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  • 101.
    Bladh, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Probiotika som komplement vid Helicobacter pylori-eradikering: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Being infected by Helicobacter pylori is very common all around the world. Research indicates that low socioeconomic status, overcrowding and bad hygiene most likely increases the risk of being infected by Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter pylori infects the stomach and/or duodenal mucosa, which can result in a gastric ulcer and gastritis. Therefore, treatment should be instituted directly after Helicobacter pylori has been detected, to reduce the risk of developing gastric cancer. Treatment for a infection caused by Helicobacter pylori often involves a triple therapy treatment consisting of a proton-pump inhibitor and two different types of antibiotics. Research indicates that probiotics could have positive effects regarding treatment against Helicobacter pylori.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to examine if triple therapy treatment in combination with probiotics is a more effective treatment for patients infected by Helicobacter pylori, than with triple therapy treatment alone.

    Method: This study is designed as a literature study. Six different scientific, randomized, clinically tested original articles were examined. The literature search was conducted in the database PubMed.

    Result: There was a significant difference in four studies between the intervention group, which was assigned probiotics + triple therapy, and the control group, which was assigned only triple therapy treatment.

    Conclusion: The conclusion is that probiotics combined with triple therapy treatment is somewhat more effective than triple therapy treatment alone. A treatment with probiotics before and after a treatment with triple therapy treatment gave the largest effect. Further studies are needed to ensure the effect of probiotics with a triple therapy treatment.

  • 102.
    Bohlenius, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Påverkas hälsan av den fysiska aktivitetsnivån för bröstcancerpatienter under cytostatikabehandling? 2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Bröstcancer är den vanligast förekommande cancerformen hos kvinnor. Vid diagnos och behandling är det vanligt med psykiska reaktioner och biverkningar. Bland annat förekommer ångest, oro, infektionskänslighet och trötthet. Fysisk aktivitet bidrar till många positiva hälsoeffekter som exempelvis ökad muskelstyrka och kondition, minskad depression och ångest och förbättrat immunförsvar. Detta gör det intressant att undersöka om detta samband även förekommer hos bröstcancerpatienter som genomgår cytostatikabehandling.

    Syfte: Syfte med studien är att undersöka hur hälsan påverkas av den fysiska aktivitetsnivån hos bröstcancerpatienter som genomgår cytostatikabehandling.

    Metod: Arbetet är en litteraturstudie. Artiklar söktes i databasen PubMed. Inklusionskriterier var att artiklarna skulle undersöka effekter av fysisk aktivitet avseende hälsan hos bröstcancerpatienter som behandlas med cytostatika.

    Resultat: Bröstcancerpatienter som utförde fysisk aktivitet under sin cytostatikabehandling, förbättrade, bibehöll eller minskade nedsättning av status på flertalet av de hälsoområden som undersöktes. På vissa hälsoområden sågs ingen skillnad mellan tränings- eller kontrollgrupp eller så var skillnaden inte signifikant. Fysisk aktivitet sågs inte i någon studie försämra hälsan hos patienterna. I något fall sågs att en mindre träningsdos var bättre än en högre. Fysisk aktivitet gav inga biverkningar.

    Slutsats: En ökad aktivitetsnivå för denna patientgrupp ger positiva hälsoeffekter, därmed bör fysisk aktivitet rekommenderas. 

  • 103.
    Bohman, Björn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Flematti, Gavin R.
    University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Practical one-pot stereospecific preparation of vicinal and 1,3-diols2017In: Tetrahedron Letters, ISSN 0040-4039, E-ISSN 1359-8562, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 75-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A facile one-pot synthesis providing vicinal diols and 1,3-diols in >95% stereoisomeric purity from commercially available enantiopure hydroxy esters has been developed. The esters were reduced with DIBALH and alkylated in situ with 4-pentenylmagnesium bromide, which after workup generated the title diols as diastereomeric pairs. These pairs were easily separated by preparative chromatography, affording products with retained stereoisomeric purity from the starting materials. This method represents an expedient preparation of many common natural products, such as cerambycid beetle pheromones and intermediates towards bicyclic acetal bark beetle pheromones. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 104.
    Bohman, Björn
    et al.
    Univ Western Australia, Australia.
    Weinstein, Alyssa M.
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Lorenzo, Marcelo G.
    Fiocruz MS, Brazil.
    Attraction of Rhodnius prolixus males to a synthetic female-pheromone blend2018In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 11, article id 418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus Stal, 1859 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) is the primary vector of Chagas disease in Colombia and Venezuela. An important step in controlling Chagas disease is monitoring the growth and spread of bug populations to inform effective management. Such monitoring could be carried out using pheromone traps. To develop effective pheromone traps, it is vital to understand the pheromone chemistry of R. prolixus. Previous studies have found that female R. prolixus metasternal gland secretions induce males to: leave shelters, take off, orientate during walking, aggregate around mating pairs, and mate. This study aims to identify a synthetic blend of female metasternal gland compounds that could be used to attract R. prolixus. Results: We investigated the electrophysiological activity of the ten most abundant compounds in female R. prolixus metasternal glands using single sensillum recordings. In total we obtained 60 recordings from basiconic sensilla in male R. prolixus. In 31 of these recordings, responses to individual compounds were observed. Each of the ten tested compounds elicited neuron responses in a minimum of eight recordings. Having confirmed their electrophysiological activity, we tested these ten compounds by presenting them to male Rhodnius prolixus in a 7 olfactometer. Male bugs showed a significant preference for the blend of metasternal gland compounds compared to the clean air control. Conclusions: A simple blend of ten compounds found in female R. prolixus metasternal glands is attractive to conspecific males. All compounds in the blend are either commercially available at low cost, or easily synthetically prepared from simple precursors. We hope that this blend will be evaluated as a lure for pheromone traps in field bioassays.

  • 105.
    Boletini, Faik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Ger tillägg av ARB till redan pågående behandling med ACE-hämmare hos hjärtsviktspatienter bättre hälso- och kostnadseffekt?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Heart failure is a condition where the heart is incapable of providing adequate blood supply to different organs in the body. The underlying causes of heart failure is some kind of disorder in the heart function, and require careful diagnostics. The basic symptoms that arise from heart failure is difficulty in breathing, that aggravate when lying down, and fatigue. The patients’ symptoms and impaired quality of life can be in different stages depending on the severity of the heart failure. Heart failure is a present widespread disease with numerical superiority which is more likely to affect elderly patients. Heart failure is a very expensive condition and causes enormous costs for the society. The basic treatment of heart failure consists of ACE-inhibitors in combination with beta blockers and with additional diuretics. If intolerance occurs with ACE-inhibitors, often in the form of dry cough, then treatment with angiotensin receptor inhibitors (ARB) will be used instead. The aim of the study was to find out if additional treatment with ARB in patients diagnosed with heart failure and receiving basic treatment with ACE-inhibitors lead to better health or had any economic advantage.

    The method used consists of literature search studies in the Pubmed database. The search gave a total of 103 articles of which six were chosen. The criteria for inclusion was that it should be clinical trials which were not older than 14 years and that the studies should be based on humans. Two of the six studies that were chosen were health economic studies. The studies were randomized, double blind, placebo controlled and included a large number of patients.

    The results from the studies showed that there were no significant improvements on mortality or morbidity, when additional treatment with ARB was given to heart failure patients already receiving treatment with ACE-inhibitors. A decrease in hospital admission was seen, but at the same time there were more adverse events arising that lead to discontinuation of study treatment. The economic studies showed a higher medical service cost when treatment with ARB was added and the reason for this were that ARB drugs were more expensive than ACE-inhibitors.

    It is concluded that the additional treatment with ARB in patients diagnosed with heart failure and already receiving treatment with ACE-inhibitors had no favorable effect neither from a health perspective or an economic perspective. However, health economic studies that are made from a society point of view are required to be able to draw definite conclusions regarding the economic part.

  • 106.
    Bolme, Linn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kartläggning av en nyupptäckt familj av neuropeptider: Alfa-8, Alfa-9 och Alfa-102019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: I hudslemmet till slemmasken av arten långsnöre, Lineus longissimus,har svenska forskare hittat en ny familj av toxiska peptider, ICK-neurotoxiner, som forskarna kallat a-nemertider. Dessa a-nemertider har visat sig ha mycket potent aktivitet på spänningsstyrda natriumkanaler. Neurotoxiner har visat sig vara ovärderliga verktyg för att undersöka de spänningsstyrda natriumkanalernas struktur och funktion. Då toxinet visat sig vara oerhört potent mot leddjur som exempelvis strandkrabbor och kackerlackor har forskarna föreslagit att a-nemertider i framtiden skulle kunna användas för att bekämpa olika skadedjur. 

    Syfte: Veckning av tre peptider; a-8-nemertid-,a-9-nemertid och a-10-nemertid, upprening av peptiderna kromatografiskt och undersökning av deras aktivitet i Artemia salina-assayn där peptidernas toxicitet jämförs med en prototyp-peptid benämnd a-1. 

    Material och metod: I detta arbetet har a-nemertiderna a-8, a-9 och a-10 veckats och upprenats kromatografisk med semi-preparativ HPLC, masspektrometrisk screeningsamt HPLC-UV-ESI-MS. Nemertiderna har sedan frystorkats och åter upprenats för att få så ren peptid som möjligt för vidare analys av aktivitet med Artemia salina-assayn och jämförelse av toxicitet med a-1s EC50, 5x 10-7M. 

    Resultat: En lägre dödlighet/påverkan på saltkräftor med a-8, a-9 och a-10 nemertiderna erhölls i jämförelse med huvudpeptiden a-1, vilket indikerade att särskillt a-9 med ett obestämligt EC50-värde, samt a-8 med EC50 4,60 x 10 -6M och a-10 med EC50 4,56 x 10 -5M inte var lika potenta som a-1-nemertiden. 

    Diskussion och slutsats: Toxcicitet kunde påvisas i de analyserade nemertiderna a-8 och a-10. För a-9 var den toxiska effekten mycket svag. I jämförelse med a-1 skulle mycket högre doser från a-8, a-9 och a-10 krävas för att uppnå EC50. Att studera och kartlägga nya djur och organismer skulle kunna möjliggöra att hitta relevanta toxiner för terapeutiska syften också för människor.

  • 107.
    Boman, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kost, näring, hälsa- studenters kostvanor under åren 2001-2013: En studie över sammanställd kostdata från kursen Kost, näring, hälsa 7,5 hp, Linnéuniversitet, Kalmar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on a dietary survey conducted by Håkan Andersson and Anna Blücher with the help of students in conjunction with the course Food, Nutrition and health, 7.5 credits at the Linnaeus University Kalmar. The study covers the years 2001-2013 and explores whether, and if so how, the students' dietary intake changed during the period, and discusses potential environmental factors underlying potential changes in dietary habits. The study also investigates whether the students follow the Swedish Food Administration guidelines and if their dietary habits are consistent with other surveys from the same interval. The results indicate that there has been a redistribution of macronutrients, e.g. carbohydrates has partly been replaced with fat, but the intake still remains within the nutritional recommendations. This observation is in agreement with other dietary surveys for the same period. However, BMI appears unchanged in this study, in contrast to what has been observed elsewhere. The reasons for the reduced intake of carbohydrates and increased fat intake may be linked to the increased interest in popular diets such as LCHF.

  • 108.
    Boman, Sara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Bergström, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Blücher, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad university.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Dietary habits of Swedish university students in nutrition science between 2001 and 20162016In: Abstracts. The 11th NORDIC NUTRITION CONFERENCE NNC2016. “Bridging nutrition sciences for better health in the Nordic countries”, 2016, article id P470Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the Swedish nutrition recommendations have been kept relatively constant in recent years, public attitudes to different diets have been swinging faster. The National food survey (Riksmaten), being performed in Sweden only once per decade, cannot identify any corresponding rapid changes in diets. Hence, our understanding of potential fluctuations is limited. During the last 15 years, nutrition students at the Linnaeus University (formerly University of Kalmar) have reported their food intake in the context of the course Diet, Nutrition and Health 7,5 hp. The result is an extensive data set comprising more than 1100 individuals and over 2500 days of food intake reports, and although not originally intended or designed as a study, it became apparent that these data could be of interest as an indicator for national dietary trends. Food intake was reported (by weighing or estimating the amounts) for two weekdays and one weekend day per student, along with age, length, sex and weight. Food intake was translated to nutrient intake using Dietist Net software (Kost & Näringsdata).  Admittedly, the data set has some validity problems: the students differ from the Riksmaten study groups in mean age and geographical distribution, and all data was collected during March-April. As students in a nutrition course, they can also be expected to be more interested and more knowledgeable in the nutrition subject than the average person. Nevertheless, the results clearly demonstrate a substantial change in nutrient intake from 2006 and onwards, where the energy from carbohydrates decreased from above 50% to below 40%, and where the energy intake from fat increased from about 25% to 36%. Further details, such as the effects on the intake of selected micronutrients, will be presented.

  • 109.
    Borglund, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hur apotekskunden hanterar och upplever sin ordination med delade tabletter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Old studies shows that prescribing of medications with split tablets dosages occurs in 10 % of all presciptions in Sweden. The aim of this study was to find out if any changes has happened since the old studies and if patients still experience difficulties with split tablets. Another aim is to study if there are any diffrences between how men and women experience dosages with split tablets.

    The method used was an interview study. Patients included were people with prescriptions of split tablets and people who collected prescriptions that included dosages of split tablets for some other person. Customers with prescriptions for animals were excluded.

    171 patients with prescriptions of dosages with split tablets were interviewed. 34 patients experienced that they had problems with tablet splitting and of these patients were 68 % women. The most common problems were that the tablets were small and hard which resulted in different sizes of the tablethalfs and that the tablet crumbled. 49 % of the patients used their fingers to split the tablet into halfs. 31 % used a knife and 14 % used a tabletsplitter.

    The results of this study showed that 2,4 % of the prescriptions had a dosage with split tablets. The study shows that it is more common that women (65 %) split their tablets. Imovane 7,5 mg® is the most common tablet who is splitted. Most of the patients in this study have not considered any alternative to splitting tablets.

  • 110.
    Bossér, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Acknowledging students' voices in the context of a socio-scientific issue2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of SSI in science education calls for interactive pedagogy in which students’ voices, in terms of their knowledge, experiences, values, and emotions, are acknowledged.  However, previous research reveals that it is a challenging task for science teachers to incorporate more interactive pedagogy. Moreover, many science teachers are hesitant to handle values and deal with emotions that may arise in discussions on SSI.

    To extend the knowledge of how the acknowledgement of students’ voices can be promoted, this study explored how students’ voices were acknowledged through teacher-student interactions in a SSI classroom. Recordings of conversations between a teacher and six student groups who were working on a SSI dealing with climate change provided data for the analysis. The concepts of positioning (Harré & Langenhove, 1999) and high level evaluation (Nystrand, 1997) were used as analytical tools.

    The results suggest that the teacher’s positioning of the students as citizens who share the responsibilities and the concerns for the causes and the consequences of climate change invited them to share their emotions, knowledge and experiences in relation to climate change. The results also show that teachers cannot escape the responsibility of supporting students in dealing with negative emotions in relation to SSI, and suggest that one way of dealing with students’ negative emotions is to incorporate discussions of societal efforts to take action in response to SSI. 

  • 111.
    Bossér, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Exploring the complexities of integrating socioscientific issues in science teaching2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Socioscientific issues, SSI, can briefly be described as societal issues in which science plays a role. Dealing with SSI in science education is a means to prepare and empower students for active and responsible participation in a complex, democratic society. The implementation of SSI-based teaching calls for classroom practices in which scientific evidence alongside for example social and ethical perspectives are considered. Discourse-based teaching activities are emphasized as a means to provide opportunities for students to practice negotiations of SSI and explore diverse viewpoints on the issues. Dealing with SSI in science teaching is recognized as a challenging task for science teachers. This thesis aims to provide knowledge to support the implementation of SSI-based science teaching. Three studies involving two upper secondary school science teachers are performed to achieve this aim. The first study makes use of video-stimulated discussions to investigate the two teachers’reflections on their classroom practices while they implement SSI throughout an academic year. The second study utilizes the concept positioning as a tool to identify and describe the ways in which one teacher’s interactions with students during group work make available different parts for the students to play as participants, when dealing with SSI in the classroom. The third study makes use of the concept communicative approach to investigate how the two teachers’ management of classroom discussions sets conditions for the consideration of multiple perspectives relevant to SSI, including the students’ viewpoints. The results provide knowledge useful when making considerations about the design and enactment of teaching activities in relation to specific educational goals. The results suggest that a specific challenge with designing and enacting SSI-based teaching activities is to balance between controlling and directing the teaching activities to promote specific learning goals and providing space for students’ participation and perspectives. The results of employing the analytical tools elucidate how this challenge can play out in classroom practice and contribute with knowledge of the ways in which teachers’ discursive practices play a role in addressing this challenge. Strategies to support teachers’ implementation of SSI-based teaching that take account of teachers’ existing practices are discussed.

  • 112.
    Bossér, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Lärares kommunikativa ansatser under klassrumsdiskussioner om samhällsfrågor med naturvetenskapligt innehåll2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undervisning kring samhällsfrågor med naturvetenskapligt innehåll, SNI, kännetecknas av att beaktande av en rad olika perspektiv, till exempel etiska och sociala, är viktiga vid sidan av kunskaper i och om naturvetenskap. Genom att ge eleverna möjligheter att diskutera och argumentera kring sina och andras perspektiv, kan de utveckla förståelse för frågornas komplexitet och bilda sig en personlig uppfattning i frågan. Tidigare forskning har visat att undervisning kring SNI med öppenhet för olika perspektiv och betydande inslag av elevdeltagande kan innebära stora utmaningar för lärare i naturvetenskap. Syftet med denna studie var att få kunskap om hur klassrumsdiskussioner om SNI kan utformas och genomföras för att främja målen med undervisningen. I studien deltog två gymnasielärare som undervisar i kursen Naturkunskap 1b i årskurs 1 på det Samhällsvetenskapliga programmet. Datamaterialet utgjordes av ljudinspelningar från fyra lektioner som innehöll diskussioner om SNI. Lärarnas användning av olika kommunikativa ansatser under lektionerna analyserades. De kommunikativa ansatserna kan beskrivas som interaktiva respektive icke-interaktiva samt inkluderande flera eller endast ett perspektiv på SNI-frågan. Resultaten synliggör på vilket sätt lärares användning av olika kommunikativa ansatser kan främja eller begränsa utrymmet för elevernas perspektiv i diskussioner om SNI och möjligheten att belysa komplexiteten i en SNI. Studien bidrar därmed med kunskap som kan användas vid överväganden om utformning och genomförande av undervisning kring SNI för att främja olika mål. Vidare föreslås att kommunikativa ansatser kan användas av lärare som ett analytiskt redskap för att reflektera kring och utveckla aspekter av undervisningspraktiken i relation till de mål de vill uppnå.

  • 113.
    Bossér, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Positioning students as participants in discussions and decision-making on socioscientific issues (SSI)2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dealing with socio-scientific issues, SSI, entails emphasizing classroom practices in which multiple sources of knowledge and diverse perspectives on the issues, including the students’ views, are explored. Such classroom practices aim to empower students to participate in decision-making on SSI. This can be accomplished by enhancing the students’ independence as learners and positioning them as legitimate participants in societal discussions on SSI. At the same time, it has been reported that teachers find it difficult to interact with students in ways that promote the students’ independence as learners and encourages them to voice their perspectives, while pursuing intended learning goals in terms of a predefined body of content knowledge. However, detailed studies on teachers’ interactions with students when dealing with SSI are scarce. The present study aims at providing knowledge of characteristics of teachers’ interactions with students that are relevant to the positioning of students in the SSI classroom. Data consisted of transcripts of audio-recorded interactions between an upper secondary school science teacher and six student groups dealing with a SSI on climate change. Positioning theory was used as a lens to analyze the transcripts with respect to the following research questions: 1) How are the students positioned as participants in the classroom? 2) How are the students positioned in relation to the issue under consideration? The results show that the teacher-student interactions supported or undermined students’ empowerment by making available or delimiting different positions for the students as participants in the classroom and in discussion and decision-making on SSI. The different positions sometimes align with disparate educational aims. Consequently, knowledge of how the teacher-student interactions functioned to position the students is suggested to support teachers to promote students’ pursuit of intended educational outcomes when dealing with SSI.

  • 114.
    Bossér, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Students' positioning in the classroom: a study of teacher-student interactions in a socioscientific issue context2019In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 371-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of socioscientific issues (SSI) in science education calls for emphasizing dialogic classroom practices that include students’ views together with multiple sources of knowledge and diverse perspectives on the issues. Such classroom practices aim to empower students to participate in decision-making on SSI. This can be accomplished by enhancing their independence as learners and positioning them as legitimate participants in societal discussions. However, this is a complex task for science teachers. In this study, we introduce positioning theory as a lens to analyse classroom discourse on SSI in order to enhance our knowledge of the manners by which teachers’ interactions with students make available or promote different positions for the students, that is, different parts for the students to play as participants, when dealing with SSI in the classroom. Transcripts of interactions between one teacher and six student groups, recorded during two lessons, were analysed with respect to the positioning of the students as participants in the classroom, and in relation to the SSI under consideration. The results show that the teacher-student interactions made available contrasting student positions. The students were positioned by the teacher or positioned themselves as independent learners or as dependent on the teacher. Furthermore, the students were positioned as affected by the issue but as spectators to public negotiations of the issue. Knowledge about the manner in which teacher-student interactions can function to position students seems important for dialogic classroom practices and the promotion of student positions that sustain the pursuit of intended educational outcomes.

  • 115.
    Bossér, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Teachers’ Coordination of Dialogic and Authoritative Discourses Promoting Specific Goals in Socioscientific Issue-Based Teaching2020In: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 1571-0068, E-ISSN 1573-1774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of socioscientific issues (SSI) into science teaching requires that teachers manage classroom discussions in which various perspectives are considered and students’ contributions are recognized. The present study aimed to provide knowledge of how classroom discussions on SSI can be structured and implemented to pursue specific teaching purposes. In this study, two secondary science teachers’ employment of communicative approaches during four discussions on SSI was analysed. In the studied context, communicative approaches can be described as involving various or only a single perspective on SSI and as being either interactive or non-interactive. The results elucidate how teachers can make purposeful use of different communicative approaches to facilitate students’ decision-making while promoting complexity in their reasoning. The results also show how teachers can promote cumulativity, in terms of their recognition of students’ contributions to discussions. It is proposed that teachers can use the concept of communicative approaches as an analytical tool to reflect on and develop aspects of teaching practice in relation to the goals that they wish to achieve.

  • 116.
    Bossér, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Teachers’ management of classroom discussions on socioscientific issues2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of socioscientific issues (SSI) in science education requires teachers to manage open-ended discussions in which multiple perspectives, including students’ personal viewpoints, are considered. While this is recognised as a complex task for science teachers, research on teachers’ management of classroom discourse regarding SSI is scarce. This study aims at providing knowledge significant for the advancement of classroom practices suitable for dealing with multiple perspectives, including students’ contributions. The concept of communicative approach and the concept of position were used as tools to analyse transcripts of two teachers’ management of whole class discussions on four different SSI. The teachers’ use of different communicative approaches for different purposes was analysed. How certain features of the discourse, such as the types of questions used, functioned to position the students as contributors to the discussions was also examined. The results show that multiple perspectives, including students’ contributions, were recognized through a complex interplay between communicative approaches that made available contrasting student positions. The results indicate that strategies to build instruction on students’ contributions are particularly important to promote students’ participation in classroom discussions on SSI. The results also show that the interplay between questions that request students’ personal viewpoints and questions that are targeted towards decision-making is important to consider in relation to the aims of SSI-based education.

  • 117.
    Bossér, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Lundin, Mattias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala University.
    Challenges faced by teachers implementing socio-scientific issues as core elements in their classroom practices2015In: European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 2301-251X, E-ISSN 2301-251X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 159-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers may face considerable challenges when implementing socio‐scientific issues (SSI) in their classroom practices, such as incorporating student‐centred teaching practices and exploring knowledge and values in the context of socio-scientific issues. This year‐long study explores teachers’ reflections on the process of developing their classroom practices when implementing SSI. Video‐recorded discussions between two upper secondary school science teachers and an educational researcher, grounded in the teachers’ reflections on their classroom practices, provided data for the analysis. The results show that during the course of the implementation the teachers enhanced their awareness of the importance of promoting students’ participation and supporting their independence as learners. However, the results also suggest a conflict between the enactment of a student‐centred classroom practice and the achievement of intended learning goals. In order to accept the challenge of implementing SSI in the classroom, it is suggested that it is essential for teachers to build strategies, which integrate dialogue about learning goals.

  • 118.
    Bossér, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Lundin, Mattias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Linder, Cedric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala universitet.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Teachers’ challenges when faced with developing their practice through the integration of SSI2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Boye, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Viktminskning med liraglutid2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Övervikt och fetma har ökat i världen de senaste åren. För att behandla dessa tillstånd finns idag endast ett godkänt läkemedel och det är orlistat. Liraglutid, som är en långverkande GLP-1 analog, kanske kan vara ett alternativ till orlistat. Idag är Liraglutid ett läkemedel som används som tilläggsterapi vid behandling av diabetes mellitus typ 2 (DM2). Flera studier visar att Liraglutid har en viktminskande effekt som troligtvis beror på en kombination av effekter. Dessa effekter involverar troligen aptitregleringen som styrs av hypotalamus och effekter på magtarmkanalen.   

    Syfte: Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka vilken viktminskningseffekt liraglutid har när det används som monoterapi hos patienter med eller utan DM2.                                                                                                           

    Metod: Detta arbete är en litteraturstudie. Sökning efter randomiserade kliniska studier skedde på PubMed. 6 studier inkluderades i arbetet.                                                                                                                                

    Resultat: Patienterna som gick ner mest i vikt fick liraglutid dosen 3,0 mg. Dessa patienter var individer med fetma utan DM2 och gick i medel ner 7,2 kg efter 20 veckor samt 7,8 kg efter 1 år. Patienter som behandlades med liraglutid i doser från 1,2 mg till 2,4 mg gick ner mellan 2,1 kg (1,2 mg i 52 veckor) och 6,3 kg (2,4 mg i 20 veckor). Bland patienterna med diabetes mellitus typ 2 gick gruppen behandlad med 1,9 mg liraglutid ner mest i vikt (-2,99 kg). Lägre doser från 0,045 mg till 0,75 mg gav inte lika stora resultat på viktminskning.

    Slutsats: Liraglutids viktminskningseffekt är dosberoende. Patienterna som gick ner mest i vikt fick högsta dosen och också instruktioner om att hålla en kalorisnål diet. Grupperna som fick de lägsta doserna av liraglutid tappade inget eller väldigt lite i vikt. Både patienter med och utan DM2 gick ner i vikt. I behandlingen utav DM2 kan viktminskningseffekten vara till värde på grund av kopplingen till övervikt och fetma. För att rekommendera liraglutid som ett läkemedel för behandling av övervikt och fetma kan det troligtvis krävas fler studier där viktminskning är ett primärt effektmått och fler studier som undersöker säkerheten av läkemedlet i högre doser hos patienter både med och utan DM2. 

  • 120.
    Brahimi, Kaltrina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Ökar medicinering med protonpumpshämmare risken för Clostridium difficile infektion?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Protonpumpshämmare är en grupp läkemedel som globalt sett tillhör de mest använda läkemedlen. De används vid t.ex. magsårssjukdomar och hämmar utsöndring av saltsyra i magsäcken vilket leder till att pH ökar. Clostridium difficile är en grampositiv stav- och sporbildande bakterie som vid antibiotikabehandling kan orsaka svåra diarréer. Det misstänks att protonpumpshämmare (PPI) kan orsaka överväxt av Clostridium difficile. Mekanismen bakom detta är fortfarande oklar men den vegetativa formens och sporernas överlevnad i magsäcken verkar underlättas vid minskning av magsyran, d.v.s. medicinering med PPI.

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om medicinering med syrahämmande läkemedel, protonpumpshämmare, ökar risken för utveckling av Clostridium difficile infektion.

    Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie av fall-kontroll-och kohortstudier samt metaanalyser från databasen Pubmed.

    Resultaten från samtliga studier, förutom en fall-kontrollstudie, påvisade ett statistiskt signifikant ökat odds att drabbas av Clostridium difficile infektion och även återkommande infektion vid PPI-användning.

    Slutsatsen är att det krävs kliniska prövningar för att styrka denna observation, dock är det sannolikt omöjligt att genomföra sådana dels p.g.a. behovet av ett stort antal försökspersoner samt kostnaden. De granskade studierna är inga kliniska prövningar med högt bevisvärde, utan av typen fall-kontroll- och kohort-studier. Dock påvisas statistiskt signifikant koppling mellan behandlingen med PPI och utveckling av Clostridium difficile infektion i samma riktning även i många andra studier. Åtgärder bör vidtas för att minska överanvändning av PPI och för att använda dem endast när det välmotiverat. Läkare och befolkningen i allmänhet bör också uppmärksammas på denna allvarliga komplikation som är kopplad till medicinering med protonpumpshämmare.

  • 121.
    Brandeby, Jessika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Påverkar behandling med karbamazepin minnesfunktioner och därmed inlärningsförmåga?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Epilepsy is a neurological disease in which there is a sudden and unprovoked discharge of neocortical neurons at more than one occasion. Pharmacological treatment with carbamazepine is the first choice for partial onset seizures with or without secondary generalization. Both seizures and carbamazepine can cause patients to experience impaired memory functions which also their relatives notice. Epileptic seizures depend on high-frequency stimulation in cerebral nerve cells. The drug carbamazepine acts by stabilizing neuronal membranes and thereby reduces neuronal excitability. The storage of processed sensory information seems to require stimulation that activates glutamate release, AMPA receptors and NMDA receptors which are mechanisms that may be disturbed by carbamazepine.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment with carbamazepine is affecting memory functions and thereby learning ability.

    Methods: This literature study was based on eight scientific articles that have been searched for at PubMed in January 2015. They related to different factors (in addition to antiepileptic drugs) that could be important for memory functions and how carbamazepine (antiepileptic drug) might influence memory in healthy volunteers, after withdrawal, in epilepsy patients and in animal tests.

    Results: The influence of factors such as electroconvulsive therapy (human study) and short versus long seizures (animal study) on memory functions showed a reduction in both subjective and objective assessment and neuron loss in the hippocampus with 14-26 % against 34-50 %. In rodent brain slices carbamazepine caused a reduction in long-term potentiation size by 55 % compared to the control group (p < 0.01). Human studies investigating the effects of carbamazepine on memory functions showed ambiguous results.

    Conclusions: Some animal studies indicate that carbamazepine and epileptic seizures have a negative effect on long-term potentiation and spatial memory, which both seem to be dependent on NMDA-receptor activation in the hippocampus area. Extrapolating to human effects at therapeutic doses can be difficult since rodents are less developed. The human studies on carbamazepine effects on memory functions gave no clear information to draw any conclusions from. Randomized and blinded studies with sufficiently large populations, with comparable groups, conducted in epilepsy seizure-free patients with carefully selected, standardized objective tests could possibly provide answers with clinical relevance.

  • 122.
    Brattkvist, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Tarmflorans och kostens relation till fetma2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity has increased dramatically during the past decades over the whole world, and has resulted in an increase of obesity-related diseases. The potential contributing factors to obesity are a combination of increase in the availability of energy-rich foods, environmental, lifestyle-related, genetic and pathological factors. New research has led to more knowledge about the gut microbiota and its role in health and studies show a difference in the microbial communities of lean vs. obese humans and animals. These findings have created an interest in research to understand gut microbiota composition and its relation to obesity so that the knowledge can be used in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The aim of this project was to analyse scentific articles and investigate the relation between the gut microbiota, diet and obesity. The studies showed differences in gut microbiota composition between lean vs. obese individuals, and that the composition affects the microbiotas ability to ferment non-digestible carbonhydrates in the colon. The studies also showed that the gut microbiota is related to inflammation, and inflammation is another factor that´s also related to obesity. There is a need for further studies to answer the question if the composition of the gut microbiota is the cause or the consequence of obesity, and which bacteria that for example through dietary modulation, can have a positive effect on obesity. 

  • 123.
    Brevestedt, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hur exponeras barn för ftalater i sin inomhusmiljö på förskolan?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ftalater är ett ämne som har till syfte att verka mjukgörande i plast. Ftalater finns i flera material och produkter i vår omgivning t ex i leksaker, elektronik, textilier och i inredningsmaterial. De problem som uppkommer i samband med användandet av ftalater i produkter är att ftalaterna inte är kovalent bundna till sitt material och därmed kan dessa frigöras ut i luft och damm. Flera ftalater är klassade som hormonstörande ämnen och kan påverka flera viktiga funktioner i kroppen. Barn är en extra känslig grupp då flera av deras organ ännu inte är färdigutvecklade och är beroende av ett fungerande endokrint system.

     

    Barn spenderar en stor del av sin vardag på förskolan och det ställer krav på deras inomhusmiljö. Studier visar på att koncentrationerna av ftalater är 2-4 gånger så hög i förskolans inomhusmiljö som i hemmiljön. Med tanke på att barn har flera organsystem under utveckling är det viktigt att fasa ut onödiga källor för exponering av ftalater.

     

    Arbetets syfte är att kartlägga ftalater i inomhusmiljön på förskolor i Växjö kommun och att undersöka pedagogers medvetenhet kring ämnet. Arbetet utgår från tidigare vetenskapliga artiklar och en enkätundersökning som personal på 46 förskolor i Växjö kommun har besvarat.

     

    Studier som undersökt inomhusmiljöer visar på att det förekommer höga koncentrationer av ftalater som är begränsade enligt REACH-förordningen. Då ftalater finns i flera produkter blir det många olika exponeringskällor och det gör det viktigt att fasa ut onödiga källor för att minska koncentrationen av ftalater i luft och damm. De mest intressanta resultat som kommit fram via enkätundersökningen är att det förekommer plastgolv i de flesta lokaler, elektronik finns i de rum där barnen spenderar mest tid och att barn använder “vuxna leksaker” såsom äldre elektronik, väskor och skor. Ett resultat som visar att barn lever i en allt mer vuxen miljö med produkter som är avsedda för vuxna. Sådana produkter täcks inte in av de begränsningar som REACH-förordningen skapat och täcks inte heller av de nya leksaksdirektiven.  

    Förskolepedagogerna uppger sig vara medvetna om ämnet ftalater men ändå visar undersökningen att det finns en rad olika brister i kunskap. Det är därför viktigt att öka kunskapen och medvetenheten kring ämnet för att på så sätt fasa ut onödiga källor för exponering av ftalater. 

  • 124.
    Brkic, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Blir behandlingen av reumatoid artrit mer effektiv med tillägg av infliximab och är biosimilaren CT-P13 lika effektiv?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic joint disease which mechanism of action is unknown. The immune mechanism initiates an inflammatory process that mainly affects the joints, which can lead to cartilage and bone damage but also to some generalized symptoms such as fatigue and inflammatory anemia. At present, RA is primarily treated with methotrexate (MTX) as monotherapy. Studies in the field indicate that MTX in combination with infliximab, a monoclonal antibody, is more effective in treating RA than MTX treatment alone. Most likely, infliximab is not used as first-hand therapy since the reference product Remicade® is very expensive. In 2015 the patent for Remicade® expired and there are now cheaper biosimilars available that have been approved for the same indication as Remicade®.

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether MTX in combination with infliximab is more effective than MTX alone in the treatment of active RA and evaluating whether there is equivalence between the reference product Remicade® and the CT-P13 biosimilar.

    The medical and bioscience database PubMed was used to obtain the scientific articles analyzed in this literature study. From PubMed 5 articles were selected for further analysis. The delimitation of the search was: indication RA, MTX, infliximab and biosimilar (CT-P13).

    Articles 1-3, based on the outcome variables of the studies indicated that infliximab in combination with MTX is more effective than MTX treatment alone in the treatment of active RA. Articles 4-5 examined equivalence between the reference product for infliximab (RP) and the biosimilar CT-P13 in the treatment of active RA. The analysis and results of articles 4-5 showed that there was a similarity between RP and CT-P13 in treatment of active RA.

    Based on this small-scale literature study, treatment with MTX in combination with infliximab seems more beneficial for disease control in active RA than MTX treatment alone. In addition, the biosimilar CT-P13 appears to be equivalent to the reference product Remicade® in the treatment of active RA. Replacement of Remicade® to CT-P13 can mean major savings in healthcare and the therapeutic recommendation for active RA may need to be reviewed as there are now effective, cheaper alternatives.

  • 125.
    Brown, Robert L.
    et al.
    The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Ltd, New Zealand ; University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    El-Sayed, Ashraf M
    The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Ltd, New Zealand.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Ltd, New Zealand.
    Beggs, Jacqueline R
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Suckling, David M
    The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Ltd, New Zealand ; University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Invasive Vespula Wasps Utilize Kairomones to Exploit Honeydew Produced by Sooty Scale Insects, Ultracoelostoma.2015In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 41, no 11, p. 1018-1027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vespula wasps are widely distributed invasive alien species that are able to reach high population densities in the 1.2 M ha of beech forests (Fuscospora spp.) of New Zealand's South Island. These endemic temperate forests have an abundance of carbohydrate-rich honeydew produced by native scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp.). A characteristic aroma is associated with the honeydew in beech forests, which we hypothesized is the signal used by wasps to harvest the vast resources previously exploited by birds and other insects. Volatile collections were taken of black beech tree trunks with honeydew and sooty mold present, and analyzed with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Eleven compounds (benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, methyl 2-phenylacetate, ethyl 2-phenylacetate, methyl salicylate, n-octanol, octan-3-ol, and 1-octen-3-ol) were positively identified from the headspace, and were shown to elicit an electrophysiological response from Vespula vulgaris worker antennae by using electroantennography (EAG). Field trials with delta traps individually baited with these compounds confirmed wasp attraction to 8 of the 11 compounds tested, with 2-phenylethyl acetate, methyl salicylate, and octan-3-ol capturing the same numbers of wasps as the control. In later trials, attraction to a 1:1 blend of benzaldehyde and n-octanol was significantly higher (45 %) than to any other treatment. Many of the chemicals identified are known to be associated with fermenting sugars, or with fungal aroma. Benzaldehyde and n-octanol are common compounds produced by many different species in nature. The ability to respond to generic signals emanating from sugar resources is likely to contribute to the success of V. vulgaris as an invasive species.

  • 126.
    Brown, Robert L.
    et al.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd.
    El-Sayed, Ashraf M.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Suckling, David M.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd.
    Attraction of the invasive social wasp, Vespula vulgaris, by volatiles from fermented brown sugar2014In: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, ISSN 0013-8703, E-ISSN 1570-7458, Vol. 151, no 2, p. 182-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of invasive social wasp species of the genus Vespula (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to New Zealand has caused a major ecological problem, particularly in the beech forests (Nothofagus spp.) of the South Island, where they have destabilized the native bird and invertebrate biodiversity. New attractants are under investigation as part of a search for pest management solutions. Fermenting brown sugar has been previously reported as a social wasp attractant. This work was undertaken to identify compounds from fermented brown sugar attractive to social wasps. Raw fermented brown sugar was confirmed to be attractive in a field trial and 10 chemical compounds present in the headspace were positively identified by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and synthetic references. During electroantennogram experiments, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methylbutyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate elicited high electrophysiological responses from Vespula vulgaris (L.) antennae. These compounds mediated attraction of V.vulgaris wasps in forest margins by trapping. A blend of these compounds could be used as a lure in a monitoring tool, or even a local suppression method if combined with a toxin.

  • 127.
    Bruun, Jesper
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala University, Sweden;University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Network analysis and qualitative discourse analysis of a classroom group discussion2019In: International Journal of Research and Method in Education, ISSN 1743-727X, E-ISSN 1743-7288, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 317-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new methodology is proposed for qualitative discourse analysis (QDA) aimed at gaining enhanced insights into learning possibilities and indicators that arise during classroom group discussions. The constitution of this new methodology has two principle components: a discourse analysis approach that aims to identify the relationships between content and group dynamics; and a network analysis (NA) approach that uses the same data to identify meaning-related structural dynamics found in the data. The proposed methodology pairs these two components to create a supplementary iterative interchange that facilitates the attainment of greater analytic insights than are achievable by either of the two components individually. The critical aspects of the methodology are illustrated and discussed using real classroom data in ways that provide a procedural exemplar. The strengths and limitations of the proposed methodology are also discussed.

  • 128.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    S100A4 and its role in metastasis – computational integration of data on biological networks2015Other (Other academic)
  • 129.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Dethlefsen, Olga
    Stockholm University.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Transcriptomic analysis reveals how a lack of potassium ions increases Sulfolobus acidocaldarius sensitivity to pH changes2016In: Microbiology, ISSN 1350-0872, E-ISSN 1465-2080, Vol. 162, no 8, p. 1422-1434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extremely acidophilic microorganisms (optimum growth pH of ≤3) maintain a near neutral cytoplasmic pH via several homeostatic mechanisms, including an inside positive membrane potential created by potassium ions. Transcriptomic responses to pH stress in the thermoacidophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were investigated by growing cells without added sodium and/or potassium ions at both optimal and sub-optimal pH. Culturing the cells in the absence of added sodium or potassium ions resulted in a reduced growth rate compared to full-salt conditions as well as 43 and 75 significantly different RNA transcript ratios, respectively. Differentially expressed RNA transcripts during growth in the absence of added sodium ions included genes coding for permeases, a sodium/proline transporter and electron transport proteins. In contrast, culturing without added potassium ions resulted in higher RNA transcripts for similar genes as a lack of sodium ions plus genes related to spermidine that has a general role in response to stress and a decarboxylase that potentially consumes protons. The greatest RNA transcript response occurred when S. acidocaldarius cells were grown in the absence of potassium and/or sodium at a sub-optimal pH. These adaptations included those listed above plus osmoregulated glucans and mechanosensitive channels that have previously been shown to respond to osmotic stress. In addition, data analyses revealed two co-expressed IclR family transcriptional regulator genes with a previously unknown role in the S. acidocaldarius pH stress response. Our study provides additional evidence towards the importance of potassium in acidophile growth at acidic pH.

  • 130.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Università della Svizzera Italiana, Italy;Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Switzerland.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Computer simulations of the signalling network in FLT3+-acute myeloid leukaemia: indications for an optimal dosage of inhibitors against FLT3 and CDK62018In: BMC Bioinformatics, ISSN 1471-2105, E-ISSN 1471-2105, Vol. 19, p. 1-13, article id 155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) are associated with uncontrolled cellular functions that contribute to the development of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We performed computer simulations of the FLT3-dependent signalling network in order to study the pathways that are involved in AML development and resistance to targeted therapies.

    Results

    Analysis of the simulations revealed the presence of alternative pathways through phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and SH2-containing sequence proteins (SHC), that could overcome inhibition of FLT3. Inhibition of cyclin dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), a related molecular target, was also tested in the simulation but was not found to yield sufficient benefits alone.

    Conclusions

    The PI3K pathway provided a basis for resistance to treatments. Alternative signalling pathways could not, however, restore cancer growth signals (proliferation and loss of apoptosis) to the same levels as prior to treatment, which may explain why FLT3 resistance mutations are the most common resistance mechanism. Finally, sensitivity analysis suggested the existence of optimal doses of FLT3 and CDK6 inhibitors in terms of efficacy and toxicity.

  • 131.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Univ Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Switzerland.
    Jensen, Rebecca
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Univ Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Switzerland.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    A computational study of hedgehog signalling involved in basal cell carcinoma reveals the potential and limitation of combination therapy2018In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-8, article id 569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The smoothened (SMO) receptor is an essential component of the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signalling, which is associated with the development of skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC). SMO inhibitors are indicated for BCC patients when surgical treatment or radiation therapy are not possible. Unfortunately, SMO inhibitors are not always well tolerated due to severe side effects, and their therapeutical success is limited by resistance mutations. Methods: We investigated how common are resistance-causing mutations in two genomic databases which are not linked to BCC or other cancers, namely 1000 Genomes and ExAC. To examine the potential for combination therapy or other treatments, we further performed knowledge-based simulations of SHH signalling, in the presence or absence of SMO and PI3K/Akt inhibitors. Results: The database analysis revealed that of 18 known mutations associated with Vismodegib-resistance, three were identified in the databases. Treatment of individuals carrying such mutations is thus liable to fail a priori. Analysis of the simulations suggested that a combined inhibition of SMO and the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway may provide an effective reduction in tumour proliferation. However, the inhibition dosage of SMO and PI3K/Akt depended on the activity of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Under high PDEs activities, SMO became the most important control node of the network. By applying PDEs inhibition, the control potential of SMO decreased and P13K appeared as a significant factor in controlling tumour proliferation. Conclusions: Our systems biology approach employs knowledge-based computer simulations to help interpret the large amount of data available in public databases, and provides application-oriented solutions for improved cancer resistance treatments.

  • 132.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Univ Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Switzerland.
    O'Hare, Thomas
    Univ Utah, USA;Huntsman Canc Inst, USA.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Sensitivity Analysis of the NPM-ALK Signalling Network Reveals Important Pathways for Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Combination Therapy2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 9, article id e0163011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large subset of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) patients harbour a somatic aberration in which anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is fused to nucleophosmin (NPM) resulting in a constitutively active signalling fusion protein, NPM-ALK. We computationally simulated the signalling network which mediates pathological cell survival and proliferation through NPM-ALK to identify therapeutically targetable nodes through which it may be possible to regain control of the tumourigenic process. The simulations reveal the predominant role of the VAV1-CDC42 (cell division control protein 42) pathway in NPM-ALK-driven cellular proliferation and of the Ras / mitogen-activated ERK kinase (MEK) / extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade in controlling cell survival. Our results also highlight the importance of a group of interleukins together with the Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) / signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling in the development of NPM-ALK derived ALCL. Depending on the activity of JAK3 and STAT3, the system may also be sensitive to activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP1), which has an inhibitory effect on cell survival and proliferation. The identification of signalling pathways active in tumourigenic processes is of fundamental importance for effective therapies. The prediction of alternative pathways that circumvent classical therapeutic targets opens the way to preventive approaches for countering the emergence of cancer resistance.

  • 133.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Univ Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland.
    Pivkin, Igor
    Univ Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland ;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Switzerland.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    S100A4 and its role in metastasis – computational integration of data on biological networks2015In: Molecular Biosystems, ISSN 1742-206X, E-ISSN 1742-2051, Vol. 11, p. 2238-2246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterising signal transduction networks is fundamental to our understanding of biology. However, redundancy and different types of feedback mechanisms make it difficult to understand how variations of the network components contribute to a biological process. In silico modelling of signalling interactions therefore becomes increasingly useful for the development of successful therapeutic approaches. Unfortunately, quantitative information cannot be obtained for all of the proteins or complexes that comprise the network, which limits the usability of computational models. We developed a flexible computational framework for the analysis of biological signalling networks. We demonstrate our approach by studying the mechanism of metastasis promotion by the S100A4 protein, and suggest therapeutic strategies. The advantage of the proposed method is that only limited information (interaction type between species) is required to set up a steady-state network model. This permits a straightforward integration of experimental information where the lack of details are compensated by efficient sampling of the parameter space. We investigated regulatory properties of the S100A4 network and the role of different key components. The results show that S100A4 enhances the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), causing higher cell dissociation. Moreover, it leads to an increased stability of the pathological state. Thus, avoiding metastasis in S100A4-expressing tumours requires multiple target inhibition. Moreover, the analysis could explain the previous failure of MMP inhibitors in clinical trials. Finally, our method is applicable to a wide range of biological questions that can be represented as directional networks.

  • 134.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Univ Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland.
    Pivkin, Igor V.
    Univ Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland ; Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Switzerland.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    S100A4 and its role in metastasis: simulations of knockout and amplification of epithelial growth factor receptor and matrix metalloproteinases2015In: Molecular Biosystems, ISSN 1742-206X, E-ISSN 1742-2051, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 2247-2254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The calcium-binding signalling protein S100A4 enhances metastasis in a variety of cancers. Despite a wealth of data available, the molecular mechanism by which S100A4 drives metastasis is unknown. Integration of the current knowledge defies straightforward intuitive interpretation and requires computer-aided approaches to represent the complexity emerging from cross-regulating species. Here we carried out a systematic sensitivity analysis of the S100A4 signalling network in order to identify key control parameters for efficient therapeutic intervention. Our approach only requires limited details of the molecular interactions and permits a straightforward integration of the available experimental information. By integrating the available knowledge, we investigated the effects of combined inhibition of signalling pathways. Through selective knockout or inhibition of the network components, we show that the interaction between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and S100A4 modulates the sensitivity of angiogenesis development to matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity. We also show that, in cells that express high EGFR, MMP inhibitors are not expected to be useful in tumours if high activity of S100A4 is present.

  • 135.
    Bunmeepom, Wiphawee
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Pertuzumab som tillägg till behandling med trastuzumab och docetaxel vid metastaserad HER2-positiv bröstcancer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, about one in ten women develop breast cancer, which makes this the most common type of cancer disease in women. The risk of getting cancer increases with age. Almost 8000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year in Sweden. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) – positive breast cancer, is an aggressive phenotype. About 25 % of the breast cancer tumors are overexpressing HER2 on the cell surface. HER2 is a subunit of the dimeric tyrosin kinase EFGR (HER) that stimulates cell proliferation. Every year, about 1300- 1400 patients advance in their illness and form metastases. Pertuzumab and trastuzumab, are both HER2 monoclonal antibodies. Pertuzumab inhibits the HER2 from heterodimerization with HER3, while trastuzumab inhibits HER2 homodimerization. Since 2007 trastuzumab and cytostatics were approved for treatment of metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate if pertuzumab as an addition to trastuzumab and docetaxel (cytostatic) could prolong the time patients with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer experienced free from progression of their illness in comparison with treatment with only trastuzumab and docetaxel. This study was based on scientific articles identified from the database PubMed. Five studies were selected, one of the studies was the CLEOPATRA-study. CLEOPATRA compared the efficiency and safety of the two selected treatments. Three studies further analyzed and followed up results of the CLEOPATRA-study. Study five investigated the effect of pertuzumab in patients with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer, where disease progression had occurred during trastuzumab treatment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). All articles showed that PFS increased in patients treated with pertuzumab as addition to trastuzumab and docetaxel. Overall survival was also improved during and after the follow-up. The conclusion of this study was that pertuzumab, trastuzumab and docetaxel as treatment for metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer is promising and should be used as first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer with HER2 overexpression.  

  • 136.
    Bustin, Stephen A.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Iba, Michael
    Rutgers University, USA.
    International Journal of Molecular Science Best Paper Award 20142014In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 1683-1685Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Byhlén, Liselott
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Enterobacteriaceae och amoxicillin-klavulansyra: Effekt av bestämt förhållande respektive bestämd koncentration av klavulansyra på MIC-värden och zon/MIC-korrelation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förekomsten av bakterier med olika typer av resistensmekanismer ökar globalt. De varianter som på engelska benämns ”Extended spectrum β-lactamases” (ESBL) är en heterogen grupp β- laktamaser som genom hydrolys inaktiverar β-laktamantibiotika och därigenom ger resistens mot bland annat β -laktamantibiotika som penicilliner och cefalosporiner. Resistensbestämning på kliniska laboratorier utförs huvudsakligen med lappdiffusion eller Minimum Inhibiting Concentration (MIC)-bestämning med gradienttester. Infektioner orsakade av ESBL-producerande organismer kan behandlas med β-laktamantibiotika kombinerat med en β-laktamasinhibitor. I Europa rekommenderas resistensbestämning med bestämd koncentration β-laktamasinhibitor, men produkter på marknaden saknas.

    Syftet med projektet var att utvärdera olika typer av gradienttester med amoxicillin- klavulansyra från två leverantörer (Etest och MIC Test Strip, MTS) och undersöka hur klavulansyra påverkar resistensbestämningen, samt att se hur resultat från lappdiffusion korrelerar med resultat från ovan nämnda tester.

    Lappdiffusion och MIC- bestämning med gradienttester med antingen bestämt förhållande av amoxicillin-klavulansyra (2:1) (Etest och MTS) eller bestämd koncentration klavulansyra (2mg/L) (MTS) utfördes med Escherichia coli (både med ESBL-positiva och ESBL-negativa stammar) samt med Proteus mirabilis. ESBL-detektion med cefpodoxim och cefpodoxim-klavulansyra utfördes parallellt.

    För P. mirabilis korrelerade lappdiffusionsresultat mycket bra med resultat från samtliga gradienttester. För E. coli korrelerade lappdiffusionsresultat mycket bra med MIC-värden vid användning av Etest 2:1 medan MTS 2:1 gav högre MIC-värden än referensdistributionen och resulterade i sämre korrelation. MIC-bestämning med MTS 2 mg/L resulterade i högre MIC-värden.

    Den nuvarande zonbrytpunkten behöver justeras för att korrelera med tolkningen från amoxicillin-klavulansyra med bestämd koncentration av klavulansyra 2 mg/L, framförallt för ESBL- producerande E. coli.

  • 138.
    Bäck, Jennie
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Lood, Christian
    Skåne University Hospital;Lund University.
    Bengtsson, Anders A.
    Skåne University Hospital;Lund University.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Contact activation products are new potential biomarkers to evaluate the risk of thrombotic events in systemic lupus erythematosus2013In: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 15, no 6, article id R206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have persistent platelet activation and an increased risk of thrombotic events, which cannot be accounted for by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Factor (F)XII has a potentially important role in thrombus formation and is triggered by activated platelets. We therefore asked whether the contact system is involved in inflammation and vascular disease (VD) in SLE. Methods: Fibrin clots were incubated with purified FXII or whole blood, and the activation and regulation of FXII were studied. Plasma from SLE patients with (n = 31) or without (n = 38) previous VD and from matched healthy controls (n = 68) were analyzed for the presence of complexes formed between contact system enzymes and antithrombin (AT) or C1 inhibitor (C1INH) and evaluated with regard to clinical data and laboratory parameters. Results: Fibrin clots elicited FXII activation and acted as co-factors for AT. In clotting plasma, the levels of FXIIa-AT increased, and FXIIa-C1INH decreased. A similar reciprocal relationship existed in SLE patients. FXIIa-AT was elevated in the SLE patients with a history of VD, while the corresponding levels of factor FXIIa-C1INH were significantly decreased. FXIIa-AT correlated strongly with platelet parameters. The odds ratio for VD among the SLE patients was 8.9 if they had low levels of FXIIa-C1INH, 6.1 for those with high levels of FXIIa-AT, and increased to 23.4 for those with both decreased levels of FXIIa-C1INH and increased levels of FXIIa-AT. Conclusions: Activation of FXII is elicited by fibrin during thrombotic reactions in vitro and in vivo, and fibrin acts as a heparin-like co-factor and regulates AT. Patients with SLE had altered levels of FXIIa-serpin complexes, supporting that the contact system is involved in this disease. FXIIa-serpin complexes are strongly associated with previous VD in SLE patients, suggesting that these complexes are potential biomarkers for monitoring and assessing the risk of thrombotic events in SLE.

  • 139.
    Bäckström, Annie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jämförelse mellan två nedkylningsmetoder av helblodsenheter för vidare framställning av trombocytkoncentrat avsedda för transfusion2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trombocytopeni behandlas primärt med trombocyttransfusion. Trombocytkoncentraten kan erhållas genom poolning av lättcellskikt framställda ur helblodsenheter från flera blodgivare. Helblodsenheterna kyls vanligen ner på en CompoCool®-platta för att snabbt komma ner till rumstemperatur och kan då prepareras redan efter 2 h. Detta brukar vara logistiskt fördelaktigt och gynnar erytrocyterna som framställs ur samma helblodsenheter. Det går även att låta helblodsenheterna kylas ner i rumstemperatur vilket å andra sidan sägs ge ett högre trombocytutbyte då studier visat att trombocyter är känsliga för kyla. Syftet med examensarbetet var att framställa och jämföra kvaliteten på trombocytkoncentrat där helblodsenheten hade kylts ner på CompoCool®-platta respektive kylts ner i rumstemperatur. Hypotesen var att trombocytutbytet skulle bli högre vid nedkylning av helblodsenheten i rumstemperatur än vid nedkylning på CompoCool®-platta. Framställningen av trombocytkoncentraten gjordes genom poolning av 5 st lättcellskikt och en påse trombocytsuspensionsmedium efterföljt av centrifugering och separation i en automatisk blodkomponents separator. Kvalitén utvärderades med avseende på trombocytkoncentration, leukocytkoncentration, swirling samt bakterieodling. Samtliga resultat för kvalitetskontrollerna låg inom de rekommenderade gränsvärdena. Det beräknade t-testet för trombocytkoncentrationen var högre än det kritiska t-värdet vilket innebar att det var en signifikant skillnad mellan de olika nedkylningsmetoderna. Genom användning av de erhållna resultaten kunde hypotesen bekräftas och slutsatsen dras att trombocytutbytet är signifikant högre då helblodsenheten kyls ner i rumstemperatur jämfört med CompoCool®-platta. 

  • 140.
    Börjesson, Kristin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Metformins effekt på endometriecancer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Metformin är ett biguanidderivat som främst används vid diabetes mellitus typ 2. Det verkar genom ett flertal mekanismer och ökar bland annat insulinkänsligheten. Forskning har visat att det finns ett samband mellan metformin och överlevnad i cancer. Studier pågår för att undersöka metformins antineoplastiska effekt. Övervikt och diabetes ökar risken för endometriecancer och epidemiologiska studier har visat att metformin ger bättre total överlevnad vid endometriecancer. Genom artikelsökning via PubMed erhölls fem studier där metformins effekt på endometriecancervävnad undersöktes. Resultaten i dem varierar men majoriteten pekar på en antiproliferativ effekt av metformin, med avseende på Ki-67. Med vilken verkningsmekanism den effekten erhålls är tvetydligt, då vissa resultat tyder på inhiberad mTOR-signalering medan andra inte visar effekt på de variablerna. En minskning i cirkulerande tillväxtfaktorer insulin och IGF-1 ses, vilket kan ha en inhiberande effekt. Större studier krävs för att kunna avgöra vilken effekt metformin har på endometriecancer.

  • 141.
    Capri, Ardita
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Effekt och biverkningar vid behandling av akne med låg-dos isotretinoin2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When isotretinoin was introduced in the early 1980s, the treatment of severe acne was revolutionized and isotretinoin is today the most effective drug. Isotretinoin has been shown to be the only drug that can delay the skin disease and can also cause healing. The drug acts on all four factors that contribute to the pathogenic mechanism of acne and that makes the drug a unique effective monotherapy. However, isotretinoin has many side effects such as dry skin and dry, chapped lips. It also has a teratogen effect and is prohibited for pregnant women. The drug can only be prescribed by dermatologists and is only prescribed to patients who have not been helped by other acne treatments, such as systemic treatment with antibiotics.

    The conventional doses of isotretinoin are 0,5-1,0 mg/kg daily, but these doses may sometimes cause severe side effects. The aim of this literature study was to investigate whether treatment with low-dose isotretinoin is as effective as the conventional treatment (0,5-1,0 mg/kg/day) against severe acne, and if low-dose treatment results in fewer and milder side effects. This literature study will also investigate if low-dose isotretinoin is a possible treatment option for patients with mild and moderate acne.

    The method used in this study was a literature search in Pubmed database via Linnaeus University Library and it resulted in five studies.  

    Low-dose isotretinoin (< 0,5 mg/kg/day) showed good effect against severe acne and it resulted in fewer and milder side effects than the conventional treatment. However, conventional doses gave earlier effect the first eight weeks of the treatment. In order to get the fastest results, patients with severe acne and who tolerate the high doses can start with conventional treatment and after eight weeks switch to low-dose treatment, thus mitigating the side effects but still gaining therapeutic effect.

    Treatment with low-dose isotretinoin gave a very good result on mild and moderate acne, and can be used to treat the milder forms of the disease.

    The conclusion that can be drawn from this literature study is that isotretinoin at lower doses (<0,5 mg/kg/day) provides a good and effective result in severe acne. An advantage of the lower doses is that they yield fewer and milder side effects compared to conventional treatment (0,5-1,0 mg/kg/day). Low-dose isotretinoin is a good alternative for patients with mild or moderate acne, who have not responded by other acne treatments.

  • 142.
    Carlander, Robin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Uppvisar standarddos vasopressin alternativt högdos adrenalin överlevnadsfördel hos vuxna patienter med hjärtstillestånd jämfört med standarddos adrenalin?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiac arrest is a state when the heart has lost the ability to pump blood to the body which causes cerebral and coronary ischemia. Cardiac arrest is defined as sudden and sustained unconsciousness with pulselessness and suspension of breathing or agonal breathing. Common symptoms that can arise one hour before a cardiac arrest includes dizziness, tiredness, chest pain and breathing difficulties.

    The treatment for cardiac arrest in Sweden includes basic and advanced cardiac life support. The most important measures are cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation and drug administration. The drug of choice is standard dose adrenaline based on its vasoconstricting and thus blood pressure raising effect.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of standard dose vasopressin alternatively high dose adrenaline compared to standard dose adrenaline in adults with cardiac arrest.

    This study is a literature review where seven studies on the effect of standard dose adrenaline compared to standard dose vasopressin alternatively high dose adrenaline on cardiac arrest in adults have been analyzed. The studies were found in the database Pubmed. Four studies evaluate the effect on survival by standard dose vasopressin compared to standard dose adrenaline. Three studies evaluate the effect on survival by high dose adrenaline compared to standard dose adrenaline.

    Patients that were treated with standard dose vasopressin instead of the first or second standard dose adrenaline had better survival to hospital admission (31,6% compared to 26,0%, p <0,01). Patients that were treated with high dose adrenaline instead of standard dose adrenaline had better survival to hospital admission (26,1% compared to 23,1%, p <0,05). There were no effects on survival to hospital discharge for either standard dose vasopressin or high dose adrenaline.

    More studies are needed though with more patients to verify the results of this literature review. It would also be interesting with studies that focus on the different cardiac arrest rhytms. More research is needed about the potential negative effects on the heart and brain caused by high dose adrenaline. The reason for the bad results regarding survival to hospital discharge regardless of vasopressive treatment needs to be evaluated.

  • 143.
    Carlie, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Spädbarns tarmflora & probiotikas effekt vid kolik: Kan skillnader i spädbarns tarmflora förklara kolik och är probiotika en effektiv behandling vid kolik?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One out of five infants suffer from colic during the first three months of life. Otherwise healthy infants suffer from severe crying and are unable to be comforted during at least three consecutive hours per day for more than three days a week. Although colic is a common problem for both babies and parents, there is currently no effective treatment. The etiology is unclear, but smoking and  prepartum maternal mental illness, allergies to foods and an undeveloped gastrointestinal system in infants are believed to be contributing factors. This study reviews eight articles that examine the differences in intestinal flora between infants with and without colic, to see if the differences can explain colic and probiotic effect in colicky infants. Reviewed studies show that the prevalence of Proteobacteria, coliforms and Escherichia coli is higher in infants with colic. Unlike infants without colic, colicky infants exhibit a minor bacterial diversity, reduced colonization of Bacteroidetes and the beneficial bacterial genus of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Breastfed colicky infants treated with the probiotic bacterial strain, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938, obtained, in two out of three studies, a positive effect on colic symtoms without any side effects, where the crying time was reduced to less than half. Results vary geographically and evidence for a probiotic effect on bottle-fed infants with colic is still inadequate. It remains unclear whether an altered intestinal flora can cause colic or is a result of colic as the intestinal flora is very complex and more studies are needed in this area.

  • 144.
    Carlsson, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    En enkätstudie om apotekskunders syn på och kännedom om farmaceuters användning av elektroniskt expertstöd, EES2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drugs are an essential part of health care today. They improve and extend the lives of many people. If drugs are wrongfully combined or given in inaccurate dose, it may lead to poorer quality of life, hospital admissions and even deaths. Drug-related problems cost society a large amount of money each year.

    To minimize these problems, there are now electronic decision supports that doctors and pharmacists can use. At all pharmacies in Sweden, the electronic expert support system available. The EES analyzes electronic prescriptions and doses prescribed and indicates if it detects any potential drug-related problems. Such risks may be that the customer has several drugs with the same effect, drug interactions or that the drug is inappropriate due to age. For children, there are special warnings that may be that the doctor on the prescription has prescribed a higher dose of the drug against what is commonly given to a child.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate pharmacy customers view of and knowledge about pharmacist use of EES. Data were collected via surveys for 100 hours at several different pharmacies in Sweden.

    The vast majority of pharmacy customers did not know of EES, only one fifth of the survey respondents knew what EES meant. Consent from the customer is required for the pharmacist to use EES when dispensing drugs and one third of the customers did not know if they agreed to this or not. Half of the customers did not know if the pharmacist used EES when the drugs were dispensed. Most of the customers also did not know whether their drug dispensing would be safer, if they would get better advice if the EES was used or if they wanted the pharmacist to use EES as a tool in the prescription expedition.

    The study shows that pharmacy customers' views and knowledge about the use of  EES by pharmacists are limited. The reason for this may be that it takes extra time for pharmacists to inform customers about what EES means and ask them for consent that the expert support should be used in the prescription expedition. Many times the pharmacist is experiencing a shortage of time to do this. The reason why EES is not used may be because the pharmacist does not feel adequately educated in how the decision support works and therefore chooses not to use it. It may also be due to communication difficulties such as language problems, hearing impairment or the customer's reduced cognitive ability.

    There is a need for communicative improvements between the customer and the pharmacist so that the pharmacists will increase the use of EES when dispensing drugs. There is also a need for pharmacists to get education in how EES works and how to use the decision support. If this is done, it will provide the customer with a better drug use with reduced risk of side effects and drug-related problems.

  • 145.
    Carlsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Sandholm, Kerstin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Tjernberg, Ivar
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Complement activation in asymptomatic Lyme borreliosis and neuroborreliosis2015In: Molecular Immunology, ISSN 0161-5890, E-ISSN 1872-9142, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 128-128Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 146.
    Carlsson, Josef
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Dietärt intag av nitrat förbättrar inte prestationen i Coopers test hos löpare på motionsnivå2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund. Nitrat är ett födoämne som fått stor uppmärksamhet inom forskningen de senaste åren. Studier påvisar blodtryckssänkande effekt, minskad syrekostnad vid submaximalt- och maximalt arbete. Det ökar samtidigt den muskulära verkningsgraden och kan därmed i idrottssammanhang ha eventuell positiv inverkan på prestationen. Syfte. Att undersöka om tre dagars uppladdning med nitrat i form av 7 cl rödbetsjuice (0,4 gram nitrat) om dagen, samt en fjärde dos på testdagen kan öka prestationen hos medeltränade löpare i ett Coopers test.  Metod. En randomiserad dubbelblind placebo-kontrollerad korsad studie utfördes på totalt 6 fullt friska försökspersoner, varav tre män och tre kvinnor (ålder 25,5±7 år, VO2max 46,7±22, kroppsvikt 73±17,1 kg, längd 178,8±17,9 cm, BMI 23±6,4). Försökspersonerna genomgick vid två tillfällen tre dagars uppladdning samt en fjärde dos på testdagen med två olika typer av kosttillskott, nitratprov (rödbetsjuice) och placebo (tranbärsjuice). De två testperioderna separerades av en 7 dagars washout-period. Totalt genomfördes fem olika typer av mätningar i följande ordning; längd och vikt, blodtryck, löptest (Coopers test 12min) då även puls och upplevd ansträngning registrerades. I den statistiska analysen tillämpades ett parat t-test för att jämföra placebo, nitrat och första och andra testperiod. Resultat. Ingen signifikant skillnad i prestation vid Coopers test mellan nitrat och placebo. En signifikant prestationsförbättring (p<0.03) noterades dock vid andra löptestet gentemot första. Blodtrycksvärden var inte signifikant olika mellan nitratprov och placebo. Däremot var både systoliskt och diastoliskt blodtryck lägre vid andra mätningen i förhållande till första (Systoliskt bt; p<0.02, diastoliskt bt; p<0.01). Konklusion. Tre dagars uppladdning samt en fjärde dos nitrat på testdagen förbättrar inte prestationen hos medeltränade löpare i ett Coopers test. Försökspersonerna presterade bättre vid andra löptestet än vid första vilket sannolikt beror på en träningseffekt. 60 minuter efter dietärt intag av nitrat har blodtrycket inte påverkats. Lägre blodtrycksvärden vid andra mätningen kan ha orsakats av ”white coat hypertension”.  

  • 147.
    Chavan, Swapnil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Towards new computational tools for predicting toxicity2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxicological screening of the numerous chemicals that we are exposed to requires significant cost and the use of animals. Accordingly, more efficient methods for the evaluation of toxicity are required to reduce cost and the number of animals used. Computational strategies have the potential to reduce both the cost and the use of animal testing in toxicity screening. The ultimate goal of this thesis is to develop computational models for the prediction of toxicological endpoints that can serve as an alternative to animal testing. In Paper I, an attempt was made to construct a global quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR)model for the acute toxicity endpoint (LD50 values) using the Munro database that represents a broad chemical landscape. Such a model could be used for acute toxicity screening of chemicals of diverse structures. Paper II focuses on the use of acute toxicity data to support the prediction of chronic toxicity. The results of this study suggest that for related chemicals having acute toxicities within a similar range, their lowest observed effect levels (LOELs) can be used in read-across strategies to fill gaps in chronic toxicity data. In Paper III a k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification model was developed to predict human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG)-derived toxicity. The results suggest that the model has potential for use in identifying compounds with hERG-liabilities, e.g. in drug development.

  • 148.
    Chavan, Swapnil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Abdelaziz, Ahmed
    eADMET GmbH, Germany.
    Wiklander, Jesper G.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    A k-nearest neighbor classification of hERG K+ channel blockers2016In: Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, ISSN 0920-654X, E-ISSN 1573-4951, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 229-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of 172 molecular structures that block the hERG K+ channel were used to develop a classification model where, initially, eight types of PaDEL fingerprints were used for k-nearest neighbor model development. A consensus model constructed using Extended-CDK, PubChem and Substructure count fingerprint-based models was found to be a robust predictor of hERG activity. This consensus model demonstrated sensitivity and specificity values of 0.78 and 0.61 for the internal dataset compounds and 0.63 and 0.54 for the external (PubChem) dataset compounds, respectively. This model has identified the highest number of true positives (i.e. 140) from the PubChem dataset so far, as compared to other published models, and can potentially serve as a basis for the prediction of hERG active compounds. Validating this model against FDA-withdrawn substances indicated that it may even be useful for differentiating between mechanisms underlying QT prolongation.

  • 149.
    Chavan, Swapnil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Acute Toxicity-Supported Chronic Toxicity Prediction: A k-Nearest Neighbor Coupled Read-Across Strategy2015In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 11659-11677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification model was constructed for 118 RDT NEDO (Repeated Dose Toxicity New Energy and industrial technology Development Organization; currently known as the Hazard Evaluation Support System (HESS)) database chemicals, employing two acute toxicity (LD50)-based classes as a response and using a series of eight PaDEL software-derived fingerprints as predictor variables. A model developed using Estate type fingerprints correctly predicted the LD50 classes for 70 of 94 training set chemicals and 19 of 24 test set chemicals. An individual category was formed for each of the chemicals by extracting its corresponding k-analogs that were identified by k-NN classification. These categories were used to perform the read-across study for prediction of the chronic toxicity, i.e., Lowest Observed Effect Levels (LOEL). We have successfully predicted the LOELs of 54 of 70 training set chemicals (77%) and 14 of 19 test set chemicals (74%) to within an order of magnitude from their experimental LOEL values. Given the success thus far, we conclude that if the k-NN model predicts LD50classes correctly for a certain chemical, then the k-analogs of such a chemical can be successfully used for data gap filling for the LOEL. This model should support the in silico prediction of repeated dose toxicity.

  • 150.
    Chavan, Swapnil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, Björn C. G.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Rosengren, Annika M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Ballabio, Davide
    University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.
    Consonni, Viviana
    University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.
    Todeschini, Roberto
    University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.
    Towards Global QSAR Model Building for Acute Toxicity: Munro Database Case Study2014In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 18162-18174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER) equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity.

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