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  • 101. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Discovery and follow-up studies of the extended, off-plane, VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1507-6222011In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 525, p. A45-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The detection of gamma-rays in the very-high-energy (VHE) range (100 GeV-100 TeV) offers the possibility of studying the parent population of ultrarelativistic particles found in astrophysical sources, so it is useful for understanding the underlying astrophysical processes in nonthermal sources. Aims. The discovery of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1507-622 is reported and possibilities regarding its nature are investigated. Methods. The H. E. S. S. array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) has a high sensitivity compared with previous instruments (similar to 1% of the Crab flux in 25 h observation time for a 5 sigma point-source detection) and has a large field of view (similar to 5 degrees in diameter). HESS J1507-622 was discovered within the ongoing H. E. S. S. survey of the inner Galaxy, and the source was also studied by means of dedicated multiwavelength observations. Results. A Galactic gamma-ray source, HESS J1507-622, located similar to 3.5 degrees. from the Galactic plane was detected with a statistical significance >9 sigma. Its energy spectrum is well fitted by a power law with spectral index Gamma = 2.24 +/- 0.16(stat) +/- 0.20(sys) and a flux above 1 TeV of (1.5 +/- 0.4(stat) +/- 0.3(sys)) x 10(-12) cm(-2) s(-1). Possible interpretations (considering both hadronic and leptonic models) of the VHE gamma-ray emission are discussed in the absence of an obvious counterpart.

  • 102. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Conrad, J.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Fallon, L.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J-F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Ryde, F.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schoenwald, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sushch, I.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorobiov, S.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    HESS upper limits on very high energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar GRS 1915+1052009In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 508, no 3, p. 1135-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. High energy particles reside in the relativistic jets of microquasars, making them possible sources of very high energy radiation (VHE, > 100 GeV). Detecting this emission would provide a new handle on jet physics. Aims. Observations of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 with the HESS telescope array were undertaken in 2004-2008 to search for VHE emission. Methods. Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the energy and direction of the incident gamma rays. Results. There is no evidence for a VHE gamma-ray signal either from the direction of the microquasar or its vicinity. An upper limit of 6.1 x 10(-13) ph cm(-2) s(-1) (99.9% confidence level) is set on the photon flux above 410 GeV, equivalent to a VHE luminosity of similar to 10(34) erg s(-1) at 11 kpc. Conclusions. The VHE to X-ray luminosity ratio in GRS 1915+105 is at least four orders of magnitude lower than the ratio observed in gamma-ray binaries. The VHE radiative efficiency of the compact jet is less than 0.01% based on its estimated total power of 10(38) erg s(-1). Particle acceleration in GRS 1915+105 is not efficient at high energies and/or the magnetic field is too strong. It is also possible that VHE gamma-rays are produced by GRS 1915+105, but the emission is highly time-dependent.

  • 103. Acharya, B. S.
    et al.
    Actis, M.
    Aghajani, T.
    Agnetta, G.
    Aguilar, J.
    Aharonian, F.
    Ajello, M.
    Akhperjanian, A.
    Alcubierre, M.
    Aleksic, J.
    Alfaro, R.
    Aliu, E.
    Allafort, A. J.
    Allan, D.
    Allekotte, I.
    Amato, E.
    Anderson, J.
    Anguener, E. O.
    Antonelli, L. A.
    Antoranz, P.
    Aravantinos, A.
    Arlen, T.
    Armstrong, T.
    Arnaldi, H.
    Arrabito, L.
    Asano, K.
    Ashton, T.
    Asorey, H. G.
    Awane, Y.
    Baba, H.
    Babic, A.
    Baby, N.
    Baehr, J.
    Bais, A.
    Baixeras, C.
    Bajtlik, S.
    Balbo, M.
    Balis, D.
    Balkowski, C.
    Bamba, A.
    Bandiera, R.
    Barber, A.
    Barbier, C.
    Barcelo, M.
    Barnacka, A.
    Barnstedt, J.
    Barres de Almeida, U.
    Barrio, J. A.
    Basili, A.
    Basso, S.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bauer, C.
    Baushev, A.
    Becerra, J.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Bechtol, K. C.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Beckmann, V.
    Bednarek, W.
    Behera, B.
    Belluso, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Berdugo, J.
    Berger, K.
    Bernard, F.
    Bernardino, T.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bhat, N.
    Bhattacharyya, S.
    Bigongiari, C.
    Biland, A.
    Billotta, S.
    Bird, T.
    Birsin, E.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Bitossi, M.
    Blake, S.
    Blanch Bigas, O.
    Blasi, P.
    Bobkov, A.
    Boccone, V.
    Boettcher, M.
    Bogacz, L.
    Bogart, J.
    Bogdan, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Boix Gargallo, J.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bonanno, G.
    Bonardi, A.
    Bonev, T.
    Bonifacio, P.
    Bonnoli, G.
    Bordas, P.
    Borgland, A.
    Borkowski, J.
    Bose, R.
    Botner, O.
    Bottani, A.
    Bouchet, L.
    Bourgeat, M.
    Boutonnet, C.
    Bouvier, A.
    Brau-Nogue, S.
    Braun, I.
    Bretz, T.
    Briggs, M.
    Bringmann, T.
    Brook, P.
    Brun, P.
    Brunetti, L.
    Buanes, T.
    Buckley, J.
    Buehler, R.
    Bugaev, V.
    Bulgarelli, A.
    Bulik, T.
    Busetto, G.
    Buson, S.
    Byrum, K.
    Cailles, M.
    Cameron, R.
    Camprecios, J.
    Canestrari, R.
    Cantu, S.
    Capalbi, M.
    Caraveo, P.
    Carmona, E.
    Carosi, A.
    Carr, J.
    Carton, P. -H
    Casanova, S.
    Casiraghi, M.
    Catalano, O.
    Cavazzani, S.
    Cazaux, S.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chabanne, E.
    Chadwick, P.
    Champion, C.
    Chen, A.
    Chiang, J.
    Chiappetti, L.
    Chikawa, M.
    Chitnis, V. R.
    Chollet, F.
    Chudoba, J.
    Cieslar, M.
    Cillis, A.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Colin, P.
    Calome, J.
    Colonges, S.
    Compin, M.
    Conconi, P.
    Conforti, V.
    Connaughton, V.
    Conrad, J.
    Contreras, J. L.
    Coppi, P.
    Corona, P.
    Corti, D.
    Cortina, J.
    Cossio, L.
    Costantini, H.
    Cotter, G.
    Courty, B.
    Couturier, S.
    Covino, S.
    Crimi, G.
    Criswell, S. J.
    Croston, J.
    Cusumano, G.
    Dafonseca, M.
    Dale, O.
    Daniel, M.
    Darling, J.
    Davids, I.
    Dazzi, F.
    De Angelis, A.
    De Caprio, V.
    De Frondat, F.
    de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.
    de la Calle, I.
    De La Vega, G. A.
    Lopez, R. de los Reyes
    De Lotto, B.
    De Luca, A.
    de Mello Neto, J. R. T.
    de Naurois, M.
    de Oliveira, Y.
    de Ona Wilhelmi, E.
    de Souza, V.
    Decerprit, G.
    Decock, G.
    Deil, C.
    Delagnes, E.
    Deleglise, G.
    Delgado, C.
    Della Volpe, D.
    Demange, P.
    Depaola, G.
    Dettlaff, A.
    Di Paola, A.
    Di Pierro, F.
    Diaz, C.
    Dick, J.
    Dickherber, R.
    Dickinson, H.
    Diez-Blanco, V.
    Digel, S.
    Dimitrov, D.
    Disset, G.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Doert, M.
    Dohmke, M.
    Domainko, W.
    Prester, D. Dominis
    Donat, A.
    Dorner, D.
    Doro, M.
    Dournaux, J-L
    Drake, G.
    Dravins, D.
    Drury, L.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubois, R.
    Dubus, G.
    Dufour, C.
    Dumas, D.
    Dumm, J.
    Durand, D.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Ebr, J.
    Edy, E.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Einecke, S.
    Eleftheriadis, C.
    Elles, S.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Engelhaupt, D.
    Enomoto, R.
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Errando, M.
    Etchegoyen, A.
    Evans, P.
    Falcone, A.
    Fantinel, D.
    Farakos, K.
    Farnier, C.
    Fasola, G.
    Favill, B.
    Fede, E.
    Federici, S.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Ferenc, D.
    Ferrando, P.
    Fesquet, M.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fillin-Martino, E.
    Fink, D.
    Finley, C.
    Finley, J. P.
    Fiorini, M.
    Firpo Curcoll, R.
    Flores, H.
    Florin, D.
    Focke, W.
    Foehr, C.
    Fokitis, E.
    Font, L.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fornasa, M.
    Foerster, A.
    Fortson, L.
    Fouque, N.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fransson, C.
    Fraser, G.
    Frei, R.
    Albuquerque, I. F. M.
    Fresnillo, L.
    Fruck, C.
    Fujita, Y.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fukui, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Gaebele, W.
    Gabici, S.
    Gabriele, R.
    Gadola, A.
    Galante, N.
    Gall, D.
    Gallant, Y.
    Gamez-Garcia, J.
    Garcia, B.
    Garcia Lopez, R.
    Gardiol, D.
    Garrido, D.
    Garrido, L.
    Gascon, D.
    Gaug, M.
    Gaweda, J.
    Gebremedhin, L.
    Geffroy, N.
    Gerard, L.
    Ghedina, A.
    Ghigo, M.
    Giannakaki, E.
    Gianotti, F.
    Giarrusso, S.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Gika, V.
    Giommi, P.
    Girard, N.
    Giro, E.
    Giuliani, A.
    Glanzman, T.
    Glicenstein, J. -F
    Godinovic, N.
    Golev, V.
    Gomez Berisso, M.
    Gomez-Ortega, J.
    Gonzalez, M. M.
    Gonzalez, A.
    Gonzalez, F.
    Gonzalez Munoz, A.
    Gothe, K. S.
    Gougerot, M.
    Graciani, R.
    Grandi, P.
    Granena, F.
    Granot, J.
    Grasseau, G.
    Gredig, R.
    Green, A.
    Greenshaw, T.
    Gregoire, T.
    Grimm, O.
    Grube, J.
    Grudzinska, M.
    Gruev, V.
    Gruenewald, S.
    Grygorczuk, J.
    Guarino, V.
    Gunji, S.
    Gyuk, G.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hagiwara, R.
    Hahn, J.
    Hakansson, N.
    Hallgren, A.
    Hamer Heras, N.
    Hara, S.
    Hardcastle, M. J.
    Harris, J.
    Hassan, T.
    Hatanaka, K.
    Haubold, T.
    Haupt, A.
    Hayakawa, T.
    Hayashida, M.
    Heller, R.
    Henault, F.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hermel, R.
    Herrero, A.
    Hidaka, N.
    Hinton, J.
    Hoffmann, D.
    Hofmann, W.
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    Abstract [en]

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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    Laschinsky, H.
    Lavalle, J.
    Le Guen, Y.
    Le Provost, H.
    Van Suu, A. Le
    Lefevre, D.
    Legou, T.
    Lelaizant, G.
    Lim, G.
    Lo Presti, D.
    Loaec, G.
    Loehner, H.
    Loucatos, S.
    Louis, F.
    Lucarelli, F.
    Lyashuk, V.
    Mangano, S.
    Marcelin, M.
    Margiotta, A.
    Masullo, R.
    Mazeas, F.
    Mazure, A.
    Megna, R.
    Melissas, M.
    Migneco, E.
    Mongelli, M.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morganti, M.
    Moscoso, L.
    Motz, H.
    Musumeci, M.
    Naumann, C.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Niess, V.
    Noble, A.
    Olivetto, C.
    Ostasch, R.
    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.
    Payre, P.
    Peek, H. Z.
    Perez, A.
    Petta, C.
    Piattelli, P.
    Pillet, R.
    Pineau, J. -P
    Poinsignon, J.
    Popa, V.
    Pradier, T.
    Racca, C.
    Randazzo, N.
    van Randwijk, J.
    Real, D.
    Regnier, M.
    van Rens, B.
    Rethore, F.
    Rewiersma, P.
    Riccobene, G.
    Rigaud, V.
    Ripani, M.
    Roca, V.
    Roda, C.
    Rolin, J. F.
    Rostovtsev, A.
    Roux, J.
    Ruppi, M.
    Russo, G. V.
    Rusydi, G.
    Salesa, F.
    Salomon, K.
    Sapienza, P.
    Schmitt, F.
    Schuller, J. -P
    Shanidze, R.
    Sokalski, I.
    Spona, T.
    Spurio, M.
    van der Steenhoven, G.
    Stolarczyk, T.
    Streeb, K.
    Sulak, L.
    Taiuti, M.
    Tamburini, C.
    Tao, C.
    Tasca, L.
    Terreni, G.
    Urbano, F.
    Valdy, P.
    Valente, V.
    Vallage, B.
    Vaudaine, G.
    Venekamp, G.
    Verlaat, B.
    Vernin, P.
    van Wijk, R.
    Wijnker, G.
    Wobbe, G.
    de Wolf, E.
    Yao, A. -F
    Zaborov, D.
    Zaccone, H.
    Zornoza, J. D.
    Zuniga, J.
    Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 581, no 3, p. 695-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion study, line parameter data were taken using miniature autonomous data loggers and shore-based optical time domain reflectometry. Details of the mechanical prototype line, the electromechanical cable and data acquisition are presented. Data taken during the immersion study revealed deficiencies in the pressure resistance of the electromechanical cable terminations at the entry points to the electronics containers. The improvements to the termination, which have been integrated into subsequent detection lines, are discussed. The line also allowed deep-sea acoustic measurements with a prototype hydrophone system. The technical setup of this system is described, and the first results of the data analysis are presented. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 107. Ageron, M.
    et al.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Albert, A.
    Ameli, F.
    Anghinolfi, M.
    Anton, G.
    Anvar, S.
    Ardellier-Desages, F.
    Aslanides, E.
    Aubert, J-J
    Auer, R.
    Barbarito, E.
    Basa, S.
    Battaglieri, M.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università e Sezione INFN, Italy.
    Beltramelli, J.
    Bertin, V.
    Bigi, A.
    Billault, M.
    Blaes, R.
    de Botton, N.
    Bouwhuis, M. C.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Bruijn, R.
    Brunner, J.
    Burgio, G. F.
    Busto, J.
    Cafagna, F.
    Caillat, L.
    Calzas, A.
    Capone, A.
    Caponetto, L.
    Carmona, E.
    Carr, J.
    Cartwright, S. L.
    Castel, D.
    Castorina, E.
    Cavasinni, V.
    Cecchini, S.
    Ceres, A.
    Charvis, P.
    Chauchot, P.
    Chiarusi, T.
    Circella, M.
    Colnard, C.
    Compere, C.
    Coniglione, R.
    Cottini, N.
    Coyle, P.
    Cuneo, S.
    Cussatlegras, A-S
    Damy, G.
    van Dantzig, R.
    De Bonis, G.
    De Marzo, C.
    De Vita, R.
    Dekeyser, I.
    Delagnes, E.
    Denans, D.
    Deschamps, A.
    Destelle, J-J
    Dinkespieler, B.
    Distefano, C.
    Donzaud, C.
    Drogou, J-F
    Druillole, F.
    Durand, D.
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Escoffier, S.
    Falchini, E.
    Favard, S.
    Fehr, F.
    Feinstein, F.
    Ferry, S.
    Fiorello, C.
    Flaminio, V.
    Fratini, K.
    Fuda, J-L
    Galeotti, S.
    Gallone, J-M
    Giacomelli, G.
    Girard, N.
    Gojak, C.
    Goret, Ph.
    Graf, K.
    Hallewell, G.
    Harakeh, M. N.
    Hartmann, B.
    Heijboer, A.
    Heine, E.
    Hello, Y.
    Hernandez-Rey, J. J.
    Hoessl, J.
    Hoffman, C.
    Hogenbirk, J.
    Hubbard, J. R.
    Jaquet, M.
    Jaspers, M.
    de Jong, M.
    Jouvenot, F.
    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Katz, U.
    Keller, P.
    Kok, E.
    Kok, H.
    Kooijman, P.
    Kopper, C.
    Korolkova, E. V.
    Kouchner, A.
    Kretschmer, W.
    Kruijer, A.
    Kuch, S.
    Kudryavstev, V. A.
    Lagier, P.
    Lahmann, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lamare, P.
    Lambard, G.
    Languillat, J-C
    Laschinsky, H.
    Lavalle, J.
    Le Guen, Y.
    Le Provost, H.
    Van Suu, A. Le
    Lefevre, D.
    Legou, T.
    Lelaizant, G.
    Lim, G.
    Lo Presti, D.
    Loehner, H.
    Loucatos, S.
    Louis, F.
    Lucarelli, F.
    Lyashuk, V.
    Marcelin, M.
    Margiotta, A.
    Masullo, R.
    Mazeas, F.
    Mazure, A.
    McMillan, J. E.
    Megna, R.
    Melissas, M.
    Migneco, E.
    Milovanovic, A.
    Mongelli, M.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morganti, M.
    Moscoso, L.
    Musumeci, M.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Naumann, C.
    Niess, V.
    Noble, T.
    Olivetto, C.
    Ostasch, R.
    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.
    Payre, P.
    Peek, H.
    Perez, A.
    Petta, C.
    Piattelli, P.
    Pillet, R.
    Pineau, J-P
    Poinsignon, J.
    Popa, V.
    Pradier, T.
    Racca, C.
    Randazzo, N.
    van Randwijk, J.
    Real, D.
    van Rens, B.
    Rethore, F.
    Rewiersma, P.
    Riccobene, G.
    Rigaud, V.
    Ripani, M.
    Roca, V.
    Roda, C.
    Rolin, J. F.
    Rose, H. J.
    Rostovtsev, A.
    Roux, J.
    Ruppi, M.
    Russo, G. V.
    Rusydi, G.
    Salesa, F.
    Salomon, K.
    Sapienza, P.
    Schmitt, F.
    Schuller, J-P
    Shanidze, R.
    Sokalski, I.
    Spona, T.
    Spurio, M.
    van der Steenhoven, G.
    Stolarczyk, T.
    Streeb, K.
    Sulak, L.
    Taiuti, M.
    Tamburini, C.
    Tao, C.
    Terreni, G.
    Thompson, L. F.
    Urbano, F.
    Valdy, P.
    Valente, V.
    Vallage, B.
    Vaudaine, G.
    Venekamp, G.
    Verlaat, B.
    Vernin, P.
    de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.
    van Wijk, R.
    Wijnker, G.
    Huberts, P. de Witt
    Wobbe, G.
    de Wolf, E.
    Yao, A-F
    Zaborov, D.
    Zaccone, H.
    Zornoza, J. D.
    Zuniga, J.
    The ANTARES optical beacon system2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 578, no 3, p. 498-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three-dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular, when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of sea water, which is used as the detection volume of the ANTARES telescope. The design, tests, construction and first results of the two types of beacons, LED and laser-based, are presented. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 108. Ageron, M.
    et al.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Albert, A.
    Ameli, F.
    Anghinolfi, M.
    Anton, G.
    Anvar, S.
    Ardid, M.
    Aubert, J. -J
    Aublin, J.
    Auer, R.
    Basa, S.
    Bazzotti, M.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    l'Univers - Service de Physique des Particules.
    Bertin, V.
    Biagi, S.
    Bigi, A.
    Bigongiari, C.
    Bou-Cabo, M.
    Bouwhuis, M. C.
    Bruijn, R.
    Brunner, J.
    Burgio, G. F.
    Busto, J.
    Camarena, F.
    Capone, A.
    Carminati, G.
    Carr, J.
    Castel, D.
    Castorina, E.
    Cavasinni, V.
    Cecchini, S.
    Charvis, Ph.
    Chiarusi, T.
    Circella, M.
    Colnard, C.
    Coniglione, R.
    Costantini, H.
    Cottini, N.
    Coyle, P.
    De Bonis, G.
    Decowski, P.
    Dekeyser, I.
    Deschamps, A.
    Donzaud, C.
    Dornic, D.
    Drouhin, D.
    Druillole, F.
    Eberl, T.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Escoffier, S.
    Falchini, E.
    Fehr, F.
    Flaminio, V.
    Fratini, K.
    Fuda, J. -L
    Giacomelli, G.
    Graf, K.
    Guillard, G.
    Hallewell, G.
    Hello, Y.
    Hernandez-Rey, J. J.
    Hossl, J.
    de Jong, M.
    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.
    Kalekin, O.
    Kappes, A.
    Katz, U.
    Kooijman, P.
    Kopper, C.
    Kouchner, A.
    Kretschmer, W.
    Kuch, S.
    Lahmann, R.
    Lamare, P.
    Lambard, G.
    Laschinsky, H.
    Lavalle, J.
    Le Provost, H.
    Lefevre, D.
    Lelaizant, G.
    Lim, G.
    Lo Presti, D.
    Loehner, H.
    Loucatos, S.
    Louis, F.
    Lucarelli, F.
    Lyons, K.
    Mangano, S.
    Marcelin, M.
    Margiotta, A.
    Martinez-Mora, J. A.
    Maurin, G.
    Mazure, A.
    Melissas, M.
    Migneco, E.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morganti, M.
    Moscoso, L.
    Motz, H.
    Naumann, C.
    Ostasch, R.
    Pavalas, G. E.
    Payre, P.
    Petrovic, J.
    Petta, C.
    Piattelli, P.
    Picq, C.
    Pillet, R.
    Popa, V.
    Pradier, T.
    Presani, E.
    Racca, C.
    Radu, A.
    Reed, C.
    Richardt, C.
    Rujoiu, M.
    Ruppi, M.
    Russo, G. V.
    Salesa, F.
    Sapienza, P.
    Schoeck, F.
    Schuller, J. -P
    Shanidze, R.
    Simeone, F.
    Spurio, M.
    van der Steenhoven, G.
    Tamburini, C.
    Tasca, L.
    Toscano, S.
    Vecchi, M.
    Vernin, P.
    Wijnker, G.
    de Wolf, E.
    Zaborov, D.
    Zornoza, J. D.
    Zuniga, J.
    Performance of the first ANTARES detector line2009In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 277-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on the data recorded with the first Antares detector line. The line was deployed on the 14th of February 2006 and was connected to the readout 2 weeks later. Environmental data for one and a half years of running are shown. Measurements of atmospheric muons from data taken from selected runs during the first 6 months of operation are presented. Performance figures in terms of time residuals and angular resolution are given. Finally the angular distribution of atmospheric muons is presented and from this the depth profile of the muon intensity is derived. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 109. Aglietta, M
    et al.
    Alessandro, B
    Antonioli, P
    Arneodo, F
    Bergamasco, L
    Bertaina, M
    Castagnoli, C
    Castellina, A
    Chiavassa, A
    Cini, G
    Piazzoli, B D
    Di Sciascio, G
    Fulgione, W
    Galeotti, P
    Ghia, P L
    Iacovacci, M
    Mannocchi, G
    Morello, C
    Navarra, G
    Saavedra, O
    Stamerra, A
    Trinchero, G C
    Valchierotti, S
    Vallania, P
    Vernetto, S
    Vigorito, C
    Ambrosio, M
    Antolini, R
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Carboni, M
    Caruso, R
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Chiarusi, T
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    Cozzi, M
    De Cataldo, G
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Grillo, A
    Guarino, F
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, K
    Heinz, R
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Maaroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Satriano, C
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    The cosmic ray proton, helium and CNO fluxes in the 100 TeV energy region from TeV muons and EAS atmospheric Cherenkov light observations of MACRO and EAS-TOP2004In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 223-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary cosmic ray (CR) proton, helium and CNO fluxes in the energy range 80-300 TeV are studied at the National Gran Sasso Laboratories by means of EAS-TOP (Campo Imperatore, 2005 m a.s.l.) and MACRO (deep underground, 3100 m w.e., the surface energy threshold for a muon reaching the detector being E-mu(th) approximate to 1.3 TeV). The measurement is based on: (a) the selection of primaries based on their energy/nucleon (i.e., with energy/nucleon sufficient to produce a muon with energy larger than 1.3 TeV) and the reconstruction of the shower geometry by means of the muons recorded by MACRO in the deep underground laboratories; (b) the detection of the associated atmospheric Cherenkov light (C.l.) signals by means of the C.l. detector of EAS-TOP. The C.l. density at core distance r > 100 m is directly related to the total primary energy E-0. Proton and helium ("p + He") and proton, helium and CNO ("p + He + CNO") primaries are thus selected at E-0 approximate to 80 TeV, and at E-0 similar or equal to 250 TeV, respectively. Their flux is measured: J(p+He)(80 TeV) = (1.8 +/- 0.4) x 10(-6) m(-1)-s(-1) sr(-1) TeV-1, and J(p+He+CNO)(250 TeV) = (1.1 +/- 0.3) x 10(-7) m(-2)-s(-1) sr(-1) TeV-1, their relative weights being J(p+He)(J(p+He+CNO)) over bar (250 TeV) = 0.78 +/- 0.17. By using the measurements of the proton spectrum obtained from the direct experiments and hadron flux data in the atmosphere, we obtain for the relative weights of the three components at 250 TeV: J(p) : J(He) : J(CNO) = (0.20 +/- 0.08) : (0.58 +/- 0.19) : (0.22 +/- 0.17). This corresponds to the dominance of helium over proton primaries at 100-1000 TeV, and a possible non-negligible contribution from CNO. The lateral distribution of Cherenkov light in Extensive Air Showers (EASs), which is related to the rate of energy deposit of the primary in the atmosphere, is measured for a selected proton and helium primary beam, and good agreement is found when compared with the one calculated with the CORSIKA/QGSJET simulation model. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 110. Aglietta, M
    et al.
    Alessandro, B
    Antonioli, P
    Arneodo, F
    Bergamasco, L
    Bertaina, M
    Castagnoli, C
    Castellina, A
    Chiavassa, A
    Cini, G
    Piazzoli, B D
    Di Sicascio, G
    Fulgione, W
    Galeotti, P
    Ghia, P L
    Iacovacci, M
    Mannocchi, G
    Morello, C
    Navarra, G
    Saavedra, O
    Stamerra, A
    Trinchero, G C
    Valchierotti, S
    Vallania, P
    Vernetto, S
    Vigorito, C
    Ambrosio, M
    Antolini, R
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna, Italy ; INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Carboni, M
    Caruso, R
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    Cozzi, M
    De Cataldo, G
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Grillo, A
    Guarino, F
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, K
    Heinz, R
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Maaroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Satriano, C
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Serra, P
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    The cosmic ray primary composition between 10(15) and 10(16) eV from Extensive Air Showers electromagnetic and TeV muon data2004In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 641-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cosmic ray primary composition in the energy range between 10(15) and 10(16) eV, i.e., around the "knee" of the primary spectrum, has been studied through the combined measurements of the EAS-TOP air shower array (2005 m a. s.l., 10(5) m(2) collecting area) and the MACRO underground detector (963 m.a.s.l., 3100 m w.e. of minimum rock overburden, 920 m(2) effective area) at the National Gran Sasso Laboratories. The used observables are the air shower size (N-c) measured by EAS-TOP and the muon number (N-mu) recorded by MACRO. The two detectors are separated on average by 1200 m of rock, and located at a respective zenith angle of about 30degrees. The energy threshold at the surface for muons reaching the MACRO depth is approximately 1.3 TeV. Such muons are produced in the early stages of the shower development and in a kinematic region quite different from the one relevant for the usual N-mu - N-e studies. The measurement leads to a primary composition becoming heavier at the knee of the primary spectrum, the knee itself resulting from the steepening of the spectrum of a primary light component (p, He) of Deltay = 0.7 +/- 0.4 at E-0 similar to 4 x 10(15) eV. The result confirms the ones reported from the observation of the low energy muons at the surface (typically in the GeV energy range), showing that the conclusions do not depend on the production region kinematics. Thus, the hadronic interaction model used (CORSIKA/QGSJET) provides consistent composition results from data related to secondaries produced in a rapidity region exceeding the central one. Such an evolution of the composition in the knee region supports the "standard" galactic acceleration/propagation models that imply rigidity dependent breaks of the different components.. and therefore breaks occurring at lower energies in the spectra of the light nuclei. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 111. Aguilar, J A
    et al.
    Albert, A
    Ameli, F
    Amram, P
    Anghinolfi, M
    Anton, G
    Anvar, S
    Ardellier-Desages, F E
    Aslanides, E
    Aubert, J J
    Bailey, D
    Basa, S
    Battaglieri, M
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università e Sezione INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R
    Beltramelli, J
    Bertin, V
    Billault, M
    Blaes, R
    Blanc, F
    de Botton, N
    Boulesteix, J
    Bouwhuis, M C
    Brooks, C B
    Bradbury, S M
    Bruijn, R
    Brunner, J
    Burgio, G F
    Cafagna, F
    Calzas, A
    Capone, A
    Caponetto, L
    Carmona, E
    Carr, J
    Cartwright, S L
    Castorina, E
    Cavasinni, V
    Cecchini, S
    Charvis, P
    Circella, M
    Colnard, C
    Compere, C
    Coniglione, R
    Cooper, S
    Coyle, P
    Cuneo, S
    Damy, G
    van Dantzig, R
    Deschamps, A
    De Marzo, C
    Denans, D
    Destelle, J J
    De Vita, R
    Dinkelspiler, B
    Distefano, C
    Drogou, J F
    Druillole, F
    Engelen, J
    Ernenwein, J P
    Falchini, E
    Favard, S
    Feinstein, F
    Ferry, S
    Festy, D
    Flaminio, V
    Fopma, J
    Fuda, J L
    Gallone, J M
    Giacomelli, G
    Girard, N
    Goret, P
    Graf, K
    Hallewell, G
    Hartmann, B
    Heijboer, A
    Hello, Y
    Hernandez-Rey, J J
    Herrouin, G
    Hossl, J
    Hoffmann, C
    Hubbard, J R
    Jaquet, M
    de Jong, M
    Jouvenot, F
    Kappes, A
    Karg, T
    Karkar, S
    Karolak, M
    Katz, U
    Keller, P
    Kooijman, P
    Korolkova, E V
    Kouchner, A
    Kretschmer, W
    Kuch, S
    Kudryavtsev, V A
    Lafoux, H
    Lagier, P
    Lahmann, R
    Lamare, P
    Languillat, J C
    Laschinsky, H
    Laubier, L
    Legou, T
    Le Guen, Y
    Le Provost, H
    Van Suu, A L
    Lo Nigro, L
    Lo Presti, D
    Loucatos, S
    Louis, F
    Lyashuk, V
    Marcelin, M
    Margiotta, A
    Maron, C
    Massol, A
    Masullo, R
    Mazeas, F
    Mazure, A
    McMillan, J E
    Migneco, E
    Millot, C
    Milovanovic, A
    Montanet, F
    Montaruli, T
    Morel, J P
    Morganti, M
    Moscoso, L
    Musumeci, M
    Naumann, C
    Naumann-Godo, M
    Nezri, E
    Niess, V
    Nooren, G J
    Ogden, P
    Olivetto, C
    Palanque-Delabrouille, N
    Papaleo, R
    Payre, P
    Petta, C
    Piattelli, P
    Pineau, J P
    Poinsignon, J
    Popa, V
    Potheau, R
    Pradier, T
    Racca, C
    Raia, G
    Randazzo, N
    Real, D
    van Rens, B A P
    Rethore, F
    Riccobene, G
    Rigaud, V
    Ripani, M
    Roca-Blay, V
    Rolin, J F
    Romita, M
    Rose, H J
    Rostovtsev, A
    Ruppi, M
    Russo, G V
    Sacquin, Y
    Salesa, F
    Salomon, K
    Saouter, S
    Sapienza, P
    Shanidze, R
    Schuller, J P
    Schuster, W
    Sokalski, I
    Spurio, M
    Stolarczyk, T
    Stubert, D
    Taiuti, M
    Thompson, L F
    Tilav, S
    Valdy, P
    Valente, V
    Vallage, B
    Vernin, P
    Virieux, J
    de Vries, G
    Huberts, P D
    de Wolf, E
    Zaborov, D
    Zaccone, H
    Zakharov, V
    Zornoza, J D
    Zuniga, J
    Study of large hemispherical photomultiplier tubes for the ANTARES neutrino telescope2005In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 555, no 1-2, p. 132-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, to be immersed depth in the Mediterranean Sea, will consist of a three-dimensional matrix of 900 large area photomultiplier tubes housed in pressure-resistant glass spheres. The selection of the optimal photomultiplier was a critical step for the project and required an intensive phase of tests and developments carried out in close collaboration with the main manufacturers worldwide. This paper provides an overview of the tests performed by the collaboration and describes in detail the features of the photomultiplier tube chosen for ANTARES. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 112. Aguilar, J. A.
    et al.
    Albert, A.
    Ameli, F.
    Anghinolfi, M.
    Anton, G.
    Anvar, S.
    Aslanides, E.
    Aubert, J. -J
    Barbarito, E.
    Basa, S.
    Battaglieri, M.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università e Sezione INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R.
    Beltramelli, J.
    Bertin, V.
    Bigi, A.
    Billault, M.
    Blaes, R.
    de Botton, N.
    Bouwhuis, M. C.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Bruijn, R.
    Brunner, J.
    Burgio, G. F.
    Busto, J.
    Cafagna, F.
    Caillat, L.
    Calzas, A.
    Capone, A.
    Caponetto, L.
    Carmona, E.
    Carr, J.
    Cartwright, S. L.
    Castel, D.
    Castorina, E.
    Cavasinni, V.
    Cecchini, S.
    Ceres, A.
    Charvis, P.
    Chauchot, P.
    Chiarusi, T.
    Circella, M.
    Colnard, C.
    Compere, C.
    Coniglione, R.
    Cottini, N.
    Coyle, P.
    Cuneo, S.
    Cussatlegras, A. -S
    Damy, G.
    van Dantzig, R.
    De Marzo, C.
    Dekeyser, I.
    Delagnes, E.
    Denans, D.
    Deschamps, A.
    Dessages-Ardellier, F.
    Destelle, J. -J
    Dinkespieler, B.
    Distefano, C.
    Donzaud, C.
    Drogou, J. -F
    Druillole, F.
    Durand, D.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Escoffier, S.
    Falchini, E.
    Favard, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Ferry, S.
    Festy, D.
    Fiorello, C.
    Flaminio, V.
    Galeotti, S.
    Gallone, J. -M
    Giacomelli, G.
    Girard, N.
    Gojak, C.
    Goret, Ph.
    Graf, K.
    Hallewell, G.
    Harakeh, M. N.
    Hartmann, B.
    Heijboer, A.
    Heine, E.
    Hello, Y.
    Hernandez-Rey, J. J.
    Hoessl, J.
    Hoffman, C.
    Hogenbirk, J.
    Hubbard, J. R.
    Jaquet, M.
    Jaspers, M.
    de Jong, M.
    Jouvenot, F.
    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karkar, S.
    Katz, U.
    Keller, P.
    Kok, H.
    Kooijman, P.
    Kopper, C.
    Korolkova, E. V.
    Kouchner, A.
    Kretschmer, W.
    Kruijer, A.
    Kuch, S.
    Kudryavstev, V. A.
    Lachartre, D.
    Lafoux, H.
    Lagier, P.
    Lahmann, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lamare, P.
    Languillat, J. C.
    Laschinsky, H.
    Le Guen, Y.
    Le Provost, H.
    Suu, A. Le Van
    Legou, T.
    Lim, G.
    Lo Nigro, L.
    Lo Presti, D.
    Loehner, H.
    Loucatos, S.
    Louis, F.
    Lucarelli, F.
    Lyashuk, V.
    Marcelin, M.
    Margiotta, A.
    Masullo, R.
    Mazeas, F.
    Mazure, A.
    McMillan, J. E.
    Megna, R.
    Melissas, M.
    Migneco, E.
    Milovanovic, A.
    Mongelli, M.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morganti, M.
    Moscoso, L.
    Musumeci, M.
    Naumann, C.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Niess, V.
    Olivetto, C.
    Ostasch, R.
    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.
    Payre, P.
    Peek, H.
    Petta, C.
    Piattelli, P.
    Pineau, J. -P
    Poinsignon, J.
    Popa, V.
    Pradier, T.
    Racca, C.
    Randazzo, N.
    van Randwijk, J.
    Real, D.
    van Rens, B.
    Rethore, F.
    Rewiersma, P.
    Riccobene, G.
    Rigaud, V.
    Ripani, M.
    Roca, V.
    Roda, C.
    Rolin, J. F.
    Romita, M.
    Rose, H. J.
    Rostovtsev, A.
    Roux, J.
    Ruppi, M.
    Russo, G. V.
    Salesa, F.
    Salomon, K.
    Sapienza, P.
    Schmitt, F.
    Schuller, J. -P
    Shanidze, R.
    Sokalski, I.
    Spona, T.
    Spurio, M.
    van der Steenhoven, G.
    Stolarczyk, T.
    Streeb, K.
    Stubert, D.
    Sulak, L.
    Taiuti, M.
    Tamburini, C.
    Tao, C.
    Terreni, G.
    Thompson, L. F.
    Valdy, P.
    Valente, V.
    Vallage, B.
    Venekamp, G.
    Verlaat, B.
    Vernin, P.
    de Vita, R.
    de Vries, G.
    van Wijk, R.
    Huberts, P. de Witt
    Wobbe, G.
    de Wolf, E.
    Yao, A-F
    Zaborov, D.
    Zaccone, H.
    Zornoza, J. D.
    Zuniga, J.
    The data acquisition system for the ANTARES neutrino telescope2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 570, no 1, p. 107-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a large three-dimensional array of photo-multiplier tubes. The data acquisition system of the detector takes care of the digitisation of the photo-multiplier tube signals, data transport, data filtering, and data storage. The detector is operated using a control program interfaced with all elements. The design and the implementation of the data acquisition system are described. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 113. Aguilar, J. A.
    et al.
    Albert, A.
    Ameli, F.
    Anghinolfi, M.
    Anton, G.
    Anvar, S.
    Aslanides, E.
    Aubert, J. -J
    Barbarito, E.
    Basa, S.
    Battaglieri, M.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università e Sezione INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R.
    Beltramelli, J.
    Bertin, V.
    Bigi, A.
    Billault, M.
    Blaes, R.
    de Botton, N.
    Bouwhuis, M. C.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Bruijn, R.
    Brunner, J.
    Burgio, G. F.
    Busto, J.
    Cafagna, F.
    Caillat, L.
    Calzas, A.
    Capone, A.
    Caponetto, L.
    Carmona, E.
    Carr, J.
    Cartwright, S. L.
    Castel, D.
    Castorina, E.
    Cavasinni, V.
    Cecchini, S.
    Ceres, A.
    Charvis, P.
    Chauchot, P.
    Chiarusi, T.
    Circella, M.
    Colnard, C.
    Compere, C.
    Coniglione, R.
    Cottini, N.
    Coyle, P.
    Cuneo, S.
    Cussatlegras, A. -S
    Damy, G.
    van Dantzig, R.
    De Marzo, C.
    Dekeyser, I.
    Delagnes, E.
    Denans, D.
    Deschamps, A.
    Dessages-Ardellier, F.
    Destelle, J. -J
    Dinkespieler, B.
    Distefano, C.
    Donzaud, C.
    Drogou, J. -F
    Druillole, F.
    Durand, D.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Escoffier, S.
    Falchini, E.
    Favard, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Ferry, S.
    Festy, D.
    Fiorello, C.
    Flaminio, V.
    Galeotti, S.
    Gallone, J. -M
    Giacomelli, G.
    Girard, N.
    Gojak, C.
    Goret, Ph.
    Graf, K.
    Hallewell, G.
    Harakeh, M. N.
    Hartmann, B.
    Heijboer, A.
    Heine, E.
    Hello, Y.
    Hernandez-Rey, J. J.
    Hoessl, J.
    Hoffman, C.
    Hogenbirk, J.
    Hubbard, J. R.
    Jaquet, M.
    Jaspers, M.
    de Jong, M.
    Jouvenot, F.
    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karkar, S.
    Katz, U.
    Keller, P.
    Kok, H.
    Kooijman, P.
    Kopper, C.
    Korolkova, E. V.
    Kouchner, A.
    Kretschmer, W.
    Kruijer, A.
    Kuch, S.
    Kudryavstev, V. A.
    Lachartre, D.
    Lafoux, H.
    Lagier, P.
    Lahmann, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lamare, P.
    Languillat, J. C.
    Laschinsky, H.
    Le Guen, Y.
    Le Provost, H.
    Van Suu, A. Le
    Legou, T.
    Lim, G.
    Lo Nigro, L.
    Lo Presti, D.
    Loehner, H.
    Loucatos, S.
    Louis, F.
    Lucarelli, F.
    Lyashuk, V.
    Marcelin, M.
    Margiotta, A.
    Masullo, R.
    Mazeas, F.
    Mazure, A.
    McMillan, J. E.
    Megna, R.
    Melissas, M.
    Migneco, E.
    Milovanovic, A.
    Mongelli, M.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morganti, M.
    Moscoso, L.
    Musumeci, M.
    Naumann, C.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Niess, V.
    Olivetto, C.
    Ostasch, R.
    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.
    Payre, P.
    Peek, H.
    Petta, C.
    Piattelli, P.
    Pineau, J. -P
    Poinsignon, J.
    Popa, V.
    Pradier, T.
    Racca, C.
    Randazzo, N.
    van Randwijk, J.
    Real, D.
    van Rens, B.
    Rethore, F.
    Rewiersma, P.
    Riccobene, G.
    Rigaud, V.
    Ripani, M.
    Roca, V.
    Roda, C.
    Rolin, J. F.
    Romita, M.
    Rose, H. J.
    Rostovtsev, A.
    Roux, J.
    Ruppi, M.
    Russo, G. V.
    Salesa, F.
    Salomon, K.
    Sapienza, P.
    Schmitt, F.
    Schuller, J. -P
    Shanidze, R.
    Sokalski, I.
    Spona, T.
    Spurio, M.
    van der Steenhoven, G.
    Stolarczyk, T.
    Streeb, K.
    Stubert, D.
    Sulak, L.
    Taiuti, M.
    Tamburini, C.
    Tao, C.
    Terreni, G.
    Thompson, L. F.
    Valdy, P.
    Valente, V.
    Vallage, B.
    Venekamp, G.
    Verlaat, B.
    Vernin, P.
    de Vita, R.
    de Vries, G.
    van Wijk, R.
    Huberts, P. de Witt
    Wobbe, G.
    de Wolf, E.
    Yao, A. -F
    Zaborov, D.
    Zaccone, H.
    Zornoza, J. D.
    Zuniga, J.
    First results of the instrumentation line for the deep-sea ANTARES neutrino telescope2006In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 26, no 4-5, p. 314-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2005, the ANTARES Collaboration deployed and operated at a depth of 2500 m a so-called Mini Instrumentation Line equipped with Optical Modules (MILOM) at the ANTARES site. The various data acquired during the continuous operation from April to December 2005 of the MILOM confirm the satisfactory performance of the Optical Modules, their front-end electronics and readout system. as well as the calibration devices of the detector. The in situ measurement of the Optical Module time response yields a resolution better than 0.5 ns. The performance of the acoustic positioning system, which enables the spatial reconstruction of the ANTARES detector with a precision of about 10 cm, is verified. These results demonstrate that with the full ANTARES neutrino telescope the design angular resolution of better than 0.3 degrees can be realistically achieved.

  • 114. Aguilar, J A
    et al.
    Albert, A
    Amram, P
    Anghinolfi, M
    Anton, G
    Anvar, S
    Ardellier-Desages, F E
    Aslanides, E
    Aubert, J J
    Azoulay, R
    Bailey, D
    Basa, S
    Battaglieri, M
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università e Sezione INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R
    Beltramelli, J
    Bertin, V
    Billault, M
    Blaes, R
    Blanc, F
    Bland, R W
    de Botton, N
    Boulesteix, J
    Bouwhuis, M C
    Brooks, C B
    Bradbury, S M
    Bruijn, R
    Brunner, J
    Bugeon, F
    Burgio, G F
    Cafagna, F
    Calzas, A
    Caponetto, L
    Carmona, E
    Carr, J
    Cartwright, S L
    Cecchini, S
    Charvis, P
    Circella, M
    Colnard, C
    Compere, C
    Croquette, J
    Cooper, S
    Coyle, P
    Cuneo, S
    Damy, G
    van Dantzig, R
    Deschamps, A
    De Marzo, C
    Destelle, J J
    De Vita, R
    Dinkelspiler, B
    Dispau, G
    Drougou, J F
    Druillole, F
    Engelen, J
    Favard, S
    Feinstein, F
    Ferry, S
    Festy, D
    Fopma, J
    Fuda, J L
    Gallone, J M
    Giacomelli, G
    Girard, N
    Goret, P
    Gournay, J F
    Hallewell, G
    Hartmann, B
    Heijboer, A
    Hello, Y
    Hernandez-Rey, J J
    Herrouin, G
    Hossl, J
    Hoffmann, C
    Hubbard, J R
    Jaquet, M
    de Jong, M
    Jouvenot, F
    Kappes, A
    Karg, T
    Karkar, S
    Karolak, M
    Katz, U
    Keller, P
    Kooijman, P
    Korolkova, E V
    Kouchner, A
    Kretschmer, W
    Kudryavtsev, V A
    Lafoux, H
    Lagier, P
    Lamare, P
    Languillat, J C
    Laubler, L
    Legou, T
    Le Guen, Y
    Le Provost, H
    Le van Suu, A
    Lo Nigro, L
    Lo Presti, D
    Loucatos, S
    Louis, F
    Lyashuk, V
    Magnier, P
    Marcelin, M
    Margiotta, A
    Maron, C
    Massol, A
    Mazeas, F
    Mazeau, B
    Mazure, A
    McMillan, J E
    Michel, J L
    Millot, C
    Milovanovic, A
    Montanet, F
    Montaruli, T
    Morel, J P
    Moscoso, L
    Nezri, E
    Niess, V
    Nooren, G J
    Ogden, P
    Olivetto, C
    Palanque-Delabrouille, N
    Payre, P
    Petta, C
    Pineau, J P
    Poinsignon, J
    Popa, V
    Potheau, R
    Pradier, T
    Racca, C
    Randazzo, N
    Real, D
    van Rens, B A P
    Rethore, F
    Ripani, M
    Roca-Blay, V
    Romeyer, A
    Rollin, J F
    Romita, M
    Rose, H J
    Rostovtsev, A
    Ruppi, M
    Russo, G V
    Sacquin, Y
    Saouter, S
    Schuller, J P
    Schuster, W
    Sokalski, I
    Suvorova, O
    Spooner, N J C
    Spurio, M
    Stolarczyk, T
    Stubert, D
    Taiuti, M
    Thompson, L F
    Tilav, S
    Usik, A
    Valdy, P
    Vallage, B
    Vaudaine, G
    Vernin, P
    Virieux, J
    Vladimirsky, E
    de Vries, G
    Huberts, P D
    de Wolf, E
    Zaborov, D
    Zaccone, H
    Zakharov, V
    Zavatarelli, S
    de Zornoza, J D
    Zuniga, J
    Transmission of light in deep sea water at the site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope2005In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 131-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is a large photomultiplier array designed to detect neutrino-induced upward-going muons by their Cherenkov radiation. Understanding the absorption and scattering of light in the deep Mediterranean is fundamental to optimising the design and performance of the detector. This paper presents measurements of blue and UV light transmission at the ANTARES site taken between 1997 and 2000. The derived values for the scattering length and the angular distribution of particulate scattering were found to be highly correlated, and results are therefore presented in terms of an absorption length;,ab, and an effective scattering length lambda(sct)(eff). The values for blue (UV) light are found to be lambda(abs) similar or equal to 60(26) m, lambda(sct)(eff similar or equal to) 265(122) m, with significant (similar to15%) time variability. Finally, the results of ANTARES simulations showing the effect of these water properties on the anticipated performance of the detector are presented. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 115. Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Benbow, W.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kendziorra, E.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martin, J. M.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schroeder, R.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spangler, D.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Discovery of VHE gamma-rays from the BL Lacertae object PKS 0548-3222010In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 521, p. A69-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. PKS 0548-322 (z = 0.069) is a "high-frequency-peaked" BL Lac object and a candidate very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter, due to its high X-ray and radio flux. Observations at the VHE band provide insights into the origin of very energetic particles present in this source and the radiation processes at work. Methods. We report observations made between October 2004 and January 2008 with the HESS array, a four imaging atmospheric-Cherenkov telescopes. Contemporaneous UV and X-ray observations with the Swift satellite in November 2006 are also reported. Results. PKS 0548-322 is detected for the first time in the VHE band with HESS We measure an excess of 216 gamma-rays corresponding to a significance of 5.6 standard deviations. The photon spectrum of the source is described by a power-law, with a photon index of Gamma = 2.86 +/- 0.34(stat) +/- 0.10(sys). The integral flux above 200 GeV is similar to 1.3% of the flux of the Crab Nebula, and is consistent with being constant in time. Contemporaneous Swift/XRT observations reveal an X-ray flux between 2 and 10 keV of F2-10 keV = (2.3 +/- 0.2) x 10(-11) erg cm(-2) s(-1), an intermediate intensity state with respect to previous observations. The spectral energy distribution can be reproduced using a simple one-zone synchrotron self Compton model, with parameters similar those observed for other sources of this type.

  • 116. Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Benbow, W.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Boisson, C.
    Bochow, A.
    Borrel, V.
    Braun, I.
    Brion, E.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kendziorra, E.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martin, J. M.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Renaud, M.
    Reimer, O.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schroeder, R.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spangler, D.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Superina, G.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Detection of very high energy radiation from HESS J1908+063 confirms the Milagro unidentified source MGRO J1908+062009In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 499, no 3, p. 723-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. Detection of gamma-ray source above 300 GeV is reported, confirming the unidentified source MGRO J1908+06, discovered by the Milagro collaboration at a median energy of 20 TeV. Methods. The source was observed during 27 h as part of the extension of the HESS Galactic plane survey to longitudes > 30 degrees. Results. HESS J1908+063 is detected at a significance level of 10.9 sigma with an integral flux above 1 TeV of (3.76 +/- 0.29 (stat) +/- 0.75(sys)) x 10(-12) ph cm(-2) s(-1), and a spectral photon index Gamma = 2.10 +/- 0.07 (stat) +/- 0.2(sys). The positions and fluxes of HESS J1908+063 and MGRO J1908+06 are in good agreement. Possible counterparts at other wavelengths and the origin of the gamma-ray emission are discussed. The nearby unidentified GeV source, GRO J1908+0556 (GeV) which also remains unidentified and the new Fermi pulsar 0FGL J1907.5+0617, may be connected to the TeV source.

  • 117. Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Univ Paris 07, CNRS, UMR 7164, CEA,Observ Paris, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Behera, B.
    Benbow, W.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Boisson, C.
    Bochow, A.
    Borrel, V.
    Brion, E.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Costamante, L.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goehring, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kendziorra, E.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martin, J. M.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Moderski, R.
    Monard, L. A. G.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P-O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schroeder, R.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spangler, D.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Simultaneous multiwavelength observations of the second exceptional gamma-ray flare of PKS2155-304 in July 20062009In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 502, no 3, p. 749-770Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. The X-ray-TeV connection and the evolution of the emitting particle population is studied in high-energy peaked BL Lac objects, by obtaining spectral information in both bands on sub-hour timescales. Methods. Simultaneous observations with HESS, Chandra and the Bronberg optical observatory were performed on the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 in the night of July 29-30 2006, when the source underwent a major gamma-ray outburst during its high-activity state of Summer 2006. This event took place about 44 h after the other major outburst of the night of July 27-28, which is known for its ultrafast variability. An unprecedented 6 to 8 h of simultaneous, uninterrupted coverage was achieved, with spectra and light curves measured down to 7 and 2 min timescales, respectively. Results. The source exhibited one major flare along the night, at high energies. The gamma-ray flux reached a maximum of similar to 11 times the Crab flux (>400 GeV), with rise/decay timescales of similar to 1 h, plus a few smaller-amplitude flares superimposed on the decaying phase. The emission in the X-ray and VHE gamma-ray bands is strongly correlated, with no evidence of lags. The spectra also evolve with similar patterns, and are always soft ( photon index G > 2), indicating no strong shift of the peaks in the spectral energy distribution towards higher energies. Only at the flare maximum is there evidence that the gamma-ray peak is inside the observed passband, at similar to 400-600 GeV. The VHE spectrum shows a curvature that is variable with time and stronger at higher fluxes. The huge VHE variations (similar to 22x) are only accompanied by small-amplitude X-ray and optical variations (factor 2 and 15% respectively). The source has shown for the first time in a high-energy peaked BL Lac object a large Compton dominance (L(C)/L(S) similar to 10) - rapidly evolving - and a cubic relation between VHE and X-ray flux variations, during a decaying phase. These results challenge the common scenarios for the TeV-blazar emission.

  • 118. Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot.
    Behera, B.
    Benbow, W.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Boisson, C.
    Bochow, A.
    Borrel, V.
    Brion, E.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. -F
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goehring, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynsky, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kendziorra, E.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Lamanna, G.
    Latham, I. J.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martin, J. M.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schroeder, R.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spangler, D.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Discovery of very high energy γ-ray emission from centaurus a with H.E.S.S.2009In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, Vol. 695, no 1, p. L40-L44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of faint very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from the radio galaxy Centaurus A in observations performed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) experiment, an imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array consisting of four telescopes located in Namibia. Centaurus A has been observed for more than 120 hr. A signal with a statistical significance of 5.0 sigma is detected from the region including the radio core and the inner kpc jets. The integral flux above an energy threshold of similar to 250 GeV is measured to be 0.8% of the flux of the Crab Nebula (apparent luminosity: L(> 250 GeV) approximate to 2.6 x 1039 erg s(-1), adopting a distance of 3.8 Mpc). The spectrum can be described by a power law with a photon index of 2.7 +/- 0.5(stat) +/- 0.2(sys). No significant flux variability is detected in the data set. However, the low flux only allows detection of variability on the timescale of days to flux increments above a factor of similar to 15-20 (3 sigma and 4 sigma, respectively). The discovery of VHE gamma-ray emission from Centaurus A reveals particle acceleration in the source to > TeV energies and, together with M 87, establishes radio galaxies as a class of VHE emitters.

  • 119. Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kendziorra, E.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martin, J. M.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schroeder, R.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spangler, D.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Probing the ATIC peak in the cosmic-ray electron spectrum with HESS2009In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 508, no 2, p. 561-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of an excess in the cosmic-ray electron spectrum between 300 and 800 GeV by the ATIC experiment has - together with the PAMELA detection of a rise in the positron fraction up to approximate to 100 GeV - motivated many interpretations in terms of dark matter scenarios; alternative explanations assume a nearby electron source like a pulsar or supernova remnant. Here we present a measurement of the cosmic-ray electron spectrum with H. E. S. S. starting at 340 GeV. While the overall electron flux measured by H. E. S. S. is consistent with the ATIC data within statistical and systematic errors, the H. E. S. S. data exclude a pronounced peak in the electron spectrum as suggested for interpretation by ATIC. The H. E. S. S. data follow a power-law spectrum with spectral index of 3.0 +/- 0.1(stat.) +/- 0.3(syst.), which steepens at about 1 TeV.

  • 120. Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J-P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spangler, D.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Very high energy gamma-ray observations of the binary PSR B1259-63/SS2883 around the 2007 Periastron2009In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 507, no 1, p. 389-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. This article presents very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) data from the gamma-ray binary PSR B1259-63 as taken during the years 2005, 2006 and before as well as shortly after the 2007 periastron passage. These data extend the knowledge of the lightcurve of this object to all phases of the 3.4 year binary orbit. The lightcurve constrains physical mechanisms present in this TeV source. Methods. Observations of VHE gamma-rays with the HESS telescope array using the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique were performed. The HESS instrument features an angular resolution of < 0.1 degrees and an energy resolution of < 20%. Gamma-ray events in an energy range of 0.5-70 TeV were recorded. From these data, energy spectra and lightcurve with a monthly time sampling were extracted. Results. VHE gamma-ray emission from PSR B1259-63 was detected with an overall significance of 9.5 standard deviations using 55 h of exposure, obtained from April to August 2007. The monthly flux of gamma-rays during the observation period was measured, yielding VHE lightcurve data for the early pre-periastron phase of the system for the first time. No spectral variability was found on timescales of months. The spectrum is described by a power law with a photon index of Gamma = 2.8 +/- 0.2(stat) +/- 0.2(sys) and flux normalisation Phi(0) = (1.1 +/- 0.1(stat) +/- 0.2(sys)) x 10(-12) TeV(-1) cm(-2) s(-1). PSR B1259-63 was also monitored in 2005 and 2006, far from periastron passage, comprising 8.9 h and 7.5 h of exposure, respectively. No significant excess of.-rays is seen in those observations. Conclusions. PSR B1259-63 has been re-confirmed as a variable TeV gamma-ray emitter. The firm detection of VHE photons emitted at a true anomaly theta approximate to -0.35 of the pulsar orbit, i.e. already similar to 50 days prior to the periastron passage, disfavors the stellar disc target scenario as a primary emission mechanism, based on current knowledge about the companion star's disc inclination, extension, and density profile.

  • 121. Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Boisson, C.
    Bochow, A.
    Borrel, V.
    Braun, I.
    Brion, E.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kendziorra, E.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martin, J. M.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schroeder, R.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spangler, D.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    HESS upper limit on the very high energy gamma-ray emission from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae2009In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 499, no 1, p. 273-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104), which contains at least 23 ms pulsars, were performed with the HESS telescope system. The observations lead to an upper limit of F(E > 800 GeV) < 6.7 x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1) on the integral gamma-ray photon flux from 47 Tucanae. Considering millisecond pulsars as the unique potential source of gamma-rays in the globular cluster, constraints based on emission models are derived: on the magnetic field in the average pulsar nebula and on the conversion efficiency of spin-down power to gamma-ray photons or to relativistic leptons.

  • 122. Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Boisson, C.
    Bochow, A.
    Borrel, V.
    Braun, I.
    Brion, E.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kendziorra, E.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martin, J. M.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rolland, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schroeder, R.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spangler, D.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Spectrum and variability of the Galactic center VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1745-2902009In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 503, no 3, p. 817-825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. A detailed study of the spectrum and variability of the source HESS J1745-290 in the Galactic Center (GC) region using new data from the H. E. S. S. array of Cherenkov telescopes is presented. Flaring activity and quasi periodic oscillations (QPO) of HESS J1745-290 are investigated. Methods. The image analysis is performed with a combination of a semi-analytical shower model and the statistical moment-based Hillas technique. The spectrum and lightcurves of HESS J1745-290 are derived with a likelihood method based on a spectral shape hypothesis. Rayleigh tests and Fourier analysis of the H. E. S. S. GC signal are used to study the periodicity of the source. Results. With a three-fold increase in statistics compared to previous work, a deviation from a simple power law spectrum is detected for the first time. The measured energy spectrum over the three years 2004, 2005 and 2006 of data taking is compatible with both a power law spectrum with an exponential cut-off and a broken power law spectrum. The curvature of the energy spectrum is likely to be intrinsic to the photon source, as opposed to effects of interstellar absorption. The power law spectrum with an exponential cut-off is characterized by a photon index of 2.10 +/- 0.04(stat) +/- 0.10(syst) and a cut-off energy at 15.7 +/- 3.4(stat) +/- 2.5(syst) TeV. The broken power law spectrum exhibits spectral indices of 2.02 +/- 0.08(stat) +/- 0.10(syst) and 2.63 +/- 0.14(stat) +/- 0.10(syst) with a break energy at 2.57 +/- 0.19(stat) +/- 0.44(syst) TeV. No significant flux variation is found. Increases in the gamma-ray flux of HESS J1745-290 by at least a factor of two would be required for a 3 sigma detection of a flare with time scales of an hour. Investigation of possible QPO activity at periods claimed to be detected in X-rays does not show any periodicities in the H. E. S. S. signal.

  • 123. Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Boisson, C.
    Bochow, A.
    Borrel, V.
    Braun, I.
    Brion, E.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kendziorra, E.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martin, J. M.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schroeder, R.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spangler, D.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Very high energy gamma-ray observations of the galaxy clusters Abell 496 and Abell 85 with HESS2009In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 495, no 1, p. 27-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. The nearby galaxy clusters Abell 496 and Abell 85 are studied in the very high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) band to investigate VHE cosmic rays (CRs) in this class of objects which are the largest gravitationally bound systems in the Universe. Methods. HESS, an array of four imaging atmospheric cherenkov telescopes (IACT), was used to observe the targets in the range of VHE gamma rays. Results. No significant gamma-ray signal is found at the respective position of the two clusters with several different source size assumptions for each target. In particular, emission regions corresponding to the high-density core, to the extension of the entire X-ray emission in these clusters, and to the very extended region where the accretion shock is expected are investigated. Upper limits are derived for the gamma-ray flux at energies E > 570 GeV for Abell 496 and E > 460 GeV for Abell 85. Conclusions. From the non-detection in VHE gamma rays, upper limits on the total energy of hadronic CRs in the clusters are calculated. If the cosmic-ray energy density follows the large-scale gas density profile, the limit on the fraction of energy in these non-thermal particles with respect to the total thermal energy of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) is 51% for Abell 496 and only 8% for Abell 85 due to its higher mass and higher gas density. These upper limits are compared with theoretical estimates. They predict about similar to 10% of the thermal energy of the ICM in non-thermal particles. The observations presented here can constrain these predictions especially for the case of the Abell 85 cluster.

  • 124. Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Boisson, C.
    Bochow, A.
    Borrel, V.
    Brion, E.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goehring, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Inoue, S.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kendziorra, E.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martin, J. M.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Renaud, M.
    Reimer, O.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schroeder, R.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spanglfoer, D.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Constraints on the multi-TeV particle population in the Coma galaxy cluster with HESS observations2009In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 502, no 2, p. 437-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. Galaxy clusters are key targets in the search for ultra high energy particle accelerators. The Coma cluster represents one of the best candidates for such a search owing to its high mass, proximity, and the established non-thermal radio emission centred on the cluster core. Methods. The HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System) telescopes observed Coma for similar to 8 h in a search for gamma-ray emission at energies > 1 TeV. The large 3.5 degrees FWHM field of view of HESS is ideal for viewing a range of targets at various sizes including the Coma cluster core, the radio-relic (1253+275) and merger/infall (NGC 4839) regions to the southwest, and features greater than 1 degrees away. Results. No evidence for point-like nor extended TeV gamma-ray emission was found and upper limits to the TeV flux F(E) for E > 1, > 5, and > 10 TeV were set for the Coma core and other regions. Converting these limits to an energy flux E(2)F(E) the lowest or most constraining is the E > 5 TeV upper limit for the Coma core (0.2 degrees radius) at similar to 8% Crab flux units or similar to 10(-13) ph cm(-2) s(-1). Conclusions. The upper limits for the Coma core were compared with a prediction for the gamma-ray emission from proton-proton interactions, the level of which ultimately scales with the mass of the Coma cluster. A direct constraint using our most stringent limit for E > 5 TeV, on the total energy content in non-thermal protons with injection energy spectrum alpha E(-2.1) and spatial distribution following the thermal gas in the cluster, is found to be similar to 0.2 times the thermal energy, or similar to 10(62) erg. The E > 5 TeV gamma-ray threshold in this case corresponds to cosmic-ray proton energies greater than or similar to 50 TeV. Our upper limits rule out the most optimistic theoretical models for gamma ray emission from clusters and complement radio observations which constrain the cosmic ray content in clusters at significantly lower proton energies, subject to assumptions on the magnetic field strength.

  • 125. Aharonian, F.
    et al.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Boisson, C.
    Bochow, A.
    Borrel, V.
    Brion, E.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. M.
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O. C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, F.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goehring, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kendziorra, E.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Komin, N.
    Kosack, K.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martin, J. M.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    RudaK, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schroeder, R.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spangler, D.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Abdo, A. A.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Battelino, M.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Chen, A. W.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Conrad, J.
    Costamante, L.
    Cutini, S.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Silva, E. do Couto e
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Fleury, P.
    Focke, W. B.
    Frailis, M.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Horan, D.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kadler, M.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lee, S. -H
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. -W
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schalk, T. L.
    Sellerholm, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Shaw, M.
    Smith, D. A.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Starck, J. -L
    Strickman, M. S.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vilchez, N.
    Villata, M.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Ziegler, M.
    SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS OF PKS 2155-304 WITH HESS, FERMI, RXTE, AND ATOM: SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND VARIABILITY IN A LOW STATE2009In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, Vol. 696, no 2, p. L150-L155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the first simultaneous observations that cover the optical, X-ray, and high-energy gamma-ray bands of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304. The gamma-ray bands were observed for 11 days, between 2008 August 25 and 2008 September 6 (MJD 54704-54715), jointly with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the HESS atmospheric Cherenkov array, providing the first simultaneous MeV-TeV spectral energy distribution (SED) with the new generation of gamma-ray telescopes. The ATOM telescope and the RXTE and Swift observatories provided optical and X-ray coverage of the low-energy component over the same time period. The object was close to the lowest archival X-ray and very high energy (VHE; > 100 GeV) state, whereas the optical flux was much higher. The light curves show relatively little (similar to 30%) variability overall when compared to past flaring episodes, but we find a clear optical/VHE correlation and evidence for a correlation of the X-rays with the high-energy spectral index. Contrary to previous observations in the flaring state, we do not find any correlation between the X-ray and VHE components. Although synchrotron self-Compton models are often invoked to explain the SEDs of BL Lac objects, the most common versions of these models are at odds with the correlated variability we find in the various bands for PKS 2155-304.

  • 126. Aharonian, F.
    et al.