvum suggesting that, at least in this strain of P. parvum, the presence of suitable prey can stimulate phagotrophic behavior in P. parvum. Feeding frequency (the percentage of A parvum cells containing food vacuoles in a given time) was significantly higher under N and P deficiency than in the nutrient-sufficient treatments. A nutrient budget constructed from the data indicated that ingestion of organic matter (OM) supplied with 78 +/- 7% of the N (3.9 +/- 0.3 mu M) incorporated by P. parvum in the N-deficient treatment, and 45 +/- 9% of the P (0.3 +/- 0 mu M) acquired in the P-deficient cultures. Even under nutrient sufficiency, ingestion of OM was estimated to have supplied 43 +/- 16% of the N and 48 +/- 16% of the P incorporated into P. parvum cells. Phagotrophy was observed even in the NP-sufficient cultures (non-axenic mixed and monocultures), although P. parvum cells did not lose their photosynthetic capability, suggesting that phagotrophy is probably a permanent nutritional adaptation to this species. The ingestion of organic nutrients played an important role in P. parvum growth, being a reliable source of nutrition for P. parvum inorganic nutrient limitation, and could explain its capabilities to form persistent blooms. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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