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  • 101.
    Bellenberg, Sören
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany.
    Huynh, Dieu
    TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany.
    Poetsch, Ansgar
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Germany;Univ Plymouth, UK.
    Sand, Wolfgang
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany;TU Bergakad Freiberg, Germany;Donghua Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Vera, Mario
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Chile.
    Proteomics Reveal Enhanced Oxidative Stress Responses and Metabolic Adaptation in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Biofilm Cells on Pyrite2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, s. 1-14, artikkel-id 592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause oxidative stress and growth inhibition by inactivation of essential enzymes, DNA and lipid damage in microbial cells. Acid mine drainage (AMD) ecosystems are characterized by low pH values, enhanced levels of metal ions and low species abundance. Furthermore, metal sulfides, such as pyrite and chalcopyrite, generate extracellular ROS upon exposure to acidic water. Consequently, oxidative stress management is especially important in acidophilic leaching microorganisms present in industrial biomining operations, especially when forming biofilms on metal sulfides. Several adaptive mechanisms have been described, but the molecular repertoire of responses upon exposure to pyrite and the presence of ROS are not thoroughly understood in acidophiles. In this study the impact of the addition of H2O2 on iron oxidation activity in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans DSM 14882(T) was investigated. Iron(II)- or sulfur-grown cells showed a higher sensitivity toward H2O2 than pyrite-grown ones. In order to elucidate which molecular responses may be involved, we used shot-gun proteomics and compared proteomes of cells grown with iron(II)-ions against biofilm cells, grown for 5 days in presence of pyrite as sole energy source. In total 1157 proteins were identified. 213 and 207 ones were found to have increased levels in iron(II) ion-grown or pyrite-biofilm cells, respectively. Proteins associated with inorganic sulfur compound (ISC) oxidation were among the latter. In total, 80 proteins involved in ROS degradation, thiol redox regulation, macromolecule repair mechanisms, biosynthesis of antioxidants, as well as metal and oxygen homeostasis were found. 42 of these proteins had no significant changes in abundance, while 30 proteins had increased levels in pyrite-biofilm cells. New insights in ROS mitigation strategies, such as importance of globins for oxygen homeostasis and prevention of unspecific reactions of free oxygen that generate ROS are presented for A. ferrooxidans biofilm cells. Furthermore, proteomic analyses provide insights in adaptations of carbon fixation and oxidative phosphorylation pathways under these two growth conditions.

  • 102.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Stopover Ecology of Mallards: Where, when and how to do what?2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most numerous and widespread duck in the northern hemisphere and a model species in ecology and harvest management. Migration is a crucial life stage for many birds and understanding the drivers of migration has important implications for conservation biology and assessment of animal population responses to global changes. Furthermore, mallard migration is a fundamental determinant of the epidemiology of many diseases of major relevance for both animal and human health. For example, it is the reservoir host for influenza A viruses (IAV), a widespread zoonosis causing mortality and economic damage. Improved knowledge of mallard behaviour during migration and the impacts of infection in mallards is needed to determine the role of wild birds in global IAV dynamics.

    This thesis focuses on mallard stopover ecology, an explicitly important part of the annual life cycle that is not well understood. The study area was southern Öland, SE Sweden, where mallard stopover behaviour was scrutinized by a combination of telemetry and ringing data analyses. Specifically, habitat preferences, movements, and emigration decisions were studied in-depth. Potential effects of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAIV) infection on movement parameters were also investigated. Radio-tracking revealed that stopover mallards adhered to a strict diel pattern, in which they spent the days resting along the coast, visited crop fields at dawn and dusk, and foraged on inland water bodies during the darkest night hours. Notably, the importance of residual maize, as well as small ephemeral wetlands on the unique alvar steppe habitat that predominates on Öland, was previously unknown. LPAIV infection status did not affect movement behaviour, highlighting the possible risk of spread of IAV from wild mallards to poultry along the migratory flyway. Through capture-mark-recapture modelling, it was confirmed that weather, particularly wind direction, was the most important determinant of departure from the stopover site. In contrast, the body condition of departing mallards was less crucial. Taken together, the research presented in this thesis contributes to improved knowledge about mallard stopover ecology and its role in LPAIV disease dynamics.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Daniel Bengtsson, Doctoral Thesis (Kappa)
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  • 103.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Andersson, Stina
    Ottenby Bird Observatory.
    Hellström, Magnus
    Ottenby Bird Observatory.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Age and sex determination of mallards Anas platyrhynchos in autumn2016Inngår i: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 26, s. 61-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mallard is a well-known and important species in migration ecology, game management,and epidemiology. Males and females are generally easily told apart, whereas ageing isproblematic, due to individual timing of the moult cycle and lack of easily defined agecriteria. From examination and photographic documentation of mallards caught within a longtermringing program at Ottenby Bird Observatory (56°12′N, 16°24′E), we describe ninecharacters of plumage and bare parts to be used for ageing mallards in autumn. The reliabilityof these characters was tested by letting experienced bird ringers determine putative age ofbirds from photos. Age determination from any single character proved to be uncertain, as therate of correctly assigned mallard photos of each character was in the range of 51-85% formales and 48-89% for females. For both sexes, the lowest figure represented post-humeralsand the highest represented tertials. Rectrices, tertial coverts, and greater coverts also hadreasonably high scores (71-85%). With all characters at hand, 91% of the males and 95% ofthe females were correctly identified to age. As young mallards, with the progress of prebreedingmoult (completed from October onwards), acquire tail and tertials identical to adults,untypical individuals are better not assigned to an age category.

  • 104.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Avril, Alexis
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University.
    Söderquist, Pär
    Kristianstad University.
    Norevik, Gabriel
    Ottenby Bird Observatory.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Safi, Kamran
    Max Planck Institute for Ornitholology, Germany ; University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Fiedler, Wolfgang
    Max Planck Institute for Ornitholology, Germany ; University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Wikelski, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Ornitholology, Germany ; University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Movements, Home-Range Size and Habitat Selection of Mallards during Autumn Migration2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 6, artikkel-id e100764Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is a focal species in game management, epidemiology and ornithology, but comparably little research has focused on the ecology of the migration seasons. We studied habitat use, time-budgets, home-range sizes, habitat selection, and movements based on spatial data collected with GPS devices attached to wild mallards trapped at an autumn stopover site in the Northwest European flyway. Sixteen individuals (13 males, 3 females) were followed for 15-38 days in October to December 2010. Forty-nine percent (SD = 8.4%) of the ducks' total time, and 85% of the day-time (SD = 28.3%), was spent at sheltered reefs and bays on the coast. Two ducks used ponds, rather than coast, as day-roosts instead. Mallards spent most of the night (76% of total time, SD = 15.8%) on wetlands, mainly on alvar steppe, or in various flooded areas (e.g. coastal meadows). Crop fields with maize were also selectively utilized. Movements between roosting and foraging areas mainly took place at dawn and dusk, and the home-ranges observed in our study are among the largest ever documented for mallards (mean = 6,859 ha; SD = 5,872 ha). This study provides insights into relatively unknown aspects of mallard ecology. The fact that autumn-staging migratory mallards have a well-developed diel activity pattern tightly linked to the use of specific habitats has implications for wetland management, hunting and conservation, as well as for the epidemiology of diseases shared between wildlife and domestic animals.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 105.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Safi, Kamran
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany;University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Avril, Alexis
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fiedler, Wolfgang
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany;University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Wikelski, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany;University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Does influenza A virus infection affect movement behaviour during stopover in its wild reservoir host?2016Inngår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 1-11, artikkel-id 150633Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has seen a surge in research on avian influenza A viruses (IAVs), in part fuelled by the emergence, spread and potential zoonotic importance of highly pathogenic virus subtypes. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most numerous and widespread dabbling duck in the world, and one of the most important natural hosts for studying IAV transmission dynamics. In order to predict the likelihood of IAV transmission between individual ducks and to other hosts, as well as between geographical regions, it is important to understand how IAV infection affects the host. In this study, we analysed the movements of 40 mallards equipped with GPS transmitters and three-dimensional accelerometers, of which 20 were naturally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV), at a major stopover site in the Northwest European flyway. Movements differed substantially between day and night, as well as between mallards returning to the capture site and those feeding in natural habitats. However, movement patterns did not differ between LPAIV infected and uninfected birds. Hence, LPAIV infection probably does not affect mallard movements during stopover, with high possibility of virus spread along the migration route as a consequence.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 106.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Avril, Alexis
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tailwind better than full tank? How weather and body condition affect departure decision in an autumn-staging migrantManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 107.
    Bengtsson, Therese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    ”Det är ljudmolekyler som flyger”: Elevers föreställningar om fenomenet ljud2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien är en kvalitativ studie som syftar till att kartlägga elevers föreställningar om ljudets spridning, utifrån vetenskapliga föreställningar och vardagsföreställning. Studien kartlägger även elevernas föreställningar om vad som påverkar ljudets hastighet. Den insamlade empirin bygger på elevintervjuer. Intervjuerna genomfördes med totalt 16 elever från årskurs 4 och 6, detta för att kunna jämföra elevernas föreställningar mellan årskurserna.

    Studien visar att elever anser att ljud är ett abstrakt ämne som de har svårt att förklara. Resultatet visar att elever i årskurs 4 och 6 har flertalet vardagsföreställningar om ljud. Vardagsföreställningarna i studien kan tolkas utifrån att eleverna använder sina erfarenheter och försöker skapa individuella förklaringar på abstrakta fenomen. En av de vanligaste vardagsföreställningarna som går att identifiera i denna studie är att ljud ses som en egen enhet. I intervjuerna visade det sig även att eleverna har föreställningar om ljudets hastighet som inte kan ses grundas på vetenskapliga föreställningar. Inga stora skillnader kunde identifieras mellan föreställningarna hos eleverna i årskurs 4 och 6, förutom användningen av fysikaliska begrepp.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 108.
    Bennett, N. C.
    et al.
    Univ Pretoria, South Africa.
    Ganswindt, A.
    Univ Pretoria, South Africa.
    Ganswindt, S. B.
    Univ Pretoria, South Africa.
    Jarvis, J. U. M.
    Univ Cape Town, South Africa.
    Zöttl, Markus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Faulkes, C. G.
    Queen Mary Univ London, UK.
    Evidence for contrasting roles for prolactin in eusocial naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber and Damaraland mole-rats, Fukomys damarensis2018Inngår i: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 14, nr 5, artikkel-id 20180150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated prolactin (PRL) has been associated with the expression of social and cooperative behaviours in a number of vertebrate species, as well as suppression of reproduction. As social mole-rats exhibit both of these traits, PRL is a prime candidate in mediating their social phenotype. While naked and Damaraland mole-rats (NMRs and DMRs) have evolved eusociality independently within their family, both species exhibit an extreme skew in lifetime reproductive success, with breeding restricted to a single female and one or two males. Non-breeding NMRs of both sexes are physiologically inhibited from reproducing, while in DMRs only the non-breeding females are physiologically suppressed. Newly emerging work has implicated the dopamine system and PRL as a component in socially induced reproductive suppression and eusociality in NMR, but the DMR remains unstudied in this context. To investigate evolutionary convergence in the role of PRL in shaping African mole-rat eusociality, we determined plasma PRL concentrations in breeders and non-breeders of both sexes, comparing DMRs with NMRs. Among samples from non-breeding NMRs 80% had detectable plasma PRL concentrations. As a benchmark, these often (37%) exceeding those considered clinically hyperprolactinaemic (25 ng ml(-1)) in humans: mean +/- s.e.m.: 34.81 +/- 5.87 ngml(-1); range 0.00-330.30 ng ml(-1). Conversely, 85% of non-breeding DMR samples had undetectable values and none had concentrations above 25 ng ml(-1): 0.71 +/- 0.38 ng ml(-1); 0.00-23.87 ngml(-1). Breeders in both species had the expected variance in plasma PRL concentrations as part of normal reproductive function, with lactating queens having significantly higher values. These results suggest that while elevated PRL in non-breeders is implicated in NMR eusociality, this may not be the case in DMRs, and suggests a lack of evolutionary convergence in the proximate control of the social phenotype in these mole-rats.

  • 109.
    Bennike, Ole
    et al.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Denmark.
    Hedenas, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Wiberg-Larsen, Peter
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    A multiproxy macrofossil record of Eemian palaeoenvironments from Klaksvik, the Faroe Islands2018Inngår i: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 47, nr 1, s. 106-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of interglacial successions are critical to our understanding of the environmental history of an area. Analyses of macrofossil remains of plants and invertebrates from Eemian sediments exposed in a coastal cliff section at Borooyarvik near Klaksvik, Bordoy, northeastern Faroe Islands, indicate that the sediments accumulated in a coastal lagoon. The fossil flora comprises tree birch Betula sect. Albae and we suggest that birch forests were found locally at sheltered sites in the area. Tree birch also occurred on the islands during the mid-Holocene. The only other woody plant recovered from the Eemian deposit is the dwarf-shrub Empetrum nigrum, which is common on the islands today. Remains of herbaceous plants are rare but include Viola, Ajuga, Myosotis, Urtica dioica and Ranunculus. The bryophyte flora is species-rich and most of the fragments belong either to stream species or to species of humid or wet habitats. The fossil flora and fauna also comprise a number of freshwater species that probably lived in an oligotrophic lake and in streams in the catchment of the lagoon. The climate during deposition of the lagoonal sediments was similar to the Holocene oceanic climate of the Faroe Islands. The study adds to our understanding of Eemian environments in the North Atlantic region and helps to fill a knowledge gap about the history of the flora and fauna of the Faroe Islands, which is of biogeographical importance.

  • 110.
    Bennike, Ole
    et al.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Denmark.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    High, Kirsty
    Univ York, UK.
    Korshoj, Joakim S.
    GEO, Denmark.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Penkman, Kirsty
    Univ York, UK.
    Preece, Richard C.
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Rosenlund, Knud
    Zool Museum, Denmark.
    Viehberg, Finn A.
    Univ Cologne, Germany.
    New interglacial deposits from Copenhagen, Denmark: marine Isotope Stage 72019Inngår i: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 107-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During a pre-site survey and construction of a new metro route and station in Copenhagen, fossiliferous organic-rich sediments were encountered. This paper reports on multidisciplinary investigations of these organic sediments, which occurred beneath a sediment succession with a lower till, glacifluvial sand and gravel, an upper till and glacifluvial sand. The organic sediments were underlain by glacifluvial sand and gravel. The organic-rich sediments, which were up to 0.5 m thick, accumulated in a low-energy environment, possibly an oxbow lake. They were rich in plant fossils, which included warmth-demanding trees and other species, such as Najas minor, indicating slightly higher summer temperatures than at present. Freshwater shells were also frequent. Bithynia opercula allowed the sediments to be put into an aminostratigraphical framework. The amino acid racemization (AAR) ratios indicate that the organic sediments formed during Marine Isotope Stage 7 (MIS 7), which is consistent with optically stimulated luminescence dating that gave ages of 206 and 248 ka from the underlying minerogenic deposit. The assemblages from Trianglen are similar to interglacial deposits from the former Free Port (1.4 km away) in Copenhagen, except that Corbicula and Pisidium clessini were not found at Trianglen. The presence of these bivalves at the Free Port and the ostracod Scottia tumida at Trianglen indicates a pre-Eemian age. AAR data from archived Bithynia opercula from the Free Port were almost identical to those from Trianglen, indicating that the two sites are contemporary. We suggest the Trianglen interglacial be used as a local name for the MIS 7 interglacial deposits in Copenhagen. MIS 7 deposits have rarely been documented from the region, but MIS 7 deposits may have been mistaken for other ages. The use of AAR ratios in Bithynia opercula has a great potential for correlation of interglacial non-marine deposits in mainland northern Europe.

  • 111.
    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Jürgens, Klaus
    Leibniz Inst Balt Sea Res IOW, Germany.
    Riemann, Lasse
    Univ Copenhagen.
    Cultivation and isolation of N2-fixing bacteria from suboxic waters in the Baltic Sea2014Inngår i: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 88, nr 2, s. 358-371Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogenase genes (nifH) from heterotrophic dinitrogen (N-2)-fixing bacteria appear ubiquitous in marine bacterioplankton, but the significance of these bacteria for N cycling is unknown. Quantitative data on the N-2-fixation potential of marine and estuarine heterotrophs are scarce, and the shortage of cultivated specimens currently precludes ecophysiological characterization of these bacteria. Through the cultivation of diazotrophs from suboxic (1.79molO(2)L(-1)) Baltic Sea water in an artificial seawater medium devoid of combined N, we report the cultivability of a considerable fraction of the diazotrophic community in the Gotland Deep. Two nifH clades were present both in situ and in enrichment cultures showing gene abundances of up to 4.6x10(5) and 5.8x10(5)nifH gene copies L-1 within two vertical profiles in the Baltic Sea. The distributions of the two clades suggested a relationship with the O-2 concentrations in the water column as abundances increased in the suboxic and anoxic waters. It was possible to cultivate and isolate representatives from one of these prevalent clades, and preliminary analysis of their ecophysiology demonstrated growth optima at 0.5-15molO(2)L(-1) and 186-194molO(2)L(-1) in the absence of combined N.

  • 112.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bayard, Ann-Christin
    Sustainable Sweden SouthEast.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistiska Centralbyrån.
    Avfall i Småland - en resursgruva2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi lever idag till stor del i en linjär ekonomi där varor produceras, används och sedan slängs. En ökande materialanvändning genererar stora avfallsflöden, varav en stor mängd går till avfallsförbränning. Samhällets ämnesomsättning ger även upphov till stora mängder slam vid rening av avloppsvatten. Näringen i slammet behöver tas tillvara och återföras till jordbruksmark, vilken inte alltid sker idag. Om man jämför samhällets flöden av material med ekologiska system finns det inget som är avfall i naturen. Istället blir en organisms avfall någon annans näring. En mer cirkulär ekonomi vill härma naturen på det sättet.

    Projektet ”Samhällets restprodukter – framtidens resurser” vill närma sig den cirkulära ekonomin genom att fokusera hur två av samhällets största restprodukter, avfall och slam, bättre kan användas i ett resurseffektivt samhälle. Projektets syfte är att ge en ökad användning av samhällets restprodukter i Småland, ge företag bättre lönsamhet genom billigare råvaror samt stärka företag som utvecklar tekniska lösningar för utvinning av ämnen. Projektets övergripande mål är att identifiera strömmar av restprodukter i Småland som kan användas som en resurs av andra företag i närheten.

    Denna rapport ”Avfall i Småland – en resursgruva” redovisar efter det första projektåret främst en kunskapsbank vad gäller avfallsflöden i Småland. Det är första gången i Sverige som avfallsdata bryts ner på regional nivå på detta sätt, vilket gör det möjligt att mer detaljerat identifiera värdefulla och outnyttjade avfallsflöden. Rapporten innehåller data över resursgruvan avfall, avfall både från hushåll och olika verksamheter och även data om hur detta avfall tas om hand. Den innehåller också basfakta om Småland, befolkning och näringsliv samt en del om den speciella anda som finns i Småland, Smålandsandan som ger en god förutsättning för entreprenörskap. Vidare innehåller rapporten inledande tankar på hur man kan arbeta för att få resursanvändningen mer cirkulär i Småland. Här finns exempel på framgångsfaktorer utifrån erfarenheter från olika företag. Slutligen finns också en del om lagar och regler, t.ex. vad som gäller om man ska ta emot avfall.

    Rapporten visar att det finns mycket blandade fraktioner i det uppkomna avfallet i Småland. Vidare går en betydande del av det avfall som behandlas till förbränning. Det finns med andra ord en stor potential att sortera och återvinna mer. Detta ger goda förutsättningar att finna avfall från en verksamhet som kan vara en resurs för en annan. Huvudsyftet med projektets arbete år två är att verka för matchning mellan företag för att bättre använda restprodukten avfall. Arbetet kommer även att inriktas mot slam, med syftet att öka användningen av denna restprodukt.

     

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  • 113.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistiska Centralbyrån.
    Bayard, Ann-Christin
    Sustainable Sweden Southeast.
    Samhällets restprodukter - framtidens resurser2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi lever idag till stor del i en linjär ekonomi där varor produceras, används och sedan slängs. En ökande materialanvändning genererar stora avfallsflöden, varav en stor mängd går till avfallsförbränning. Detta gör att värdefulla ämnen och material går förlorade, och att det krävs stora resurser att ta fram nya material. Samhällets ämnesomsättning ger upphov till stora mängder slam vid rening av avloppsvatten. Näringen i slammet behöver tas tillvara och återföras till jordbruksmark, vilken inte alltid sker idag. Om man jämför samhällets flöden av material med ekologiska system finns det inget som är avfall i ekologiska system. Istället blir en organisms avfall någon annans näring. En mer cirkulär ekonomi vill härma naturen på det sättet. ”Dagens varor är framtidens resurser till gårdagens pris”, enligt Walter R Stahel (professor med inriktning på resursproblematik och en förgrundsgestalt inom cirkulär ekonomi).

    Projektet ”Samhällets restprodukter – framtidens resurser” närmade sig den cirkulära ekonomin genom att fokusera hur två av samhällets största restprodukter, avfall och slam, bättre kan användas i ett resurseffektivt samhälle. Projektets syfte var att ge en ökad användning av samhällets restprodukter i Småland, ge företag bättre lönsamhet genom billigare råvaror samt stärka företag som utvecklar tekniska lösningar för utvinning av ämnen. Projektets övergripande mål var att identifiera strömmar av restprodukter i Småland som kan användas som en resurs av andra företag i närheten.

    Här sammanfattas projektets resultat i form av huvudsakliga slutsatser samt identifierade framgångsfaktorer för ett mer cirkulärt samhälle, några ”nyttigheter” som projektet skapat eller identifierat samt några utmaningar för framtida arbete.

    Projektet har kommit fram till följande huvudsakliga slutsatser:

    • Det finns en stor potential att öka återvinning av avfall i Småland. Det var 66 procent blandat avfall av det som behandlades i Småland. För att öka återvinningen och användningen av avfall som en smart resurs krävs att avfallet är sorterat, t.ex. som plastavfall, metallavfall och glasavfall.
    •  Slamhantering är redan idag relativt cirkulär i Småland. Det innebär att slam i hög grad används för att täcka deponier och i jordbruk. Dock är det viktigt att fortsätta med uppströmsarbete för att möta framtida krav på lägre halter av t.ex. metaller i slam. Deponitäckning kommer inte heller att behövas i lika hög grad framöver, därför blir det viktigt att ersätta denna slamanvändning med annan cirkulär användning.
    • Det finns potential att förbättra avfallshanteringen hos företagen i Småland. Företagen fokuserar på sin kärnverksamhet och avfallshanteringen är inte alltid så prioriterad. Företagens ambitionsnivå på sortering påverkas av företaget som hämtar avfallet och deras önskan/krav på sortering. För företag inom handeln och hushåll kan utrymme vara en viktig påverkande faktor som kräver samarbete för att kunna få mer materialåtervinning.
    • Samverkan mellan företag ökar återvinning Samverkan mellan företag ger bättre lönsamhet när det gäller hämtning av flera fraktioner. Samverkan kan även ge kunskapsutbyte och medföra att goda exempel, nya tankar och idéer kan spridas. För att samverkan ska starta krävs dock att någon, gärna neutral part tar initiativ.
    • Projektets samverkan med det omgivande samhället har varit framgångsrikt och givande. Projektet har genomförts i nära samverkan med näringslivet, vilket har varit en framgångsfaktor. Det finns en efterfrågan på ny kunskap men också ett behov av motivation och stöd till samverkan. Här kan Linnéuniversitetet, en neutral part som har ett brett perspektiv, samhällsintresse och kunskap, vara en viktig mötesplats. Att fortsätta denna typ av dialog och möten i kommande projekt behövs för att nå en högre materialåtervinning och ett fortsatt närmande till det cirkulära samhället.

    Huvudsyftet med projektet har varit att skapa en bättre, mer resurseffektiv användning av samhällets restprodukter. Under arbetets gång har ett antal ”nyttigheter” skapats eller identifierats för att få mer återvinning och därmed ett närmande till det cirkulära samhället. Några exempel:

    Företagsbesök och nätverkskontakter har lett till intressanta och innovativa lösningar mellan olika parter. En batteritillverkares plasthöljen blir nu till plastgolv. Samverkansavtal har gjorts mellan parterna. Hotell och avfallshanterare hittade varandra för utveckling av effektiv avfallshantering i hotell och restaurang. Engagerade medarbetare fick man på köpet. Avfallshanterare har än mer insett sin roll som kunskapsförmedlare och att få företag att se avfall som en smart resurs. För Kvarnholmen, stadskärna i Kalmar, startades diskussioner om avfallshantering genom frukostmöten med Fastighetsägare, vilket i sin tur ledde till att en Linnéuniversitetsstudent skrev sitt examensarbete med fokus på att hitta effektiva lösningar i trånga gränder för avfallshantering. Förslag som nu kommer att bearbetas vidare. Ett industriområde i Växjö har valt att satsa på avfallshantering för att bli norra Europas grönaste industriområde.

    Vid sidan av goda exempel har vi dock stött på några utmaningar för användande av avfall som resurs. Kvaliteten på avfallet måste möta de krav som finns på råvaror i process för ny produkt. Vidare kan definitionen på avfall vara ett hinder. Om ett företag ska ta emot avfall från ett annat företag krävs att man har ett tillstånd att behandla avfall. Alla restprodukter är dock inte avfall. Här behöver företag rådgivning men det saknas idag en organisation i Sverige som stöttar företagen när det gäller avfallsfrågor.

    Projektet har identifierat ett antal framgångsfaktorer för att komma vidare på vägen mot en mer cirkulär användning av samhällets restprodukter. Först och främst behövs lättförståelig information om ekonomiska fördelar med en cirkulär resursanvändning, vilka också kan tydliggöras i företagens hållbarhetsarbete och redovisning. Andra framgångsfaktorer är kunskap om resursflöden, ledarskap och engagemang, erfarenhetsutbyten, samverkan mellan olika aktörer samt nytänkande.

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  • 114.
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fluoride in surface water and groundwater in southeast Sweden: sources, controls and risk aspects2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to determine the sources, controls and risk aspects of fluoride in surface water and groundwater in a region of southeastern Sweden where the fluorine-rich 1.45 Ga circular Götemar granite (5 km in diameter) crops out in the surrounding 1.8 Ga granites and quartz monzodiorites (TIB rocks). The materials of this thesis include both primary data, collected for the purpose of this thesis, and a large set of secondary data, retrieved from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., the Swedish Geological Survey and the Kalmar County Council. A characteristic feature of the area is high fluoride concentrations in all kinds of natural waters, including surface waters (such as streams) and groundwater in both the Quaternary deposits (regolith groundwater) and bedrock fractures (fracture groundwater). A number of potential sources and controls of the high fluoride concentrations were investigated, including a variety of geological, mineralogical, mineral-chemical and hydrological features and processes. For the stream waters and regolith groundwater, high fluoride concentrations were correlated with the location of the Götemar granite. This finding is explained by the discharge of fluoride-rich groundwater from fractures in the bedrock and/or the release of fluoride due to the weathering of fluorine-bearing minerals in the Quaternary deposits; however, the Quaternary deposits had considerably lower fluoride concentrations than the underlying bedrock. The high fluoride concentrations in the fresh fracture groundwater (up to 7.4 mg/L) in the TIB-rocks are proposed to be the result of long residence times and the alteration/dissolution of fluorine-bearing primary and secondary minerals along the fracture walls. In terms of risk aspects, this thesis shows that fluoride can add to the transport and inorganic complexation of aluminium in humic-rich, acidic streams. Additionally, 24 % of the children in households with private wells in Kalmar County were assessed to be at risk of excess fluoride intake based on the WHO drinking water guideline value (1.5 mg/L). However, the risk increased significantly when instead the US EPA reference dose (0.06 mg/kg-day) was used, both when all relevant exposure pathways were taken into account as well as water consumption alone. Hence, it is shown that the risk of an excess intake of fluoride is strongly dependent on the basis for evaluation.

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    Tobias Berger, Doctoral Thesis (Kappa)
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  • 115.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Assessing the risk of an excessive fluoride intake in a region of southeastern Sweden2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 116.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fluoride abundance and controls in fresh groundwater in Quaternary deposits and bedrock fractures in an area with fluorine-rich granitoid rocks2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 569, s. 948-960Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on fluoride (F-) concentrations in groundwater in an area in northern Europe (Laxemar, southeast Sweden) where high F- concentrations have previously been found in surface waters such as streams and quarries. Fluoride concentrations were determined over time in groundwater in the Quaternary deposits ("regolith groundwater"), and with different sampling techniques from just beneath the ground surface to nearly -700 min the bedrock (fracture) groundwater. A number of potential controls of dissolved F- were studied, including geological variables, mineralogy, mineral chemistry and hydrology. In the regolith groundwater the F- concentrations (0.3-4.2 mg/L) were relatively stable over time at each sampling site but varied widely among the sampling sites. In these groundwaters, the F- concentrations were uncorrelated with sample (filter) depth and the water table in meters above sea level (masl), with the thicknesses of the groundwater column and the regolith, and with the distribution of soil types at the sampling sites. Fluoride concentrations were, however, correlated with the anticipated spatial distribution of erosional material (till) derived from a F-rich circular granite intrusion. Abundant release of F-from such material is thus suggested, primarily via dissolution of fluorite and weathering of biotite. In the fresh fracture groundwater, the F- concentrations (1.2-7.4 mg/L) were generally higher than in the regolith groundwater, and were uncorrelated with depth and with location relative to the granite intrusion. Two mechanisms explaining the overall high F- levels in the fracture groundwater were addressed. First, weathering/dissolution of fluorite, bastnasite and apophyllite, which are secondary minerals formed in the fractures during past hydrothermal events, and biotite which is a primary mineral exposed on fracture walls. Second, long water-residence times, favoring water-rock interaction and build-up of high dissolved F- concentrations. The findings are relevant in contexts of extraction of groundwater for drinking-water purposes. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 117.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fluoride in groundwater of regolith and bedrock (0-900 meters depth) in a granitoidic setting, SE Sweden2013Inngår i: Mineralogical magazine, ISSN 0026-461X, E-ISSN 1471-8022, Vol. 77, nr 5, s. 691-691Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 118.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Geological, mineralogical and hydrological controls of fluoride in fresh groundwater in Quaternary deposits and bedrock fractures in a coastal area with Proterozoic granitoidsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 119.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences;KTH Royal Inst Technol.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    The impact of fluoride on Al abundance and speciation in boreal streams2015Inngår i: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 409, s. 118-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of fluoride on the abundance and speciation of aluminium (Al) was investigated in three boreal streams characterised by overall high concentrations of fluoride and dissolved organic matter. Stream-water sampling was carried out several times a year for at least 4 years, and a chemical equilibrium model (Visual MINTEQ) was applied in order to model the proportion of colloidal and organically/inorganically complexed Al in the waters. The Al concentrations in filtered (0.45 mu m) water samples were inversely correlated with pH, and reached values up to approximately 1 mg/L during low pH conditions (pH < 6.0). In a stream with high fluoride concentrations, as compared to a similar stream with only moderately elevated fluoride concentrations, the Al concentrations were consistently elevated. For the stream with high concentrations of fluoride and Al, the model predicted both high concentrations and proportions of Al-fluoride complexation. This prediction indicates that high fluoride levels contribute to raise both the Al abundance and the ratio of inorganic to organic Al complexation in stream water. In contrast, for another stream with high fluoride concentrations and consistently high (near neutral) pH, there was no evidence of fluoride affecting Al concentration or complexation. These results show that it is important to focus future studies on the role of high levels of dissolved fluoride on both the speciation and the toxicity of Al in stream water.

  • 120.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Yu, Changxun
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Svensson, Daniel
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fluorine geochemistry of Quaternary deposits in a nemo-boreal catchment with elevated dissolved fluoride in surface waters and groundwaterManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 121.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Yu, Changxun
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Svensson, Daniel
    Aspö Hard Rock Lab, Oskarshamn.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fluorine geochemistry of quaternary deposits in a nemo-boreal catchment with elevated dissolved fluoride in surface waters and groundwater2016Inngår i: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 170, s. 148-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on fluorine (F) concentrations and solid-phase speciation in Quaternary deposits, including till, sorted sediments (gravel, sand, clay/silt) and organic-rich soil types, in an area in southeast Sweden underlain by 1.8 Ga granites and quartz monzodiorites with moderate F concentrations (0.11-0.13 wt%) and an outcrop (5 km in diameter) of 1.45 Ga granite (the Gotemar granite) with high to very high F concentrations (0.38-0.54 wt%). Eighteen <1 to 5 m thick profiles were sampled both upon and in the vicinity of the Gotemar granite. The F concentrations in the Quaternary deposits were considerably lower than in the underlying fresh bedrock, with the overall highest concentrations in glacial clay having values up to 660 ppm. A contributing factor to the low F concentrations in the till, as compared to the fresh rock, is release and leaching of fluoride (F-) during alteration of biotite and amphiboles to secondary minerals. Sequential chemical extractions showed that the F in the Quaternary deposits exists mainly in the residual fraction, and also to a substantial extent in phases extractable with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in the till and in phases extractable with Na pyrophosphate in the organic-rich soil types. These features indicate that after release via alteration of primary minerals, F- has to a significant extent been scavenged by Fe/Al (and perhaps Mn) oxyhydroxides in the till and by labile organic matter in the organic soil types. The high F- concentrations previously reported for stream waters and regolith groundwaters in the area are due to weathering and leaching of the Quaternary deposits and discharge of fluoride-rich waters from underlying bedrock fractures. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 122.
    Berggren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Larsson, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Testing for local adaptation to spawning habitat in sympatric subpopulations of northern pike by reciprocal translocation of embryos2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 5, artikkel-id e0154488Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested for local adaption in early life-history traits by performing a reciprocal translocation experiment with approximately 2500 embryos of pike (Esox lucius) divided in paired split-family batches. The experiment indicated local adaptation in one of the two subpopulations manifested as enhanced hatching success of eggs in the native habitat, both when compared to siblings transferred to a non-native habitat, and when compared to immigrant genotypes from the other subpopulation. Gene-by-environment effects on viability of eggs and larvae were evident in both subpopulations, showing that there existed genetic variation allowing for evolutionary responses to divergent selection, and indicating a capacity for plastic responses to environmental change. Next, we tested for differences in female life-history traits. Results uncovered that females from one population invested more resources into reproduction and also produced more (but smaller) eggs in relation to their body size compared to females from the other population. We suggest that these females have adjusted their reproductive strategies as a counter-adaptation because a high amount of sedimentation on the eggs in that subpopulations spawning habitat might benefit smaller eggs. Collectively, our findings point to adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations that are physically separated only for a short period during reproduction and early development – which is rare. These results illustrate how combinations of translocation experiments and field studies of life-history traits might infer about local adaptation and evolutionary divergence among populations. Local adaptations in subdivided populations are important to consider in management and conservation of biodiversity, because they may otherwise be negatively affected by harvesting, supplementation, and reintroduction efforts targeted at endangered populations.

  • 123.
    Berglund, Sara
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Växjö kommun: En jämförande studie om svårigheter vid miljömålsformulering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här är en jämförande studie gjord för Växjö kommun, mellan de fyra kommunerna Växjö, Helsingborg, Lund och Örebro. Avsikten var att ta reda på vilka typer av miljömå lsom de olika kommunerna har, hur deras miljömål är formulerade, vad det finns för problem och svårigheter vid formulering av miljömål samt vad det är som gör att vissa miljömål är mer lyckade än andra. Detta för att även kunna ta fram förslag på förbättringar eller hur erfarenheter från de andra kommunerna skulle kunna användas inom Växjö kommuns miljömålsarbete.

    Studien har visat att det inte är något lätt arbete att skapa miljömål inom en kommun. Svårigheterna i arbetet ligger främst i att hitta rätt sätt att mäta och vilken indikator som ska användas inom uppföljnings- och utvärderingsarbetet. Att en kommun har miljömål som omfattar områden där kommunen själv inte sitter med rådighet försvårar miljömålsarbetet, samtidigt som det är svårt att hitta rätt styrmedel för att påverka andra. För att lyckas med miljömålsarbetet inom en kommun är det av betydelse att sätta miljömål som är relevanta för kommunen samtidigt som miljömålen har en tydlig formulering och målsättning. Även att kommunen plockar fram styrmedel för att kunna påverka andra inom områden där de själva inte sitter med rådighet och att det finns tydliga ansvarsfördelningar inom förvaltningar och de personer som driver miljömålet framåt. Ett miljömål är inte självgående utan behöver fokus för att bli lyckat och uppnås.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 124.
    Berglöf, Kimberly
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Optimal harvest time of farmed Mytilus edulis in southwestern Baltic Sea2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is the most severe treat against good ecological status in the Baltic Proper. Mussel farming could be a way to reduce eutrophication in coastal areas. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are filter feeders and can therefore clean the water by taking up particles in it, when harvested nutrients will be removed; this is a treatment that the Baltic Sea could greatly benefit from. Blue mussel aquaculture in the Baltic Sea is a relatively new field with large knowledge gaps. The low salinity leads to dwarfism in Baltic mussels making them unsuitable for human consumption and previously uninteresting for farming. However small mussels could still be used for nutrient mitigation and the harvest could potentially be used for animal feed or fertilizers. In this study the optimal harvest time for maximum biomass and nutrient removal was investigated in a coastal mussel farm in Kalmar sound (southwest Baltic Sea/western Baltic Proper). The study ran between May 2016 and May 2017. Monthly mussel sampling was performed, including assessment of condition indices, biomass quantity and gonad development status. Weekly water analysis on the mussel farm and at a close-by reference site was performed to see if the farm had an impact on the water quality. A Principal component analysis showed no indication of direct effects from the mussel farm compared to a close by reference site. The percentages of dry meat varied between 11.01±2.36 and 20.053±0.65% and were significantly higher in spring compared to other seasons. The highest meat yield coincided with maximum gonad ripeness. A drop in meat yield of almost 7% was seen in April when gonads went from ripe to spawning. Spawning took place at water temperature of 6.5°C and the optimal harvest time was proposed to be at water temperatures of 5-5.5°C. This makes it possible for the mussels to utilise the spring bloom (3.5°C) and leaves a window of six weeks for cleaning the nets and having them back in the water before settling. Laboratory experiments showed that one-year-old mussels had higher filtration rates without increased sedimentation compared to two-year-old mussels. Therefore, the study proposes annual harvest frequency, which would also reduce the risk of biomass loss and the accumulation of algal toxins and pollutants. A standard sized mussel farm of 1 ha in the Hagby location, with annual harvest, could retrieve 600-900 kg of nitrogen and 60-90 kg of phosphorus per year. This study provides important knowledge for the optimization of mussel farming as a measure against coastal eutrophication in the Baltic Sea.

  • 125.
    Bergseije, Victor
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Effects of Heat Transfer Fluid from District Heating Networks on Activated Sludge: A respirometric analysis using a dilution series to assess disruption of biological treatment processes in wastewater treatment facilities2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    District heating has a long standing tradition in Sweden and today it is the most common way of producing and transporting heat. A District heating system (DH system) is divided into three parts: a production facility, distribution network (DH network) and one more heat stations. The heat produced in the facilities is distributed to the customers via a heat transfer medium, usually water (DH water), in piping networks that make up the DH network. The heat is transferred to the customers via the heat exchanger at which point they can use it as heated tap water or for heating purposes. The DH networks are often constructed in steel as it is cheap and a relatively resistant material. However it has the disadvantages of corrosion and expansions when it is exposed high temperatures which lead to damages in the DH network resulting in loss of the DH water, this is an unavoidable occurrence in any DH network. This results in addition of pollutants by leakages into the DH network or with the water that is used to compensate for the losses. The pollutants cause further corrosion, leading to metal contamination, and more damages on the DH network meaning there is a continuous degradation. Therefore various treatments are used to clean and ascertain an acceptable chemical environment in the DH systems. These treatments are effective but not at a level which is required so many chemicals are used to enhance the treatment of the water. Some of these are known to be toxic to humans and water ecosystems.

    As leakages are abundant and often end up in the WWTPs of the concerned municipality, which often have troubles with disturbances of the biological treatment, it was decided that an assessment of the toxic effects that DH water pose on activated sludge was to be investigated. This was done by testing water from two DH networks, Växjö and Kalmar, on the same activated sludge obtained from Tegelviken WWTP in Kalmar. A respirometric bioassay approach established by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), OECD standard 209; OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals was used with changes made to exposure and measuring time as this decrease the risk of misinterpretation of the results. A dilution series using different concentrations (6.25%, 25% and 100%) of DH water was tested and compered to a blank control samples containing only activated sludge. Assessment of toxicity on total oxidation, oxidation carbon and oxidation of nitrogen was made. To get some idea of what might cause toxic effect samples of the waters was sent to outside laboratories for analyses of metals. The result from the bioassay and metal analysis was used to formulate risk factors associated with a DH water spill and exposure to WWTPs.

    It was found that both DH waters have a significant inhibition on nitrification in WWTPs. The DH water from Kalmar exhibited similar toxicity dynamics, roughly 20% inhibition, despite large differences in concentration. The DH water from Växjö showed a negative correlation between an increase in concentration of DH water and toxicity, 74% for the lowest concentration and 11% for the highest. The metal analysis concluded that there was no abundance of metal contamination which led to the inference that toxicity is probably caused by the chemicals used for treatment. This poses a great risk for the Baltic Ocean as many WWTPs release their treated water directly into water courses with a short detention time before reaching the sea.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Effects of Heat Transfer Fluid from District Heating Networks on Activated Sludge
  • 126.
    Bergström, Lisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Knubbsälen i Kalmarsund2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Knubbsälens beståndsutveckling i Kalmarsund styrs av flera faktorer som till exempel: överfiskning och bottendöd som reducerar mängden tillgänglig föda; fysiska störningar på reproduktionslokalerna vilket ökar kutdödligheten; miljögifter som påverkar hormonbalansen och immunförsvaret samt att populationen i Kalmarsund har en låg genetisk variation vilket gör dem extra sårbara (Härkönen, 2006).

    Att ha tillgång till en metod med vilken man kan konstatera små förändringar i en sälpopulation kan göra att man tidigt får en indikation om att något händer i den marina miljön. Trots en stor hotbild så visar inventeringar att populationen ökar årligen sedan inventeringens start på 70-talet. I detta examensarbete ges en bakgrund till vilka faktorer som kan tänkas påverka knubbsälspopulationen i Kalmarsund och i arbetet presenteras dessutom en inventeringsmetodik som med hög styrka kan avslöja relativt små populationsförändringar. Resultaten visar att det skulle räcka med 5-6 års inventering för att med nittiofem procents säkerhet kunna avslöja en femprocentig ändring i populationstillväxt för knubbsälarna i Kalmarsund.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 127.
    Berkelmann, Dirk
    et al.
    Georg August Univ, Germany.
    Schneider, Dominik
    Georg August Univ, Germany.
    Engelhaupt, Martin
    Georg August Univ, Germany.
    Heinemann, Melanie
    Georg August Univ, Germany.
    Christel, Stephan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Georg August Univ, Germany.
    Wijayanti, Marini
    Bogor Agr Univ, Indonesia.
    Meryandini, Anja
    Bogor Agr Univ, Indonesia.
    Daniel, Rolf
    Georg August Univ, Germany.
    How Rainforest Conversion to Agricultural Systems in Sumatra (Indonesia) Affects Active Soil Bacterial Communities2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 2381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Palm oil production in Indonesia increased constantly over the last decades, which led to massive deforestation, especially on Sumatra island. The ongoing conversion of rainforest to agricultural systems results in high biodiversity loss. Here, we present the first RNA-based study on the effects of rainforest transformation to rubber and oil palm plantations in Indonesia for the active soil bacterial communities. For this purpose, bacterial communities of three different converted systems (jungle rubber, rubber plantation, and oil palm plantation) were studied in two landscapes with rainforest as reference by RT-PCR amplicon-based analysis of 16S rRNA gene transcripts. Active soil bacterial communities were dominated by Frankiales (Actinobacteria), subgroup 2 of the Acidobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria (mainly Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales). Community composition differed significantly between the converted land use systems and rainforest reference sites. Alphaproteobactena decreased significantly in oil palm samples compared to rainforest samples. In contrast, relative abundances of taxa within the Acidobacteria increased. Most important abiotic drivers for shaping soil bacterial communities were pH, calcium concentration, base saturation and C:N ratio. Indicator species analysis showed distinct association patterns for the analyzed land use systems. Nitrogen-fixing taxa including members of Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales were associated with rainforest soils while nitrifiers and heat-resistant taxa including members of Actinobacteria were associated with oil palm soils. Predicted metabolic profiles revealed that the relative abundances of genes associated with fixation of nitrogen significantly decreased in plantation soils. Furthermore, predicted gene abundances regarding motility, competition or gene transfer ability indicated rainforest conversion-induced changes as well.

  • 128.
    Berner, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Response of Microbial Communities to Changing Climate Conditions During Summer Cyanobacterial Blooms in the Baltic Sea2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 1562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequencies and biomass of Baltic Sea cyanobacterial blooms are expected to be higher in future climate conditions, but also of longer duration as a result of increased sea surface temperature. Concurrently, climate predictions indicate a reduced salinity in the Baltic Sea. These climate-driven changes are expected to alter not solely the phytoplankton community but also the role of microbial communities for nutrient remineralization. Here, we present the response of summer plankton communities (filamentous cyanobacteria, picocyanobacteria, and heterotrophic bacteria) to the interplay of increasing temperature (from 16 to 18 degrees C and 20 degrees C) and reduced salinity (from salinity 6.9 to 5.9) in the Baltic Proper (NW Gotland Sea) using a microcosm approach. Warmer temperatures led to an earlier peak of cyanobacterial biomass, while yields were reduced. These conditions caused a decrease of nitrogen-fixers (Dolichospermum sp.) biomass, while non nitrogen-fixers (Pseudanabaena sp.) increased. Salinity reduction did not affect cyanobacterial growth nor community composition. Among heterotrophic bacteria, Actinobacteria showed preference for high temperature, while Gammaproteobacteria thrived at in situ temperature. Heterotrophic bacteria community changed drastically at lower salinity and resembled communities at high temperature. Picocyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacterial biomass had a pronounced increase associated with the decay of filamentous cyanobacteria. This suggests that shifts in community composition of heterotrophic bacteria are influenced both directly by abiotic factors (temperature and salinity) and potentially indirectly by cyanobacteria. Our findings suggest that at warmer temperature, lower yield of photosynthetic cyanobacteria combined with lower proportion of nitrogen-fixers in the community could result in lower carbon export to the marine food web with consequences for the decomposer community of heterotrophic bacteria.

  • 129.
    Bernes, Claes
    et al.
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Carpenter, Stephen
    University of Wisconsin, USA.
    Gårdmark, Anna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University.
    Skov, Christian
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Speed, James
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Van Donk, Ellen
    Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Netherlands.
    What is the influence of a reduction of planktivorous and benthivorous fish on water quality in temperate eutrophic lakes?2015Inngår i: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 4, s. 1-28, artikkel-id 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In recent decades, many attempts have been made to restore eutrophic lakes through biomanipulation. Reducing the populations of planktivorous and benthivorous fish (either directly or through stocking of piscivorous fish) may induce ecosystem changes that increase water transparency and decrease the risk of algal blooms and fish kills, at least in the short term. However, the generality of biomanipulation effects on water quality across lake types and geographical regions is not known. Therefore, we have undertaken a systematic review of such effects in eutrophic lakes in temperate regions throughout the world.

    Methods

    Searches for literature were made using online publication databases, search engines, specialist websites and bibliographies of literature reviews. Search terms were developed in English, Danish, Dutch and Swedish. Identified articles were screened for relevance using inclusion criteria set out in an a priori protocol. To reduce the risk of bias, we then critically appraised the combined evidence found on each biomanipulation. Data were extracted on outcomes such as Secchi depth and chlorophyll a concentration before, during and/or after manipulation, and on effect modifiers such as lake properties and amounts of fish removed or stocked.

    Results

    Our searches identified more than 14,500 articles. After screening for relevance, 233 of them remained. After exclusions based on critical appraisal, our evidence base included useful data on 128 biomanipulations in 123 lakes. Of these interventions, 85% had been made in Europe and 15% in North America. Meta-analysis showed that removal of planktivores and benthivores (with or without piscivore stocking) leads to increased Secchi depth and decreased chlorophyll a concentration during intervention and the first three years afterwards. Piscivore stocking alone has no significant effect. The response of chlorophyll a levels to biomanipulation is stronger in lakes where fish removal is intense, and in lakes which are small and/or have high pre-manipulation concentrations of total phosphorus.

    Conclusions

    Our review improves on previous reviews of biomanipulation in that we identified a large number of case studies from many parts of the world and used a consistent, repeatable process to screen them for relevance and susceptibility to bias. Our results indicate that removal of planktivorous and benthivorous fish is a useful means of improving water quality in eutrophic lakes. Biomanipulation tends to be particularly successful in relatively small lakes with short retention times and high phosphorus levels. More thorough fish removal increases the efficacy of biomanipulation. Nonetheless successes and failures have occurred across a wide range of conditions.

  • 130. Bernhard, G. H.
    et al.
    Neale, R. E.
    Barnes, P. W.
    Neale, P. J.
    Zepp, R. G.
    Wilson, S. R.
    Andrady, A. L.
    Bais, A. F.
    McKenzie, R. L.
    Aucamp, P. J.
    Young, P. J.
    Liley, J. B.
    Lucas, R. M.
    Yazar, S.
    Rhodes, L. E.
    Byrne, S. N.
    Hollestein, L. M.
    Olsen, C. M.
    Young, A. R.
    Robson, T. M.
    Bornman, J. F.
    Jansen, M. A. K.
    Robinson, S. A.
    Ballaré, C. L.
    Williamson, C. E.
    Rose, K. C.
    Banaszak, A. T.
    Häder, D. -P
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Wängberg, S. -Å
    Austin, A. T.
    Hou, W. -C
    Paul, N. D.
    Madronich, S.
    Sulzberger, B.
    Solomon, K. R.
    Li, H.
    Schikowski, T.
    Longstreth, J.
    Pandey, K. K.
    Heikkilä, A. M.
    White, C. C.
    Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, update 20192020Inngår i: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, s. 1-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This assessment, by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), one of three Panels informing the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, provides an update, since our previous extensive assessment (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2019, 18, 595–828), of recent findings of current and projected interactive environmental effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, stratospheric ozone, and climate change. These effects include those on human health, air quality, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, biogeochemical cycles, and materials used in construction and other services. The present update evaluates further evidence of the consequences of human activity on climate change that are altering the exposure of organisms and ecosystems to UV radiation. This in turn reveals the interactive effects of many climate change factors with UV radiation that have implications for the atmosphere, feedbacks, contaminant fate and transport, organismal responses, and many outdoor materials including plastics, wood, and fabrics. The universal ratification of the Montreal Protocol, signed by 197 countries, has led to the regulation and phase-out of chemicals that deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Although this treaty has had unprecedented success in protecting the ozone layer, and hence all life on Earth from damaging UV radiation, it is also making a substantial contribution to reducing climate warming because many of the chemicals under this treaty are greenhouse gases.

  • 131.
    Bertilsson, Linn
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Influencers, följarna och flyget: Kan influencers påverka följares flygvanor?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Följare av social media influencers har visat sig kunna påverkas starkt av den information influencers sänder ut och förmedlar på sina kanaler. Hittills har dock inga studier uppmärksammat influencers flygvanor och hur de kan påverka och avspegla sig på följares flygvanor. Den här studien avsåg därför att undersöka om flygvanorna hos följare av influencers kan påverkas av den livsstil som influencers förmedlar. För att svara på syftet ställdes följande tre frågeställningar: Upplever följare av social media influencers att deras flygvanor påverkas av den livsstil som influencers förmedlar i sina inlägg? Upplever följare att de inspireras av influencers resor och reserelaterade inlägg? Använder följare sig medvetet av influencers som en källa till reseinspiration? Utifrån dessa frågeställningar utformades sedan en enkät som lades ut i nio olika grupper på Facebook. Resultatet av enkätstudien visade att närmare 40 % av följarna i viss eller hög grad blir inspirerade av influencers livsstil och resor. En stor del upplever även att inspiration från influencers i någon grad inverkar vid valet av resmål medan en mindre andel medvetet söker reseinspiration hos influencers. Det framgick även att majoriteten av följarna känner att influencers livsstil och flygvanor i varierande grad påverkar dem till att flyga mer. Sammantaget visar studien att följare upplever att influencers livsstil och flygvanor i viss utsträckning påverkar deras egna flygvanor.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 132.
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Baltic Sea phytoplankton in a changing environment2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project increasing sea surface temperature, as well as increasing precipitation and river runoff resulting in decreased salinity. These changes can severely impact the dynamics and function of brackish water communities, specifically phytoplankton. Phytoplankton are a significant source of organic matter to other trophic levels, and some species can be toxic. Their response to future climate conditions is of great relevance for the health of humans and aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this thesis was to assess the potential for climate-induced changes, such as decreasing salinity, to affect phytoplankton dynamics, physiology and chemical profiles in the Baltic Sea.

         Phytoplankton successional patterns in the Baltic Proper consist of a spring bloom where diatoms and dinoflagellates co-occur and a summer bloom dominated by filamentous/colonial cyanobacteria. The consensus is that future warmer conditions will promote filamentous/colonial cyanobacteria blooms. This thesis shows that phytoplankton biomass in the spring bloom was lower in years with milder winters compared with cold winters. This suggests that in terms of annual carbon export to higher trophic levels, loss of biomass from the spring bloom is unlikely to be compensated by summer cyanobacteria. High frequency sampling of phytoplankton performed in this thesis revealed a strong relationship between the dynamics of pico- and filamentous cyanobacteria. Large genetic diversity was found in cyanobacterial populations with high niche differentiation among the same species. At community level, high temperature and low salinity were the main factors shaping the summer cyanobacterial composition. These conditions may promote the predominance of opportunistic filamentous cyanobacteria, e.g. Nodularia spumigena. This species produces various bioactive compounds, including non-ribosomal peptides such as the hepatotoxin nodularin. In this work, N. spumigena subpopulations evolved different physiological strategies, including chemical profiles, to cope with salinity stress. This high phenotypic plasticity ensures survival in future climate conditions. Under salinity stress, some subpopulations displayed shorter filaments as a trade-off. This indicates that the future freshening of the Baltic Sea may promote grazing on filamentous cyanobacteria and modify carbon flows in the ecosystem. In this thesis, Baltic N. spumigena chemotypes and genotypes grouped into two main clusters without influence of geographical origin. Thus, chemical profiling can be used to explore conspecific diversity in closely genetically related N. spumigena subpopulations.

         Overall, this thesis has significantly expanded the knowledge on phytoplankton community and population responses to short- and long-term environmental changes, relevant to project the impacts of future climate conditions in the Baltic Sea.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Mireia Bertos-Fortis, Doctoral Thesis (Kappa)
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  • 133.
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Variation in expression of nodularin synthetase gene in Nodularia spumigena with salinity2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea are a continuous event during summer and are principally dominated by Nodularia spumigena, which is a toxin producer of the hepatotoxin nodularin. During the last decades cyanobacterial blooms have increased, being a threat to both ecosystem and human integrity. One of the major concerns is how climate change, principally the salinity decrease, will affect these cyanobacterial proliferations in the Baltic Sea and which mechanisms control nodularin production. We studied Nodularia spumigena strain KAC11 as a model species to test salinity effects on growth rates, intracellular nodularin concentration and expression levels of nodularin synthetase gene (ndaF). Intracellular nodularin concentrations remained relatively stable regardless of growth phase and salinity while gene expression varied 2-3 fold during the course of the experiment. Thus, downward salinity changes did not influence the relative gene expression of ndaF. No direct relation was found between intracellular nodularin and gene expression, suggesting that in laboratory cultures nodularin could be degraded or excreted. This also questions the potential use of this technique for monitoring toxin concentrations in environmental samples. Compared to other studies, high intraspecific variation in growth and toxin levels was found within Nodularia strains, showing variation in autoecological responses related to different salinities. Considering that blooms consist of diverse strains of N. spumigena in nature, it would require more transcriptional studies to investigate the effect of environmental factors on nodularin biosynthesis. 

  • 134.
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Casini, Michele
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Unscrambling Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics Related to Environmental Factors2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 625Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a 2-year monthly time series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An "epidemic population structure" (dominance of a single cluster) was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this cluster simultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs, e.g., Nodulana spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formed a consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocyanobacteria and the bloom of filamentous/colonial clusters. These findings highlight that if environmental conditions can partially explain the presence of opportunistic picocyanobacteria, microbial and trophic interactions with filamentous/colonial cyanobacteria should also be considered as potential shaping factors for single-celled communities. Regional climate change scenarios in the Baltic Sea predict environmental shifts leading to higher temperature and lower salinity; conditions identified here as favorable for opportunistic filamentous/colonial cyanobacteria. Altogether, the diversity and complexity of cyanobacterial communities reported here is far greater than previously known, emphasizing the importance of microbial interactions between filamentous and picocyanobacteria in the context of environmental disturbances.

  • 135.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Inter-individual variation in colour patterns in noctuid moths characterizes long-distance dispersers and agricultural pests2019Inngår i: Journal of applied entomology, ISSN 0931-2048, E-ISSN 1439-0418, Vol. 143, nr 9, s. 992-999Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A high capacity for long‐distance dispersal is a key to success for species confronted with environmental heterogeneity, habitat modification, fragmentation and loss. However, dispersal capacity is difficult to quantify and therefore poorly known in most taxa. Here, we report on a test for an association of variation in dispersal capacity with variable colouration of noctuid moths. First, using data from 12 experienced lepidopterologists, we showed that despite variation among experts in average assessments, different species are consistently classified as having non‐variable, variable or highly variable colour patterns when assessed by different experts. We then compared the incidence of non‐resident species with high inter‐individual variation in colour patterns recorded on the isolated island Utklippan (n = 47), with that in a species pool of potential long‐distance dispersers from the nearest mainland (n = 295). Species with high inter‐individual colour pattern variation were over‐represented on the island compared with species having non‐variable colouration. This finding constitutes rare evidence from the wild of long‐distance dispersal, measured on a spatial scale relevant for moths when tracking habitats in fragmented and changing landscapes or when keeping pace with environmental challenges associated with climate change. Finally, we showed that Swedish noctuid moths classified as agricultural pests (n = 28) had more variable colour patterns compared with non‐pests (n = 368). The majority of agricultural pests were also recorded on the isolated island, an outcome that is indicative of pest species having high dispersal capacity. Data on colour pattern variation may thus offer a simple and cost‐effective proxy to estimate dispersal capacity and can also help identify potential pest species. Our findings are potentially useful when modelling and predicting population and range dynamics of species in spatiotemporally heterogeneous environments, with direct implications for conservation biology and pest management.

  • 136.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Ecological characteristics associated with high mobility in night-active moths2013Inngår i: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 271-279Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility is an important factor influencing the range and persistence of local populations. However, mobility is very difficult to measure empirically and thus is poorly known in most taxa. Since ecological characteristics have been suggested as good estimators of mobility, we here explore the association between ecological characteristics and mobility. We surveyed night-active moths on a Swedish island, situated 16 km from the mainland, and compared ecological characteristics of the non-resident moths found on the island with those of a species pool of assumed potential vagrants from the neighbouring mainland. Species associated with high mobility were characterised by a large range, a high population density, an activity period during warm temperatures and by being habitat generalists or preferring open habitats. The generally assumed view of poly- and oligophagous species being more mobile than monophagous species was obscured by the effect of population density. Poly- and oligophagous species had higher population densities than did monophagous species, which probably explain their higher mobility found in this study. Our result highlights the need to consider the influence of ecological characteristics on mobility. This in turn will have implications for an increased understanding of distribution patterns, population persistence and how to prioritise conservation actions, especially since habitats and climate are under dramatic changes. In taxa where data on mobility are poor, ecological characteristics can be used as a proxy for mobility.

  • 137.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Colour pattern variation can inform about extinction risk in moths2017Inngår i: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 72-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory posits that species with inter-individual variation in colour patterns should beless vulnerable to extinction, compared with species that do not vary in colour. Toevaluate this prediction, we explored whether differences in colour pattern diversitywas associated with extinction risk, using red-list status for more than 350 species ofnoctuid moths in Sweden. We also evaluated six other species characteristics thathave been proposed to influence extinction risk namely: host plant niche breadth,habitat type, area of occupancy, body size, overwintering life-history stage and lengthof flight activity period. We found that species with variable colour patterns hadreduced extinction risk overall compared with species having non-variable colourpatterns, and that this difference was pronounced more strongly among species havingsmaller areas of occupancy. There were also significant associations with hostplant niche breadth and habitat type, extinction risk being lower on average in polyphagousspecies and in generalist species that occupied different habitat types. Thesefindings represent the first evidence for insects that variable colouration is associatedwith reduced extinction risks. Information on colour pattern variation is readily availablefor many taxa and may be used as a cost-effective proxy for endangerment inthe work of halting national and global biodiversity loss.

  • 138.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Pettersson, Lars B
    Lund University.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    With that diet, you will go far: trait-based analysis reveals a link between rapid range expansion and a nitrogen-favoured diet.2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, nr 1750, artikkel-id 20122305Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent global change has had a substantial influence on the distribution of organisms, and many species are currently expanding their ranges. To evaluate the underlying processes, long-term data with good geographic resolution are essential. One important but generally overlooked data source is offered by the taxon-specific national catalogues of first provincial records that are kept in many countries. Here, we use such data to quantify trait-based influences on range expansion in Swedish butterflies and moths between 1973 and 2010. Of 282 species meeting pre-defined quality criteria, 170 expanded their northern range margin, with a mean expansion rate of 2.7 km per year. The analyses demonstrate that habitat and diet generalists, forest species and species active during warm conditions have expanded their ranges more rapidly than other species. Notably, range expansion in diet specialists was positively related to a nitrogen-favoured larval diet, an effect not found among oligo- or polyphagous species. In contrast to the general view, this shows that specialist species can undergo rapid range expansion. We suggest that increased areas of nitrogen-rich habitat, and increased availability of a nitrogen-favoured diet, are among the most important drivers of range expansions, potentially having far-reaching consequences for a wide variety of organisms.

  • 139.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Dept Sanit & Environm Engn, UERJ, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Sillanpaa, Mika
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol, Fac Technol, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland.
    An overview of the modification methods of activated carbon for its water treatment applications2013Inngår i: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 219, s. 499-511Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Activated carbon has been recognized as one of the oldest and widely used adsorbent for the water and wastewater treatment for removing organic and inorganic pollutants. The application of activated carbon in adsorption process is mainly depends on the surface chemistry and pore structure of porous carbons. The method of activation and the nature of precursor used greatly influences surface functional groups and pore structure of the activated carbon. Therefore, the main focus of researchers is to develop or modifies the activation/treatment techniques in an optimal manner using appropriate precursors for specific pollutants. In recent years, emphasis is given to prepare the surface modified carbons using different procedures to enhance the potential of activated carbon for specific contaminants. Various methods such as, acid treatment, base treatment, impregnation treatment, ozone treatment, surfactant treatment, plasma treatment and microwave treatment have been studied to develop surface modified activated carbons. In this paper, these modification methods have been reviewed and the potential of surface modified activated carbons towards water treatment has been discussed. This review article is aimed at providing precise information on efforts made by various researchers in the field of surface modification of activated carbon for water pollution control. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 140.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hunting for valuables from landfills and assessing their market opportunities: A case study with Kudjape landfill in Estonia2017Inngår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 627-635Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining is an alternative technology that merges the ideas of material recycling and sustainable waste management. This paper reports a case study to estimate the value of landfilled materials and their respective market opportunities, based on a full-scale landfill mining project in Estonia. During the project, a dump site (Kudjape, Estonia) was excavated with the main objectives of extracting soil-like final cover material with the function of methane degradation. In total, about 57,777 m(3) of waste was processed, particularly the uppermost 10-year layer of waste. Manual sorting was performed in four test pits to determine the detailed composition of wastes. 11,610 kg of waste was screened on site, resulting in fine (<40 mm) and coarse (>40 mm) fractions with the share of 54% and 46%, respectively. Some portion of the fine fraction was sieved further to obtain a very fine grained fraction of <10 mm and analyzed for its potential for metals recovery. The average chemical composition of the <10 mm soil-like fraction suggests that it offers opportunities for metal (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) extraction and recovery. The findings from this study highlight the importance of implementing best available site-specific technologies for on-site separation up to 10 mm grain size, and the importance of developing and implementing innovative extraction methods for materials recovery from soil-like fractions.

  • 141.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Dept Sanit & Environm Engn, UERJ, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Paraskeva, Christakis A.
    Papadakis, Vagelis G.
    Sillanpaa, Mika
    Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control-a review2014Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 268-298Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5 % of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78 % between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  • 142.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sillanpää, Mika
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Application of Nanoadsorbents in Water Treatment2014Inngår i: Nanomaterials for Environmental Protection / [ed] Boris I. Kharisov, Oxana V. Kharissova, & H. V. Rasika Dias, John Wiley & Sons, 2014, 1, s. 237-247Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Water treatment using the adsorption process has been found to be one of the most widely used methods, and several wastewater treatment plants around the world are operating on the principle of adsorption. Numerous adsorbents, for example, activated carbon, silica gel, zeolites, low-cost adsorbents from agro-industrial wastes, biosorbents, mineral-based adsorbents, and layered-double hydroxides, have been examined for their potential in the removal (adsorption) of diverse types of aquatic pollutants. In recent years, nanotechnology has emerged as one of the attractive technologies for water treatment, and various nanoadsorbents have been explored for water treatment applications. This chapter briefly summarizes the progress, advances, and applications of nanoadsorbents for water remediation. A compilation of various nanoadsorbents as reported in the literature has been presented, and their main findings related to water treatment applications are discussed. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the future perspectives in this field.

  • 143.
    Bhend, Jonas
    et al.
    Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology, Switzerland.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hansson, Hans-Christen
    Stockholm University.
    Attributing causes of regional climate change in the Baltic Sea area2015Inngår i: Geophysical Research Abstracts, 2015, Vol. 17Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we assess to what extent the effect of forcing mechanisms on the observed climate change in the Baltic Sea area can be detected. In particular, we assess the effect of factors causing large-scale warming (mainly anthropogenic greenhouse gases) and the regional effect of atmospheric aerosols and land-cover and land-use changes. Unfortunately, only very few targeted analyses for the Baltic catchment area are available at the moment, but findings at the regional scale are generally qualitatively consistent with global or hemispheric analyses.

    The observed warming in summer cannot be explained without human influence (in particular the warming effect of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations). In other seasons and for other aspects of regional warming, findings are mixed or not significant as of yet. In addition, large-scale circulation and rainfall changes in the northern hemisphere and the Arctic have been detected to exceed natural internal variability. Other aspects of regional climate change including changes in storminess, snow properties, runoff and the changing physicalproperties of the Baltic Sea have not been formally attributed to human influence yet. Scientific understanding of the effect of aerosols on regional climate is still accumulating. It is likely that the major emission changes in Europe have had an effect on the climate in the Baltic region, the magnitude of which, however, is still unknown. Development of the modelling capability and targeted analyses are urgently needed to reduce the uncertainties related to the effect of aerosol changes on regional observed climate change. Historic deforestation and recent reforestation are the major anthropogenic land-cover changes affecting the Baltic Sea area. From all studies at hand it can be concluded that there is no evidence that anthropogenic land-cover change would be one of the forcings behind the recent warming in the Baltic region. However, past anthropogenic land-cover change may have influenced regional climate significantly already more than two thousand years ago.

  • 144.
    Bjorklund, Geir
    et al.
    Council Nutr & Environm Med, Norway.
    Christophersen, Olav Albert
    Norwegian Government Scholarship Holder, Norway.
    Chirumbolo, Salvatore
    Univ Verona, Italy.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Aaseth, Jan
    Innlandet Hosp Trust, Norway ; Hedmark Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Recent aspects of uranium toxicology in medical geology2017Inngår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 156, s. 526-533Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Uranium (U) is a chemo-toxic, radiotoxic and even a carcinogenic element. Due to its radioactivity, the effects of U on humans health have been extensively investigated. Prolonged U exposure may cause kidney disease and cancer. The geological distribution of U radionuclides is still a great concern for human health. Uranium in groundwater, frequently used as drinking water, and general environmental pollution with U raise concerns about the potential public health problem in several areas of Asia. The particular paleo-geological hallmark of India and other Southern Asiatic regions enhances the risk of U pollution in rural and urban communities. This paper highlights different health and environmental aspects of U as well as uptake and intake. It discusses levels of U in soil and water and the related health issues. Also described are different issues of U pollution, such as U and fertilizers, occupational exposure in miners, use and hazards of U in weapons (depleted U), U and plutonium as catalysts in the reaction between DNA and H2O2, and recycling of U from groundwater to surface soils in irrigation. For use in medical geology and U research, large databases and data warehouses are currently available in Europe and the United States.

  • 145.
    Björk Rengbrandt, Jesper
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Diversity and production of biomass in a Baltic Sea diatom dominated spring bloom community treated with flue gas from a cement industry2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Large scale cultivation of phytoplankton could be a part of the solution to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from industries thanks to their capacity to assimilate carbon. The algal biomass produced can be used for biofuels and other valuable products. Most research has focused on species cultured in monocultures. In ecology, diversity is a well-studied subject, where most studies have shown that diversity can enhance productivity. In this study, the species diversity in terms of evenness in a phytoplankton community was manipulated to investigate how diversity affects biomass production, and to identify which initial communities that lead to higher productivity. A gradient with six levels of diversity was created by manipulating the abundance of five common diatom species in a diatom dominated spring bloom from the Baltic Sea. The communities were grown in high nutrient levels and were supplied daily with flue gas, the effluent gas from burning of fuels from a Cement industry. Our results show that diversity considering evenness does not have an effect on productivity in terms of growth rate and yield when resources are unlimited. The findings also revealed that Cement flue gas was not harmful to the algae and can be used as a source of carbon in cultivation of Baltic phytoplankton communities. The initial abundance and species-specific traits i.e. the individual species tolerance to high pH was the two most important factors governing community composition and diversity.

  • 146.
    Blanc, Rebecka
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sportfiskares slitage på Mörrumsåns stränder och konsekvenser för Tjockskalig målarmussla: - kan spänger skydda från erosion2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Mörrumsån har de förutsättningar som krävs för att Tjockskalig målarmussla (Unio crassus) skall kunna leva och föröka sig, men detta sker inte i samma utsträckning som tidigare. Ett samband mellan vattnets riktning söderut mot utloppet till Östersjön och minskad föryngring av Tjockskalig målarmusslas inventerade bestånd i Mörrumsån finns. Föryngringen uteblir samtidigt som man hittat fler döda musslor ju närmre åmynningen man kommer. Orsakerna till detta kan vara flera då denna mussla är beroende av specifika förhållanden under flera faser i sin utveckling och fortplantning. Ett av hoten är grumling av bottnar. Grumling kan bero på att sträckor utmed Mörrumsåns sluttningar och stränder beträds frekvent av besökare. Vegetation slits bort längs med stigar och vandringsleder vilket leder till erosion av stränder och sluttningar. Organiskt och oorganiskt material av olika storlekar följer med åns vatten i strömriktningen och sedimenterar. En grupp som oftast använder stränderna är sportfiskare och de sliter mer på vegetation och stränder i perioder då fisket är intensivt. En av de mer intensiva perioderna är vid premiären av laxfisket på våren. Under denna tid syns ett bibehållet slitage på vissa sträckor vid ån samt även utökat slitage i form av bredare stigar och även parallella stigar på andra sträckor. De platser som uppvisade att erosion ägde rum innan fiskepremiären hade eroderat mer vid utvärdering två veckor efter premiären. Man skulle kunna skydda vegetation genom att anlägga spänger längs med känsliga och utsatta stigar och stränder. Detta skulle dock inte förhindra den erosion som sker längs med stränder där sportfiskare kliver i och ur ån samt går längs med stranden under fiskeaktiviteten. Det är svårt att förutspå var en fiskare tänker stå och därför kan det inte uteslutas att en fiskare väljer att stå på någon annan plats än den som man byggt en spång på. Spångbygge kan kombineras med information om syftet och att det finns skyddsvärda starkt hotade arter som Tjockskalig målarmussla vilka utsätts för färre risker om man använder spänger, stigar och rekommenderade platser

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  • 147.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Stockholm University.
    Baltic Sea ecosystem-based management under climate change: Synthesis and future challenges2015Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, nr Supplement 3, s. S507-S515Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as the generally agreed strategy for managing ecosystems, with humans as integral parts of the managed system. Human activities have substantial effects on marine ecosystems, through overfishing, eutrophication, toxic pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. It is important to advance the scientific knowledge of the cumulative, integrative, and interacting effects of these diverse activities, to support effective implementation of EBM. Based on contributions to this special issue of AMBIO, we synthesize the scientific findings into four components: pollution and legal frameworks, ecosystem processes, scale-dependent effects, and innovative tools and methods. We conclude with challenges for the future, and identify the next steps needed for successful implementation of EBM in general and specifically for the Baltic Sea.

  • 148.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Kalmar County Hospital.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Uppsala University ; Kalmar County Hospital.
    Stedt, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Olsen, Bjorn
    Uppsala University.
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University.
    Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gulls, Alaska, USA2014Inngår i: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 897-899Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 149.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Kalmar County Hospital.
    Jarhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University.
    Antibiotic resistance in wild birds2014Inngår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 119, nr 2, s. 113-116Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance.

  • 150.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Kalmar County Hospital.
    Stedt, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Svensson, Lovisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Comparison of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) CTX-M Genotypes in Franklin Gulls from Canada and Chile2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 10, artikkel-id e0141315Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Migratory birds have been suggested to contribute to long-distance dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, but tests of this hypothesis are lacking. In this study we determined resistance profiles and genotypes of ESBL-producing bacteria in randomly selected Escherichia coli from Franklin's gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) at breeding sites in Canada and compared with similar data from the gulls' wintering grounds in Chile. Resistant E. coli phenotypes were common, most notably to ampicillin (30.1%) and cefadroxil (15.1%). Furthermore, 17.0% of the gulls in Canada carried ESBL producing bacteria, which is higher than reported from human datasets from the same country. However, compared to gulls sampled in Chile (30.1%) the prevalence of ESBL was much lower. The dominant ESBL variants in Canada were bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-15) and differed in proportions to the data from Chile. We hypothesize that the observed differences in ESBL variants are more likely linked to recent exposure to bacteria from anthropogenic sources, suggesting high local dissemination of resistant bacteria both at breeding and non-breeding times rather than a significant trans-hemispheric exchange through migrating birds.

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