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  • 101.
    Ekströmer, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Produktion och miljötänk - då och nu: Introduktion och utveckling av miljöhänsyn i svenskt skogsbruk2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    About two-thirds of Swedens land area is covered by forest. Half of the total forest land is owned by private forest owners.The purpose of this study was to describe the decades before and after the environmental concerns became self-evident in Swedish forestry, and from a forest policy perspective elucidate the introduction of environmental concerns in forest management. Interviews with private forest owners and field studys was conducted to identify specific occurences of conservation that could be linked to advisory service from The National Board of Forestry since the 1970´s. The result shows that guidance, education and skills are crucial success factors for the continuence of conservation and sustainable forestry, but also greater consideration and respect for the private forest owners property rights, experiences and knowledge.

  • 102.
    Eliasson, Lars
    et al.
    Skogforsk.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Hyggeslagring av grot2015Other (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Ellingsson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Diameter- höjdskillnader för klippgran (Abies laciocarpa), gran ( Picea abies), glasbjörk (Betula pubescens) och contorta (Pinus contorta) i Strömsunds kommun.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett stort intresse för exoter inom skogsbruket och i denna rapport behandlas klippgran (Abies laciocarpa) och Contorta (Pinus contorta). Vid undersökningen av dessa trädsorter jämfördes diameter och höjdtillväxt med gran (Picea abies) och björk (Betula pubescens). Mätningarna utfördes på lokaler i Strömsunds kommun i Jämtlands län vid Näxåsen (Strömsund) och runt Jorm i Frostviken på SCA:s marker

  • 104.
    Elmkvist, Richard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Transportlogistik: En undersökning av de logistiska flödena hos ett sågverk/- förädlingsföretag i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När företag har en snabb tillväxt genom konsolidering kan det ske att visa aspekter i organisationen blir eftersläpandes. I det här fallet upplever företaget en förlorad kontroll över sina transporter till följd av en allt mer komplex transportlogistik. Målet med den här undersökning var därför att kartlägga företagets transporter.För att effektivt transportera gods krävs det planering, det är viktigt att fordonens hela lastkapacitet utnyttjats, alltså fyllnadsgrad. Det är viktigt att planera efter kortaste sträckan, det är också viktigt att undvika onödig miljöpåverkan. Onödig miljöpåverkan kan ske genom ineffektiv planering som i sin tur resulterar i mindre nödvändiga godstransporter.Kartläggningen i denna undersökningen resulterade i en täckning av de interna transporterna samt transporter till de största avlägg på 85% av vad företaget uppskattar transporterats under ett 2018. Transporter för trärelaterade produkter 2016 uppgick till 4 miljoner tonkilometer, detta var cirka 9,8% av de totala transporterna med lastbil inom Sveriges gränser. En effektiv kedja av logistiska aktiviteter för trävaror garanterar en nedskärning av kostnaderna för transport. Eftersom hänsynen för miljöpåverkan också är stor i Sverige så är en effektiv logistik också nyckeln för att minska sina klimatavtryck.

  • 105.
    Elofsson, Elina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Bernlo, Nicklas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Jämförelse av LVL-balk och lättbalk i mellanbjälklag: En studie för Moderna Trähus2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Moderna Trähus will investigate the possibility of replacing the LVL-beams with light composite wood-based beams, yet preserving the same construction method. The method means that the beams in the intermediate floor will be taking down 30 mm under the bathroom. This report presents the characteristics of both LVL-and light composite wood-based beams. The report also present different results from cost calculations, strength calculations and laboratory test based on the standard EOTA TR002.

  • 106.
    Elvung, Isak
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Skogsskötsel och viltvård i skog med höga naturvärden: Förslag på naturvärdesskapande skogsskötsel- och viltvårdsåtgärder på Fortifikationsverkets fastighet Bubbetorp 1:7 i Karlskrona 2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen handlar om naturvärdesskapande skogsskötsel och vildvårdsanpassat skogsbruk på skogsfastigheten Bubbetorp1:7 som ägs av Fortifikationsverket. Fastigheten används idag som övningsområde för militära övningar. Naturvärdesskapande skogsskötselåtgärderna har kommit fram genom en inventering av det berörda området som i uppsatsen har namnet SNUS-området. Området har en areal på 64 ha och består till största del av ädellövskogar vilka har rika insektsliv. Viltvårdsanpassat skogsbruk innebär skapande av foder i skogsbruket är något som förvaltaren av fastigheten Bubbetorp1:7 kan använda sin planering för skogsskötselåtgärder, men även applicera på andra fastigheter som förvaltas av fortifikationsverket för att gynna vilda djur.

  • 107.
    Eriksson, Bo-Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Tillgänglighet: Stopptidsanalys vid Annebergs Sågverk2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En stopptidsanalys utförd vid Deromegruppens sågverk i Anneberg med avsikt att samla in data rörande möjliga förbättringsmöjligheter i syfte att öka tillgängligheten från 73 till 78 %. Flera områden identifierades varav fack, krokbana samt enstycksmataren utgör de primära.

  • 108.
    Eriksson, Stanley
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Eriksson, Anki
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Föryngring och produktion av skog på torvmark2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of forestry on Swedish peatland is insufficient. The knowledge gap is largely due to peatland previously being considered unsuitable land in connection with the forest. This is highly due to the Swedish regulatory restrictions on land drainage and fertilization, but also due to the environmental aspects involved and proactive maintenance required. The increased demand for forest products has allowed forestry to seek alternatives, where peat soil has the potential to be established for forest production.

    The study is a compilation of knowledge that emphasizes the knowledge of forestry on Swedish peatland with focus on the rejuvenation process. Finland uses peatland forestry in a sophisticated way. The study compares Sweden's prospects for forestry on peatland with Finland's maintenance program, a comparison that can be used as a pointer to which rejuvenation methods are suitable in Sweden. The study also contains a field study on peatland showing clear signs of nutrient deficiency in the soil and the importance of correct fertilization.

  • 109.
    Erlandsson, Lars-Åke
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Rättvist trä: Livscykelanalys av träprodukter ur ett socialt hållbarhetsperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present degree project was to investigate the possibilities of assessing social sustainability and, on this basis, to carry out an equality analysis of wood as a construction material. The latter part of the purpose was met by carrying out social life cycle assessments focusing on gender equality: one for wood as anengineering material and one for house with wooden frame. The result was presented as a gender index which indicated the proportion of the work carried out by women. To gain more knowledge about wood as an engineering material a complete social life cycle assessment is necessary. A complete social life cycle analysis should not be reduced to a single measurement number by merging different effect categories of social sustainability. The conclusion in the report was that such an analysis is better to present in so-called polar diagrams where each individual impact category can be distinguished, but not necessarily all indicators. The method used to assess gender equality can be used to assess other impact categories.

  • 110.
    Fagerberg, Nils
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Lönsamhet i kontinuitetsskogsbruk i jämförelse med trakthyggesbruk: en litteraturöversikt2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 111.
    Fagerberg, Nils
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Volymproduktion i kontinuitetsskogsbruk i jämförelse med trakthyggesbruk: en litteraturöversikt2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 112.
    Felton, Adam
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk, Uppsala.
    Felton, Annika M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ahlström, Martin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Boberg, Johanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Drossler, Lars
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fahlvik, Nils
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gong, Peichen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Holmström, Emma
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University.
    Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Niklasson, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stens, Anna
    Umeå University.
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. S124-S139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures.

  • 113.
    Finnborg, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Vad orsakar skador på kvarstående träd vid mekaniserad gallring - en intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis includes a review of scientific studies of tree injuries following mechanized thinning. Interviews have been made with drivers of single grip harvesters and forwarders in forest thinning and a number of essential factors have been identified as the most important to take into account in order to minimize and/orprevent injuries to stems and roots of remaining trees.

  • 114.
    Flinkman, Matti
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sikkema, Richard
    Wageningen Univ & Res Ctr WUR, Netherlands;European Commiss, Italy.
    Spelter, Henry
    USDA, USA.
    Jonsson, Ragnar
    European Commiss, Italy.
    Exploring the Drivers of Demand for Non-industrial Wood Pellets for Heating2018In: Baltic Forestry, ISSN 1392-1355, E-ISSN 2029-9230, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 86-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The targets for renewable energy in the European Union (EU) have resulted in a surge in the use of wood pellets. The EU-28 consumption has outgrown domestic production, resulting in increasing net imports. This study analyses the drivers of the use of pellets for heating (non-industrial pellets). An enquiry directed to biomass and pellet organizations indicates that country specific subsidies could be a driver for the purchase of pellet stoves and boilers, resulting in a base level of consumption of non-industrial pellets. Further, light heating oil and natural gas are considered the main heating sources substituted by wood pellets. Econometric analysis indicates that GDP is less important, while the price of wood pellets as well as the price of alternative energy carriers seem to be significant drivers. Models using different combinations of these variables account for 63% to 76% of the variation in non-industrial pellet demand. The results indicate the importance of considering competing fossil-based fuels when modelling wood pellet demand. This aspect is also relevant when new policy measures for a low carbon economy are applied, such as the levying of carbon taxes on fossil fuels.

  • 115.
    Forssén, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Grundyteskattningars noggrannhet i barr- och lövskog inom projektet ”Skogliga skattningar med laserdata”2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringen har gett Skogsstyrelsen i uppdrag att genomföra ett projekt för att skatta ett antal skogliga variabler från data baserade på Lantmäteriets skanning för den nya nationella höjdmodellen. Syftet med det här examensarbetet var att på beståndsnivå undersöka noggrannheten i barr- och lövskog hos skattade grundytor som tagits fram i  Skogsstyrelsens projekt ”Skogliga skattningar med laserdata”. Undersökningen utfördes som en kvantitativ studie i form av en jämförelse av laserbaserade skattningar från Skogsstyrelsens projekt med grundytor uppmätta i fält. Medelvärdet av fältmätta grundytor i de 18 bestånd som ingick i studien var 26,7 m²/ha och medelvärdet av de skattade grundytorna var 26,3 m²/ha. För enskilda bestånd, varierade differensen mellan -31,7 % och +50,5 %. Slutsatsen var att laserskattningarna från projektet ”Skogliga skattningar med laserdata” är relativt säkra över ett större område, t. ex. på fastighetsnivå. På beståndsnivå får man vara mer försiktig i tolkningen av resultaten från skattningarna, då felen var så pass stora i enskilda bestånd. Undersökningen visade också att skattningarna av grundytan i barrskogsbestånd är mer noggrannt skattade än grundytan i lövdominerade bestånd, fram för allt när lövandelen är över 50 %.

  • 116.
    Foti, Dafni
    et al.
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Voulgaridou, Eleni
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Amiandamhen, Stephen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Daniel, Geoffrey
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Microstructure and compressive strength of gypsum-bonded composites with papers, paperboards and Tetra Pak recycled materials2019In: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 1-8, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incorporation of recycled papers, paperboards and Tetra Pak as filling materials in brittle matrices presents aninteresting approach in the utilization of waste materials for building construction. This paper examines the compressivestrength and microstructure of gypsum-bonded wastepaper-based composites. Recycled wastepaper of varioustypes (office paper, magazine paper and newspaper), cardboards, paper boxes and Tetra Pak were shredded to shortlength strips of about 4 × 18 mm. The shredded materials were used as filling materials in natural gypsum in a ratioof 1:3 (v/v), and water was added to the mix. The paste was formed in cylindrical samples measuring 10 cm in lengthand 5 cm in diameter. Seven different types of composites were produced depending on the material used. Thecomposite products with newspaper and magazine paper had significantly lower density and compressive strength(p < 0.05) than the others. However, the differences were small to have any practical importance. The density valuesranged between 1.26 and 1.34 g/cm3, and compressive strength was the lowest (4.48 N/mm2) in the gypsum–magazinepaper composites and the highest (6.46 N/mm2) in the gypsum–Tetra Pak I composites. Since the samplesproduced in this study exhibited adequate compressive strength, the products could be suitable for such applicationsas interior walls in building constructions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the fractured surfacesrevealed needle-like structures of gypsite crystals surrounding the fibers, which indicates good adhesion between thehydrophobic matrix and lignocellulosic fibers.

  • 117.
    Fransson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Användning av drönare vid skogsvårdsplanering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En relativt ny metod i skogsbruket är att samla in data med hjälp av små obemannade flygplan s.k. drönare. Målet med denna studie var erhålla svar på om det är möjligt att använda drönare vid skogsvårdsplanering. Det som undersöktes var vilka parametrar som kunde identifieras i bilder tagna ifrån drönare vid inventering av återväxt, röjningsbehov och röjningsuppföljning. Även hur olika väderlekar, tider på dygnet och omgivande vegetation påverkade bilderna undersöktes. Försöket genomfördes genom ett experiment i fält med provytor som både fotograferades från luften och inventerades i fält. Bilderna blev i de flesta fall av god kvalitet. Antalet plantor underskattades något vid återväxtinventeringen. Skillnaderna mellan bildtolkning och fältinventering var mindre för röjningsbestånd. Utifrån resultaten bedöms det möjligt att använda drönare vid skogsvårdsplanering. 

  • 118.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Går svensk masurbjörk att sälja utanför den svenska marknaden: och hur ser den svenska marknaden ut2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 80-talet har man i Sverige på försöksnivå anlagt små bestånd av masurbjörk, stora kunskapsluckor finns framförallt hur man säljer och vem man säljer virket till.

    Arbetet syftar till att beskriva marknaden för masurbjörk samt att beräkna virkesvärdet hos två bestånd i Västerbotten.

    Arbetet bygger på en marknadsundersökning och en fältstudie.

    I Sverige köper knivtillverkare masurbjörk årligen, det går även att sälja till finska virkesköpare.

    För de två undersökta bestånden i Västerbotten, 15 år gamla beräknades virkesvärde till ~9400 kr/Ha respektive ~7000kr/Ha.

    Om man sköter ett masurbjörksbestånd finns det stor chans att få hög avsättning för virket även i framtiden.

  • 119.
    Frenell Staaf, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Matsson, Edwina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Privata skogsägares syn på ansvarsamt behovet av kunskap ochinformation om PEFC- certifieringen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogsägare har möjlighet att certifiera sin skogsfastighet i enlighet med FSC och/eller PEFC. Flera av de skogsägare som certifierar sin fastighet känner dock inte till PEFC:s krav. Studiens syfte var undersöka synen på ansvar och behovet av kunskap och information om PEFC. Endast 66 % av skogsägarna ansåg att det var de själva som stod ytterst ansvarig för sin skogsfastighet och lika stor andel ansåg att informationen de fått om PEFC varit tillräcklig. Drygt hälften av skogsägarna ansåg sig ha tillräcklig kunskap om PEFC. Studien visade att flera olika faktorer spelar in på skogsägarnas syn på ansvar och behovet av kunskap och information.

  • 120.
    Frisk, Viktoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Alternativ föryngring och skogsskötsel av gran: Påverkan på volym och ekonomi under en omloppstid2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of the study was to analyze how a lower number of plants in wider spacing affects the yield and the economy during a rotation period. To compare traditional forestry strategies against alternative forestry strategies during a rotation period the analytical tool Heureka was utilized. Quantitative data from two stands with the site index G31 and G38, respectively was used as the basis of the simulation. The results show that the stands with the alternative forestry strategies have a higher yield at the final felling but a lower height and dimension development than the traditional forestry stands. The thinning carried out in the traditional stands is the factor that increases the economic outcome. However, the most gainful option is to conduct alternative forestry strategies in G38 stands.

    Keyword: Wide spacing, reforestation, unthinning, Heureka, simulation.

  • 121.
    Frohlund, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Produktivitetsförbättringar genom integration av materialflöden i träindustrin2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att säkra efterfrågan och kvaliteten på ekråvaran har lett till att KG List under 2017 köpte upp en av sina tidigare leverantörer Österbymo Hardwood.Att få ner spillet och använda sig av så mycket av ämnet som möjligt anses vara viktigt för att få en sån lönsam produktion som möjligt.Bildbehandlingsprogram är den typ av automatisering som haft den största inverkan på träindustrin. Då genom att företagen har kunnat höja sin automatiseringsgrad och minskat produktionskostnaden.

  • 122.
    Frödå, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Skogsägarnas intresse för att sälja virke genom en digital virkesmarknad2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A digital timbermarket helps forest owners reach out to severaltimber purchasers and be able to compare the forest companies’ price lists.

    The purpose of this study was to examine how the forest owners would respond to a digital timbermarket.The study analyzes if Swedish forest owners are interested in the use of a digital timbermarket.

    By using a web survey, the forest owner’s responses about a digital timbermarket have been collected and analyzed. The results of the study showed that most of the forest owners were positiveabout using a digital timbermarket.

    The forest owners who were positive usually had smaller properties, no education or work experience in forestry.Those who were most unwillingto use a digital timbermarket were mostly over 70 years old, had made more than 30timber sales and own forest properties over 300 hectares.

  • 123.
    Funk, Monika
    et al.
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Wimmer, Rupert
    Universität für Bodenkultur Vienna, Austria.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Diotomaceous earth as an inorganic additive to reduce formaldehyde emmissions from particleboards2017In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 92-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented research is about the use of a new type of a functional inorganic additive in particleboards, for the purpose of reducing free formaldehyde releases. One-layered particleboards were prepared in the laboratory by mixing industrial wood particles and urea-formaldehyde resin. Natural, abundantly and cheaply available nano-mesoporous diatomaceous earth (DE) was used, without and in combination with urea as a scavenger. Silica quartz sand was also added as a nonporous analogy. Particleboards were pressed at two press factors (9 and 15 s/mm). Formaldehyde release was determined using the rapid 3-hour-flask method (DIN EN 717-3). As a result, DE additions insignificantly reduced bending properties of particleboards. Internal bonding was in part significantly lowered. The particleboard produced with 3% urea loaded on 5% DE prior to application almost halved (–45%) the formaldehyde release. Formaldehyde release was on the average 17% lower when pressed at 15 s/mm instead of 9 s/mm. By loading urea onto the nano-mesoporous structure of DE, an improved scavenging function of urea could be shown.

  • 124.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kleinen, Thomas
    Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Nielsen, Anne Birgitte
    Lund University.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kaplan, Jed
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Poska, Anneli
    Lund University.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Strandberg, Gustav
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wramneby, Anna
    Lund University.
    Causes of Regional Change: Land Cover2015In: Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin / [ed] The BACC II Author team, Springer, 2015, p. 453-477Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) is one of the few climate forcings for which the net direction of the climate response over the last two centuries is still not known. The uncertainty is due to the often counteracting temperature responses to the many biogeophysical effects and to the biogeochemical versus biogeophysical effects. Palaeoecological studies show that the major transformation of the landscape by anthropogenic activities in the southern zone of the Baltic Sea basin occurred between 6000 and 3000/2500 cal year BP. The only modelling study of the biogeophysical effects of past ALCCs on regional climate in north-western Europe suggests that deforestation between 6000 and 200 cal year BP may have caused significant change in winter and summer temperature. There is no indication that deforestation in the Baltic Sea area since AD 1850 would have been a major cause of the recent climate warming in the region through a positive biogeochemical feedback. Several model studies suggest that boreal reforestation might not be an effective climate warming mitigation tool as it might lead to increased warming through biogeophysical processes.

  • 125.
    Granat, Simon
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Naturvårdsuppföljning vid slutavverkningar: En jämförelse mellan FSC-certifierade bolag i södra Sverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today biodiversity is an important issue in forestry, and it should be considered in all silvicultural measures. Follow-up of nature conservation should also be done by FSC certified companies after i.e. final fellings. The purpose of this study was to describe the results of the nature conservation made by three companies in southern Sweden, their methodology of follow-up, to find out if there is a relation between the results of the follow-up and the methodologies used, and to describe the companies own opinions. Both the proportion of approved final fellings and the methodology of follow-up differed between the companies. One company differed from the others regarding the measurement of the volume of deciduous trees. The companies also differed in how they put together the final results of the follow-up. It might be a correlation between the proportion of approved final fellings and the methodology used.

  • 126.
    Granholm, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Interspecifik konkurrens från undervegetation och dess betydelse för densitet: – En fältstudie baserad kring fyra olika konkurrenstyper på ek.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on a field trial at SLU in Alnarp. The idea behind the study was to see how interspecific competition influence density and annual rings on oaks (Quercus robur). The trial started out from four blocks with four different treatments. Those treatments that were initiated was: no competition, competition with herbs, competition with bushes and competition with herbs + bushes. Test samples from stumps were taken, with help from a hand saw. A total of nine samples were collected and divided on the four blocks with different competition types. With help from x-ray analysis, density and width for individual annual rings with distributed spring- and summerwood, each sample could be analyzed. The result of the study displayed that density and annual rings are affected by interspecific competition depending on type of competing vegetation. Herbs had a slight impact on annual rings, density and share of summerwood, while bushes had the biggest effect. Through the study measurements between different types of competitions it was possible to construe most effect on annual rings and share of summerwood but relatively small effect on density.

  • 127.
    Griffiths, Natalie A.
    et al.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Hanson, Paul J.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Ricciuto, Daniel M.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Iversen, Colleen M.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Jensen, Anna M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Malhotra, Avni
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    McFarlane, Karis J.
    Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab, USA.
    Norby, Richard J.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Sargsyan, Khachik
    Sandia Natl Labs, USA.
    Sebestyen, Stephen D.
    USDA Forest Serv, USA.
    Shi, Xiaoying
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Walker, Anthony P.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Ward, Eric J.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Warren, Jeffrey M.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Weston, David J.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Temporal and Spatial Variation in Peatland Carbon Cycling and Implications for Interpreting Responses of an Ecosystem-Scale Warming Experiment2017In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, ISSN 0361-5995, E-ISSN 1435-0661, Vol. 81, no 6, p. 1668-1688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are conducting a large-scale, long-term climate change response experiment in an ombrotrophic peat bog in Minnesota to evaluate the effects of warming and elevated CO2 on ecosystem processes using empirical and modeling approaches. To better frame future assessments of peatland responses to climate change, we characterized and compared spatial vs. temporal variation in measured C cycle processes and their environmental drivers. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis of a peatland C model to identify how variation in ecosystem parameters contributes to model prediction uncertainty. High spatial variability in C cycle processes resulted in the inability to determine if the bog was a C source or sink, as the 95% confidence interval ranged from a source of 50 g C m(-2) yr(-1) to a sink of 67 g C m(-2) yr(-1). Model sensitivity analysis also identified that spatial variation in tree and shrub photosynthesis, allocation characteristics, and maintenance respiration all contributed to large variations in the pretreatment estimates of net C balance. Variation in ecosystem processes can be more thoroughly characterized if more measurements are collected for parameters that are highly variable over space and time, and especially if those measurements encompass environmental gradients that may be driving the spatial and temporal variation (e.g., hummock vs. hollow microtopographies, and wet vs. dry years). Together, the coupled modeling and empirical approaches indicate that variability in C cycle processes and their drivers must be taken into account when interpreting the significance of experimental warming and elevated CO2 treatments.

  • 128.
    Grubîi, Victor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Occurence of shake in oak (Quercus spp.) and its effect on flooring top-layer quality2018In: 8th Hardwood Conference. Sopron, Hungary. 25-26 October 2018: With special focus on "New Aspects of Hardwood Utilization - from Science to Technology" / [ed] Robert Németh, Alfred Teischinger, Peter Rademacher, Miklos Bak, Sopron, Hungary: University of Sopron Press , 2018, p. 59-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oak (Quercus spp.) is generally preferred wood species as surface material in flooring products realization. The presence of defects such as cracks limits the utilization of the raw material and ultimately, limits the competitiveness of wood in the flooring market when compared to other materials.

    The objective of this study was to develop the theoretical aspects for crack-type identification based on the appearance of the sawn top-layer lamellas and evaluate the influence of crack occurrence on the quality of flooring top-lamellas.

    The results of this study provide an insight for crack-type identification on the surface of oak (Quercus spp.) flooring top-lamellas and wood quality optimisation aspects.

  • 129.
    Grubîi, Victor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Occurrence of shake in oak (Quercus ssp.) and it's effect on flooring top-layer quality2018In: 8TH HARDWOOD CONFERENCE WITH SPECIAL FOCUS ON NEW ASPECTS ON HARDWOOD UTILIZATION - FROM SCIENCE TO TECHNOLOGY / [ed] Nemeth, R Teischinger, A Rademacher, P Bak, M, University of Sopron, Hungary , 2018, p. 59-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oak (Quercus ssp.) is generally preferred wood species as surface material in flooring products realization. The presence of defects such as cracks limits the utilization of the raw material and ultimately, limits the competitiveness of wood in the flooring market when compared to other materials. The objective of this study was to develop the theoretical aspects for crack-type identification based on the appearance of the sawn top-layer lamellas and evaluate the influence of crack occurrence on the quality of flooring top-lamellas. The results of this study provide an insight for crack-type identification on the surface of oak (Quercus ssp.) flooring top-lamellas and wood quality optimisation aspects.

  • 130.
    Gunnarsson, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Underröjningsgradens påverkan på förstagallringsnetto med flerträdsaggregat2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there are about 1,2 million hectares of forest with immediate need of pre-commercial thinning. Stands, where conducted pre-commercial thinning are light or even absent, become tight with thin stems. In such stands pre-commercial thinning before first thinning may be required, due to operational advantages such as increased visibility. This study compared production, cost and revenues from four different pre-commercial thinning treatments: no pre-commercial thinning, sight pre-commercial thinning, cleared everything up to 5 cm diameter at breast height and cleared everything up to 7 cm diameter at breast height. The treatments whit no pre-commercial thinning had best net value and worst had up to 5 cm. A custom or weak pre-commercial thinning give a lower total cost compared to no or harder pre-commercial thinning.

  • 131.
    Gunnarsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Gustafsson, André
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Snedskarvning som industriell tillverkningsmetod för trälister2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Could scarf jointing be an economical suitable complement to finger jointing? Knot-free lath material of pine wood is highly requested in the timber industry where finger jointing nowadays is a commonly used method. It is important that the lath material has a handling strength good enough to hold the assembly since structural strength is not the limited factor.

    This study contains a comparison of tensile strength in laths made of finger joints, MDF (Medium Density Fibreboard) and scarf joints where the lowest ratio of angular relationship that meets the demands of the scarf is searched from 1:1 to 1:5. Previous testing only holds a ratio of 1:8 for construction purposes whereas this study claims a result of 1:3 for laths. 

  • 132.
    Gustafsson, Julia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nya kommunikationsvägar till marknaden: En marknadsanalys av privata skogsägares behov av skogliga tjänster2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The enterprise Derome Forest, which manages the supply of raw materials to Derome Group's industries, wants to develop its communications with suppliers and also the forest services that the company provides. The purpose of the study was to find new information channels for forest companies to communicate about forest services to existing and future suppliers. In order to answer the research questions and achieve the purpose of the study, a questionnaire was chosen as a method in combination with a focus group. The most sought after services were final felling, thinning, and pre commercial thinning and planting. Forestry magazines, personal meetings and social activities were important sources of knowledge for forest owners. Few of the forest owners replied that they used the websites of forest companies or followed them on social media, although most of the respondents estimated that their internet use for forest purposes will increase. Digital calendars with forest companies' activities and mobile apps for measuring and calculating were digital tools that were requested. Damage and diseases on forests, intrusion issues and thinning were subjects that many forest owners thought was difficult. Greater diversity in forestry methods and a more goal-based and diversified advice were requested from forest companies.

  • 133.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Eliasson, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Product quality deficiencies in the prefabrication industry for single-family houses2014In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the industry for the prefabrication of single-family houses, previous research had indicated that individual companies have problems in securing the product quality of incoming softwood timber. This implies that they need to carry out a quality inspection and adjust the softwood timber when it arrives at their facility in order to fit their production. Opinions within the industry concerning product quality deficiencies differ with regard to the handling procedures and the percentage of perceived deficiencies. However, there are prefabricators of single-family houses that need to find additional areas for use for their purchased softwood timber, and spend several working hours on softwood timber to meet the quality criteria agreed upon. A previous study by Eliasson and Gustafsson puts forward a number of proposals regarding the quality deficiencies of softwood timber in this context. The present work transforms some of these proposals into hypotheses and aims at describing and understanding what affects the perception of product quality deficiencies. Questionnaires were used to collect data. The paper concludes that the purchase volume is indicated to be related to the volume portion of the deficiency in the product quality and that the level of information- and communication-technology support in production (i.e. the degree of automation) is indicated to be related to the inspection activity point. An extension of the proposed hypotheses concludes that the inspection activity point on arrival and/or on delivery into production also affects how companies do perceive product quality deficiencies. Research regarding what affects product quality deficiencies is lacking in recognizing and knowing what is aligned with the perception of product quality deficiencies; the individual companies will have an opportunity to affect and manage their appearance and thereby enhance the use of softwood timber.

  • 134.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Does quality matter?2016In: Implementation of wood science in woodworking sector: proceedings / [ed] Ivica Grbac, Zagreb: University of Zagreb, Faculty of Forestry , 2016, p. 263-270Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 135.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Quality assurance practices in the sawmill industry2014In: Abstracts SSFE 2014 / [ed] Anders Roos, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Salinas, Miguel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Design.
    Realization of a higher education interdisciplinary program2016In: Lärarlärdom 2016: Högskolan Kristianstad / [ed] Claes Dahlqvist, Stefan Larsson, Kristianstad University Press , 2016, p. 55-69Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For most companies and organizations there is a need to employ graduates with interdisciplinary skills. Hence it becomes important for universities and teaching institutions to graduate students with this knowledge. At the same time there is need for universities and teaching institutions to position itself in relation to its competitors. This is an apparent challenge for universities and teaching institutions, as developing and offering interdisciplinary programs requires them to break the normal traditional university structure involving different faculties applying different operating models. However, by succeeding with this, universities will create a competitive advantage over their competitors.

    At Linnaeus University, Sweden, an interdisciplinary program called Innovation through Business, Engineering and Design involving three faculties has been developed.  The program was initiated in 2011 and began in 2014 with 15 students. The program is dimensioned for about 30 students, ten from each faculty. This paper reports on the realization of the program and the resources needed to do this. Knowing the resource requirements is necessary in order to make correct decisions regarding program development and to avoid decisions on invalid grounds. Knowing the activities to be performed is an essential pre-requisite for resource planning. Consequently the purpose of this paper is to identify organization roles and activities as well as the resources required in order to realize an interdisciplinary program.

    The paper is empirical in nature and data has been collected using interactive research. Interactive research stresses the researchers (i.e. the authors) joint learning together with other members of the development group and the other actors involved. 

    The paper concludes that in order for a realization to take place organizational roles (such as project leader and product coordinators), and activities such as creating deliverable document and schedule are necessary. The differences between a single-disciplinary program and a multidisciplinary program lies rather in the complexity and time management of performing the activities needed then in the actual performing. There is primarily a need for human capital, as the suitable faculty members are needed, as well as there is a need financial capital.

  • 137.
    Götmark, Frank
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Götmark, Elin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jensen, Anna M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Why Be a Shrub?: a Basic Model and Hypotheses for the Adaptive Values of a Common Growth Form2016In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 7, article id 1095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shrubs are multi-stemmed short woody plants, more widespread than trees, important in many ecosystems, neglected in ecology compared to herbs and trees, but currently in focus due to their global expansion. We present a novel model based on scaling relationships and four hypotheses to explain the adaptive significance of shrubs, including a review of the literature with a test of one hypothesis. Our model describes advantages for a small shrub compared to a small tree with the same above-ground woody volume, based on larger cross-sectional stem area, larger area of photosynthetic tissue in bark and stem, larger vascular cambium area, larger epidermis (bark) area, and larger area for sprouting, and faster production of twigs and canopy. These components form our Hypothesis 1 that predicts higher growth rate for a small shrub than a small tree. This prediction was supported by available relevant empirical studies (14 publications). Further, a shrub will produce seeds faster than a tree (Hypothesis 2), multiple stems in shrubs insure future survival and growth if one or more stems die (Hypothesis 3), and three structural traits of short shrub stems improve survival compared to tall tree stems (Hypothesis 4)—all hypotheses have some empirical support. Multi-stemmed trees may be distinguished from shrubs by more upright stems, reducing bending moment. Improved understanding of shrubs can clarify their recent expansion on savannas, grasslands, and alpine heaths. More experiments and other empirical studies, followed by more elaborate models, are needed to understand why the shrub growth form is successful in many habitats.

  • 138.
    Hakeman, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Metodutbildning i simulatormiljö för flerträdshantering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att bibehålla och öka produktiviteten i skogsbruket behövs nya tekniker och arbetsmetoder. Syftet med detta examensarbete var att, för sektionsgallring med flerträdshantering, ta fram ett fungerande simulatorkoncept genom att utforma ett testbestånd i simulatormiljö. Vidare var syftet att studera maskinförares inlärningsförmåga och upplevelse av simulatormiljön, samt utvärdera möjligheten att använda en simulator vid forskning och tidsstudier. Studien genomfördes genom tidsstudier av fyra maskinförares körningar i en skogsmaskinsimulator och genom en enkät.  Beståndet blev ett väl fungerande arbetsområde med bra stamantal med god översikt där testerna kunde genomföras. Maskinens funktion var mycket snarlika verkliga förhållanden. Testkörningarna visade att inlärningsperioden måste beaktas vid tidsstudier i simulator. Studien indikerar på att det finns goda möjligheter att använda simulator vid inlärning av arbetsmetoder. Flerträdsutrustning och bra arbetsmetoder ger förarna en förbättrad arbetsmiljö vilket leder till en förbättrad produktivitet.

  • 139.
    Hallingbäck, Henrik R.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Högberg, Karl-Anders
    The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden.
    Säll, Harald
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Lindeberg, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden.
    Optimal timing of early genetic selection for sawn timber traits in Picea abies2018In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 137, no 4, p. 553-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In breeding Norway spruce, selection for improved growth and survival is performed at age 10-15 years in order to optimize genetic gain per year. We investigated whether a selection based on wood traits such as density and grain angle, measured under bark in the field at the same age would be informative enough with respect to structural quality traits of sawn boards. To achieve this objective, a sawing study was conducted on the butt logs of 401 trees from a 34-year-old Norway spruce progeny trial situated in southern Sweden. Stem discs were excised from the top of the logs and radial profile data of grain angle, and wood density was recorded for specific annual rings. The sawn and dried boards were assessed for structural traits such as twist, board density, bending stiffness (static modulus of elasticity, sMoE) and bending strength (modulus of rupture, MoR). Additive genetic correlations (r (a)) between single annual ring density measurements and board density, sMoE and MoR were consistently strong (r (a)> 0.7) for annual rings 5-13. Genetic correlations of similar magnitude between grain angle and board twist were estimated for all investigated annual rings (from 2 to around 26 under bark). Consequently, it was found that indirect selection for wood density and grain angle at the tree age 10-16 years would result in more genetic gain per year than selection at later ages. This makes it feasible to perform simultaneous selection of progeny in the field for both growth and wood traits at similar ages.

  • 140.
    Hammarberg, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Föryngring av tall med och utan skärm på Gotland2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föryngringen av skog på Gotland har historiskt sett varit problematisk under lång tid och i dagsläget används främst markberedning följt av plantering av tall. Förutsättningen för föryngring under skärm samt naturlig föryngring under fröträd som föryngringsmetod har studerats i denna rapport då det råder brist på skriftliga sammanfattningar om dessa båda metoder. Föryngringsmetoderna studerades genom fältstudier på 16 lokaler och intervjuer med verksamma inom branschen på Gotland. Naturlig föryngring visade sig ha viss framgång på norra Gotland samt fungera väl på nordöstra Fårö. Förutom på Fårö visade emellertid föryngring med markberedning och plantering bäst resultat. Plantering under skärm och självföryngring under skärm verkade fungera på norra Gotland på jordar av grus och sand. Att resultatet skiljer sig åt beror sannolikt på olika markstrukturer för de olika delarna av ön där vissa av norra Gotlands jordar med sand, grus och mindre stenstruktur har större nytta av en högskärm samt lämpar sig bättre för naturlig föryngring.

  • 141.
    Hammarstedt, Kaisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Tillväxtreaktioner efter gallring på försöksytor med olika täthet i Östergötland2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1950-ies, the dominating silvicultural system in Sweden has included establishment and management of even-aged stands, including final felling. Alternative systems such as continuous cover forestry are increasingly catching interest due the lower impact on stand structure and biodiversity advantages for shade-tolerant species. However it is unknown especially to southern Sweden how trees in a continuous cover forestry system react to common silvicultural measures such as thinning. Therefore the effect of different levels of thinning on the radial growth of larger trees was measured and compared to the ingrowth and proportion of live crown at a site in Östergötland. Unlike previous findings the radial growth was higher in the treatment that had been slightly thinned than in the one that had been heavily thinned. The ability to react with increased radial growth after thinning was not depending on the thinning regime but on the tree’s reaction to a previous thinning. Only trees that had not reacted to the previous thinning increased in radial growth. The radial growth varied more within a treatment than between treatments, which points at the difficulty to allocate growth to specific trees. 

  • 142.
    Hao, Meng-Shu
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jensen, Anna M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Boquist, Ann-Sofie
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Liu, Yun-Jun
    Lund University, Sweden;Chinese Acad Agr Sci, Peoples Republi of China.
    Rasmusson, Allan G.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The Ca2+-Regulation of the Mitochondrial External NADPH Dehydrogenase in Plants Is Controlled by Cytosolic pH2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 9, article id e0139224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NADPH is a key reductant carrier that maintains internal redox and antioxidant status, and that links biosynthetic, catabolic and signalling pathways. Plants have a mitochondrial external NADPH oxidation pathway, which depends on Ca2+ and pH in vitro, but concentrations of Ca2+ needed are not known. We have determined the K-0.5(Ca2+) of the external NADPH dehydrogenase from Solanum tuberosum mitochondria and membranes of E. coli expressing Arabidopsis thaliana NDB1 over the physiological pH range using O-2 and decylubiquinone as electron acceptors. The K-0.5(Ca2+) of NADPH oxidation was generally higher than for NADH oxidation, and unlike the latter, it depended on pH. At pH 7.5, K-0.5(Ca2+) for NADPH oxidation was high (approximate to 100 mu M), yet 20-fold lower K-0.5(Ca2+) values were determined at pH 6.8. Lower K-0.5(Ca2+) values were observed with decylubiquinone than with O-2 as terminal electron acceptor. NADPH oxidation responded to changes in Ca2+ concentrations more rapidly than NADH oxidation did. Thus, cytosolic acidification is an important activator of external NADPH oxidation, by decreasing the Ca2+-requirements for NDB1. The results are discussed in relation to the present knowledge on how whole cell NADPH redox homeostasis is affected in plants modified for the NDB1 gene.

  • 143.
    Harald, Eriksson
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Utvärdering av näringsinnehållet i björkblad på gödslad och ogödslad mark i södra Sverige2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The forests play an important role both as a source of raw material and as a carbon capture system. Hence, an increased interest of production-enhancing measures such as needs-adapted fertilization in youth forests to increase the growth rate.Fertilization is conducted regularly during the youth forest phase, based on the needs of the trees while in consideration of nitrogen leakage. The mineral nutrients, macro and micro, are essential for the trees development and possibility to conduct their life cycles. In this study, the nutrients within the birch leaf from fertilized and unfertilized leaf mass were compared based on nutrient status during growth season as well as on different breast height diameters. The birch leaves used in the study were collected at the facility Toftaholm, Sweden, due to the access of both fertilized and unfertilized soil at similar conditions. The birches were de-leafed and the leaf mass weighed after which a sample of 0.5 liter was collected and sent for nutrient analysis.The macro nutrients showed similar trends on fertilized and unfertilized soil during the growth season. Nevertheless, the levels of macro nutrients were generally higher for the fertilized leaf mass. Larger differences were found for the micro nutrients. A correlation of diameter and the levels of nutrients were only found for nitrogen and iron during the autumn period. Lower levels of the nutrients; nitrogen, phosphor and potassium, were found in association with the litterfall while calcium showed on increased levels.The trends found in this study of nutrients in the leaves during the growth season show on similarities with other studies on the subject.

  • 144.
    Haraldsson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Dendrokronologisk undersökning av Quercus sp. och Pinus sylvestris i nationalparken Blå Jungfrun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study involved a dendrochronological examination of oak (Qeurcus.sp) and Scots pine (Pinus.sylvestris) in the nationalpark Blå Jungfrun, by measuring annual ringwidth data from tree-cores from the island, data from the national forest inventory and climatedata from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). Using the analysis program Windendro an annual ringwidth analysis was performed. Trends that occured were that pine respondend more to precipitation than temperature and that oak respondend more to temperature. Ringwidth were higher for Scots pine than oak and for both species lower than on the mainland.

  • 145.
    Hasselblatt Bylander, Mia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mångfald genom inkluderande verksamhet: En nulägesanalys av Holmen Skog2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish companies are facing major market changes as modern technology, social structures and the ethnic makeup in society is changing. One way of working with these changes is to increase diversity within the workplace though inclusiveness. This essay gives a current situation assessment of the degree of diversity within Holmen Skog, which in turn can form the foundation for an increased understanding of the concepts surrounding diversity and create pre-requisites to conduct inclusiveness in the workplace.

  • 146.
    He, Jiaqi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Students’ Persistence inAdvanced EngineeringUniversity-Industry-Collaborated Distance Education: A Case Study of the project ‘Expertise forSustainable Wood Construction’ in LinnaeusUniversity2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    EHTB project is a university-industry collaboration program at Linnaeus University.The program aims at offering advanced knowledge and technology about woodconstruction that meet the needs of the labor market. All the courses are permitted toengineering students and employees who engage in the industry with sufficient workingexperience, however, there is a high rate of dropout in the project.People, most of whom were full-time working and having a family, applied to thecourses in the project since it started. Some of them gave up their offer mostly becausethey chose another alternative. For those who registered, the withdrawn during studyoccurred again mainly due to time issue caused by their heavy work burden or thedistracted family situation.The students who participated in the EHTB project usually had a high commitment tothe education. Distance students usually have fewer communication with the institutioncompared to other campus-based learners. The author suggests that the university couldestablish an information and consulting system for a more frequent information delivery.It would be better if the associating companies encourage their staff to take the studyand create the learning atmosphere for the students. Moreover, the students within theproject are the resources to various company, there is no harm for both the universityand the companies to communicate more with the students for more future cooperationand development.At the end, the author points out that the distance education mode of EHTB project didnot fully utilize the potential of the flexibility. Some face-to-face meetings deepened thetime limitation and the inconvenience for transportation. More distance operationtechnology should be implemented to increase the flexibility for students.

  • 147.
    Hedwall, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Brunet, Jorg
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
    Phosphorus and nitrogen co-limitation of forest ground vegetation under elevated anthropogenic nitrogen deposition2017In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 185, no 2, p. 317-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant growth in northern forest ecosystems is considered to be primarily nitrogen limited. Nitrogen deposition is predicted to change this towards co-limitation/limitation by other nutrients (e.g., phosphorus), although evidence of such stoichiometric effects is scarce. We utilized two forest fertilization experiments in southern Sweden to analyze single and combined effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on the productivity, composition, and diversity of the ground vegetation. Our results indicate that the productivity of forest ground vegetation in southern Sweden is co-limited by nitrogen and phosphorus. Additionally, the combined effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the productivity was larger than when applied solely. No effects on species richness of any of these two nutrients were observed when applied separately, while applied in combination, they increased species richness and changed species composition, mainly by promoting more mesotrophic species. All these effects, however, occurred only for the vascular plants and not for bryophytes. The tree layer in a forest has a profound impact on the productivity and diversity of the ground vegetation by competing for both light and nutrients. This was confirmed in our study where a combination of nitrogen and high tree basal area reduced cover of the ground vegetation compared to all the other treatments where basal area was lower after stand thinning. During the past decades, nitrogen deposition may have further increased this competition from the trees for phosphorus and gradually reduced ground vegetation diversity. Phosphorus limitation induced by nitrogen deposition may, thus, contribute to ongoing changes in forest ground vegetation.

  • 148.
    Hedwall, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gong, Peichen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences ; European Forest Inst EFINORD.
    Ingerslev, Morten
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fertilization in northern forests - biological, economic and environmental constraints and possibilities2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 301-311Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different fertilization regimens, environmental constraints and possibilities in northern forests on mineral soils. Further on we discuss the implications of both extensive and more intensive fertilization in relation to the developing bioeconomy, which encompasses the production and conversion of renewable biological resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization gives, in most cases, a small and transient effect on the environment as well as a high rate of return to the forest owner with low-economic risk. The increase in biomass production, however, is relatively small and consequently the impact on the processing industry and the bioeconomy is limited. More intensive fertilization regimens implying intensive fertilization starting in young forests may, on the other hand, considerably increase the biomass supply and value for the industry. The economic and environmental risks of this type of fertilization may, however, be larger and more research is needed on the effects on the stand level, and especially on the landscape level, including late rotation management of the forest.

  • 149.
    Hellström, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    När gallringsentreprenören avverkningsplanerar: Hur påverkas arbetsmiljön och kostnaderna samt hur upplevs arbetssättet?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the Swedish forest owner association Mellanskog pre-harvest planning prior to thinning is traditionally performed by company foresters. In the past three years, Mellanskog has in one business area, instead outsourced pre-harvest planning to thinning contractors.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the outsourcing of pre-harvest planning is perceived by the company foresters and contractors and how it affects the working environment and costs.

    The study showed positive experiences from foresters and contractors, though there were some responsibility issues and economic concerns. Outsourcing improves the contractor’s working environment, but deteriorates that of the foresters. Having foresters performing the pre-harvest planning is more expensive than having contractors performing it, especially on small harvesting worksites.

  • 150.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Towards low-emitting and sustainable particle and fibreboards: Formaldehyde emission test methods and adhesives from biorefinery lignins2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High volumes, fast production speed, and low material costs have been historically the driving factors of the particle- and fibreboard industries. However, in recent years the fossil-fuel dependency and health issues of the formaldehyde-containing adhesives used in the production have gained attention from both legislators and consumers. The latest example of legislation development is the change that the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety of Germany  (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Nukleare Sicherheit) made to their testing method, effectively lowering the formaldehyde emission levels of wood-based panels in Germany from the European emission level of 0.1 ppm (E1, EN 717-1) to 0.05 ppm. As the emission levels of requirements decrease, market opportunities arise for formaldehyde-free bio-based adhesive systems. The aim of this thesis was thus to evaluate the different formaldehyde test methods at low emission levels (<0.05 ppm), and to explore new adhesive alternatives to the formaldehyde and petroleum-based systems used today.

    As formaldehyde emissions decrease, choosing the right measurement method becomes increasingly important. Repeatability and correlation between the main European and American formaldehyde measurement chambers, described in EN 717-1 and ASTM D 6007 standards respectively, were determined. In addition, an alternative fast factory method based on emissions was evaluated, and the effect of reducing the conditioning time before emission measurements was investigated. A literature research was conducted on different bio-based raw materials in order to review their potential, from both scientific and industrial viewpoints, as alternatives to the current petroleum-derived and formaldehyde-based adhesives. Lignin residues from biorefinery processes were chosen for further testing due to their increasing volumes and potential to suit various pathways for adhesive making. Three different biorefinery lignins were compared, and ammonium lignosulfonate was chosen for making adhesives for particleboards by using one petroleum-based and one bio-based crosslinker.

    The main conclusion of the formaldehyde emission part of the thesis was that formaldehyde emissions can be measured both accurately and quickly at low levels using chamber methods, even at factory environment. There was a good correlation between the American D 6007 and European EN 717-1 chamber methods at emission levels <0.05 ppm for both particleboards (r2 = 0.9167) and fibreboards (r2 = 0.9443). Further understanding on the effect of edge-sealing of boards and analytical methods described in the standards was obtained. It was confirmed that a fast chamber method with 1 day conditioning and 15 minutes measuring time could be used for factory formaldehyde control for most board types.

    The bio-based adhesives’ literature review revealed a large amount of studies on different sustainable adhesive systems, some of which seem promising. Both soy protein and tannin were found to be partially commercialized, with certain pre-requisites. Kraft-lignin was especially well researched, but was found to be difficult to use for other applications than partial replacement of phenol in phenol-formaldehyde (PF) adhesives due to poor water solubility and purity. Lignin residues from biorefinery processes were found to be a less studied, growing raw-material source with a lot of potential. Thus, supercritical water hydrolysis lignin (SCWH) and two biorefinery lignosulfonates were chemically and thermally characterized, and evaluated as raw materials for value-added applications, including adhesives. SCWH lignin was found to have more β-R linkages and lower amount of impurities than the lignosulfonates. High amount of phenolic hydroxyl groups indicated that SCWH would be well suited for phenol replacement in PF adhesives. The two lignosulfonates had more aliphatic hydroxyl groups, which can be interesting for other crosslinking reactions than PF. Ammonium lignosulfonate (ALS) was chosen for further evaluation as having slightly better properties than sodium lignosulfonate (SLS). ALS was combined with one bio-based crosslinker, furfuryl alcohol (FOH), and one synthetic crosslinker, 4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI), and tested as particleboard adhesive. Although in veneer tensile shear strength testing the crosslinkers worked equally well, pMDI provided significantly better results in particleboards. In addition, higher emissions than what can be expected from wood particles alone were detected from the particleboard samples crosslinked with FOH, even though FOH can be classified as non-formaldehyde added adhesive system. Further research is needed to elucidate how much the lignin contributes to the final adhesion strength when it is used together with pMDI.

    This thesis has provided new insights on formaldehyde emissions and bio-based adhesives towards healthier and more sustainable particle- and fibreboards. It has been proven that formaldehyde emissions can be measured accurately at emission levels of wood, enabling comparisons of formaldehyde-free systems. Formaldehyde-free adhesives based on a biorefinery lignin type and pMDI showed promising results for particleboards. However, these results need to be improved by different modifications of the lignin in order to bring the adhesive system to the economical and performance level required by the particleboard industry.

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