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  • 101.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lundberg Chen, Vivian
    Stockholm University.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University ; Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University.
    Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and their main food, Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis)2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 1475-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) that breed in northern Europe and western Siberia and commonly winter in the Baltic Sea, are threatened by a significant population decrease. The ducks are, by primarily feeding on Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis) while wintering in the Baltic Sea, potentially subjected to high levels of toxic hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). To assess long-tailed ducks exposure to polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), livers of ten long-tailed ducks wintering in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Pattern and levels of analytes in long-tailed ducks (liver) and blue mussels sampled in March and May at nine sites in the Baltic Sea were compared. The geometric mean concentration (ng/g l.w.) in livers of long-tailed ducks and Baltic blue mussels were: ∑2PBPs: 0.57 and 48; ∑2PBAs: 0.83 and 11; ∑7OH-PBDEs: 6.1 and 45; ∑7MeO-PBDEs: 3.8 and 69; ∑7PBDEs: 8.0 and 7.2, respectively. Based on an estimated daily intake of 450 g fresh blue mussel meat, long-tailed ducks daily dietary intake of brominated substances while foraging in the Baltic Sea in March-May was estimated to; 390 ng ∑2PBPs, 90 ng ∑2PBAs, 370 ng ∑7OH-PBDEs, 590 ng ∑7MeO-PBDEs and 59 ng ∑7PBDEs. The low levels of PBPs, PBAs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in the long-tailed duck livers compared to blue mussel, despite a continuous daily intake, suggest that these compounds are poorly retained in long-tailed ducks.

  • 102. Dahlmann, Jens
    et al.
    Rühl, A
    Liebezeit, G
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Evaluation of a bioluminescence assay for detection of nodularin as an alternative to HPLC and protein phosphatase inhibition assay2001In: Harmful algal blooms 2000: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms Hobart, Australia, 7-l 1 February 2000 / [ed] Gustaaf M. Hallegraeff, Susan I. Blackburn, Christopher J. Bolch & Richard J. Lewis, Intergovernemental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO , 2001, p. 296-298Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Davis, Stephen L.
    et al.
    Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Roelke, Daniel L.
    Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Brooks, Bryan W.
    Baylor Univ, USA.
    Lundgren, Veronica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Withrow, Frances
    Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Scott, W. Casan
    Baylor Univ, USA.
    Rotifer-Prymnesium parvum interactions: role of lake bloom history on rotifer adaptation to toxins produced by P-parvum2015In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prymnesium parvum is a harmful algal bloom species present in many inland water bodies of the southcentral USA, but does not form fish-killing blooms in all of them. The present study tested the hypothesis that rotifer grazing of P. parvum might influence the incidence of blooms. Three-day in-lake experiments, which focused on the size fraction of zooplankton dominated by rotifers and natural phytoplankton assemblages inoculated with P. parvum, were conducted during the time of bloom development in 2 reservoirs of the southcentral USA: Lakes Somerville and Whitney, where the latter experiences P. parvum blooms and the former does not. Toxicity at a level lethal to fish was only occasionally observed during these experiments, so our experimental treatments are considered to be at a low-toxicity level. As a whole, rotifers in Lakes Somerville and Whitney selectively grazed P. parvum. Rotifers in Lake Somerville appeared to benefit from this selective grazing, while rotifers in Lake Whitney did not. The differences between rotifer communities from these lakes might be because rotifers from Lake Somerville historically have only been exposed to low levels of toxins produced by P. parvum and were able to develop resistance to these toxins, thus enabling them to persist and perhaps contribute to the suppression of blooms there. The opportunity for this type of microevolutionary adaptation may not occur in lakes where P. parvum blooms and waters reach high toxicity levels, such as those which have occurred historically in Lake Whitney.

  • 104.
    del Valle, Daniela A.
    et al.
    University of Hawaii, USA.
    Martínez-García, Sandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. University of Hawaii, USA.
    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Kiene, Ronald P.
    University of South Alabama, USA ; Dauphin Island Sea Lab, USA.
    Karl, David M.
    University of Hawaii, USA.
    Methionine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate as sources of sulfur to the microbial community of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre2015In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 103-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methionine (Met) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) are 2 important substrates that can serve as sources of sulfur and carbon to microbial communities in the sea. We studied the vertical and diel distributions and the assimilation rates of dissolved Met (dMet) and dissolved DMSP (dDMSP) into proteins of different microbial groups at Stn ALOHA, in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). Concentrations of dMet never exceeded 50 pM and were at their daily minimum during the night-time (<0.17 pM). dMet assimilation into proteins accounted for <30% of the dMet lost from the dissolved pool, suggesting that other metabolic pathways were also important. Concentrations of dDMSP ranged from 0.35 to 1.0 nM in surface waters and did not present a distinguishable diel pattern. Cell-sorted Prochlorococcus, high nucleic acid (HNA), and low nucleic acid (LNA) non-pigmented bacteria showed a clear diel pattern for dMet and dDMSP assimilation, with higher rates during the night-time. Among the different groups, HNA bacteria had the highest per-cell assimilation rate for dMet and dDMSP, but when accounting for cell numbers in each group, the HNA and LNA bacterial group assimilation rates were comparable for both dDMSP and dMet. Integrated water column (0 to 125 m) dDMSP assimilation rates by the entire microbial assemblage were 1.7- To 5.3-fold faster than those for dMet, suggesting that dDMSP constitutes a more important source of sulfur than dMet to the microbial community of the NPSG during the time of our study.

  • 105.
    Dinasquet, Julie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Copenhagen, Denmark ; Scripps Inst Oceanography, USA.
    Richert, Inga
    Uppsala University ; UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Logares, Ramiro
    CSIC, Spain.
    Yager, Patricia
    Univ Georgia, USA.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University.
    Riemann, Lasse
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mixing of water masses caused by a drifting iceberg affects bacterial activity, community composition and substrate utilization capability in the Southern Ocean2017In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 2453-2467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of icebergs produced from ice-shelf disintegration has increased over the past decade in Antarctica. These drifting icebergs mix the water column, influence stratification and nutrient condition, and can affect local productivity and food web composition. Data on whether icebergs affect bacterioplankton function and composition are scarce, however. We assessed the influence of iceberg drift on bacterial community composition and on their ability to exploit carbon substrates during summer in the coastal Southern Ocean. An elevated bacterial production and a different community composition were observed in iceberg-influenced waters relative to the undisturbed water column nearby. These major differences were confirmed in short-term incubations with bromodeoxyuridine followed by CARD-FISH. Furthermore, one-week bottle incubations amended with inorganic nutrients and carbon substrates (a mix of substrates, glutamine, Nacetylglucosamine, or pyruvate) revealed contrasting capacity of bacterioplankton to utilize specific carbon substrates in the iceberg-influenced waters compared with the undisturbed site. Our study demonstrates that the hydrographical perturbations introduced by a drifting iceberg can affect activity, composition, and substrate utilization capability of marine bacterioplankton. Consequently, in a context of global warming, increased frequency of drifting icebergs in polar regions holds the potential to affect carbon and nutrient biogeochemistry at local and possibly regional scales.

  • 106.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Heim, Christine
    Georg August Univ, Germany.
    Roberts, Nick M. W.
    British Geol Survey, UK.
    Zack, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Tillberg, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. University of Gothenburg.
    Broman, Curt
    Stockholm University.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Isotopic evidence for microbial production and consumption of methane in the upper continental crust throughout the Phanerozoic eon2017In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 470, p. 108-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms produce and consume methane in terrestrial surface environments, sea sediments and, as indicated by recent discoveries, in fractured crystalline bedrock. These processes in the crystalline bedrock remain, however, unexplored both in terms of mechanisms and spatiotemporal distribution. Here we have studied these processes via a multi-method approach including microscale analysis of the stable isotope compositions of calcite and pyrite precipitated in bedrock fractures in the upper crust (down to 1.7 km) at three sites on the Baltic Shield. Microbial processes have caused an intriguing variability of the carbon isotopes in the calcites at all sites, with delta C-13 spanning as much as -93.1 parts per thousand (related to anaerobic oxidation of methane) to +36.5 parts per thousand (related to methanogenesis). Spatiotemporal coupling between the stable isotope measurements and radiometric age determinations (micro-scale dating using new high spatial methods: LA-ICP-MS U-Pb for calcite and Rb-Sr for calcite and co-genetic adularia) enabled unprecedented direct timing constraints of the microbial processes to several periods throughout the Phanerozoic eon, dating back to Devonian times. These events have featured variable fluid salinities and temperatures as shown by fluid inclusions in the calcite; dominantly 70-85 degrees C brines in the Paleozoic and lower temperatures (<50-62 degrees C) and salinities in the Mesozoic. Preserved organic compounds, including plant signatures, within the calcite crystals mark the influence of organic matter in descending surficial fluids on the microbial processes in the fracture system, thus linking processes in the deep and surficial biosphere. These findings substantially extend the recognized temporal and spatial range for production and consumption of methane within the upper continental crust. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 107.
    Dunaj, Justyna
    et al.
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Moniuszko-Malinowska, Anna
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Swiecicka, Izabela
    University of Białystok, Poland.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Czupryna, Piotr
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Rutkowski, Krzysztof
    Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, UK.
    Zambrowski, Grzegorz
    University of Białystok, Poland.
    Zajkowska, Joanna
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Grygorczuk, Sambor
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Kondrusik, Maciej
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Świerzbińska, Renata
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Pancewicz, Sławomir
    Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
    Tick-borne infections and co-infections in patients with non-specific symptoms in Poland2018In: Advances in Medical Sciences, ISSN 1896-1126, E-ISSN 1898-4002, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of the study was the evaluation of the frequency of infections and co-infections among patients hospitalized because of non-specific symptoms after a tick bite.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole blood, serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from 118 patients hospitalised for non-specific symptoms up to 8 weeks after tick bite from 2010 to 2013 were examined for tick-borne infections. ELISA, Western blot and/or molecular biology (PCR; fla gene; 16S rRNA; sequencing) and thin blood smears (MDD) were used. Control group included 50 healthy blood donors. All controls were tested with PCR and serology according to the same procedure as in patients.

    RESULTS: Out of 118 patients 85 (72%) experienced headaches, 15 (13%) vertigo, 32 (27%) nausea, 17 (14%) vomiting, 37 (31%) muscle pain, 73 (62%) fever and 26 (22%) meningeal signs. 47.5% were infected with at least one tick-borne pathogen. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was confirmed with ELISA, Western blot in serum and/or (PCR (fla gene) in whole blood in 29.7% cases. In blood of 11.9% patients Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA (16S rRNA gene) was detected; in 0.9% patients 1/118 Babesia spp. DNA (18S rRNA gene) was also detected. Co-infections were observed in 5.1% of patients with non-specific symptoms. B. burgdorferi s.l. - A. phagocytophilum co-infection (5/118; 4.2%) was most common. In 1/118 (0.8%) A. phagocytophilum - Babesia spp. co-infection was detected. All controls were negative for examined pathogens.

    CONCLUSIONS: Non-specific symptoms after tick bite may be caused by uncommon pathogens or co-infection, therefore it should be considered in differential diagnosis after tick bite.

  • 108.
    Dupont, Chris L.
    et al.
    J. Craig Venter Institute, USA.
    Larsson, John
    Stockholm University.
    Yooseph, Shibu
    J. Craig Venter Institute, USA.
    Ininbergs, Karolina
    Stockholm University.
    Goll, Johannes
    J. Craig Venter Institute, USA.
    Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes
    Stockholm University.
    McCrow, John P.
    J. Craig Venter Institute, USA.
    Celepli, Narin
    Stockholm University.
    Allen, Lisa Zeigler
    J. Craig Venter Institute, USA.
    Ekman, Martin
    Stockholm University.
    Lucas, Andrew J.
    Hagström, Åke
    University of Gothenburg.
    Thiagarajan, Mathangi
    Brindefalk, Bjorn
    Richter, Alexander R.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Tenney, Aaron
    Lundin, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Tovchigrechko, Andrey
    Nylander, Johan A. A.
    Brami, Daniel
    Badger, Jonathan H.
    Allen, Andrew E.
    Rusch, Douglas B.
    Hoffman, Jeff
    Norrby, Erling
    Friedman, Robert
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Venter, J. Craig
    Bergman, Birgitta
    Functional Tradeoffs Underpin Salinity-Driven Divergence in Microbial Community Composition2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, article id e89549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial community composition and functional potential change subtly across gradients in the surface ocean. In contrast, while there are significant phylogenetic divergences between communities from freshwater and marine habitats, the underlying mechanisms to this phylogenetic structuring yet remain unknown. We hypothesized that the functional potential of natural bacterial communities is linked to this striking divide between microbiomes. To test this hypothesis, metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities along a 1,800 km transect in the Baltic Sea area, encompassing a continuous natural salinity gradient from limnic to fully marine conditions, was explored. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that salinity is the main determinant of dramatic changes in microbial community composition, but also of large scale changes in core metabolic functions of bacteria. Strikingly, genetically and metabolically different pathways for key metabolic processes, such as respiration, biosynthesis of quinones and isoprenoids, glycolysis and osmolyte transport, were differentially abundant at high and low salinities. These shifts in functional capacities were observed at multiple taxonomic levels and within dominant bacterial phyla, while bacteria, such as SAR11, were able to adapt to the entire salinity gradient. We propose that the large differences in central metabolism required at high and low salinities dictate the striking divide between freshwater and marine microbiomes, and that the ability to inhabit different salinity regimes evolved early during bacterial phylogenetic differentiation. These findings significantly advance our understanding of microbial distributions and stress the need to incorporate salinity in future climate change models that predict increased levels of precipitation and a reduction in salinity.

  • 109.
    Edgren, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Skötselförslag på utvalda nyckelbiotoper i Kalmar och Kronobergs län.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to contribute with suggestions of nature preservation managements of selected forest objects of high nature values managed by the Swedish state-owned forest company Sveaskog. Many forests with high natural potential are relatively rare today due to modern forestry, where wood production is the main purpose. Sveaskog’s policy is to consider and to priority nature conservation on valuable objects. This assessment includes objects that in the future may develop into nature reserves. By identifying key objects of high nature values in the database of Sveaskog, 29 of 69 objects were selected for further field studies in the survey in the area of Hultsfred, Vimmerby and Växjö County. Finally, 19 objects were selected by various reasons. Based on the biological requirements of a number of observed vulnerable species, management strategies in order to improve the flora and fauna at the sites were proposed. From the field studies I consider the majority of the objects were in a relatively good state for preservation of high nature values. However, at a number of sites the ingrowth of spruce has to be reduced and at other sites the amounts of dead wood has to increase. Conclusively, the majority of the studied forest sites of Sveaskog are in a good state for nature preservation, although some need an improved management.

  • 110. Edler, L.
    et al.
    Aertebjerg, G
    Granéli, Edna
    Lunds Universitet.
    Exceptional plankton blooms in the entrance to the Baltic Sea - the Kattegat and Belt Sea area1982In: ICES C.M. (ICES Conference and Meeting (CM) Documents presented at ICES Annual Science Conferences), Vol. L. 20,Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 111. Edler, L.
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Sjöstedt, B
    Influence of the cooling water system on plankton at Barsebäck nuclear power plant, SW coast of Sweden1980In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 36, p. 26-34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 112. Edler, L
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    Lund University.
    Sjöstedt, B
    Planktologiska undersökningar utanför Barsebäck Kärnkraftverk 1976-19771978Report (Other academic)
  • 113.
    EK, Hans
    et al.
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Andersson, Solbritt
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Arnebrant, Kristina
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Söderström, Bengt
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Growth and assimilation of NH4+ and NO3- by Paxillus involutus in association with Betula pendula and Picea abies as affected by subtrate pH1994In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 128, no 4, p. 629-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of pH on the growth and assimilation of N-15-labelled ammonium and nitrate was studied in intact ectomycorrhizal systems consisting of Betula pendula Roth and Picea abies (L.) Karst. colonized with a common mycelium of Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. The plants were grown together in Plexiglass observation chambers containing non-sterile peat with three different pH values, 4.0, 5.1 and 6.1. The mycorrhizal mycelium was allowed to grow over a barrier into an area of peat from which plant roots were excluded. Labelled NH4NO3 was supplied, either as (NH4NO3)-N-15 or as (NH4NO3)-N-15, exclusively to the fungal mycelium. Shoots and roots were analyzed for N-15 in total nitrogen while the mycelium was analyzed for N-15 in NH4+, NO3- and free amino acids. The N-15 labelling pattern indicated that ammonium was immediately assimilated into amino acids, primarily glutamine, by the fungal mycelium at the uptake site. The amino acids were then translocated to the mycorrhizal roots. In contrast, nitrate-N was not assimilated in the mycelium but rather transferred to the mycorrhizal roots as nitrate. Mycelial uptake and transfer of N to the spruce and birch seedlings were significantly higher for NH4-N than for NO3-N. No firm conclusions about pH effects on the preferential uptake of ammonium and nitrate could be drawn. However, pH had a pronounced effect on the mycelial growth of P. involutus which was hampered severely at pH 6.1 and to a lesser extent at pH 5.1.

  • 114. Eklund, B.
    et al.
    Svensson, A. P.
    Jonsson, C.
    Malm, T.
    Toxic effects of decomposing red algae on littoral organisms2005In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 621-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large masses of filamentous red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium are regularly washed up on beaches of the central Baltic Sea. As the algal masses start to decay, red coloured effluents leak into the water, and this tinge may be traced several hundred meters off shore. In this study, possible toxic effects of these effluents were tested on littoral organisms from different trophic levels. Effects on fertilisation, germination and juvenile survival of the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were investigated, and mortality tests were performed on the crustaceans Artemia salina and Idotea baltica, as well as on larvae and adults of the fish Pomatoschistus microps. Fucus vesiculosus was the most sensitive species of the tested organisms to the red algal extract. The survival of F. vesiculosus recruits was reduced with 50% (LC50) when exposed to a concentration corresponding to 1.7 g l(-1) dw red algae. The lethal concentration for L baltica, A. salina and P. microps were approximately ten times higher. The toxicity to A. salina was reduced if the algal extract was left to decompose during two weeks but the decline in toxicity was not affected by different light or temperature conditions. This study indicates that the filamentous red algae in the central Baltic Sea may produce and release compounds with negative effects on the littoral ecosystem. The effects may be particularly serious for the key species F. vesiculosus, which reproduce in autumn when filamentous red algal blooms are most severe. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 115.
    Ekstam, Börje
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åtgärdsprogram för skaftslamkrypa Elatine hexandra [Lapierre] DC.2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This action plan provides guidelines for preservation of the endangered plant Elatine hexandra (Six-stamened Waterwort) in Sweden. The action plan is a proposal, not a legally binding document.

    Elatine hexandra is a small, aquatic or amphibious, vascular herb in the family Elatinaceae. In Sweden, it usually appears as a summer annual on the very edge of freshwater lakes or streams. Some populations have over-wintering individuals that occur at depths well below the ice-cover. Typically, the habitat is a moderately wave exposed littoral with inorganic, silty-sandy substrate, covered with a thin layer of mud. The lake habitats have clear water, a near neutral pH and may rep-resent one of the two lake types that are included in the habitat directive, i.e. “Oligotrophic waters containing very few minerals of sandy plains” and “Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters with vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or of the Isoëto-Nanojuncetea”.

    The species has been found in approx. 55 Swedish lakes or running waters since 1980. With a few exceptions, the occurrences are restricted to river basins of southwest Sweden with outlets in Skagerrak and Kattegat (County Administration Boards of Värmland, Västra Götaland, Jönköping, Halland and Kronoberg). In the Swedish red list Elatine hexandra is classified as Endangered (EN).

    The main threats include deteriorating water quality. Eutrophication, acidification and brownification (increase in water color and dissolved organic matter) have adverse effects on growth and reproduction of the species. Other threats include exploitation of shorelines and water level regulations. The action plan proposes measures against deteriorating water quality in lakes with known occurrences of Elatine hexandra. Further, it points out the need for revision and ecological considerations of present water level regulations. Other suggestions aims to increase the conservation awareness among land owners, nature resource managers and municipality planners. These suggestions include production and spread of an information folder and implementation of conservation related information in the database WISS (Water Information System Sweden). WISS is an open information tool used in the planning cycle of river basin management. Finally, the action plan proposes additional investigations of the distribution in lakes and of the presence in seed-banks, as well as field studies on how growth and reproduction is affected by water regulations. With help of these results, lakes suitable for restoration measures can be selected. The action plan is valid for the period 2013-2018 and the costs are estimated to approx. 1 430 000 SEK

  • 116.
    Ekstam, Börje
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Beatha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    School of Life Sciences, Södertörn University.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Clinical Bacteriology, Dept of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Predicting risk habitats for the transmission of the small liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum to grazing ruminants.2011In: Geospatial Health, ISSN 1827-1987, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 125-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multiple regression model was used to analyse if the structure of vegetation and soil patches in grazed units (pastures) can be used as explanatory variables to predict the prevalence of Dicrocoelium dendriticum, a common parasite of cattle and sheep, in grazing cattle stocks on the Baltic island of Öland in southern Sweden.

    The scale dependency was evaluated by comparing three levels of spatial resolution of patches. Prevalence data were obtained from slaughtered animals.

    Our models predict that the prevalence of D. dendriticum increases in grazed areas with woody vegetation, whereas moist and wet areas decrease parasite prevalence. The predictive power of the statistical models increased with increasing level of patch resolution. Approximately 42% of the variation in parasite prevalence (angular transformation) was explained by the areal proportion of vegetation types (4th-root-transformed).

    Based on the results obtained, we believe that our model strategy provides a rational and systematic tool to identify habitats that carry risk for D. dendriticum infection of ruminants, and that it can be applied to other parasites with similar life cycles such as Fasciola hepatica.

  • 117.
    El-Sayed, A. M.
    et al.
    Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Canada.
    Delisle, J.
    Canadian Forest Service, Canada.
    De Lury, N.
    Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Canada.
    Gut, L. J.
    Michigan State University, USA.
    Judd, G. J. R.
    Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Canada.
    Legrand, Sacha
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Reissig, W. H.
    New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, USA.
    Roelofs, W. L.
    New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, USA.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Trimble, R. M.
    Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Canada.
    Geographic variation in pheromone chemistry, antennal electrophysiology, and pheromone-mediated trap catch of North American populations of the obliquebanded leafroller2003In: Environmental Entomology, ISSN 0046-225X, E-ISSN 1938-2936, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 470-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The total and relative amounts of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:Ac), (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:Ac), (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ol (Z11-14:OH) and (Z)-11-tetradecenal (Z11-14:Al), and the EAG response of male antennae to these pheromone gland compounds were compared in laboratory reared Choristoneura rosaceana Harris (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from British Columbia, Michigan, Ontario, New York, and Quebec. A field trapping experiment was conducted in each of these locations to determine the effect of Z11-14:Al on the numbers of moths captured. The amount of each of the four pheromone-gland compounds declined successively in moths from British Columbia, Quebec, Ontario, Michigan, and New York. The relative amount of Z11-14:Ac was greatest in moths from New York and smallest in moths from Ontario, whereas the relative amount of E11-14:Ac was greatest in moths from Ontario and smallest in moths from British Columbia. Moths from Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Michigan, and New York contained decreasing relative amounts of Z11-14:OH and Z11-14:Al. There was a trend of increasing antenna] sensitivity to each of the four pheromone-gland compounds in moths from New York, Michigan, Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia. The addition of 1% Z11:Al to a three compound blend of Z11-14:Ac, E11-14:Ac and Z11-14:OH (97:2:1) resulted in a >twofold increase in average trap catch in British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec; this compound had no effect on trap catch in Michigan or New York.

  • 118. El-Sayed, Ashraf
    et al.
    Manning, Lee-Anne
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Park, Kye-Chung
    Stringer, Lloyd
    White, Nicola
    Bunn, Barry
    Twidle, Andrew
    Suckling, Max
    Attraction and Antennal Response of the Common Wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), to Selected Synthetic Chemicals in New Zealand Beech Forests2009In: Pest Management Science, ISSN 1526-498X, E-ISSN 1526-4998, Vol. 65, no 9, p. 975-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), and the German wasp, Vespula germanica (F.), are significant problems in New Zealand beech forests (Nothofagus spp.), adversely affecting native birds and invertebrate biodiversity. This work was undertaken to develop synthetic attractants for these species to enable more efficient monitoring and management. RESULTS: Seven known wasp attractants (acetic acid, butyl butyrate, isobutanol, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and 2,4-hexadienyl butyrate) were field tested, and only heptyl butyrate and octyl butyrate attracted significantly higher numbers of wasps than a non-baited trap. Accordingly, a series of straight-chain esters from methyl to decyl butyrate were prepared and field tested for attraction of social wasps. Peak biological activity occurred with hexyl butyrate, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and nonyl butyrate. Polyethylene bags emitting approximately 18.4-22.6 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate were more attractive than polyethylene bags emitting approximately 14.7-16.8 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate in the field. Electroantennogram (EAG) studies indicated that queens and workers of V. vulgaris had olfactory receptor neurons responding to various aliphatic butyrates. CONCLUSION: These results are the first to be reported on the EAG response and the attraction of social wasps to synthetic chemicals in New Zealand beech forests and will enable monitoring of social wasp activity in beech forests. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical industry

  • 119. El-Sayed, Ashraf
    et al.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Twidle, Andrew
    Mitchell, Vanessa
    Manning, Lee-Anne
    Cole, Lyn
    Suckling, David M
    Flores, Fernanda M
    Zaviezo, Tania
    Bergmann, Jan
    Chrysanthemyl 2-acetoxy-3-methylbutanoate: the sex pheromone of the citrophilous mealybug Pseudococcus calceolariae2010In: Tetrahedron Letters, ISSN 0040-4039, E-ISSN 1359-8562, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 1075-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Headspace volatiles collected from virgin females of the citrophilous mealybug, Pseudococcus calceolariae, contain three Compounds not present in the headspace of control samples. The main female-specific compound is identified as[2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropyl]methyl 2-acetoxy-3-methylbutanoate (chrysanthemyl 2-acetoxy-3-methylbutanoate). The other two compounds are identified as [2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropyl]methanol (chrysanthemol) and [2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropyl]methyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoate (chrysanthemyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoate). Traps baited with 100 mu g and 1000 mu g of chrysanthemyl 2-acetoxy-3-methylbutanoate captured 4- and 20-fold more males than traps baited with virgin females.

  • 120. Engkvist, R.
    et al.
    Malm, T.
    Svensson, A.
    Asplund, L.
    Isaeus, M.
    Kautsky, L.
    Greger, M.
    Lanberg, T.
    Makroalgsblomningar längs Ölands kuster, effekter på det lokala näringslivet och det marina ekosystemet. (English title: Macro algal blooms in the central Baltic proper, effects on the economy and the marine ecosystem.)2001Report (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Engkvist, Roland
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Malm, Torleif
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Possible modification of grazing effects by wave action, changing the relative dominance between Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus in the southern Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Engkvist, Roland
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Malm, Torleif
    Tobiasson, Stefan
    Density dependent grazing effects by the Isopod Idotea baltica Pallas on Fucus vesiculosus L in the Baltic Sea2000In: Aquatic Ecology, ISSN 1386-2588, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 253-260Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Engkvist, Roland
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Malmfjärden - vatten och biologi 20112013Report (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Engstedt, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Anadromous Pike in the Baltic Sea2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pike (Esox lucius) is a major predator and top-down regulator in the Baltic Sea where it exists in two sympatric forms. One spawn in streams and rivers and the other one spawn in the sea. During the last decades, the habitats for both of these forms have developed in a negative way. In some freshwater systems, up to 90 % of the water areas have disappeared, mainly through drainage and straightening of watercourses for agricultural purposes. In the sea, reproduction habitats decrease due to construction of harbours and human activities that create disturbances. The perhaps largest single factor negatively affecting recruitment of pike in the sea is the eutrophication. Bottoms are overgrown with filamentous algae and shallow bays are covered with dense Phragmites belts decreasing the habitats suitable for spawning. Further on, a predator on egg and fish larvae, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has increased in abundance. It is difficult to restore and enhance pike production in the sea and probably the only economically viable alternative is to make restorations in freshwater. However, there is a limited knowledge about the freshwater spawning pike in the Baltic Sea. Thus in this thesis I, together with my coauthors, set out with an aim to increase the knowledge base regarding anadromous pike behaviour.

    We found that pike of natal freshwater origin were common in the Baltic Sea. Through Sr:Ca studies in otoliths, about 45 % of the pike were interpreted to be of freshwater origin. The majority of the pike had emigrated out of freshwater at a length below 6 cm. These results indicate that freshwater recruitment is successful, contrasting the vast areas available for spawning in the sea. This creates incitements that restoration measures in these watercourses could have a significant effect on the pike population in the Baltic Sea.

    Further, in four streams running out in the Baltic Sea, more than three thousand pike were marked to study spawning migration. About 30-40 % returned to the same river the subsequent year. Most of the pike used the lower parts of the stream for spawning. The homing of pike to a watercourse indicate that freshwater pike in the Baltic Sea consist of specific populations and this is crucial information when taking decisions on fish restoration measures.

    Three wetlands adjacent to streams were restored for pike production. The most successful restoration involved minimal digging, with flooded grasslands providing optimal conditions for spawning. The first spawning season after restoration increased the pike production hundredfold.

    In conclusion, the anadromous pike are numerous in the Baltic Sea. To compensate for the decline in pike populations in the sea, “pike-factories” created along the coastline are probably the most justifiable option.

  • 125.
    Engstedt, Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Engkvist, Roland
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Elemental fingerprinting in otoliths reveals natal homing of anadromous Baltic Sea pike (Esox lucius L.)2014In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 313-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the element pattern in the otoliths of a migratory fish species that inhabit the coastal areas in the brackish of the Baltic Sea. The northern pike (Esox lucius) show migratory behaviour, spawning in streams and rivers and foraging in the sea. We examined spawning migration in four nearby streams in the south-west part of the Baltic. Otolith analysis by microPIXE revealed unique elemental patterns (Sr, Zn, Br, Co and Mn) for the juveniles in each of the different streams. The strontium signal in the otolith of the juveniles was used as an indicator of freshwater origin and the time spent in the stream. Adult pike in their migrating spawning phase were caught in each of the streams. The elemental composition in otoliths in their freshwater phase (using juvenile pike in the streams as references) was determined. A principal component analysis showed that the elemental fingerprint during the freshwater phase several years back in time was similar for the adult fish and for juveniles inhabiting the stream today. The results indicated natal homing of the adults to a specific stream, a conclusion that was strengthened by the fact that marked fish returned to spawn over consecutive years. Anadromous pike in the Baltic Sea may thus be divided in subpopulations. The results of the study may have implications for fishery management, as pike in the Baltic Sea cannot be seen as homogenous population.

  • 126.
    Engstedt, Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Strontium (Sr) uptake from water and food in otoliths of juvenile pike (Esox lucius L.)2012In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, ISSN 0022-0981, E-ISSN 1879-1697, Vol. 418-419, p. 69-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strontium (Sr) or Sr:Ca ratio in otoliths has been widely used in the last decade to describe the migration

    histories of fish between fresh and marine waters. However, reference experimental studies of particular

    species and waters are necessary to confirm the underlying assumptions and evaluate the applicability of

    this tool to field data. Laboratory experiments indicated that juvenile, anadromous pike (Esox lucius L.)

    from the Baltic Sea reared in successively increasing salinities (from 0 to 7) for 110 d accumulated Sr

    in their otoliths according to a positive relationship with waterborne Sr. When the pike were given prey

    fish from brackish (7) environments, the otolith Sr:Ca ratio increased more than in fish given prey

    from freshwater lakes. Pike held at constant salinity (7) and given prey fish from the same salinity

    environment had an Sr:Ca ratio of 6.9Å~103. The ratio decreased successively for fish given prey

    from freshwater (4.4Å~103) or kept in freshwater and given food from brackish water (3.1Å~103).

    Fish exposed to freshwater and given prey fish from freshwater displayed no increase in Sr:Ca ratio

    (1.6Å~103). The experiments demonstrated that the Sr:Ca ratio may be used to describe the migration

    history of pike between rivers and the Baltic Sea. The maximum Sr:Ca value for pike given marineorigin

    food corresponded to those of fish collected from the Baltic Sea.

  • 127.
    Engstedt, Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stenroth, Patrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ljunggren, Lars
    Fiskeriverket.
    Elfman, Mikael
    Lunds universitet, Kärnfysik.
    Assessment of natal origin of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea using Sr:Ca in otoliths2010In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 89, p. 547-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spawning habitat of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea include brackish water bays, brooks and rivers. Elevated salinity concentrations are one of several stressors that might increase the use and importance of freshwater habitats for spawning. In the Baltic Sea, one of the largest brackish seas in the world, freshwater species like pike, perch (Perca fluviatilis), whitefish (Coregonus sp), bream (Abramis brama), ide (Leuciscus idus), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and burbot (Lola iota) all undertake spawning migrations to freshwater. However, over the last decades populations densities of these species have declined, and recruitment failure has been argued to be at least part of the problem. The importance of brooks and rivers as spawning areas for these species have not been quantified and set in relation to spawning success in brackish bays. In this study, we collected 175 adult pike (Esox lucius) on their foraging grounds in the sea. Fish were collected in two regions on the Baltic coast, more than 600 km apart. Subsequently we determined their origin (freshwater or marine) using otolith chemistry. Sagittal otoliths were analysed for strontium using the PIXE-method. The results show that 80 of the 175 pike were recruited in freshwater, and several of the larger specimens showed reoccurring migration behaviour. Data show that freshwater is an important recruitment habitat for Baltic Sea pike, suggesting that habitat improvements in rivers entering the Baltic Sea might significantly contribute to population restoration.

  • 128.
    Eriksen, B
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Molau, U
    University of Gothenburg.
    Svensson, Mikael
    University of Gothenburg.
    Reproductive strategies in two arctic Pedicularis species (Scrophulariaceae)1993In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 154-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of a number of reproductive traits in two sympatric species of Pedicularis in northern Swedish Lapland, the subarctic-alpine P lapponica and the artic P hursuta, revealed that the life-history strategies of the two species differ profoundly High fruit set and low seed abortion rate, as m P hursuta, is common in arctic plants in late-thawing habitats and represents a case of extreme adversity selection rather than an indication of a ruderal life-history strategy Pedicularis lapponica, on the other hand, is a typical K-strategist (or stress-tolerator) requiring a longer period of growth for optimal reproduction Occuring at both low and high altitudes in the area, P lapponica tends to increase in self-compatibility with altitude, which is interpreted as an adaptation to lower pollinator visitation frequency in arctic environments The variation in length of the protruding part of the style in P lapponica is shown to be correlated with exposure to light Predispersal seed predation is severe m P lapponica at low altitudes, where the capsules are attacked by fly and moth larvae At high altitudes, a minor proportion of the capsules of P lapponica experience predation and only from flies, while P hursuta is completely unpredated

  • 129.
    Erland, Susanne
    et al.
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Söderström, Bengt
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Andersson, Solbritt
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Effects of liming on ectomycorrhizal fungi infection Pinus sylvestris L .2. Growth-rates in pure culture at different pH values compared to growth-rates in symiosis with the host plant1990In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 115, no 4, p. 683-688Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 130.
    F de Carvalho, Wanderson
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Contribution of phagotrophy versus autotrophy to Prymnesium parvum growth under nitrogen and phosphorus sufficiency and deficiency2010In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 9, p. 105-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to test the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sufficiency and deficiency on mixotrophy in Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyta). A parvum was grown with and without algal prey (Rhodomonas salina) and observed for 120 h. Detection and enumeration of cells containing food vacuoles with prey (i.e. phagotrophy) was based on flow cytometric detection of fluorescence of an acidotropic probe. Overall, the presence of R. salina increased phagotrophy in P. parvum suggesting that, at least in this strain of P. parvum, the presence of suitable prey can stimulate phagotrophic behavior in P. parvum. Feeding frequency (the percentage of A parvum cells containing food vacuoles in a given time) was significantly higher under N and P deficiency than in the nutrient-sufficient treatments. A nutrient budget constructed from the data indicated that ingestion of organic matter (OM) supplied with 78 +/- 7% of the N (3.9 +/- 0.3 mu M) incorporated by P. parvum in the N-deficient treatment, and 45 +/- 9% of the P (0.3 +/- 0 mu M) acquired in the P-deficient cultures. Even under nutrient sufficiency, ingestion of OM was estimated to have supplied 43 +/- 16% of the N and 48 +/- 16% of the P incorporated into P. parvum cells. Phagotrophy was observed even in the NP-sufficient cultures (non-axenic mixed and monocultures), although P. parvum cells did not lose their photosynthetic capability, suggesting that phagotrophy is probably a permanent nutritional adaptation to this species. The ingestion of organic nutrients played an important role in P. parvum growth, being a reliable source of nutrition for P. parvum inorganic nutrient limitation, and could explain its capabilities to form persistent blooms. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 131.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Jost, Guenter
    Labrenz, Matthias
    Juergens, Klaus
    Riemann, Lasse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Active nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria at and below the chemocline of the central Baltic Sea2013In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 1413-1423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea receives large nitrogen inputs by diazotrophic (N-2-fixing) heterocystous cyanobacteria but the significance of heterotrophic N-2 fixation has not been studied. Here, the diversity, abundance and transcription of the nifH fragment of the nitrogenase enzyme in two basins of the Baltic Sea proper was examined. N-2 fixation was measured at the surface (5 m) and in anoxic water (200 m). Vertical sampling profiles of >10 and <10 mu m size fractions were collected in 2007, 2008 and 2011 at the Gotland Deep and in 2011 in the Bornholm Basin. Both of these stations are characterized by permanently anoxic bottom water. The 454-pyrosequencing nifH analysis revealed a diverse assemblage of nifH genes related to alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria (nifH cluster I) and anaerobic bacteria (nifH cluster III) at and below the chemocline. Abundances of genes and transcripts of seven diazotrophic phylotypes were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealing abundances of heterotrophic nifH phylotypes of up to 2.1 x 10(7) nifH copies l(-1). Abundant nifH transcripts (up to 3.2 x 10(4) transcripts l(-1)) within nifH cluster III and co-occurring N-2 fixation (0.44 +/- 0.26 nmol l(-1) day(-1)) in deep water suggests that heterotrophic diazotrophs are fixing N2 in anoxic ammonium-rich waters. Our results reveal that N-2 fixation in the Baltic Sea is not limited to illuminated N-deplete surface waters and suggest that N-2 fixation could also be of importance in other suboxic regions of the world's oceans.

  • 132.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Ocean Sci Dept, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Turk-Kubo, Kendra
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    del Carmen Munoz-Marin, Maria
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA ; Univ Cordoba, Spain.
    Zehr, Jonathan P.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    New insights into the ecology of the globally significant uncultured nitrogen-fixing symbiont UCYN-A2016In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 125-138Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyanobacterial nitrogen-fixers (diazotrophs) play a key role in biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean. In recent years, the unusual symbiotic diazotrophic cyanobacterium Atelocyanobacterium thalassa (UCYN-A) has been recognized as one of the major diazotrophs in the tropical and subtropical oceans. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the geographic distribution of UCYN-A, as well as the environmental factors that govern its distribution. In addition, by compiling UCYN-A nifH sequences from the GenBank no. database as well as those from nifH gene amplicon next generation sequencing studies, we present an in-depth analysis of the distribution of defined UCYN-A sublineages (UCYN-A1, UCYN-A2 and UCYN-A3) and identify a novel sublineage, UCYN-A4, which may be significant in some environments. Each UCYN-A sublineage exhibited a remarkable global distribution pattern and several UCYN-A sublineages frequently co-occurred within the same sample, suggesting that if they represent different ecotypes they have overlapping niches. Recently, single cell visualization techniques using specific probes targeting UCYN-A1 and UCYN-A2 and their respective associated eukaryotic partner cells showed that the size of the consortia and the number of UCYN-A cells differed between these 2 sublineages. Combined, the results highlight that UCYN-A sublineages likely have different physiological requirements, which need to be accounted for in future studies. Furthermore, based on our increasing knowledge of the diversity of the UCYN-A lineage, we discuss some of the limitations of currently used cultivation-independent molecular techniques for the identification and quantification of UCYN-A.

  • 133. Feige, Nicole
    et al.
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    van der Graaf, Alexandra J
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Leito, Aivar
    Stahl, Julia
    Newly established breeding sites of the barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis in North-western Europe: an overview of breeding habitats and colony development2008In: Die Vogelwelt : Zeitschrift für Vogelkunde und Vogelschutz, ISSN 0042-7993, Vol. 129, p. 244-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional breeding grounds of the Russian Barnacle Goose population are at the Barents Sea in the Russian Arctic. During the last decades, the population increased and expanded the breeding area by establishing new breeding colonies at lower latitudes. Breeding numbers outside arctic Russia amounted to about 12,000 pairs in 2005. By means of a questionnaire, information about breeding habitat characteristics and colony size, colony growth and goose density were collected from breeding areas outside Russia. This paper gives an overview about the new breeding sites and their development in Finland, Estonia, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in habitat characteristics and population parameters between North Sea and Baltic breeding sites. Colonies at the North Sea are growing rapidly, whereas in Sweden the growth has levelled off in recent years. In Estonia numbers are even decreasing. On the basis of their breeding site choice, the flyway population of Barnacle Geese traditionally breeding in the Russian Arctic can be divided into three sub-populations: the Barents Sea population, the Baltic population and the North Sea population. The populations differ not only in habitat use but also in breeding biology.

  • 134. Fernandez-Gomez, Beatriz
    et al.
    Richter, Michael
    Schueler, Margarete
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Acinas, Silvia G.
    Gonzalez, Jose M.
    Pedros-Alio, Carlos
    Ecology of marine Bacteroidetes: a comparative genomics approach2013In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 1026-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteroidetes are commonly assumed to be specialized in degrading high molecular weight (HMW) compounds and to have a preference for growth attached to particles, surfaces or algal cells. The first sequenced genomes of marine Bacteroidetes seemed to confirm this assumption. Many more genomes have been sequenced recently. Here, a comparative analysis of marine Bacteroidetes genomes revealed a life strategy different from those of other important phyla of marine bacterioplankton such as Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria. Bacteroidetes have many adaptations to grow attached to particles, have the capacity to degrade polymers, including a large number of peptidases, glycoside hydrolases (GHs), glycosyl transferases, adhesion proteins, as well as the genes for gliding motility. Several of the polymer degradation genes are located in close association with genes for TonB-dependent receptors and transducers, suggesting an integrated regulation of adhesion and degradation of polymers. This confirmed the role of this abundant group of marine bacteria as degraders of particulate matter. Marine Bacteroidetes had a significantly larger number of proteases than GHs, while non-marine Bacteroidetes had equal numbers of both. Proteorhodopsin containing Bacteroidetes shared two characteristics: small genome size and a higher number of genes involved in CO2 fixation per Mb. The latter may be important in order to survive when floating freely in the illuminated, but nutrient-poor, ocean surface. The ISME Journal (2013) 7, 1026-1037; doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.169; published online 10 January 2013

  • 135.
    Flink, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Behrens, Jane W.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Consequences of eye fluke infection on anti-predator behaviours in invasive round gobies in Kalmar Sound2017In: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, no 6, p. 1653-1663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Larvae of the eye fluke, Diplostomum, emerge from snails and infect fish by penetrating skin or gills, then move to the lens where they may impair the vision of the fish. For the fluke to reproduce, a bird must eat the infected fish, and it has been suggested that they therefore actively manipulate the fish's behaviour to increase the risk of predation. We found that round gobies Neogobius melanostomus, a species that was recently introduced to the Kalmar Sound of the Baltic Sea, had an eye fluke prevalence of 90-100%. We investigated how the infection related to behavioural variation in round gobies. Our results showed that the more intense the parasite-induced cataract, the weaker the host's response was to simulated avian attack. The eye flukes did not impair other potentially important anti-predator behaviours, such as shelter use, boldness and the preference for shade. Our results are in accordance with the suggestion that parasites induce changes in host behaviour that will facilitate transfer to their final host.

  • 136.
    Flynn, Kevin J
    et al.
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Stoecker, Diane K
    University Of Maryland, Cambridge, MD, USA.
    Mitra, Aditee
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Raven, John A.
    University Of Dundee, Invergowrie, Dundee, UK.
    Glibert, Patricia M.
    University Of Maryland, Cambridge, MD, USA.
    Hansen, Per Juel
    University Of Copenhagen, Helsingør, Denmark.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burkholder, Joann M.
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Misuse of the phytoplankton-zooplankton dichotomy: the need to assign organisms as mixotrophs within plankton functional types2013In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classic portrayal of plankton is dominated by phytoplanktonic primary producersand zooplanktonic secondary producers. In reality, many if not most planktontraditionally labelled as phytoplankton or microzooplankton should be identifiedas mixotrophs, contributing to both primary and secondary production. Mixotrophicprotists (i.e. single-celled eukaryotes that perform photosynthesis and grazeon particles) do not represent a minor component of the plankton, as some formof inferior representatives of the past evolution of protists; they represent a majorcomponent of the extant protist plankton, and one which could become moredominant with climate change. The implications for this mistaken identification, ofthe incorrect labelling of mixotrophs as “phytoplankton” or “microzooplankton”,are great. It extends from the (mis)use of photopigments as indicators of primaryproduction performed by strict photoautotrophs rather than also (co)locating mixotrophicactivity, through to the inadequacy of plankton functional type descriptionsin models (noting that mixotrophic production in the individual organism is not asimple sum of phototrophy and heterotrophy). We propose that mixotrophy shouldbe recognized as a major contributor to plankton dynamics, with due effortexpended in field and laboratory studies, and should no longer be side-lined inconceptual food webs or in mathematical models.

  • 137.
    Forslund, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Age-related reproductive success in the barnacle goose1992In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 61, p. 195-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. We studied age-related reproductive success in a recently established breeding colony of barnacle goose Branta leucopsis on the island of Gotland, Sweden.

    2. Associations of age and breeding experience with several reproductive parameters were investigated by comparing the success of individuals of 2, 3, 4 and >=5 years of age. Also, we measured the within-individual changes in reproductive parameters as the individuals grew older.

    3. Associations between survival and reproductive success were investigated by comparing the reproductive success of 2, 3 and 4-year-old birds that returned or did not return, respectively, in the subsequent breeding season.

    4. The reproductive success increased up to an age of 4-5 years. Thus, clutch size, number of hatched young and number of fledged young increased, and hatching date was advanced with increasing age. This was due to the fact that individuals increased in reproductive success as they grew older.

    5. A possibly higher probability of survival among individuals that perform well in reproduction could not explain the higher reproductive success in older age-classes as compared to young age-classes of geese, because there were no associations between survival and reproductive success, and very few individuals did actually disappear between any two breeding seasons.

    6. Path analysis suggested age effects only at earlier stages of reproduction, i. e. timing of breeding and clutch size. These characters, in turn, were associated with number of fledged young. These findings were further supported by measurements of hatching success and rearing success, which did not seem to increase with age.

    7. Increased breeding experience was associated with early hatching date and larger clutch size in males, and with larger clutch size in females. This was concluded from path analysis and from comparisons of individuals of the same age but with different breeding experience.

    8. The increase in reproductive success with age in the barnacle goose is probably a result of age-related skills in individuals and the direct effects of these skills on reproductive success, but possibly also because of increased reproductive effort with age owing to these age-related skills.

  • 138.
    Forslund, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Breeding range expansion of the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis in the Baltic area1991In: Ardea, ISSN 0373-2266, E-ISSN 2213-1175, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 343-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the development of Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis breeding colonies in the Baltic area. The largest colony is situated on the eastern coast of Gotland. Sweden, and consisted in 1988 of 970 breeding pairs. Breeding birds have also been observed in nine other Baltic localities within the 1980s. Differences in reproductive success at different localities suggest that density-dependent effects are important. Young nonbreeding geese frequently move between colonies during the summer. Intraspecific competition may increase the propensity for natal dispersal by geese from the main colony on Gotland

  • 139.
    Forslund, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The effect of mate change an new partner's age on reproductive success in the barnacle goose, Branta leucopsis1991In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 116-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mate retention frequencies and correlations between mate change and reproductive performance were estimated in a population of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis, breeding on the island of Gotland in the Baltic. About 90% of the pairs remained together from one breeding season to the next. Only 2.4% of the pairs divorced, most mate changes being consequences of the death of one partner. Divorces were not forecast by low reproductive success, and seemed to be accidental. In the season before mate change, there was no difference in reproductive performance, measured as clutch size, hatching date, and number of fledged young, between faithful pairs and pairs where one partner was subsequently changed. However, in the first season with a new partner, clutch size and number of fledged young decreased on average. Hence, because mate change led to a reduction in reproductive success, it was concluded that mate retention is advantageous. Our results suggest that this reduction is more likely due to the lower average age or breeding experience of new partners than to the benefits of breeding experience with one particular partner.

  • 140.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Is colour polymorphism advantageous to populations and species?2016In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 2693-2698Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I am writing in response to an article by Bolton, Rollinsand Griffith (2015) entitled ‘The danger within: the roleof genetic, behavioural and ecological factors in populationpersistence of colour polymorphic species’ that wasrecently published as an Opinion under the NEWS ANDVIEWS section in Molecular Ecology. Bolton et al.(Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24, 2907) argue that colour polymorphismmay reduce population fitness and increaseextinction risk and emphasize that this is contrary to predictionsput forward by Forsman et al. (Ecology, 89, 2008,34) and Wennersten & Forsman (Biological Reviews 87,2012, 756) that the existence of multiple colour morphswith co-adapted gene complexes and associated trait valuesmay increase the ecological and evolutionary successof polymorphic populations and species. Bolton et al.(Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24, 2907) further state that thereis no clear evidence from studies of ‘true polymorphicspecies’ that polymorphism promotes population persistence.In response, I (i) challenge their classifications ofpolymorphisms and revisit the traditional definitions recognizingthe dynamic nature of polymorphisms, (ii)review empirical studies that have examined whetherand how polymorphism is associated with extinction risk,(iii) discuss the roles of trait correlations between colourpattern and other phenotypic dimensions for populationfitness and (iv) highlight that the causes and mechanismsthat influence the composition and maintenance of polymorphismsare different from the consequences of thepolymorphic condition and how it may impact on aspectsof ecological success and long-term persistence of populationsand species.

  • 141.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rethinking phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for individuals, populations and species.2015In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 115, no 4, p. 276-284Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research has been devoted to identify the conditions under which selection favours flexible individuals or genotypes that are able to modify their growth, development and behaviour in response to environmental cues, to unravel the mechanisms of plasticity, and to explore its influence on patterns of diversity among individuals, populations, and species. The consequences of developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility for the performance and ecological success of populations and species have attracted a comparatively limited but currently growing interest. Here, I re-emphasize that an increased understanding of the roles of plasticity in these contexts requires a ‘whole organism’ (rather than ‘single trait’) approach, taking into consideration that organisms are integrated complex phenotypes. I further argue that plasticity and genetic polymorphism should be analysed and discussed within a common framework. I summarize predictions from theory on how phenotypic variation stemming from developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility may affect different aspects of population-level performance. I argue that it is important to distinguish between effects associated with greater inter-individual phenotypic variation resulting from plasticity, and effects mediated by variation among individuals in the capacity to express plasticity and flexibility as such. Finally, I claim that rigorous testing of predictions requires methods that allow for quantifying and comparing whole organism plasticity, as well as the ability to experimentally manipulate the level of and capacity for developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility independent of genetic variation.

  • 142.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rethinking the thermal melanism hypothesis: rearing temperature and coloration in pygmy grasshoppers2011In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1247-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection for efficient conversion of solar radiation to body heat has favored theevolution of dark coloration in many ectotherms. The thermal melanism hypothesis positsthat dark coloration is beneficial under conditions of low ambient temperatures because itresults in faster heating rates and higher body temperatures. Fast heating rates, however,may come at a cost of overheating unless compensated for by thermal physiology orbehaviour. Pygmy grasshopper (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) populations that inhabit fire-ravagedareas characterized by blackened backgrounds and hot surface temperatures due tohigh absorbance of solar radiation show an increased frequency of black phenotypes. Iraised the progeny of wild-captured Tetrix undulata in cold and hot temperatures and useddata on color patterns and survival in a greenhouse to examine whether a cold thermalenvironment triggered the development of melanic coloration or differently affected survivalof melanic versus non-melanic individuals. My results indicate that melanism was notinfluenced by rearing temperature but by genes or epigenetic maternal effects. Temperaturealso did not affect survival. However, melanic individuals produced by melanic motherssurvived longer than melanic individuals produced by non- melanic mothers, whereas nonmelanicindividuals produced by non-black mothers survived longer than melanic individualsproduced by non-black mothers. This suggests a mismatch between color andphysiology in offspring belonging to a different color morph than their mother. Futureinvestigations into the evolution of melanism should consider conflicting selection pressureson thermal capacity and camouflage as well as the influence of correlated responsesto selection on traits associated with coloration.

  • 143.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Can spatial sorting associated with spawning migration explain evolution of body size and vertebral number in Anguilla eels?2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 751-761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial sorting is a process that can contribute to microevolutionary change by assemblingphenotypes through space, owing to nonrandom dispersal. Here we first buildupon and develop the “neutral” version of the spatial sorting hypothesis by arguingthat in systems that are not characterized by repeated range expansions, the evolutionaryeffects of variation in dispersal capacity and assortative mating might not beindependent of but interact with natural selection. In addition to generating assortativemating, variation in dispersal capacity together with spatial and temporal variationin quality of spawning area is likely to influence both reproductive success and survivalof spawning migrating individuals, and this will contribute to the evolution of dispersal-enhancingtraits. Next, we use a comparative approach to examine whether differencesin spawning migration distance among 18 species of freshwater Anguilla eelshave evolved in tandem with two dispersal-favoringtraits. In our analyses, we use informationon spawning migration distance, body length, and vertebral number thatwas obtained from the literature, and a published whole mitochondrial DNA-basedphylogeny. Results from comparative analysis of independent contrasts showed thatmacroevolutionary shifts in body length throughout the phylogeny have been associatedwith concomitant shifts in spawning migration. Shifts in migration distance werenot associated with shifts in number of vertebrae. These findings are consistent withthe hypothesis that spatial sorting has contributed to the evolution of more elongatedbodies in species with longer spawning migration distances, or resulted in evolution oflonger migration distances in species with larger body size. This novel demonstrationis important in that it expands the list of ecological settings and hierarchical levels ofbiological organization for which the spatial sorting hypothesis seems to have predictivepower.

  • 144.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    To what extent can existing research help project climate change impacts on biodiversity in aquatic environments?: A review of methodological approaches2016In: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, E-ISSN 2077-1312, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 75Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is broadly accepted that continued global warming will pose a major threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. But how reliable are current projections regarding consequences of future climate change for biodiversity? To address this issue, we review the methodological approaches in published studies of how life in marine and freshwater environments responds to temperature shifts. We analyze and compare observational field surveys and experiments performed either in the laboratory or under natural conditions in the wild, the type of response variables considered, the number of species investigated, study duration, and the nature and magnitude of experimental temperature manipulations. The observed patterns indicate that, due to limitations of study design, ecological and evolutionary responses of individuals, populations, species, and ecosystems to temperature change were in many cases difficult to establish, and causal mechanism(s) often remained ambiguous. We also discovered that the thermal challenge in experimental studies was 10,000 times more severe than reconstructed estimates of past and projections of future warming of the oceans, and that temperature manipulations also tended to increase in magnitude in more recent studies. These findings raise some concerns regarding the extent to which existing research can increase our understanding of how higher temperatures associated with climate change will affect life in aquatic environments. In view of our review findings, we discuss the trade-off between realism and methodological tractability. We also propose a series of suggestions and directions towards developing a scientific agenda for improving the validity and inference space of future research efforts.

  • 145.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Faster poleward range shifts in moths with more variable colour patterns2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 36265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Range shifts have been documented in many organisms, and climate change has been implicated asa contributing driver of latitudinal and altitudinal range modifications. However, little is known aboutwhat species trait(s) allow for faster environmental tracking and improved capacity for distributionexpansions. We used data for 416 species of moths, and show that range limits in Sweden have shifted tothe north by on average 52.4 km per decade between 1973 and 2014. When also including non-expandingspecies, average expansion rate was 23.2 km per decade. The rate of boundary shifts increased withincreasing levels of inter-individual variation in colour patterns and decreased with increasing latitude. Theassociation with colour patterns indicate that variation in this functionally important trait enables speciesto cope with novel and changing conditions. Northern range limits also increased with average abundanceand decreased with increasing year-to-year abundance fluctuations, implicating production of dispersersas a driver of range dynamics. Studies of terrestrial animals show that rates of poleward shifts differbetween taxonomic groups, increase over time, and depend on study duration and latitude. Knowledge ofhow distribution shifts change with time, location, and species characteristics may improve projections ofresponses to climate change and aid the protection of biodiversity

  • 146.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Variable coloration is associated with dampened population fluctuations in noctuid moths2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1808, article id 20142922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory and recent reviews state that greater genetic and phenotypic variation should be beneficial for population abundance and stability. Experimental evaluations of this prediction are rare, of short duration and conducted under controlled environmental settings. The question whether greater diversity in functionally important traits stabilizes populations under more complex ecological conditions in the wild has not been systematically evaluated. Moths are mainly nocturnal, with a large variation in colour patterns among species, and constitute an important food source for many types of organisms. Here, we report the results of a long-term (2003-2013) monitoring study of 115 100 noctuid moths from 246 species. Analysis of time-series data provide rare evidence that species with higher levels of inter-individual variation in colour pattern have higher average abundances and undergo smaller between-year fluctuations compared with species having less variable colour patterns. The signature of interspecific temporal synchronization of abundance fluctuations was weak, suggesting that the dynamics were driven by species-specific biotic interactions rather than by some common, density-independent factor(s). We condude that individual variation in colour patterns dampens population abundance fluctuations, and suggest that this may partly reflect that colour pattern polymorphism provides protection from visually oriented predators and parasitoids.

  • 147.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Merilä, Juha
    University of Helsinki.
    Ebenhard, Torbjörn
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Phenotypic evolution of dispersal-enhancing traits in insular voles2011In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 278, no 1703, p. 225-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theory predicts that in metapopulations subject to rapid extinction-recolonization dynamics, natural selection should favour evolution of traits that enhance dispersal and recolonization ability. Metapopulations of field voles (Microtus agrestis) on islands in the Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, are characterized by frequent local extinction and recolonization of subpopulations. Here, we show that voles on the islands were larger and had longer feet than expected for their body size, compared with voles from the mainland; that body size and size-specific foot length increased with increasing geographical isolation and distance from mainland; and that the differences in body size and size-specific foot length were genetically based. These findings provide rare evidence for relatively recent (less than 1000 years) and rapid (corresponding to 100-250 darwins) evolution of traits facilitating dispersal and recolonization in island metapopulations.

  • 148.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pike Esox lucius as an emerging model organism for studies in ecology and evolutionary biology: a review.2015In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 472-479Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pikeEsox luciusis a large, long-lived, iteroparous, top- predator fish species with a circumpolardistribution that occupies a broad range of aquatic environments. This study reports on a literaturesearch and demonstrates that the publication rate ofE. luciusresearch increases both in absolute termsand relative to total scientific output, and that the focus of investigation has changed over time frombeing dominated by studies on physiology and disease to being gradually replaced by studies on ecol-ogy and evolution.Esox luciuscan be exploited as a model in future research for identifying causes andconsequences of phenotypic and genetic variation at the levels of individuals, populations and speciesas well as for investigating community processes.

  • 149.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wennersten, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Inter-individual variation promotes ecological success of populations and species: evidence from experimental and comparative studies2016In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 630-648Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological diversity is threatened by exploitation, fragmentation of natural habitats, pollution, climatechange, and anthropogenic spread of species. The question of how among-individual variation influencesthe performance of populations and species is a poorly explored but currently growing field of research.Here, we review 31 experimental and 14 comparative studies and first investigate whether there is empiricalsupport for the propositions that higher levels of among-individual phenotypic and genetic variationpromote the ecological and evolutionary success of populations and species in the face of environmentalchange. Next, we examine whether and how the effect of diversity depends on environmental conditions.Finally, we explore whether the relationship linking population fitness to diversity is typically linear,asymptotic, or whether the benefits peak at intermediate diversity. The reviewed studies provide strong,almost invariable, evidence that more variable populations are less vulnerable to environmental changes,show decreased fluctuations in population size, have superior establishment success, larger distributionranges, and are less extinction prone, compared with less variable populations or species. Given theoverwhelming evidence that variation promotes population performance, it is important to identifyconditions when increased variation does not have the theoretically expected effect, a question ofconsiderable importance in biodiversity management, where there are many other practical constraints. Wefind that experimental outcomes generally support the notion that genetic and phenotypic variation is ofgreater importance under more stressful than under benign conditions. Finally, population performanceincreased linearly with increasing diversity in the majority (10 of 12) of manipulation studies that includedfour or more diversity levels; only two experiments detected curvilinear relationships.

  • 150.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wennersten, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Variation in founder groups promotes establishment success in the wild2012In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 279, no 1739, p. 2800-2806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes currently pose severe threats to biodiversity, and reintroductions and translocations are increasingly used to protect declining populations and species from extinction. Theory predicts that establishment success should be higher for more variable groups of dissimilar individuals. To test this ‘diversity promotes establishment’ hypothesis, we introduced colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) to different sites in the wild. The number of descendants found at the release sites the subsequent year increased with increasing number of colour morphs in the founder group, and variation in founder groups also positively affected colour morph diversity in the established populations. Since colour morphs differ in morphology, physiology, behaviour, reproductive life history and types of niche used, these findings demonstrate that variation among individuals in functionally important traits promotes establishment success under natural conditions, and further indicate that founder diversity may contribute to evolutionary rescue and increased population persistence.

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