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  • 101.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Odenbrand, Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Gustafson, Johan
    Lund University.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Lundgren, Edvin
    Lund University.
    Preface: Special issue of Topics in Catalysis constitutes the Proceedings of the 17th Nordic Symposium of Catalysis2017Inngår i: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 60, nr 17-18, s. 1275-1275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 102.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Laohaprapanon, Sawanya
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Wiman, Bo L.B.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Mitigating the emissions released from spontaneous fires at biomass storages: A footstep towards sustainability2015Inngår i: 23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 1-4 June 2015, 2015, Vol. 23, s. 1550-1557Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires at the  material storages sites of manucipal and industrial sectors are a major environmental risk and have increased significantly. Toxic emissions released from such open fires have severe environmental and health consequences. Considering that it is not possible to install any unit operation to control the emissions released from such open fires, the possibilities to employ natural vegetation to act as a sink for aerosol particles released from open fires was investigated. A series of tests was conducted in a controlled wind tunnel environment. Smoke was generated in a smoke-aerosol generator and measurements of smoke concentrations upwind and downwind of “green filter packs” (vegetation filters) were made. Measurements involved laser-based particle counters, two-stage Nuclepore filter systems, and Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) techniques followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main objective of the work was to illustrate ways to design experiments that can assist in the study of vegetation as “pollution screens”. Our observations and findings imply that several refinements to the experimental design will be needed, including with respect to methods for assessing the distribution of particle number and mass as a function of particle size.

  • 103.
    Irshad, Hafiz Musammil
    et al.
    King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia.
    Hakeem, Abbas Saeed
    King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia.
    Ahmed, Bilal Anjum
    King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Ali, Sadaqat
    Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.
    Ali, Sameer
    University of Gujrat, Pakistan.
    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali
    King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia.
    Laoui, Tahar
    King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia.
    Effect of Ni content and Al2O3 particle size on the thermal and mechanical properties of Al2O3/Ni composites prepared by spark plasma sintering2018Inngår i: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0958-0611, E-ISSN 2213-3917, Vol. 76, s. 25-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Alumina-nickel composites were prepared by carrying out spark plasma sintering (SPS) of nano-sized and micro-sized Al2O3particles with 15–45 wt% Ni powders. The powder materials were sintered at a temperature of1400 °C under a constant uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa. FESEM micrographs of the products showed uniformlydispersed nickel inclusions in both matrices at intergranular positions. Presence of Al2O3as the major phasealong with Ni as the minor phase was confirmed using XRD analysis. Thermal and mechanical properties of thenano- and micro-sized Al2O3/Ni composites were investigated. The thermal conductivity of nano-sized aluminacomposites was seen to increase with the increase in nickel content, however, an opposite trend was observed formicro-sized alumina-based composites. Moreover, thermal conductivities of all the composites decreased withincrease in temperature. The composites also showed high hardness and fracture toughness values of up to19.6 GPa and 4.71 MPa ∗ m1/2, respectively, and relative density values, between 79 and 99%, that decreasedwith increasing Ni content. Furthermore, the nano-sized Al2O3/Ni composites showed thermal and mechanicalproperties superior to those of the micro-sized Al2O3/Ni composite.

  • 104.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Applying a decision-making framework for resolving conflicts when selecting windows and blinds2019Inngår i: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 15, nr 5, s. 382-401Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The selection of the most appropriate window and blind design is a challenging task due to the existence of potential conflicts between visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. Resolving these conflicts relies on a trade-off window and blind design. This research applied a decision-making framework to select a trade-off window and blind design for an office room in Sweden. The decision-making framework was developed based on integrating the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II and the analytical hierarchy process. The first step in the application of the framework was to generate a model of the office room using EnergyPlus. Six types of window and four types of blind; an internal venetian blind, an internal roller curtain, an external venetian blind and an external overhang panel, were modelled in EnergyPlus. The second step was to run an optimisation using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II. For this purpose, various window and blind design variables were specified in modeFRONTIER platform. The third and last step in the application of the decision-making framework was to select a trade-off window and blind design using analytical hierarchy process. The results show the strength of the decision-making framework in selecting a trade-off design, and thereby the ability to resolve conflicts through intelligent use of simulation in analyzing big-data in built environment, energy and cost sectors. Since, the computation and processing power for performing simulations is constantly increasing, architects and designers can exploit the decision-making framework and locate a trade-off design in a relatively short period of time.

  • 105.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Comparing the profitability of various renovation packages in Swedish residential building sector: case study2019Inngår i: Sustainable built environment conference (SBE 2019). 6-7 August, Tokyo, Japan, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish government adopted national targets to reduce total energy consumption and mitigate environmental impacts. At this point, detached houses play an important role, since they account for a large share of dwelling stock in this country. The majority of these buildings are affected by technical deteriorations in building envelopes and heating, ventilation and air condition systems. Accordingly, there is a need for a deep renovation strategy, which covers both energy efficiency measures and economic issues. Additionally, a deep renovation can improve indoor climate, which contributes to the enhanced health and wellbeing. Thus, the aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of eight different renovation packages in reducing energy consumption and providing economic benefits in a detached house in Sweden. The renovation packages include 1) improving the U-value of building envelopes; 2) adding a heat recovery for ventilation system; 3) installing a ground source heat pomp for supporting heat demand and domestic hot water; 4) combination of renovation package 1 and 2; 5) combination of renovation package 1 and 3; 6) combination of renovation package 2 and 3; 7) combination of renovation package 1, 2 and 3; and 8) combination of renovation package 1, 2, 3 along with installing photovoltaic cells for producing electricity. The reduction in energy consumption was calculated in kWh/m². year for each renovation package, while the economic benefit was obtained by calculating the payback period during a lifespan of 50 years and internal rate of return with interest rates of 1%, 3% and 6%. The results indicate that renovation package 8 has the highest potential in reducing total energy consumption, while renovation package 3 is the most profitable solution since it provides the shortest payback period with the highest internal rate of return. The results help to define and project efficient energy policies in Sweden.

  • 106.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Application of analytical hierarchy process for selecting an interior window blind2017Inngår i: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 308-324Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Window blinds have a substantial role in shaping the energy consumption and improving thermal comfort and visual comfort. However, difficulties in selecting a window blind remain, due to existence of potential conflicts between visual, thermal, energy and life cycle cost. To overcome this problem, this study evaluates the performance of interior blinds, including venetian with slat of 0° and 45°, roller and double pleated blinds with respect to visual, thermal, energy and life cycle cost. Later, the Analytical hierarchy method (AHP) is used for selecting the best blind based on trade-off among the visual, thermal, energy and life cycle cost. In using AHP, visual comfort is determined as most important objective with a weight of 52%. The results show that venetian blind with slat of 0° drawn 100% is the trade-off blind. Accomplishing the sensitivity analysis on blinds’ global weight shows that venetian blind with slat of 0° drawn 100% remains the trade-off blind until the weight of energy and life cycle cost is below 37% and 57% respectively and the weight of visual comfort is above 4%. However, changing thermal comfort weight has no impact on ranking of the blinds. This study shows the capability of AHP in managing the conflicts.

  • 107.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Developing a decision-making framework for resolving conflicts when selecting windows and blinds2019Inngår i: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 15, nr 5, s. 357-381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Windows and blinds play a significant role in both shaping energy consumption and enhancing indoor comfort. But there are still difficulties with selecting windows and blinds due to the existence of potential conflicts between visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. A literature review was conducted with the purpose of developing a decision-making framework that resolves the conflicts, and allows selecting a window and blind design based on trade-off between visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. The decision-making framework was developed by integrating non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II as an optimisation algorithm with analytical hierarchy process as a multi-criteria decision-making method. The optimisation algorithm considers different window and blind design variables and analyses multiple designs, while the multi-criteria decision-making method ranks the optimization results and selects a trade-off design. An operating package enabled the decision-making framework to be automated. The operating package was obtained by coupling EnergyPlus as a simulation tool and modeFRONTIER as an integration platform. The decision-making framework was developed to select a trade-off window and blind design through intelligent use of simulation in analysing big-data in built environment, energy and cost sectors. Application of the framework ensures the minimum visual and thermal comfort thresholds with the lowest energy demand and cost. Architects and designers can use the framework during the design or renovation phase of residential and commercial buildings.

     

  • 108.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    A framework for selecting a suitable window design2016Inngår i: Presented at BuildSim-Nordic conference, Trondheim, Norway, September 26-27, 2016, 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 109.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Multivariate linear regression model for estimating average daylight illuminance2017Inngår i: Advanced Science Letters, ISSN 1936-6612, E-ISSN 1936-7317, Vol. 23, nr 7, s. 6s. 6163-6167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Window design and the selection of glazing system have significant effect on daylight illuminance. Occupants’ productivity is highly dependent on daylight, as it associates with numerous health advantages. Hence conducting a systematic investigation considering the performance of various window designs and glazing systems is highly important at the early stage of design process. For this purpose, this study attempts to develop a multivariate linear regression model for estimating the average daylight illuminance. To perform the simulations, an office room prototype was modelled by COMFEN 5Beta software. The prototype is a hypothetical office room, as its size, HVAC system and envelopes construction are based on the common practice in construction in Sweden. Because average daylight illuminance is sensitive to window size, orientation, glazing system, design model and position, 544 simulations were performed based on thses variable to create an extensive dataset.  A multivariate linear regression model was developed based on 90% dataset, which was chosen randomly. The obtained R² value was exceeded 96%, which shows an excellent fit for the developed model. The interaction between variables was also studied. The remaining 10% of dataset was utilized for validating the developed model. The validity of the model was further compared with another multivariate linear regression model, developed based on 50% of the dataset.The results show the effectiveness of multivariate linear regression models in supporting architects and predicting average daylight illuminance in early stage of design analysis.

  • 110.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Multivariate linear regression model for estimating total energy consumption2017Inngår i: : The 3rd Asia conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association - ASim2016, Nov. 27-29, 2016, South Korea, International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA), 2017, , s. 8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Windows as essential elements of buildings have a significant effect on total energy consumption, including heating and cooling demand in Sweden. A statistical reliable model for estimating the total energy consumption associated with various window designs and glazing systems helps architects and designers in the early stage of the design process. Most of the introduced models in literature utilized a mathematic sampling algorithm such as Monte Carlo to develop a simple linear regression model for estimating the total energy consumption. A simple linear regression model cannot describe the effect of different groups of a categorical variable. Hence this study considers four variables related to the window characteristics, including window size, design model, orientation, glazing system and develops a categorical multiple linear regression model for estimating the total energy consumption. 544 simulations were performed by COMFEN Beta5 software. The results were used as a database for developing a categorical multiple linear regression model. The accuracy of developed model was studied by the coefficient of determination, R- square value (R²). The obtained R² exceeded by 94%. Furthermore, the predicted total energy consumptions obtained by the developed regression model were compared with the simulated values by COMFEN software. Results show a strong linear relationship between predicted and simulated values.  Developed multivariate linear regression model can be utilized in early stage of design process for estimating the total energy consumption associated with various window designs and glazing systems.

  • 111.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    The most cost-effective energy solution in renovating a multi-family house2019Inngår i: Cold Climate HVAC 2018, The 9th International Cold Climate Conference Sustainable new and renovated buildings in cold climates Kiruna – Sweden 12-15, March 2018 / [ed] Johansson, Dennis, Bagge, Hans, Wahlström, Åsa, Springer, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government aims to reduce total energy demand per heated building area by 50% until 2050.  A large number of residential buildings, built within the so-called “Million homes program” in Sweden, need major renovations, which offers an opportunity to implement energy efficiency measures and thereby, reduce total energy demand. The best way to encourage the implementation of a major renovation is to demonstrate a practical method which reduces energy demand and provides economic benefits. Hence, this study aims to determine the most cost-effective energy solution in renovating a multi-family residential building. Multiple energy renovation measures were simulated on a case study to reduce the space heating and domestic hot water by 50%.  The case study building was built within the “Million homes program” and is located in Växjö, Swedish climate zone 3. Design Builder software was used for analysing the pre-renovation energy performance of the building. The renovation measures comprised different insulation thicknesses of external walls, attic and ground floors, windows with different U-values, a mechanical ventilation with heat recovery system, and solar system for supporting space heating and domestic hot water. Later, a multi-objective optimization was accomplished for analysing every possible combination of renovation measures.  The most cost-effective energy solution was obtained by calculating the net present value in a lifetime of 30 and 50 years and discount rate of 1%, 3% and 5%. Comparing the implications of two different lifetimes on net present value with implications of three different discount rates on net present value shows that lifetime has more influence on net present value. Furthermore, the results show the capability of the multi-objective optimization method in analysing multiple renovation solution.

  • 112.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University.
    Application of multi-objective optimization for resolving conflicts when selecting windows2019Inngår i: The 9th International Conference on Sustainable Development in the Building and Environment(SuDBE2019)& the International Forum of Green and Healthy Buildings., Reading and Cambridge, UK, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden passed legislation to achieve a target of net zero greenhouse gas emissions by the end of 2045. The Energy Performance of Building Directive further obliged European countries to ensure zero-energy building codes and improve the quality of indoor environments when buildings are renovated, as approximately 40% of total greenhouse gas emissions in Sweden are produced while heating buildings. Windows currently play a significant role in improving the quality of indoor environments and cutting total energy consumption, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating environmental impact. Selecting a suitable window design is a complicated task compounded by two main difficulties: i) the availability of multiple window designs, each with a different glazing system, size, form and position; and ii) conflict between visual comfort, thermal comfort and energy consumption. Previous studies have primarily analysed a limited selection of window designs; however, analysing a wide variety of glazing systems, sizes, forms and positions will help resolve the abovementioned difficulties, thereby ensuring zero-energy building codes while improving the quality of an indoor environment. A multi-objective optimization was therefore completed to analyse the performance of a wide variety of window design variables and select suitable designs for an office room in Sweden. The results show the potential of multi-objective optimisation to resolve the difficulties of selecting suitable window designs.

  • 113.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Vadiee, Amir
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Profitability of various energy supply systems when renovating a single-family house in Sweden: case study2019Inngår i: International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE 2019). August 12-15, Västerås, Sweden, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of single-family houses in Sweden are affected by deteriorations in building envelopes as well as heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, since they are about 30 years old. Theses house are therefore in need of extensive renovation, which provides an excellent opportunity to incorporate energy efficiency measures to reduce both the energy consumption and also operational. Although former studies analyzed the cost effectiveness of various renovation packages, they mainly excluded the evaluation of energy price implications on cost effectiveness of different renovation package in Sweden. Accordingly, this study considers three energy prices and quantifies the payback period (PBP) and internal rate of return (IRR) of the packages, when renovating a single-family house in Sweden. The renovation packages included three distinct energy supply systems, commonly installed when implementing energy renovations: ground source heat pump (GSHP), photovoltaic solar panels (PV), and an integrated GSHP and PV system. The analyses of results show that a the GSHP system provides higher IRR and the lowest PBP compared to the other two renovation packages, due to its high performance in reducing energy consumption and its relatively low investment cost. Furthermore, results show that raising the energy price can increase the IRR and reduce the PBP of the renovation packages and respectively. Moreover, increasing the interest rate adds on PBP of renovation packages, since it depreciates the cost for saved energy. 

  • 114.
    Jansson, Anette
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET). University of Borås, Sweden.
    Patinvoh, Regina J.
    Lagos State Univ, Nigeria.
    Horvath, Ilona Sarvari
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Food and Paper Industry Wastes at Different Solid Contents2019Inngår i: Fermentation - Basel, E-ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 1-10, artikkel-id 40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large volume of food is being wasted every year, while the pulp and paper industry also generate a large amount of solid wastes on a daily basis, causing environmental challenges around the world. Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of these solid wastes is a cost-effective method for proper management. However, dry digestion of these waste streams has been restricted due to their complex structure, the presence of possible inhibitors and inappropriate operating conditions. In light of this fact, dry digestion of food waste (FW) and paper wastes (PW) was conducted at different total solid (TS) concentrations of reactor mixtures of 14%, 16%, 18% and 20% TS, corresponding to substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio of 0.5 and 1; investigating the optimum operating conditions for effective dry digestion of these complex wastes. The highest methane yields of 402 NmlCH(4)/gVS and 229 NmlCH(4)/gVS were obtained from digestion of FW and PW, respectively at 14%TS corresponding to an S/I ratio of 0.5. Increasing the S/I ratio from 0.5 to 1 and thereby having a TS content of 20% in the reactor mixtures was unfavorable to the digestion of both substrates.

  • 115.
    Jansson, Anette
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Pilot-Scale Experiments Using Cultivated Macro Algae for Biogas Production, Part of a Future Seafarm Biorefinery2016Inngår i: 24th EUBCE Online Proceedings 2016: Setting the course for a biobased economy. Held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6 - 9 June 2016, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2016, s. 627-629Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The research is focused on evaluation of substrates not commonly used for biogas production and the development and optimization of processes adjusted to these substrates. This study deals with evaluation of sea weeds (Saccharina Lattisima and Laminaria digitata). Biomethane potential tests (BMP) have shown the methane potential of the algae to be 180-440 l CH4/kg organic material. These potentials are in the same range as potentials found for commonly used substrates such as sewage sludge and slaughterhouse waste. Sampling of produced biogas, substrate and digest were performed by using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) followed by analysis by a Gas Chromatograph with a Mass Spectrometrer (GC-MS) in order to develop a method to be able to characterize, monitor and possibly control the process.

  • 116.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Simmons, C
    Bard, V
    Vibration performance of lightweight floors in multifamily houses: Resident survey and field measurementManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 117.
    Jiang, Junfei
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Lang, Lin
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Liu, Huacai
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Yin, Xiuli
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Wu, Chuang-zhi
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Partial oxidation of filter cake particles from biomass gasification process in the simulated product gas environment2018Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 1703-1710Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Filtration failure occurs when filter media is blocked by accumulated solid particles. Suitable operating conditions were investigated for cake cleaning by partial oxidation of filter-cake particles (FCP) during biomass gasification. The mechanism of the FCP partial oxidation was investigated in a ceramic filter and by using thermo-gravimetric analysis through a temperature-programmed route in a 2 vol.% O2–N2 environment. Partial oxidation of the FCP in the simulated product gas environment was examined at 300–600°C in a ceramic filter that was set and heated in a laboratory-scale fixed reactor. Four reaction stages, namely drying, pre-oxidation, complex oxidation and non-oxidation, occurred in the FCP partial oxidation when the temperature increased from 30°C to 800°C in a 2 vol.% O2–N2 environment. Partial oxidation was more effective for FCP mass loss from 275 to 725°C. Experimental results obtained in a ceramic filter indicated that the best operating temperature and FCP loading occurred at 400°C and 1.59 g/cm2, respectively. The FCP were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Brunaeur–Emmett–Teller before and after partial oxidation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that partial oxidation of the FCP can result in a significant decrease in C–Hn (alkyl and aromatic) groups and an increase in C=O (carboxylic acids) groups. The scanning electron microscopy and Brunaeur–Emmett–Teller analysis suggests that during partial oxidation, the FCP underwent pore or pit formation, expansion, amalgamation and destruction.

  • 118.
    Johansson, Jakob
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Småskaligt kraftvärmeverk baserat på förgasning av flis – känslighetsanalys och fallstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett kraftvärmeverk produceras både el och värme vilket är ett energieffektivt sätt att utnyttja energin i ett bränsle. Energikrävande verksamheter skulle med installation av ett eget biokraftvärmeverk kunna göra sig mindre beroende av elmarknaden samtidigt som el och värme produceras på ett förnyelsebart sätt.

    I denna rapport presenteras en ekonomisk fallstudie för Emåmejeriets investering i småskalig krafvärme baserat på förgasning. Emåmejeriet är ett smålänskt mejeri placerat i Hultsfred.

    I arbetet har ett beräkningsdokument skapats som ska kunna användas för aktörer som är intresserade av en investering av småskalig kraftvärme. I beräkningsdokumentet presenteras en känslighetsanalys där investeringkostnad, drift- och underhållskostnad, elpris, elertifikatpris och bränslepris (flis) är parametrar som studeras.

    I beräkningsdokumentet presenteras också ett tekniskt och ekonomiskt utfall. För Emåmejeriet skulle 12 % av elbehovet respektive 80 % av värmebehovet täckas av kraftvärmeverket. Det tekniska utfallet visade att Emåmejeriets investering var lönsam. Dock skulle investeringen inte vara lönsam utan investeringsstödet på 25 % som man fått. Investeringskostnaden var parametern som påverkade känslighetsanalysen mest.

  • 119.
    Johansson, Kristian
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustafsson, Filip
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Analys av förluster i småskaligt fjärrvärmenät: En studie för Lessebo Fjärrvärme2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie analyserar de rapporterat höga förlusterna i ett småskaligt fjärrvärmenät i Lessebo där styrkort för år 2013 redovisar förluster på 38 %. Genom att med en kvantitativ metod beräkna de värmeförluster som sker genom värmeledning i rörnätet görs en bedömning om rörnätets utformning är källan till de höga förlusterna eller ej. Studien ger indikationer på att fjärrvärmenätet i Lessebo är bra utformat och det därför finns oidentifierade orsaker till de höga förlusterna. Utöver redogörande av värmeförluster ger rapporten även kunskaper om fjärrvärmebranschens flera tekniker, begränsningar och framtida utvecklingsmöjligheter.

  • 120.
    Johansson, Marie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Expert competence for sustainable timber engineering: a master program in close cooperation between industry and academia2014Inngår i: WCTE 2014 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, Proceedings, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From a legislative point of view it has been possible to build timber buildings with arbitrary number of storeys in Sweden during almost two decades. Several buildings up to eight storeys have been completed during that time, but the competence for planning and building such structures are limited to a handful of actors. This fact has been recognized by funders of research/education and an educational program for spreading the knowledge within the industry led by Linnaeus University is financed since about two years. Particularly interesting in the programme is that the courses are developed in cooperation between the industry and the academia. The courses are to fulfil needs with respect to knowledge, but also with respect to format so that the main target group, skilled engineers within the industry, can find the motivation to follow a course or lager parts of the program.

  • 121.
    Johansson, Wilhelm
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Optical active thin films on cover glass increasing the efficiency of photovoltaic modules.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Thin film coatings of ZnO, TiO2, CeOX and BiOX have been deposited on soda lime silica glass through spray pyrolysis. The effects on the optical properties of the coated glass, as well as the possible impacts on the life expectancy and energy efficiency of PV-modules have been studied.

    ZnO and TiO2 coatings both reduced the transmission of UV radiation of wavelengths destructive to PV-modules. Therefore, both have the potential to increase the life expectancy of PV-modules if used on cover glass. The ZnO thin film also showed an increase in photoluminescence at 377 nm when radiated with UV radiation of 325 nm while TiO2 reduced the photoluminescence. ZnO coatings on the cover glass have the potential to increase the efficiency of PV-modules in addition to UV protection. No CeOX or BiOX films were found to be deposited with the method used.

    The ZnO and TiO2 coated samples showed a decrease in transmission of light, due to increased reflection and possibly scattering. This needs to be addressed if these kinds of coatings are going to be beneficial for Si PV-modules.

  • 122.
    Johansson, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Peralta, Albert
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE, Sweden.
    Transparent TiO2 and ZnO Thin Films on Glass for UV Protection of PV Modules2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Materials, E-ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure of PV modules frequently occurs as a result of degradation of their encapsulation material by destructive UV radiation. Both the life expectancy and efficiency of PV modules can be improved by reducing the transmittance of the destructive UV radiation through the cover glass without compromising the transmittance in the visible wavelength region. In addition, if the absorbed UV photons can be down-shifted to wavelengths that can be more efficiently converted to electrical energy, an additional increase of the PV efficiency could be achieved. In this study we have investigated transparent ZnO and TiO2 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis on soda lime silicate float glass as functional layers on PV cover glass. The optical bandgap, UV-cutoff, UV-Vis transmittance, reflectivity (total and diffuse) and photoluminescence have been determined. The ZnO coating shifted the optical bandgap to longer wavelengths, resulting in a reduction of the transmittance of destructive UV radiation by up to similar to 85%. Distinct photoluminescence peaks at 377 nm and at 640 nm were observed for one of the ZnO samples. The TiO2 coated glasses also showed an increased UV cutoff, which resulted in a reduction of transmittance of destructive UV radiation by up to 75%. However, no photoluminescence peaks could be observed from the TiO2 films with 325 nm excitation laser, which can be explained by the fact that only indirect interband transitions are accessible at this excitation wavelength. Deposition of both ZnO and TiO2 coatings resulted in a reduction of the transmitted light convertible by PV modules, by up to 12.3 and 21.8%, respectively. The implication of the results is discussed in terms of lifetime expectancy and efficiency of PV modules.

  • 123.
    Jonsson, Oskar
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Nord, Axel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Jämförelse av solhybrider2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Research in solar energy is taking big steps in both solar heating and solar electricity. It´s not only the technologies alone, but also the combination of both solar electricity and solar heating which is what is called a solar hybrid. The idea of a solar hybrid is that a solar cells efficiency decrease with increased temperature and can with help from a solar collector be cooled and the heat can be utilized. This thesis report compares heat production and electricity production with respect of, in first hand, a solar hybrids geometry in the cooler. The theory chapter describes solar heating and how different solar cell technologies work and their environmental impact at the production and how compatible these technologies are for the solar hybrid. A detailed description over the formulas about solar flux and the energy flows of a solar hybrid are also in the theory chapter. The first system is located on Per Wickmans house in Öjaby outside of Växjö and uses an aluminum absorber. The second system is located in Lenhovda at Lenhovda radiatorfabriks roof and uses a sheet of glass under the solar cell instead of a plastic film that the other hybrids have, this hybrid uses a flat steel absorber. The third system is located in Åseda at Åseda Värme och Sanitets roof and uses a copper pipe absorber. With the aluminum absorber in Öjaby it was produced 1,2 kWh/m

    2 electricity and 4,95 kWh/m2 heat. To reach the need of electricity for an arbitrary house for a day in May it needs 15,8 m2 solar hybrid and 22,5 m2 extra solar heating panels to cover the need of heat.

  • 124.
    Jutengren, Fredrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Energisimulering av Lammhults avloppsreningsverk: En jämförelse av energieffektiviserande åtgärder2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete jämför fyra olika energieffektiviserande åtgärders effekt på Lammhults avloppsreningsverk. Anläggningen har simulerats i energiberäkningsprogrammet VIP- Energy och resultatet indikerar att isolering av anläggningens tak är den lämpligaste åtgärden.

  • 125.
    Karlsson, Isak
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Biogas från makroalgen Saccharina Latissima: En undersökning av skillnader i metanpotential beroende på odlingsdjup och isättning- och skördeperiod.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Metanpotentialen för makroalgen Saccharina lattissima varierar beroende på parametrar som odlingsdjup och olika isättnings- och skördedatum. För att utvärdera skillnader i parametrar användes satsvisa utrötningsförsök med ymp från en biogasanläggning som rötar fiskrester och matavfall. Algen som odlades på fyra meters djup gav mer metan än algen av samma art på två meters djup. Detta berodde på att algen på fyra meters djup hade en högre proteinhalt än algen på två meter. För att utvärdera metanpotentialen för alger med olika isättnings- och skördedatum användes sex stycken alger satta i september, oktober och november på två meters djup. Det skördades en alg från varje månad i april och en alg från samma månader i maj på Seafarm vid Strömstad. Algerna som hade skördats i april gav en högre metanpotential än de som skördades i maj. Metanpotentialen var högre för att de hade en högre lipidhalt. När de sattes i havet spelade ingen roll för lipidhalten. Oktober månad skiljde sig för att metanpotentialen var lägre i både april och maj. 

  • 126.
    Karlsson, Rebecca
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Klimatanalys av två kulturhus: Med hjälp av relativ fuktighet och temperatur analysera och beräkna mögeltillväxt.2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Hullgrensgården och den Harbergska gården är två kulturhus på Smålands östkust, de båda kulturhusen är ouppvärmda vilket har medfört en oro för mögeltillväxt. Sedan 2011 har loggningar av luftens relativa fuktighet och temperatur gjorts på samtliga våningar i de båda kulturhusen.

    Diagram som redovisar hur den relativa fuktigheten förhåller sig under de fyra år som analyserats (2015-2019), visar att krypgrunden i Hullgrensgården samt de båda vindarna har en kritisk relativ fuktighet en stor del av mätperioden.

    En mögeldosmodell gjordes på dessa platser, vilken visade att det fanns risk för mögel på samtliga platser. Mikrobiella prov från sex platser skickades inför analys till botaniska analysgruppen. Resultatet visade en riklig frekvens av mögel på de båda vindarna samt i krypgrunden. 

  • 127.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Glafo – the Glass Research Institute ; University of Jena, Germany.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Kidkhunthod, Pinit
    Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Thailand.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    Glafo – the Glass Research Institute.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Effect of TiO2 on optical properties of glasses in the soda-lime-silicate system2016Inngår i: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 1198-1216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Titania is widely considered as an alternative constituent for replacing heavy metal oxides in optical glasses. Its effect on optical properties, however, is complex. This is due to the dielectric properties of the prevalent ionic species, Ti4+, the potential co-existence of trivalent titanium, Ti3+, giving rise to intrinsic and extrinsic charge transfer reactions, and the existence of different coordination polyhedra, depending on matrix composition. Here, we present a systematic study of the optical properties of the soda-lime-silicate glass system as a function of TiO2 addition. We consider the silica-rich region of the SiO2-Na2O-CaO-TiO2 quaternary, which may be taken as model for a variety of technical glasses. Trends are described in the refractive index, the Abbe number, the optical bandgap and the Urbach energy. The addition of TiO2 increases the refractive index and the optical dispersion while it lowers the optical bandgap and the Urbach Energy. Results are discussed in relation to relevant literature data towards using titania silicate glasses as high-index replacements for heavy metal containing oxide glasses. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America

  • 128. Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Ion-exchange in Soda-Lime-Silicate Float Glass: Trends in Effective Diffusion Coefficients2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 129.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Kinetics of chemical strengthening and trends in effective diffusion coefficients2019Inngår i: 25th International Congresson Glass (ICG 2019); ABSTRACT BOOK: June 9–14, 2019Boston, Massachusetts USA, American Ceramic Society, 2019, s. 167-167Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkali cation exchange has received significant attention with respect to introducing compressive stress in the glass surface, a process frequently called chemical strengthening. Besides mechanical properties may also other properties such as optical, electrical and chemical properties be modified using ion exchange of various monovalent ions. The mobility of monovalent ions varies and the relations of structural and effective diffusion coefficients may help to understand how to improve the ion exchange kinetics of soda lime silicates. We discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+) by their correlations to physico-chemical properties. The most significant correlations were found to be the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that electron localization and the rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion exchange rate.

  • 130.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden;Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Germany.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Germany.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET). Corning Inc, USA.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Trends in Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Ion-Exchange Strengthening of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glasses2017Inngår i: Frontiers in materials, ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 4, artikkel-id UNSP 13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Monovalent cations enable efficient ion-exchange processes due to their high mobility in silicate glasses. Numerous properties can be modified in this way, e.g., mechanical, optical, electrical, or chemical performance. In particular, alkali cation exchange has received significant attention, primarily with respect to introducing compressive stress into the surface region of a glass, which increases mechanical durability. However, most of the present applications rely on specifically tailored matrix compositions in which the cation mobility is enhanced. This largely excludes the major area of soda-lime-silicates (SLS) such as are commodity in almost all large-scale applications of glasses. Basic understanding of the relations between structural parameters and the effective diffusion coefficients may help to improve ion-exchanged SLS glass products, on the one hand in terms of obtainable strength and on the other in terms of cost. In the present paper, we discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+, and Cs+) by drawing relations to physicochemical properties. Correlations of effective diffusion coefficients were found for the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that localization and rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion-exchange rate.

  • 131.
    Kloek, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Ålander, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Återvinning eller förbränningav plastförpackningsavfall?: En studie om hur långt avfall kan transporteras för återvinningrespktive förbränning innan det blir miljömässigt ohållbart2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna avhandling har miljönyttan vid återvinning samt förbränning avplastförpackningsavfall undersökts. I rapporten definieras miljönyttan som denmängd koldioxid som undviks, samt den energimängd som undviks att användassamt utvinns. Två scenarier har undersökts, miljönyttan undersöks i båda fallen då deställs i för-hållande till deponering av avfallet inklusive ersättning av den förloradeplast-produkten genom primär produktion. I det första scenariot ställs deponi motmaterialåtervinning av plastförpackningsavfallet för sekundär produktion till en nyprodukt. I det andra scenariet ställs deponering mot förbränning av plastförpackningsavfalletför energiutvinning och följaktligen också primär produktion till en nyprodukt. Den miljönytta, alltså den energiåtgång samt koldioxidutsläpp som undviksi de båda fallen skall sedan motsvara den sträcka som avfallet kan transporteras innantransporten motsvarar mer koldioxidutsläpp och energiförbrukning än vad somundvikts genom avfallshanteringen.Resultatet visar att återvinningsgraden på det avfall som samlas in har en avgörandebetydelse för huruvida långt plastförpackningsavfallet kan transporteras. Omåtervinningsgraden sjunker under 80 procent är det ur koldioxidsynpunkt inte längremiljömässigt hållbart att transportera avfallet. Ur energisynpunkt är återvinning alltidatt föredra då det krävs mycket energi vid nyproduktion av plastförpackningar frånjungfruligt material.

  • 132.
    Kupracz, P.
    et al.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Poland.
    Wojcik, Natalia A.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET). Gdansk Univ Technol, Poland.
    Barczynski, R. J.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Poland.
    A method of determination of electrical conduction mechanisms in complex amorphous materials2018Inngår i: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, ISSN 0022-3093, E-ISSN 1873-4812, Vol. 498, s. 223-227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach to determine conduction mechanisms in complex amorphous materials was presented and tested on a real system. In the first step of the presented method, total electrical admittance of the material is analyzed in order to separate a couple of processes, each of which can be described by Jonscher's universal dielectric response. In the following step, a temperature dependence of dielectric response parameters of the processes is determined and compared with known models of conduction mechanisms in structural amorphous materials. Using this approach, a presence of two different conduction mechanisms describing electrical conductivity in a two-phase glass was described.

  • 133.
    Lagerbielke, Erika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för design (DE).
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET). RISE Glas.
    Lang, Maria
    RISE Glas.
    Sirkka, Tora
    RISE Glas.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Kulturparken Småland.
    Carlsson, Christer
    Vöfab.
    Förstudie - Ny glasgång för Kulturparken Småland: Hur kan transparent intelligens utnyttjas i en offentlig miljö?2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tankarna på att bygga en glasgång mellan Smålands museum och Utvandrarnas hus har funnits ett tag. När det kommunala fastighetsbolaget Vöfab köpte museibyggnaden av Stiftelsen Smålands museum i december 2014 och all mark mellan byggnaderna så var ett avgörande juridiskt hinder undanröjt. Nu fanns det möjlilghet att bygga en glasgång.

    Förstudiens mål är att synliggöra och tvärvetenskapligt undersöka möjligheterna att använda transparent intelligens vid gestaltning av en ny glasgång som ett tilltalande inslag i Växjös offentliga miljö.

    I rapporten beskrivs transparent intelligens och ger många exempel inklusive figurer, både på tekniker och också byggnader. I rapporten berättas också omkonstnärlig gestaltning och utmanande arkitektur, materialet glas beskrivs både ingenjörsmässigt och designmässigt.

    Förstudien visar vilka möjligheter det finns att använda transparent intelligens när en offentlig byggnad ska byggas, men också vilka begränsningar (t.ex. ljud, ljus, värme, kyla, underhållsvänlighet, teknik). En litteratursökning har visat att det finns byggnader som fungerar som en dekoration samtidigt som det har en funktion, i en offentlig miljö.

    I och med att det händer mycket inom området intelligent transparens så byggs det nya prototyper med den senaste tekniken eller en gammal teknik som används på ett nytt sätt. Inom Smart Housing Småland görs det nya prototyper i samarbete med industrin, som kan visas upp i glasgången, om den blir verklighet. Detta gör att allmänheten får ta del av den senaste tekniken inom intelligent transparens.

  • 134.
    Larsson, Ann-Charlotte
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Environmental catalyst research in full scale installations: Experiences and considerations in experimental designs2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 17th Nordic Symposium on Catalysis: Book of Abstracts, 2016, s. 226-226, artikkel-id P:53Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 135.
    Larsson, Martin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Tvådimensionell vattenmodellstudie av rökgasflöde i rosterugn:  2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver resultaten av en tvådimensionell vattenmodellering av gasflödet genom en 15 MW rosterugn. Den redovisar vilken påverkan fördelningen av förbränningsluft, placering av dysor för luft och rökgasåterföring, samt eldstadsutformning har för blandningen av brännbara gaser och luft i pannans sekundärzon, och därigenom vilka effekter det har på utsläpp av kväveoxider, koloxid och partiklar.

  • 136.
    Lenarciak, A.
    et al.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Poland.
    Wójcik, Natalia A.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET). Gdansk Univ Technol, Poland.
    Kupracz, P.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Poland;Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Strychalska-Nowak, J.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Poland.
    Sobczak, Z.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Poland.
    Przesniak-Welenc, M.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Poland.
    Karczewski, J.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Poland.
    Barczynski, R. J.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Poland.
    Thermal, electrical, and magnetic properties of Fe2O3-PbO-SiO2 glass prepared by traditional melt-quenching and twin roller fast-cooling methods2019Inngår i: Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, ISSN 0022-3697, E-ISSN 1879-2553, Vol. 135, artikkel-id 109010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Fe-Pb-Si oxide glasses containing between 12.5 and 17.5 mol% Fe2O3 were prepared using two different methods comprising traditional melt-quenching and twin roller fast-cooling techniques. The topography and structure of the materials obtained were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. All of the materials were found to be amorphous. The topography of most of the glasses comprised random or evenly distributed nanostructures, where the size and amount were dependent on the iron content and preparation technique. The thermal properties of the glasses were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, which showed that the glass transition temperatures varied between 529 degrees C and 552 degrees C. The electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility of the glasses were analyzed by impedance spectroscopy and with an alternating current magnetic properties measurement system, respectively. The measurements of the electrical properties indicated a relatively low activation energy for direct current conductivity (similar to 0.5-0.68 eV), which is typical of the polaron hopping mechanism. All of the materials exhibited magnetic hysteresis loops and they were ferromagnetic.

  • 137.
    Lin, Leteng
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Morgalla, Mario
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Strand, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Study on char fragmentation during biomass gasification in bubbling fluidized bed2015Inngår i: 23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 1-4 June 2015, Vienna, Austria, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2015, s. 652-655Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work a bench scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was built to work with an aerosol sampling and measuring system in order to study char fragmentation phenomenon during biomass gasification process. Both barbeque char and wood pellets were gasified in CO2 (20 vol.%) -N2 mixture and steam (30 vol.%)-N2 mixture, respectively. An aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) was used to measure fragmented char particles during the whole gasification process. For the wood pellet gasification case, major fragmentation was observed during the devolatilization stage, which should be attributed to the combined effect of primary fragmentation and attrition. The aerodynamic diameter of those elutriable particles which can be measured by the current system was in the range of 0.5-8 µm. During the char gasification stage, a distinct mode of char fragments was produced in the size range of 1-7 µm in either case. The total mass concentration of elutriable particles gradually increased when gasification of char started, and then decreased while the reaction approached completion.

  • 138.
    Lin, Leteng
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Zethraeus, Björn
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Statistical model to reproduce the combustion behavior of domestic-scale wood pellets burners2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 24th European Biomass Conference: Setting the course for a biobased economy, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2016, s. 666-673Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A simplified statistical model was developed to simulate the combustion behavior in wood pellets burners based on the eddy dissipation concept and the assumption that the turbulence to some extents can be treated in a similar way in both the larger scales and the smaller scales. The combustion system was divided into several macroscopic sub-volumes which were characterized by plug flow function with axial diffusion that helps to bridge the geometry with the mixing status and describe the dissipation of turbulence by means of digital filter. Initially a time series of fuel-air mixture was defined according to feedstock and air supply in burner and then successively modified in the following sub-volumes based on the predefined function and additional air. With favor of mass and energy balance the final gas composition can be approximately distributed by water gas equilibrium. After involved the system response of gas analysis instrumentation, the modelled results were compared with experimental tests in two commercialized types of pellet burners, named gasification type and combustion type respectively. The model predicted reasonably the over-all behavior of domestic-scale pellet burners on the mean value and standard deviation of gas compositions, especially the behavior of CO2 and O2 in both cases. The CO emission was simulated unstably but within an acceptable range. This model can be used as an on-line predictor in combustion control systems and may thus serve as a tool for fast-response combustion control. 

  • 139.
    Lindberg, Alexander
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Jämförelse av fjärrvärme och bergvärme, kompletterad med solceller i Helsingborg2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie över jämförelsen av fjärrvärme i Helsingborg och bergvärme har utifrån resursutnyttjande, klimatpåverkan och ekonomi genomförts. Till detta har scenarion med solcellsanläggningar som komplement till bergvärmesystemet jämförts. Genom att förbruka fjärrvärme istället för bergvärme så skulle ett Nils Holgersson hus under 2013 förbruka 25 MWh mindre primärenergi, vilket mostsvarar 2 ton råolja och 5 ton pellets. Det billigaste bergvärmesystemet i studien hade en årskostnad på 9 000 kr mer än fjärrvärmen. Beroende på ursprungsmärkningen av elen utnyttjad i bergvärmesystemet variera koldioxid resultatet. Men utifrån nordisk residualmix så minskas utsläppen av koldioxid med minst 4 ton per år med fjärrvärme som uppvärmninsgalternativ.

  • 140.
    Lingmerth, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Jadstrand, Josefine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gödsel som substrat vid biogasproduktion: Undersökning av biogas- och metanpotential i satsvisa laboratorieförsök2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examensarbete har biogasproduktion med olika typer av gödsel som substrat, med fokus på hönsgödsel, undersökts genom satsvisa utrötningsförsök, BMP. I försöken undersöktes hur biogasutvecklingen såg ut över tid, den totala biogas- respektive metanpotentialen samt hur denna påverkas av tillsats av glycerol. Undersökningen visade att substratblandningar har större biogas- och metanpotential än enskilda substrat samt att tillsats av glycerol inte gynnar biogasproduktionen men kan gynna metanproduktionen. Undersökningen visade också att hönsgödsel har större biogaspotential, och högre metanhalt i den bildade biogasen, än nöt- och svinflytgödsel. 

  • 141.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Energy use and CO2 emission of new residential buildings built under specific requirements: The case of Växjö municipality, Sweden2015Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 152, s. 31-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Växjö municipality sets specific energy related requirements beyond the Swedish building code (BBR) when selling land for the construction of new residential buildings. The requirement for Östra Lugnet residential area was that all buildings must be connected to the local district heating network and installation of heat pumps was prohibited in developer-built group/row houses. This paper (a) analyzed if the energy use of the buildings fulfilled the requirements of the BBR and that of Växjö municipality, and (b) compared the primary energy use and CO2 emission from operation of the district heated buildings with hypothetical scenarios where only air-source or bedrock heat pumps were installed. Results showed that a significant proportion of the group/row houses did not fulfil the specific energy use requirements of the BBR and that of Växjö municipality. There were large variations between predicted and actual energy use. Using a marginal accounting approach, houses with district heating were found to have the lowest carbon emission. From this perspective it seems appropriate for Växjö municipality to set the requirement that new residential buildings in Östra Lugnet be connected to the local district heating network.

  • 142.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Alm, Rickard
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Hallgren, Ramona
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Bischoff, Lena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Tuglu, Nil
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Kuai, Le
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Yang, Ye
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Umoru, Ibrahim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    A behavioral change-based approach to energy efficiency in a manufacturing plant2018Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 1103-1116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the realm of industrial energy efficiencystudies, very little research has been done to understandthe barriers and opportunities to influence behavior ofproduction workers and the corresponding energysavingpotentials. This paper analyzes a case study ofVolvo Construction Equipment AB in Braås, Sweden(VCE Braås), that has reduced its relative idle electricityuse by more than 10 percentage points during 2013–2016 by implementing a strategy of changing everydaybehavior of production workers. The results based oninterviews with actors involved in the energy efficiencyproject showed that a concrete goal, the employment ofa fulltime operational leader who earlier worked as aproduction worker at VCE Braås, and the involvementof both the leadership and employees in project managementwere key to the success of the project.

  • 143.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Johansson, Martina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Petersson, Johanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Enviromental implications of Växjö municipality’s energy requirement for new residential buildings2014Inngår i: Energy Procedia: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLIED ENERGY, ICAE2014 / [ed] Yan, J; Lee, DJ; Chou, SK; Desideri, U; Li, H, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 61, s. 411-414Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Växjö Municipality in Sweden sets specific energy requirements above the national building code while sellingland for new residential buildings. A main energy requirement for Östra Lugnet residential area in Växjö was that allbuildings must be connected to the district heating network. In this paper we analysed final energy use of thebuildings, and compared the primary energy use and CO2 emission from operation of the buildings connected todistrict heating system with hypothetical scenarios where only air-source heat pumps were installed. The resultshowed that district heating is the better option from the perspective of lower carbon emission. Therefore, it seemsappropriate for Växjö Municipality to set conditions for new residential buildings in Östra Lugnet to connect to thelocal district heating network as it contributes to its goal of low carbon society.

  • 144.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Homeowners’ attitude towards one-stop-shop business concept for energy renovation of detached houses in Kronoberg, Sweden2018Inngår i: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China / [ed] Yan, J; Yang, HX; Li, H; Chen, X, Elsevier, 2018, Vol. 158, s. 3702-3708Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an online questionnaire survey, this paper analyses the attitude of homeowners in Kronoberg, Sweden towards energy renovation and one-stop shop (OSS) services for the deep renovation of detached houses. Personal and contextual variables have been analysed to know who have renovation plan, what motivates them to renovate and if there is an interest in OSS concept. Results have shown that at present a very small section of the homeowners' have deep renovation plan. The priority is rather on aesthetic renovation than energy renovation. Younger homeowners below 36 years could be the first potential customer segment for deep renovation. The attitude towards OSS business concept of one entrepreneur-offering package solutions currently is not so encouraging. There is a need to demonstrate a cost-efficient OSS business concept for deep renovation ensuring the quality of the work to accelerate the deep renovation under such a business concept.

  • 145.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET). KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ahmed, Hassan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Integrated approach for provision of clean energy and water in rural Bangladesh2018Inngår i: Ground Water for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 7, s. 239-249Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimate goal of this paper is to explore ways to upgrade energy and water services in rural areas of Bangladesh while improving resource recovery. The study analyzes the potential of a poly-generation system using locally available biomass resources (cow dung and agriculture residue) for providing cooking energy, electricity, and drinking water to a rural community. A questionnaire survey was conducted in Pani Para village with 52 households to investigate demand patterns and estimate the resource potential and amount of biogasneeded in the poly-generation system. A poly-generation system with 150 m3biogas digester and a 10 kWe generator is required to meet cooking energy, electricity and water demand in the village. Co-digestion of available resources including cow dung and agriculture residues can provide 48,250 m3 biogas/year, which is sufficient to supply electricity and clean drinking water to all households in the village. In addition, around two thirds of the households can use biogas for cooking. The sensitivity analysis shows that if the amount of agriculture residues is increased by 15%, also cooking gas can be provided to all households. The results indicate that such integrated solutions are worth further exploration.

  • 146.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET). KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Luukkanen, Jyrki
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Kaivo-oja, Jari
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Evaluating Synergies and Trade-Offs among Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Explorative Analyses of Development Paths in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa2018Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikkel-id 815Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the linkages between multiple targets of Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs) may help to integrate different sectoral programmes and develop coherent cross-sectoralpolicy to explore synergies. Synergy is interaction among two or more actions, which will lead toan impact greater or less than the sum of individual effects. Therefore, synergy can be positive ornegative (trade-off). This paper aims at developing an analytical framework to evaluate sectorallinkages and examine potential synergies and trade-offs among various SDGs’ goals and targets.Synergies and trade-offs related to energy access (SDG7), clean water and sanitation access (SDG6),food security and sustainable agriculture (SDG2) and poverty alleviation (SDG1) have been evaluatedfrom the perspective of developing countries using examples from South Asia (Bangladesh, Nepal,and Sri Lanka) and Sub-Saharan Africa (Ghana, Ethiopia and Rwanda), and historical data for theperiod between 1990 and 2012. The analytical framework includes both qualitative and quantitativemethods. Network analysis technique has been used for exploring the conceptual linkage amongdifferent indicators, and capturing the targets associated with SDGs. Advanced SustainabilityAnalysis (ASA) developed under the European framework programme has been used for quantifyingthe synergies and trade-offs among sustainability indicators. The analysis showed strong synergyamong various SDG targets. Interestingly, the potential synergy differs from country to countryand over time. Ghana and Sri Lanka had relatively higher potential synergy, whereas Rwanda andNepal had relatively lower potential synergy among the various targets. Higher synergy valueswere evidenced in those cases where the policy have recognized and emphasized on linkages amongcross-sectoral targets.

  • 147.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Evaluating market models for deep-energy renovation using SWOT and PEST Analysis2018Inngår i: 14th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, 28-29 October, 2018, Bern, Switzerland, 2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings are responsible for 40% of energy consumption and 36% of CO2 emissions in the EU. Sweden and Denmark are cold climatic countries with strong demand for space heating and hot water in the residential sector. Large section of the detached houses in these countries are built more than 30 years ago and need refurbishment. Despite of huge energy saving potentials with deep renovation of these houses, there exists several challenges in realizing those saving potential. This paper evaluates the market for deep renovation of single-family houses in these two Nordic countries using PEST and SWOT analysis. Comparative analysis between two countries will help to understand the common and country specific drivers and barriers and to develop strategic recommendation in accordance.

  • 148.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Criteria based approach for assessment of policy instruments for deep renovation of residential building in the Netherlands2019Inngår i: ECEEE Summer Study proceedings: eceee 2019 Summer Study on energy efficiency: Is efficient sufficient?, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2019, s. 599-606, artikkel-id 3-352-19Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector is responsible for more than 40 % of the energy use and 32 % of carbon dioxide emissions in the European Union (EU). Previous research has shown that the present rate of energy retrofit and refurbishment in Europe is far below (<50 %) than that is required to meet the EU's building related energy efficiency goals for 2020. Appropriate policy interventions for deep renovation is perceived as a catalytic agent in promoting energy efficiency and leveraging more investments in the building sector. EU directives regarding Energy Efficiency reflects in various member states' national targets and policy measures to improve the energy performance of the existing building stocks. Economic policy instruments seem to be influential in steering the deep renovation market, but this alone may not be sufficient for the sustainable growth of the market. There is a need for market-based approach to enhance the private sector involvement, both in terms of technical and financial capabilities. This paper evaluates the policy instrument used for promoting deep renovation of residential buildings in the Netherlands. A "Theory-based evaluation" technique has been used in analyzing the content of the policy instrument, and the underlying theories and policies, at output and impact level. A set of the evaluation criteria have been applied for assessing such policy instruments in leveraging energy efficiency investments and their effectiveness in terms of energy savings. The assessments are done based on the meta-analysis of relevant literature and data sources, and finalized in consultation with the Dutch partners from INNOVATE (Integrated solutions for ambitious energy refurbishment of private housing) project under Horizon 2020. Further, the challenges for scaling up such existing effort for the sustainable growth of the deep renovation market has been explored.

  • 149.
    Moran, Enrique
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Improving waste management systems from households in Peru.: An economic, social and ecologic profitable investment.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the waste management system of Peru, there is a lot to fix, change and improve from households areas. In this report is presented why and how necessary is the construction of landfills to have an appropriate place to dispose the waste of the collection .At the same time, the report shows how profitable can be from social, economic and ecologic way, with the investment of treatment plants that use biogas from the landfills to produce energy. Differents solutions – vehicle fuel production, electricity generation etc – are discussed in light of the different economy, geography and social situation in three selected cases.

  • 150.
    Morgalla, Mario
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Benzene-char conversion and particle-vapor characterization in biomass gasification2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass is increasingly attracting attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification permits the thermochemical conversion of biomass into a product gas rich in carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The product gas can be further processed to generate heat, electricity, synthesis gas, chemicals, and biofuels. Particulate matter (PM), inorganic and organic (tars) impurities are formed as contaminants in the gasification process. In this thesis PM and tars formed during atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasification are characterized and the conversion of a model tar compound (benzene) using a biomass based char aerosol in high temperature (HT) applications is investigated.

    PM in the product gas of a steam-blown atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was characterized for mass size distribution and concentration, morphology, and elemental composition. The hot product gas was extracted using a HT- dilution probe combined with a primary and a secondary thermodenuder to adsorb tars and investigate the volatility/thermal stability of the remaining aerosol, respectively. Size distributions with three distinct modes were established. The fine and intermediate modes were mainly formed by tar and alkali vapors that had condensed in the sampling and conditioning systems. The coarse mode mainly consisted of the original particles, which are char, fly ash, and fragmented bed material. The presented PM sampling and conditioning system also showed the potential for online monitoring of heavy tars.

    The tar conversion performance of finely dispersed char particles within a HT-filter and an Al2O3 bed were tested experimentally using benzene as the model-tar. Benzene plus steam (or CO2) were simultaneously supplied to a tubular ceramic reactor that was heated electrically. Fragmented char particles were suspended and continuously supplied via a separate supply line. A HT-filter or a packed bed of crushed Al2O3 balls was positioned in the reactor to retain the char particles. The benzene conversion in the so formed hot char bed was investigated by varying the temperature of the filter or bed, gas flow rates, benzene concentrations, gasification media, char type, char mass and char concentration.

    Increasing the ratio of the char mass and gas flow rate (also referred to as char weight time) enhanced the benzene conversion. This was accomplished by increasing the supplied char concentrations, reducing the gas flow rates or slowing the char gasification reactions. The latter was achieved by lowering the steam concentrations or changing the gasification medium from steam to CO2. Increasing the temperature of the Al2O3 bed did not only raise the char gasification rate and thus reduce the char weight time but also showed to enhance the specific benzene conversion activity of the woody char samples. However, in the 900−1100 °C temperature range, the combined effect was to lower benzene conversions at higher temperatures. The apparent rate constant of the benzene conversion was slightly higher when CO2 rather than steam was used as the gasification medium. Increasing the benzene concentration slightly reduced the benzene conversion. Activated carbon pellets showed higher benzene conversions compared to a pine wood char which was related to the higher specific surface area of the activated carbon pellets. In contrast to a commercially available barbeque charcoal made from broadleaf wood, steam-activated woody charcoal converted benzene even in the absence of steam. This was probably due to the earlier steam activation of the woody charcoal and thus higher microporous surface area compared with that of the barbeque charcoal. Doping the woody barbeque charcoal with approximately 0.7 wt. % iron or 2 wt. % potassium did not improve the specific benzene conversion of the char. For a certain char concentration, however, the doping increased the char gasification rate, leaving less char in the packed alumina bed, thus leading to overall lower benzene conversions.

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