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  • 101.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). CESifo, Germany.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala University, Sweden;CESifo, Germany.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Italy;CESifo, Germany.
    Public pensions in a multi-period Mirrleesian income tax model2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an OLG model with skill uncertainty and private savings, we investigate whether an optimally designed set of public pension transfers can usefully supplement a nonlinear labor income tax as a welfare-enhancing policy instrument. We consider a Mirrleesian setting where agents' skills are private information and highlight that, even though pensions, by crowding out private savings, adversely affect the achievement of the golden-rule, they can be used as a mimicking-deterring device that makes it easier for the government to achieve the desired redistributive goals.

  • 102.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). CESifo, Germany.
    Blumkin, Tomer
    Ben Gurion University, Israel;CESifo, Germany.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Italy;Bocconi University, Italy;CESifo, Germany.
    Anti-discrimination legislation and the efficiency-enhancing role of mandatory parental leave2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We study a setting where anti-discrimination legislation gives rise to adverse selection in the labor market. Firms rely on nonlinear compensation contracts to screen workers who differ in their family/career orientation. This results in a labormarket equilibrium where career-oriented workers are offered an inefficiently low duration of parental leave. In addition, family-oriented workers are offered lower wages as compared to their equally skilled career-oriented counterparts. We demonstrate the usefulness of mandatory parental leave rules in mitigating the distortion in the labor market and derive conditions under which a Pareto improvement is possible. We also characterize the optimal parental leave policy and highlight the possibility for parental leave legislation to eliminate the wage penalty of family-oriented workers by supporting pooling employment contracts.

  • 103.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Blumkin, Tomer
    Ben Gurion University, Israel.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Gender wage gap and the welfare-enhancing role of parental leave rules2017Inngår i: ifo DICE Report, ISSN 2511-7815, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 3-7, artikkel-id 11112017002001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of empirical evidence documents the gender variation in labour market outcomes. A major factor that contributes to persistent gender gaps in labour market performance is women’s traditional role in the household. Child-related absences from work imply that women accumulate less job experience, are more prone to career discontinuities and, hence, suffer a motherhood penalty. We highlight how the fundamental gender-driven career/family conflict faced by workers in the labour market may create a normative justification for parental leave rules as a means to enhance efficiency and alleviate the gender pay gap. 

  • 104.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Giebe, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Ethnicity and Tax Filing Behavior2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze differences in tax filing behavior between natives and immigrants using population-wide Swedish administrative data, focusing on two empirical examples. First, controlling for a rich set of variables, we compare deduction behavior of  immigrants and natives with the same commuting patterns within Sweden's largest commuting zone. We find  that newly arrived immigrants file fewer deductions than natives, that immigrants with a longer duration of stay in the host country behave more like natives, and that immigrants with the longest stay file the most, even more than natives. Second, we analyze bunching behavior among the self-employed at the first central government kink point of the Swedish income tax schedule and find that self-employed immigrants exhibit significantly less bunching behavior than natives, even after a long time in the host country. We highlight residential segregation as a main driver of the observed behavioral differences. 

  • 105.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). CESifo, Germany.
    Lundberg, Jacob
    Political preferences for redistribution in Sweden2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 106.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Uppsala University, Sweden;CESifo, Germany.
    Lundberg, Jacob
    Ratio Institute.
    Political preferences for redistribution in Sweden2017Inngår i: Journal of Economic Inequality, ISSN 1569-1721, E-ISSN 1573-8701, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 345-367Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine preferences for redistribution inherent in Swedish tax policy during 1971-2012 using the inverse optimal tax approach. The income distribution is carefully characterized with the help of administrative register data, and we employ behavioral elasticities reflecting the perceived distortionary effects of taxation. The revealed social welfare weights are high for non-workers, small for low-income earners, and hump-shaped around the median. At the top, they are always negative, especially so during the high-tax years of the 1970s and '80s. The weights on non-workers increased sharply in the 1970s, fell drastically in the late '80s and early '90s, and have since then increased.

  • 107.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Uppsala University ; CESifo, Germany.
    Moberg, Ylva
    Uppsala University.
    Selin, Håkan
    Uppsala University ; CESifo, Germany.
    Estimating participation responses using transfer program reform2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we estimate labor force participation responses for married women in Sweden using population-wide register data and detailed information about individuals’ budget sets. For identification we exploit a reform in the system for housing allowances in 1997 which affected participation tax rates for households with/without children differently. Using a simple theoretical framework we provide a structural interpretation of our estimates and highlight how the employment response depends on the employment level. Our central estimate of the participation elasticity is 0.13. When splitting the treated sample into four quartiles based on the wife’s skill level we find that the participation elasticity is more than twice as large for the lowest-skill sample than for the highest-skill sample

  • 108.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Moberg, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Selin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The anatomy of the extensive margin labor supply response2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 109.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Selin, Håkan
    Skillnad på marginalen: en ESO-rapport om reformerad inkomstbeskattning2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 110.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Tomer, Blumkin
    Ben Gurion Univ Negev, Israel.
    Luca, Micheletto
    Univ Milan, Italy.
    The Welfare-Enhancing Role of Parental Leave Mandates2019Inngår i: Journal of Law, Economics & Organization, ISSN 8756-6222, E-ISSN 1465-7341, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 77-126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A major factor that contributes to persistent gender variation in labor market outcomes is womens traditional role in the household. Child-related absences from work imply that women accumulate less job experience, are more prone to career discontinuities and, hence, suffer a motherhood penalty. We highlight how the gender-driven career/family segmentation of the labor market may create a normative justification for parental leave rules as a means to enhance efficiency in the labor market and alleviate the gender wage gap. (JEL D82, H21, J31, J83).

  • 111.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Paris School of Economics, France;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Vad bestämmer svenskarnas attityder till skatter?2019Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 70-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi använder en nyligen genomförd attitydundersökning för att undersöka sambandet mellan individers stöd för olika skatter och olika bakgrundsvariabler. Resultaten visar på en del intressanta mönster avseende inkomst och utbildning. Höginkomsttagare och högutbildade är relativt sett mer positiva till punktskatter och mer negativa till statlig inkomstskatt och förmögenhetsskatt, men det finns inga stora skillnader i stödet för kommunalskatten, fastighetsskatten eller en arvsskatt. I ett försök att utröna effekten av partipolitiska sympatier, framgår att stödet för olika skatter inte alltid följer den traditionella blockpolitiken, och mönstren ser olika ut för inkomst-, kapital- och punktskatter.

  • 112.
    Behrenz, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The Economic Value of Elite Sports: The Case of Sweden2013Inngår i: Sports: Economic, Management, Marketing & Social Aspects AbstractsThirteenth Annual International Conference on Sports: Economic, Management, Marketing & Social Aspects8-11 July 2013, Athens, Greece Edited by Gregory T. Papanikos, Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), 2013, s. 11-11Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about elite sports in Sweden. There are a lot of ways of studying the economic value of elite sports. In this article we use information from population data, club accounting and a questionnaire to get a picture of the economic values of elite sports. Our knowledge from earlier research concerning the economic value of elite sports is mainly based on US data. The Scandinavian model for sport is different from sports in the USA since the clubs are not owned by businesses and the goals are more or less “sport for all”. This paper tries to present a picture of the process of elite sports in countries there elite sports traditionally has been a mixture between professional and amateur. The results from willingness to pay analysis for the presence of elite sports in the actual county indicate values of 350 SEK (about 35 EURO) per year and person in Sweden. Another way of calculating the value of the elite teams is by estimating how many working hours people are prepared to devote to helping the club. If these hours are translated into economic values, it runs into between 3000 to 5000 SEK (about 300 to 500 EURO) per year and person, depending on location in Sweden.

  • 113.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Frödin, Olle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mathieu, Christopher
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arbetsgivares perspektiv på subventionerade anställningar: en kartläggning2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots en kraftig ökning av antalet subventionerade anställningar från mitten av 2000-talet är det ett stort antal arbetsgivare som inte använder sig av lönesubventioner. Denna rapport har försökt att kartlägga och analysera arbetsgivares perspektiv på lönekostnadssubventioner. När det gäller analyser som berör de arbetsgivare som använt sig av lönesubventioner är den viktigaste förklaringsfaktorn att man använt sig av subventioner tidigare. Våra intervjuer visar också att de arbetsgivare som använder sig av lönesubventioner ofta har ett socialt ansvarstagande. Ett av huvudresultaten med följande studie är att 95 procent av de som använder sig av subventioner är nöjda. Omfattningen i pengar och personens kvalifikationer var mest avgörande för anställningsbeslutet. Av de som inte använt sig av lönesubventioner är det 20 procent som inte känt till att möjligheten finns. Intervjuer med arbetsgivare utan erfarenhet av att anställa med lönesubventioner visar att de är skeptiska att hitta lämplig personal genom att anställa med lönesubventioner. När vi ställer en hypotetisk fråga till samtliga arbetsgivare om vad som skulle kunna få dem att anställa med en subvention framkommer möjligheten att få pröva aktuell person som den klart viktigaste faktorn. Utifrån våra resultat föreslår vi bl.a. att Arbetsförmedlingen, i ett försöksupplägg, ska ges möjlighet att agera bemanningsföretag och vi föreslår också att man ska genomföra en omfattande informationskampanj till arbetsgivare.

  • 114.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Is starting a business a sustainable way out of unemployment?: treatment effects of the Swedish start-up subsidy2016Inngår i: Journal of Labor Research, ISSN 0195-3613, E-ISSN 1936-4768, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 389-411Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we evaluate the Swedish self-employment start-up program based on a matching approach using data from administrative records. In addition to information of labor market history, traditional human capital and socio-economic variables, the data at hand also include information on the self-employment history of participants and nonparticipants as well as that of their parents. Our results indicate that the start-up subsidy program for unemployed persons is a successful program regarding the integration of the unemployed into the mainstream of the labor market. We find that, relative to members of control groups, participants, on average, have an increased probability of unsubsidized employment. Our analysis of different educational backgrounds presents the strongest employment effects for the low educated unemployed.

  • 115.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Making the business case for Public Employment Services: Cost-benefit analysis and productive efficiency analysis2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The PES EU2020 working group points in a briefing note (PES EU2020 no date A) to change processes in EU PESs called for by social evolutions. The note emphasises that public employment services’ operations will be massively and profoundly influenced by changes on both the supply and the demand side of the labour market and by such structural impediments as, for example, mismatch between labour demand and supply and low participation rates among vulnerable disadvantaged groups. Rapid and targeted mediation is considered to remain essential for PESs but it has to be combined with attention to provide transitions for individuals facing redundancy and career building. PESs should help job seekers adopt long-term career perspectives, stimulate them to enhance their competencies, give career guidance, give workers support to make smooth career transitions, as well as working with employers to ensure they meet their requirements and encourage and support them to provide career opportunities to more disadvantaged individuals.

    PESs have to develop their organisation and methods to efficiently and effectively respond to the changing needs in society and the labour market. Far-reaching changes in the tasks, organisational structures, and methods in PESs present corporate governance with great challenges—exacerbated by reduced budgetary resources. The pathway of change that has to be managed will be dotted with demands on decision-makers to choose between alternative courses of action. One of the main thrusts of this paper is to describe cost-benefit analysis, CBA, as a tool to assist decision-makers in choosing. CBA is a tool that judges alternatives in terms of their efficiency as regards the realisation of social objectives, which means that CBA allows policy makers to judge alternatives by their allocative efficiency. This requires taking into account the costs and benefits of the alternatives under consideration. The other main subject of the paper is about measuring productive efficiency which occurs when at a given cost the highest possible output of one service is produced, given the production level of other services. Such measurements make it possible to compare the productive efficiency of individual employment offices or to make comparisons in that respect between PESs in different countries. Therefore, measurements of productive efficiency can be the basis of actions to improve production and managerial processes. Examples of cost-benefit analyses of PES projects and productive efficiency analyses of PESs are given in the paper.

  • 116.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The Public Employment Service: A Survey of Cost-Benefit Analysis and Productive Efficiency Analysis Studies2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Public employment services’ operations will be massively and profoundly influenced by changes on both the supply and the demand side of the labour market and by such structural impediments as, for example, mismatch between labour demand and supply and low participation rates among vulnerable disadvantaged groups. Rapid and targeted mediation is considered to remain essential for PESs but it has to be combined with attention to provide transitions for individuals facing redundancy and career building. PESs should help job seekers adopt long-term career perspectives, stimulate them to enhance their competencies, give career guidance, give workers support to make smooth career transitions, as well as working with employers to ensure they meet their requirements and encourage and support them to provide career opportunities to more disadvantaged individuals. PESs have to develop their organisation and methods to efficiently and effectively respond to the changing needs in society and the labour market. Far-reaching changes in the tasks, organisational structures, and methods in PESs present corporate governance with great challenges—exacerbated by reduced budgetary resources. The pathway of change that has to be managed will be dotted with demands on decision-makers to choose between alternative courses of action. One of the main thrusts of this paper is to describe cost-benefit analysis, CBA, as a tool to assist decision-makers in choosing. CBA is a tool that judges alternatives in terms of their efficiency as regards the realisation of social objectives, which means that CBA allows policy makers to judge alternatives by their allocative efficiency. This requires taking into account the costs and benefits of the alternatives under consideration. The other main subject of the paper is about measuring productive efficiency which occurs when at a given cost the highest possible output of one service is produced, given the production level of other services. Such measurements make it possible to compare the productive efficiency of individual employment offices or to make comparisons in that respect between PESs in different countries. Therefore, measurements of productive efficiency can be the basis of actions to improve production and managerial processes. Examples of cost-benefit analyses of PES projects and productive efficiency analyses of PESs are given in the paper. The remainder of this paper is organised as follows: Section 1 opens with a brief sketch of changes in the governance in EU PESs during the last decades. This is followed by an accounting framework addressing both efficiency and distributional aspects of employment services. Section 2 begins with a condensed description of basic principles of cost-benefit analysis which is followed by a review of a number of economic analyses concerning employment services that have been carried out in EU countries. Section 3 is devoted to methods to measure the productive efficiency of individual employment offices and of the PES in one country in relation to productive efficiency of PESs in other countries. It starts with brief overviews of the theory of production and of methods to measure efficiency. Then it presents a review of previous studies and a description of the production of employment offices. This section concludes with the development of a benchmarking model for European employment offices. Section 4 provides concluding remarks.

  • 117.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Utvärdering av Almis företagsrådgivning: Utvärdering av rådgivningsverksamhet till etablerade företag2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta PM är en effektutvärdering av de rådgivningsinsatser som utfördes av Almis regionala bolag till etablerade företag under perioden 2005–2010. I detta PM används flera metoder för att skatta effekter och två olika mått på vad som anses vara rådgivning.

    Uppdraget

    Detta uppdrag är en effektutvärdering av rådgivningsinsatser i Almis regionala bolag under perioden 2005–2010. Syftet med studierna är att avgöra om etablerade företag som fått rådgivning via Almi har utvecklats bättre än företag som inte fått sådan rådgivning i termer av tillväxt i produktionsvärde, sysselsättning och överlevnad. Studien är en av flera underlagsrapporter i Tillväxtanalys pågående uppdrag att utvärdera den statligt finansierade företagsrådgivningen.

    Resultat och slutsatser

    Rådgivning definieras i rapporten på två olika sätt. I den första antas ett företag fått rådgivning av Almi om företaget gjort minst ett rådgivningsbesök. Det går att finna effekter på produktionsvärde respektive sysselsättning för enstaka år och för enstaka utfallsvariabler. För övriga år är effekterna lägre och inte statistiskt säkerställda. Storleken på de signifikanta effekterna ligger väl i linje med resultaten från tidigare utvärderingar. Företag som fått rådgivning via Almi har knappt två procents högre sannolikhet att överleva två år efter rådgivningen jämfört med företag som inte erhållit rådgivning.

    Den andra definitionen av rådgivning utgår ifrån att ett företag antas ha fått rådgivning om företaget gjort minst två rådgivningsbesök hos Almi. Den förändrade definitionen påverkar inte resultatet i någon större utsträckning. Inga effekter på någon av målvariablerna kan statistiskt säkerställas. När rådgivning definieras som minst två rådgivningsbesök finns inte heller någon statistiskt säkerhetsställd effekt på företags överlevnad.

    Sammantaget drar vi slutsatsen att det inte går att statistiskt säkerställda några effekter av Almis företagsrådgivning på tillväxt, lönsamhet eller överlevnad.

    Framtida undersökningar/Fortsatt lärande

    Det finns således betydande svagheter i det datamaterial Tillväxtanalys har getts tillgång till och som ligger till grund för effektutvärderingen. Inte minst finns ett stort bortfall avseende vilka företag som deltagit i företagsrådgivning. Innan man gör ett nytt försök att effektutvärdera verksamheten är det viktigt att förbättra uppföljningen, så att det i större utsträckning är möjligt att identifiera vilka företag som tagit del av rådgivning.

  • 118.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Utvärdering av nystartsjobb i Växjö kommun: slutrapport2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 119.
    Behzad Abdulaziz, Besaran
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Did the UEFA European Championship increase the arrival of foreign tourists to the host regions of Poland?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyses the impact of the UEFA European Championship in 2012 on the regional inflow of tourists in Poland. In this essay we use a difference-in-differences method to compare the regions who hosted the event with the regions who did not host the event. Our results show that there is a statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding the arrival of foreign tourists. The results show that the regions who hosted the event experienced a significant increase in the inflow of tourists and that was related to the tournament. The arrival of foreign tourists increased during the month of June 2012, when the event took place and in the months after. The conclusion we draw from this essay is that the UEFA European Championship had a positive impact both in the short and long run in the inflow of tourists in the regions who hosted the 2012 tournament in Poland.

  • 120.
    Bengtsson, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Felaktiga utbetalningar inom socialförsäkringen - en analys av regionala variationer inom Försäkringskassan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker om det finns regionala variationer avseende felaktiga utbetalningar inom den svenska socialförsäkringen. Stora belopp betalas årligen ut felaktigt från den svenska socialförsäkringen. Det finns dock ett betydande mörkertal i måttet av felaktiga utbetalningar, varför denna studie baseras på upptäckta felaktiga utbetalningar, det vill säga återkravsbeslut. Att den svenska socialförsäkringen är långsiktigt hållbar och att rätt pengar kommer till rätt individer är av betydelse för socialförsäkringens legitimitet.

    Socialförsäkringen är en del av Sveriges system för ekonomisk trygghet. Socialförsäkringen administreras delvis av myndigheten Försäkringskassan, vilken är den myndighet som denna studie avgränsas till. Studien avgränsas vidare till förmånerna sjukersättning och assistansersättning. Sedan 1990 har synen på felaktiga utbetalningar, och framförallt fusk i välfärdssystemen, förändrats, det kan handla om en ökad insikt om felaktiga utbetalningar och dess omfattning men även att acceptansen för felaktiga utbetalningar har minskat.

    Den svenska socialförsäkringen karakteriseras av en marknad med asymmetrisk information. Ett exempel på problematik med asymmetrisk information är det så kallade fenomenet moral hazard, vilket kan leda till överutnyttjande eller felutnyttjande av socialförsäkringen. De felaktiga utbetalningarna kan orsakas av myndigheten, den försäkrade eller av tredje part och kan vara såväl avsiktliga som oavsiktliga.

    Genom flernivå (hierarkisk) logistisk regressionsanalys undersöks om regionala variationer finns för återkrav inom respektive studerad förmån under tidsperioden 2012-2013. Med regionala variationer ämnas även skillnader mellan Försäkringskassans lokala kontor prövas. Även sannolikheten för återkravsbeslut skattas inom respektive förmån.

    Studiens resultat visar att det finns låg regional variation avseende sannolikheten att erhålla ett återkravsbeslut från Försäkringskassan inom respektive förmån, det vill säga ingen tydlig indikation på att det finns regionala variationer runt om i landet. Det finns däremot individuella faktorer såsom kön, ålder och ersättningsstorlek som har en signifikant påverkan på den skattade sannolikheten för att erhålla ett återkrav från Försäkringskassan. Att vissa faktorer är signifikanta kan bero på riktade kontroller som utförts av myndigheten under den studerade tidsperioden

  • 121.
    Bengtsson, Terese
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Peco, Amina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Privatization of upper-secondary schools in Sweden: the impact on teachers' wage2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this bachelor essay is to analyse the impact of increased competition on upper-secondary teachers’ wage. In 1994, the introduction of a school voucher system in Sweden facilitated the expansion of private upper-secondary schools. Based on monopsony and quasi-market, we assess the extent to which the tendency towards increased competition has had any significant effect on upper-secondary teachers’ wage. Using a semi-logarithmic wage equation and cross-sectional individual data we found that upper-secondary school teachers employed in 2010 in the region characterised by the highest degree of competition had significantly higher wage compared to teachers employed in regions with a lower degree of competition. In addition, our findings suggest that upper-secondary teachers employed in the public sector had on average higher wages than private employees. To investigate the wage gap between the two sectors further, we perform a quantile regression.  We found that up to the 80th percentile teachers employed in private school experience, ceteris paribus, a wage penalty. On the other hand, in the upper tail of the wage distribution we found a significant wage premium for teachers in the private sector.

  • 122.
    Birgersson, Adam
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The impact of fuel taxation in Sweden: A study on the distributional impact of fuel tax in Sweden: A regional analysis 2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The general opinion is that an increase in fuel taxation would affect the countryside of Sweden to a greater extent, than the inner-city areas of the country. The topic of fuel taxation has become widely discussed on a political level throughout Europe. This paper examines the distributional effects on taxation of fuel in Sweden, by comparing different municipalities from different regions. By using aggregated data from different sources and estimate an increase in fuel prices by 10 percent, this paper estimates the direct effects of an increase in fuel taxation. The results show that by increasing the price on fuel with 10 percent, the municipalities located in the countryside of Sweden have a higher distributional impact and a greater tax burden compared to municipalities located near larger cities. But the differences are modest, and this paper concludes that the fuel tax should be considered proportional throughout all regions of the country. 

  • 123.
    Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Olsson, Martin
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Turordningsregler - lagstiftning med konsekvenser eller spel för gallerierna?2018Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 5-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel diskuterar nationalekonomisk forskning om de svenska turordningsreglerna. Vi visar att dessa inte är ett spel för gallerierna, vilket ofta hävdas, utan har betydande effekter på arbetsmarknadens funktionssätt. Den uppluckring av turordningsreglerna som genomfördes 2001 ökade företagens personalomsättning och produktivitet samt minskade de anställdas frånvaro. För grupper med en svagare position på arbetsmarknaden och som har lång anställningstid i förhållande till andra på företaget tycks även turordningsreglerna skydda mot uppsägningar och leda till högre löner.

  • 124.
    Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Does job security hamper employment prospects?2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a reform in the Swedish employment protection legislation (EPL) that decreased dismissal costs for small firms only, to investigate the effect of EPL on the propensity to hire workers who were unemployed or in active labor market programs (ALMPs). The results indicate that less stringent EPL increased the share of workers hired from unemployment. In addition, our results suggest that transitions from some ALMPs to employment increased. Taken together, our results suggest that there was less screening of new hires after the reform, and that liberalization of EPL mitigates the stigma associated with unemployment and participation in ALMPs.

  • 125.
    Boinet, Alice
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Lyulieta, Shabani
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Gender Earnings Gap at Career Entry: Is there an earnings gap between men and women at labor market entry, for similarly highly educated individuals?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the gender earnings gap in Sweden at career entry, for individuals with comparable educational profile. There are many studies on this topic. Usually, researchers are focusing their attention on the evolution of this gap through individuals’ career. Our paper concentrates only on individual’s career entry, to exclude work experience as an explanatory factor. By studying six different educational fields we can have a precise image of the use of human ressources in the economy.An empirical analysis has been conducted using the method of OLS on a restricted data sample concerning graduates, having accomplished at least two years of university education. The result showed that, even at career entry, the raw gender earnings gap is of 20,2%. After controlling for fields of studies and occupations, the gap is reduced to 15,4%. This gap fluctuates among different fields of education, depending on the society’s perception of these fields. We distinguish male-dominated (i.e. Engineering and manufacturing), female-dominated (i.e. Teaching methods and teacher education) and gender-neutral (i.e. Social sciences, law, commerce and administration) educational fields. Our results depict some large gender earnings gap within male-dominated fields of study – women earn on average 20% less than their male counterparts when studying Engineering and manufacturing – and rather small ones within female-dominated and gender-neutral fields of study but due to statistical insignificance of the gender dummy coefficients we cannot make a conclusion concerning these fields.

  • 126.
    Böckerman, Petri
    et al.
    Turku School of Economics, Finland;Labour Institute for Economic Research, Finland;IZA, Germany.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Uusitalo, Roope
    Jyväskylä University, Finland.
    Seniority rules, worker mobility and wages: evidence from multi-country linked employer-employee data2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct a multi-country employer-employee data to examine the consequences of employment protection. We identify the effects by comparing worker exit rates between units of the same firm that operate in two countries that have different seniority rules. The results show that last-in-first-out rules reduce dismissals of older, more senior workers, especially in shrinking multinational firms, and increase their bargaining power, resulting in a steeper seniority-wage profile.

  • 127.
    Böckerman, Petri
    et al.
    Turku School of Economics, Finland;Labour Institute for Economic Research, Finland;IZA, Germany.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Uusitalo, Roope
    Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, Finland.
    Seniority rules, worker mobility and wages: evidence from multi-country linked employer-employee data2018Inngår i: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 51, s. 48-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct multi-country employer-employee data to examine the consequences of last-in, first-out rules. We identify the effects by comparing worker exit rates between different units of the same firms operating in Sweden and Finland, two countries that have different seniority rules. We observe a relatively lower exit rate for more senior workers in Sweden in the shrinking firms and among the low-wage workers. These empirical patterns are consistent with last-in, first-out rules in Sweden providing protection from dismissals for the more senior workers among the worker groups to whom the rules are most relevant. Similarly, we observe a steeper seniority-wage profile in Sweden, suggesting that last-in, first-out rules may also be beneficial for more senior workers in terms of compensation.

  • 128.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Danielsson, Petter
    Ek, Simon
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Kolm, Ann-Sofie
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pekkarinen, Tuomas
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Hur ska fler komma in på arbetsmarknaden?2018Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det största problemet på den svenska arbetsmarknaden är hur lågutbildade, och då särskilt lågutbildade utrikes födda, ska komma i sysselsättning. Problemet har ställts på sin spets av den stora flyktinginvandringen. Centrala frågor för politiken är:

    • Vad kan skola och vuxenutbildning göra?
    • Vilken roll bör subventionerade anställningar spela?
    • Är visstidsanställningar en väg in på arbetsmarknaden eller en återvändsgränd?
    • Behövs nya typer av enkla, men också lägre betalda, jobb?

    Denna bok, skriven av sex arbetsmarknadsekonomer, analyserar frågorna och försöker utifrån forskningen ge svar på vilken politik som är lämpligast.

  • 129.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Ek, Simon
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Kolm, Ann-Sofie
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Pekkarinen, Tuomas
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Arbetsmarknadsekonomisk rapport: hur fungerar kollektivavtalen?2018Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur fungerar kollektivavtalen? från i februari i år inriktades på kollektivavtalens funktionssätt. Analysen fokuserade på hur avtalssystemet kan komma att påverkas av en minskad facklig organisationsgrad och studerade särskilt företagens inställning till kollektivavtalen. Med svagare fack blir det viktigare för kollektivavtalens fortlevnad att dessa upplevs som positiva av företagen.

  • 130.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Ek, Simon
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Kolm, Ann-Sofie
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Pekkarinen, Tuomas
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Arbetsmarknadsekonomisk rapport: olika vägar till jobb2018Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den avslutande rapporten från rådet tar upp tre huvudfrågor: Håller traditionella heltidsanställningar som omfattas av kollektivavtal på att ersättas av mer ”flexibla” atypiska anställningar, vilket ofta hävdas i den allmänna debatten? Vad säger tidigare erfarenheter om i vilken utsträckning lågkvalificerade (”enkla”) jobb kan fungera som språngbrädor till mer kvalificerade och bättre betalda arbeten för dem som har svårt att ta sig in på arbetsmarknaden? Hur väl fungerar vuxenutbildning av olika slag för att förbättra arbetsmarknadsutfallen för utsatta grupper?

  • 131.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Dahl, Gordon B.
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Stockholm University.
    Backlash in attitudes after the election of extreme political parties2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Far-right and far-left parties by definition occupy the fringes of politics, with policy proposals outside the mainstream. This paper asks how public attitudes about such policies respond once an extreme party increases their political representation at the local level. We study attitudes towards the signature policies of two radical populist parties in Sweden, one from the right and one from the left, using panel data from 290 municipal election districts. To identify causal effects, we take advantage of large nonlinearities in the function which assigns council seats, comparing otherwise similar elections where a party either barely wins or loses an additional seat. We estimate that a one seat increase for the far-right, anti-immigration party decreases negative attitudes towards immigration by 4.1 percentage points, in opposition to the party’s policy position. Likewise, when a far-left, anti-capitalist party politician gets elected, support for a six hour workday falls by 2.7 percentage points. Mirroring these attitudinal changes, the far-right and far-left parties have no incumbency advantage in the next election. Exploring possible mechanisms, we find evidence that when the anti-immigrant party wins a marginal seat, they experience higher levels of politician turnover before the next election and receive negative coverage in local newspapers. These findings demonstrate that political representation can cause an attitudinal backlash as fringe parties and their ideas are placed under closer scrutiny.

  • 132.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Dahl, Gordon B.
    UC San Diego, USA.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Do politicians change public attitudes?2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A large theoretical and empirical literature explores whether politicians and political parties change their policy positions in response to voters’ preferences. This paper asks the opposite question: do political parties affect public attitudes on important policy issues? Problems of reverse causality and omitted variable bias make this a difficult question to answer empirically. We study attitudes towards nuclear energy and immigration in Sweden using panel data from 290 municipal election areas. To identify causal effects, we take advantage of large nonlinearities in the function which assigns council seats, comparing otherwise similar elections where one party either barely wins or loses an additional seat. We estimate that a one seat increase for the anti-nuclear party reduces support for nuclear energy in that municipality by 18%. In contrast, when an anti-immigration politician gets elected, negative attitudes towards immigration decrease by 7%, which is opposite the party’s policy position. Consistent with the estimated changes in attitudes, the anti-nuclear party receives more votes in the next election after gaining a seat, while the anti-immigrant party experiences no such incumbency advantage. The rise of the anti-immigration party is recent enough to permit an exploration of possible mechanisms using several ancillary data sources. We find causal evidence that gaining an extra seat draws in lower quality politicians, reduces negotiated refugee quotas, and increases negative newspaper coverage of the anti-immigrant party at the local level. Our finding that politicians can shape public attitudes has important implications for the theory and estimation of how voter preferences enter into electoral and political economy models. 

  • 133.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Dahl, Gordon
    University of California at San Diego, USA.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The Effect of Schooling on Cognitive Skills2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How schooling affects cognitive skills is a fundamental question forstudies of human capital and labor markets. While scores on cognitive ability testsare positively associated with schooling, it has proven difficult to ascertain whetherthis relationship is causal. Moreover, the effect of schooling is difficult to separate from the confounding factors of age at test date, relative age within a classroom, season of birth, and cohort effects. In this paper, we use a fundamentally different identification approach compared to the previous literature. We exploit conditionally random variation in the assigned test date for a battery of cognitive tests which almost all 18 year-old males were required to take in preparation for military servicein Sweden. Both age at test date and number of days spent in school vary randomly across individuals after flexibly controlling for date of birth, parish, and expected graduation date (the three variables the military conditioned on when assigningtest date). We find an extra 10 days of school instruction raises cognitive scoreson crystallized intelligence tests (synonym and technical comprehension tests) by approximately one percent of a standard deviation, whereas extra nonschool dayshave almost no effect. The benefit of additional school days is homogeneous, with similar effect sizes based on past grades in school, parental education, and father’s earnings. In contrast, test scores on fluid intelligence tests (spatial and logic tests) do not increase with additional days of schooling, but do increase modestly with age. We discuss the importance of these findings for questions about the malleability of cognitive skills in young adults, schooling models of signaling versus human capital ,the interpretation of test scores in wage regressions, and policies related to the length of the school year

  • 134.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Dahl, Gordon
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Öckert, Björn
    Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    The Effect of Schooling on Cognitive Skills2015Inngår i: Review of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0034-6535, E-ISSN 1530-9142, Vol. 97, nr 3, s. 533-547Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the causal effect of schooling on cognitive skills, we exploit conditionally random variation in the date Swedish males take a battery of cognitive tests in preparation for military service. We find an extra 10 days of school instruction raises scores on crystallized intelligence tests (synonym and technical comprehension tests) by approximately one percent of a standard deviation, whereas extra nonschool days have almost no effect. In contrast, test scores on fluid intelligence tests (spatial and logic tests) do not increase with additional days of schooling, but do increase modestly with age.

  • 135.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Age Discrimination in Hiring Decisions: Evidence from a Field Experiment in the Labor Market2019Inngår i: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 59, s. 173-183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows the results of a field experiment in which over 6,000 fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about age (35-70 years) were sent to Swedish employers with vacancies in low- and medium-skilled occupations. We find that the callback rate begins to fall substantially for workers in their early 40s and becomes very low for workers close to the retirement age. The decline in callback rate by age is steeper for women than for men. Employer stereotypes about the ability to learn new tasks, flexibility, and ambition seem to be an important explanation for age discrimination.

  • 136.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Discrimination in the rental housing market for apartments2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrimination in the housing market may create large inefficiencies, but is difficult to measure. To circumvent the problems with unobserved heterogeneity, most recent studies use the correspondence testing approach (i.e. sending fictitious applications to landlords). In this study, we extend the existing methodology by (i) randomly assigning all relevant applicant characteristics to the applications, and (ii) carefully taking into account the interactions between applicant, landlord, apartment and regional characteristics. Then, we demonstrate how this approach can be implemented by considering how an applicant’s gender, ethnicity, age and employment status affect the probability of being invited to an apartment viewing in the Swedish housing market. Our results confirm the existence of widespread discrimination, but also show that the degree of this discrimination varies substantially with applicant, landlord, apartment and regional characteristics. This heterogeneity highlights the importance of using of using a broad approach when conducting correspondence studies.

  • 137.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Discrimination in the rental market for apartments2014Inngår i: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 23, s. 41-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrimination in the housing market may create large economic inefficiencies and unfair individual outcomes, but is very difficult to measure. To circumvent the problems with unobserved heterogeneity, most recent studies use the correspondence testing approach (i.e. sending fictitious inquiries to landlords). In this study, we generalize the existing methodology in order to facilitate a test of to what extent the measured degree of discrimination depends on applicant, landlord/apartment, and regional characteristics. To show how this more general methodology can be implemented, we investigate the effects of gender, ethnicity, age, and employment status in the Swedish rental market for apartments. Our results confirm the existence of widespread discrimination against some of the groups, but also show that the degree of discrimination varies substantially with landlord, apartment, and regional characteristics. This heterogeneity highlights the importance of using a broad approach when conducting correspondence studies. Our results also allow us to interpret the nature of discrimination and how it relates to segregation and geographical sorting. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 138.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Do attitudes expressed in surveys predict ethnic discrimination?2017Inngår i: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 40, nr 10, s. 1739-1757Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Survey data on people’s reported attitudes towards ethnic minorities are sometimes used as a proxy for ethnic discrimination. However, there is weak empirical evidence of a link between reported attitudes and discrimination. In this article, we use survey data on people’s attitudes towards ethnic minorities combined with a direct measure of ethnic discrimination from a field experiment in the Swedish housing market to re-examine this policy-relevant issue. We find clear evidence of a link between reported attitudes towards ethnic minorities and the extent of ethnic discrimination: in regions where attitudes are more negative, there is more discrimination, and vice versa. Thus, in contrast to most prior studies, our results suggest that reported attitudes may be a useful predictor of ethnic discrimination.

  • 139.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in the London market for shared accommodation2013Inngår i: 28th annual congress of the European Economic Association, Gothenburg, August 26-30, 2013, European Economic Association & Econometric , 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding housing in London is a major challenge for most people. Therefore, it has become increasingly common to share an apartment or a house with others. For people with limited financial resources, such as students and even young professionals, this is often one of the few viable types of housing available. Shared accommodation clearly has the potential to mitigate some of the negative consequences that the housing shortage has created. However, studies of housing markets in other countries suggest that ethnic discrimination is common and, thus, a policy-relevant question for London is if shared accommodation is equally available to everyone. In this paper, we study discrimination in the market for shared accommodation against four of the most important ethnic minorities in London: People with Eastern European, Indian, Black African and Arabic backgrounds. To this end, we conducted a field experiment where we e-mailed applications, with a randomly assigned name signalling ethnicity, to more than 5,000 people advertising shared accommodations all over London. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread against all the ethnic minorities that we consider: The situation is worst for applicants with an Arabic or Black African background, while applicants with an Eastern European background are least affected and applicants with an Indian background are found somewhere inbetween. Moreover, our results suggest that ethnic discrimination may reinforce the ethnic concentration in London, where ethnic minorities tend to live in certain areas and often separated from the ethnic majority. Finally, our results indicate that – at least a portion of – the discrimination that we find is statistical discrimination. 

  • 140.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in the London market for shared housing2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding housing in London is a major challenge for many people. Therefore, it has become increasingly common to share an apartment or a house with others. Shared accommodation clearly has the potential to mitigate some of the negative consequences that the housing shortage has created. However, studies of housing markets in other countries suggest that ethnic discrimination is common and, thus, a policy-relevant question is if shared accommodation is equally available to everyone. In this paper, we study discrimination in the market for shared accommodation against four of the most important ethnic minorities in London: people with Eastern European, Indian, Black African and Arabic backgrounds. To this end, we conducted a field experiment where we e-mailed applications, with a randomly assigned name signalling ethnicity, to more than 5,000 room advertisers. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread against all the ethnic minorities that we consider: The situation is worst for applicants with an Arabic background, while applicants with an Eastern European background are least affected and applicants with a Black African or Indian background are found somewhere in-between. Moreover, our results suggest that ethnic discrimination may reinforce the ethnic concentration in London, where ethnic minorities tend to live in certain areas and often separated from the ethnic majority. Finally, our results indicate that – at least a portion of – the discrimination that we find is statistical discrimination.

  • 141.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in the London market for shared housing2015Inngår i: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 41, nr 8, s. 1276-1301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-documented that there exists ethnic discrimination in the regular housing market in European and US cities. However, the existing literature has so far neglected the informal market for shared housing. We use a field experiment to investigate ethnic discrimination in this market. We sent fictitious inquiries with a randomly assigned name signaling a British, Eastern-European, Indian, African, or Arabic/Muslim background to more than 5,000 room advertisers in the Greater London Area. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread. We also find that the degree of discrimination depends on the applicant’s occupation and the ethnic residential concentration.

  • 142.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic Discrimination in the Market for Shared Housing2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In major international cities, the difficulty of finding affordable housing has often resulted in an increased demand for shared housing, i.e. sharing an apartment/house with others. However, a policy-relevant question is if this very informal market is equally available to everyone regardless of ethnic background. To investigate this, we conduct a field experiment in the London market for shared housing. In the experiment, we send fictitious applications, with a randomly assigned name signalling a British, Eastern-European, Indian, African or Arabic background, to more than 5,000 room advertisers. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread. The situation is worst for applicants with an Arabic name, while applicants with an Eastern-European name are least affected and applicants with an African or Indian name are found somewhere in-between. Moreover, the results indicate that a substantial fraction of these differences reflects statistical discrimination. Finally, we find that the degree of discrimination varies with the ethnic residential concentration. This suggests that discrimination contributes to maintaining the current situation in London, where ethnic minorities tend to live in certain areas and often separated from the ethnic majority.

  • 143.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The effect of age and gender on labor demand: evidence from a field experiment2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In most countries, there are systematic age and gender differences in labor market outcomes. Older workers and women often have lower employment rates, and the duration of unemployment increases with age. These patterns may reflect age and gender differences in either labor demand (i.e. discrimination) or labor supply. In this study, we investigate the importance of demand effects by analyzing whether employers use information about a job applicant’s age and gender in their hiring decisions. To do this, we conducted a field experiment, where over 6,000 fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about age (in the interval 35-70) and gender were sent to employers with a vacancy and the employers’ responses (callbacks) were recorded. We find that the callback rate starts to fall substantially early in the age interval we consider. This decline is steeper for women than for men. The negative age effect prevails in all seven occupations we include. These results indicate that age discrimination is a widespread phenomenon affecting workers already in their early 40s. Ageism and occupational skill loss due to aging are unlikely explanations of these effects. Instead, our employer survey suggests that employer stereotypes about other worker characteristics – ability to learn new tasks, flexibility/adaptability, and ambition – are important. We find no evidence of gender discrimination against women on average, but the gender effect is heterogeneous across occupations and firms. Women have a higher callback rate in female-dominated occupations and firms, and when the recruiter is a woman. These results suggest that an in-group bias affects hiring patterns, which may reinforce the existing gender segregation in the labor market.

  • 144.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Job search methods and wages: are natives and immigrants different?2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences in job search behaviour and access to high quality informal networks may be an important reason why immigrants fare worse than natives in many European labour markets. In this study, we design and conduct a survey of newly hired workers in the Swedish labour market to analyse if there are ethnic differences in the choice of search intensity/methods and in the successful search method for finding the job. We also investigate if the wage and other characteristics of the new job differ depending on the search method resulting in a job. Our data includes very detailed information about the workers’ job search, their informal networks, and the characteristics of their new jobs.We find that immigrants use all search methods more than natives, but that they inparticular rely more on informal search. Moreover, we show that, for immigrants, the search method resulting in a job is more likely to be informal search through their relatives and friends. However, we also find that jobs obtained through this search channel are associated with lower wages.

  • 145.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Job search methods and wages: are natives and immigrants different?2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In many European labour markets, workers born outside Europe are less successful than natives. A potential explanation for these differences is ethnic differences in job search behaviour and access to high-quality informal networks, but a lack of appropriate data makes it difficult to investigate the importance of this explanation. In this study, we use data from a survey conducted in the Swedish labour market to analyze if there are ethnic differences in the choice of search intensity/methods and in the search method that resulted in a job (the successful search method). Moreover, we investigate if the wage and other characteristics of the new job differ depending on the successful search method. Our data includes detailed information about the workers’ job search and the characteristics of the new job. We find that immigrants use all search methods more intensely than natives, but that they in particular rely more on informal search methods. Moreover, we find that, for immigrants, the successful search method is more likely to be informal search through relatives and friends. However, we also find that jobs found through this search channel are associated with lower wages. One interpretation of these results is that that immigrants perceive their chance of finding a job as so low that they are willing to accept low-paying jobs obtained through their family and friends.

  • 146.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Artifactual evidence of discrimination in correspondence studies?: A replication of the Neumark method2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The advocates of correspondence testing (CT) argue that it provide the most clear and convincing evidence of discrimination. The common view is that the standard CT can identify what is typically defined as discrimination in a legal sense – what we label total discrimination in the current study –, although it cannot separate between preferences and statistical discrimination. However, Heckman and Siegelman (1993) convincingly show that audit and correspondence studies can obtain biased estimates of total discrimination – in any direction – if employers evaluate applications according to some threshold level of productivity. This issue has essentially been ignored in the empirical literature on CT experiments until the appearance of the methodology proposed by Neumark (2012). He shows that with the right data and an identifying assumption, with testable predictions, this method can identify total discrimination. In the current paper we use this new method to reexamine a number of already published correspondence studies to investigate if their estimate of total discrimination is affected by group differences in variances of unobservable characteristics. We also aim at improving the general understanding of to what extent the standardization level of job applications is an issue in empirical work. We find that the standardization level of the job applications being set by the experimenter appear to be a general issue in correspondence studies which must be taken seriously

  • 147.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Does labor market tightness affect ethnic discrimination in hiring?2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate whether ethnic discrimination depends on labor market tightness. While ranking models predict a negative relationship, the prediction of screening models is ambiguous about the direction of the relationship. Thus, the direction of the relationship is purely an empirical issue. We utilize three (but combine into two) correspondence studies of the Swedish labor market and two distinctly different measures of labor market tightness. These different measures produce very similar results, showing that a one percent increase in labor market tightness increases ethnic discrimination in hiring by 0.5- 0.7 percent, which is consistent with a screening model. This result stands in sharp contrast to the only previous study on this matter, Baert et al. (forthcoming), which finds evidence that supports a ranking model.

  • 148.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). IZA.
    Does the design of correspondence studies influence the measurement of discrimination?2014Inngår i: IZA Journal of Migration, ISSN 2193-9039, Vol. 3, nr 11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Correspondence studies can identify the extent of discrimination in hiring as typically defined by the law, which includes discrimination against ethnic minorities and females. However, as Heckman and Siegelman (1993) show, if employers act upon a group difference in the variance of unobserved variables, this measure of discrimination may not be very informative. This issue has essentially been ignored in the empirical literature until the recent methodological development by Neumark (2012). We apply Neumark’s method to a number of already published correspondence studies. We find the Heckman and Siegelman critique relevant for empirical work and give suggestions on how future correspondence studies may address this critique.

  • 149.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Ethnic discrimination in hiring, labour market tightness and the business cycle: evidence from field experiments2018Inngår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 50, nr 24, s. 2652-2663Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies using observational data suggest that ethnic discrimination increases in downturns of the economy. We investigate whether ethnic discrimination depends on labour market tightness using data from correspondence studies. We utilize three correspondence studies of the Swedish labour market and two different measures of labour market tightness. These two measures produce qualitatively similar results, and, opposite to the observational studies, suggest that ethnic discrimination in hiring decreases in downturns of the economy.

  • 150.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). IZA;CReAM.
    Explaining the gender wage gap among recent college graduates: pre-labour market factors or empolyer discrimination?2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the gender wage gap upon labor market entry among recent college graduates in Sweden and find a raw male-female wage gap of 12 percent. After adding controls for pre-labor market factors, only a gap of approximately 2.9 percent remains. Hence, pre-labor market factors, and especially the type of college major, explain the bulk of the initial gender wage gap, and there is little that can be attributed to employer discrimination. However, given the high minimum wages in the Swedish labor market discrimination may not be apparent in wages. Instead, employers may discriminate against women in hiring. Using data from a hiring experiment, we do not find any evidence of this. On the contrary, female job applicants tend to be preferred over male job applicants.

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