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  • 101.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Karlsson, Å
    CO2 mitigation cost: a system perspective on the heating of detached houses2000Inngår i: Woody biomass as an energy source : challenges in Europe : Joensuu, Finland 25-28 September 2000, Joensuu: EFI , 2000, s. 171-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 102.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Karlsson, Å
    District heating and bioenergy systems : efficiency and emissions1999Inngår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling, [May 18-20,1999 at Lund, Sweden]: International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling (7th : 1999 : Lund, Lund, 1999Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 103.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Karlsson, Å
    Department of Technology and Society, Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund University,.
    Heating Detached Houses in Urban Areas2003Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 28, nr 8, s. 851-875Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating systems using cogeneration, as well as local fuel-based and electric heating systems for detached houses, are analysed. The analysis includes the whole energy system, from the natural resource to the end user, with respect to primary energy use, emission and cost. The end-use technologies studied are heat pumps, resistance heaters and boilers. It was assumed that the base-load electricity, except for the cogenerated electricity, was produced in stand-alone power plants using wood chips or natural gas, while peak-load electricity and fuel used for transportation were produced from crude oil. The heat pump and district heating systems are found to be most energy efficient, followed by the local fuel-based systems. The wood-fuel-based systems emit about one tenth of the greenhouse gases emitted by the natural-gas-based systems. The sulphur and nitrogen oxide emission, however, is higher for wood-fuel-based systems. Systems based on natural gas are less expensive than the corresponding wood-fuel-based systems. Decarbonization and carbon dioxide sequestration, however, do not reduce the carbon dioxide emission to the low level of the wood-fuel-based systems and, in addition, make the natural-gas-based systems more expensive than the wood-fuel-based systems.

  • 104.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Karlsson, Åsa
    CO2 Mitigation: On Methods and Parameters for Comparison of Fossil-Fuel and Biofuel Systems2006Inngår i: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 11, nr 5/6, s. 935-959Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 105.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Madlener, R
    CEPE—Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum WEC, CH-8092, Zurich, Switzerland.
    CO2 Mitigation Costs of Large-scale Bioenergy Technologies in Competitive Electricity Markets2003Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 28, nr 14, s. 1405-1425Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we compare and contrast the impact of recent technological developments in large biomass-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration and condensing plants in terms of CO2 mitigation costs and under the conditions of a competitive electricity market. The CO2 mitigation cost indicates the minimum economic incentive required (e.g. in the form of a carbon tax) to equal the cost of a less carbon extensive system with the cost of a reference system. The results show that CO2 mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems than for natural gas systems with decarbonization. However, in liberalized energy markets and given the socio-political will to implement carbon extensive energy systems, market-based policy measures are still required to make biomass and decarbonization options competitive and thus help them to penetrate the market. This cost of cogeneration plants, however, depends on the evaluation method used. If we account for the limitation of heat sinks by expanding the reference entity to include both heat and power, as is typically recommended in life-cycle analysis, then the biomass-based gasification combined cycle (BIG/CC) technology turns out to be less expensive and to exhibit lower CO2 mitigation costs than biomass-fired steam turbine plants. However, a heat credit granted to cogeneration systems that is based on avoided cost of separate heat production, puts the steam turbine technology despite its lower system efficiency at an advantage. In contrast, when a crediting method based on avoided electricity production in natural-gas-fired condensing plants is employed, the BIG/CC technology turns out to be more cost-competitive than the steam turbine technology for carbon tax levels beyond about $ 150/t C. Furthermore, steam turbine plants are able to compete with natural-gas-fired cogeneration plants at carbon tax levels higher than about $ 90/t C.

  • 106.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Madlener, R
    Liberalised electricity markets, new bioenergy technologies, and GHG emission reductions: interactions and CO2 mitigation costs1999Inngår i: Proceedings of 8th Forum Croatian Energy Day, Zagreb, 1999Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 107.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Madlener, R
    Hoen, H.F.
    Jungmeier, G
    Karjalainen, T
    Klöhn, S
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Pohjola, J
    Solberg, B
    Spelter, H
    The role of wood material for greenhouse gas mitigation2006Inngår i: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 11, nr 5-6, s. 1097-1127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an interdisciplinary perspective the role of wood as a carbon sink, as a multipurpose material, and as a renewable energy source for the net reduction of greenhouse gases is discussed. We synthesize aspects from engineering, natural and social sciences to better understand the role of wood substitution in CO2 mitigation.We also formulate some recommendations on filling knowledge gaps that could be useful for policy making regarding how wood substitution could be further expanded. There are sufficient wood resources to substantially increase the use of wood for material and energy purposes. However, a number of factors hinder a wider use of wood for energy and material purposes. Furthermore, an analysis of wood substitution is a very complex issue, since the substitution influencing factors are to be found along the entire wood supply chain and involve several industries, socio-economic and cultural aspects, traditions, price dynamics, and structural and technical change. To improve the knowledge about wood as a substitute for other resources and the implications, it would be helpful to better integrate research from different disciplines on the subject and to cover different scales from a project to an economy-wide level.

  • 108.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Madlener, Reinhard
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Framework conditions and market potentials for the diffusion of innovative small-scale wood pellet systems2003Inngår i: Bioenergy 2003, Proceedings: International Nordic Bioenergy Conference, 2-5 September, Jyväskylä, Finland, 2003Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 85% of all dwellings in the European Union are currently being heated by single-house systems. At the same time significant technological progress, cost reductions and increasing consumer awareness related to modern small-scale bioenergy systems (SSBS) have occurred in recent years. Taken together, SSBS could make a substantial contribution to the heat and electricity requirements in the not-too-distant future and, by substituting for less benign energy technologies and fuels, also to a more sustainable energy supply system. Despite the remarkably increased levels of comfort and reduced environmental impact offered by today´s SSBS, however, their widespread diffusion is still at its very beginning. Framework and market conditions and the overall merits of SSBS systems need to be properly understood by policy-makers for a suc-cessful promotion policy addressing these technologies. Technology diffusion models can help to better understand the diffusion dynamics and long-term market potentials, and the effectiveness of drivers and barriers that influence the adoption decision process. This paper first summarises recent technological, socio-economic and institutional trends relevant for SSBS adoption, and reflects on research results from other studies in this field regarding perceived image, comfort levels, reliability, and ways of use of modern small-scale bioenergy technologies in Europe. Second, it contains a limited compara-tive analysis of the direct and indirect external costs and benefits of modern bioenergy-based versus other heating technolo-gies at the small scale. Third, the usefulness of various economic diffusion modelling approaches is discussed, also with a perspective on studying modern SSBS in the light of data availability restrictions

  • 109.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Småhusägares inställning till fjärrvärme, pelletspannor och värmepumpar: Report prepared for Swedish Association of Pellet Producers (PiR), Stockholm, Sweden (in Swedish)2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    I Sveriges villabestånd finns det en stor potential att ersätta elvärme och oljepannor med fjärrvärme, pelletspannor och värmepumpar. Vi analyserade effekterna av det svenska investeringsbidraget för konvertering från oljepannor och direktverkande el med s.k. “adopter-centric” metodik och hur konverteringen till fjärrvärme, pelletspannor och värmepumpar varierade. Resultaten från enkätundersökningar, som genomfördes hos 1500 slumpvist utvalda husägare i Sverige i september 2004 och januari 2007, visade att över 80% inte avsåg att byta värmesystem. Det trots att ca 37% av de svenska villaägarna fortfarande har el- eller oljeuppvärmning. Det statliga investeringsbidraget var viktigt för konvertering från direktverkande el, men inte för konvertering från olja. Det beror på att de flesta husägarna redan har bytt ut sina oljepannor, medan få har konverterat bort direktverkande el. De som konverterar bort från oljepannor är eftersläntrare, medan de som konverterar bort från el är ”tidiga anammare”. Ekonomi och driftsäkerhet var de viktigaste faktorerna när husägare skall välja mellan olika värmesystem. Olika värmesystem upplevs ha olika fördelar och det påverkar spridningsmönstret för konverteringen till nya värmesystem. Installatörer och personliga kontakter angavs vara de viktigaste källorna för information om nya värmesystem.

  • 110.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Swedish Homewoners´ attitude towards water-based heating systems2008Inngår i: World Bioenergy 2008, 26-29 May, Jönköping, Sweden, Swedish Bioenergy Association , 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004 and 2007, we conducted questionnaire surveys of 1,500 randomly selected Swedish homeowners of detached houses to understand their attitude towards adopting an innovative heating system (IHS). The results showed that there was no substantial change in homeowners’ attitude towards IHSs. More than 80% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents’ choice of heating system while environmental factors were of less importance. Installers were the most frequently consulted source of information on heating systems. Respondents perceived the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pump system was ranked higher than pellet heating system in every aspect except for investment cost. Pellet heating system has advantages with respect to investment cost. District heating system was considered as most functionally reliable and automatic.

  • 111.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Swedish house owners perception of pellet heating systems2006Inngår i: Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Pellets (Pellets 2006), 30 May-1 June, Jönköping, Sweden, Swedish Bioenergy Association , 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the problems of global warming and security issues associated with the supply of fossil fuel use, bioenergy systems such as small-scale pellet heating systems (SSPHS) have been developed in Europe and elsewhere. In Sweden, SSPHS for the residential sector have been available on the market for about ten years, but the diffusion rate is rather slow. Research to analyse the diffusion of innovation is important, as this aspect determines the success of a technology. In this context, we recently carried out a questionnaire survey on Swedish house owners� perception of different heating systems. The sample consisted of about 1500 Swedish house owners selected through stratified random sampling. The results of the survey regarding pellet heating systems revealed that the annual cost of heating with the new heating system, functional reliability, investment cost, and in-door air quality are the four most important factors, in decreasing order of importance, in heating system choice. Environmental friendliness and low greenhouse gas emission are considered to be less important. Respondents consider SSPHS to be second to bedrock heat pumps in every aspect except for investment cost and therefore, such systems diffuse slowly in Sweden.

  • 112.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Madlener, R
    Energy systems in transition: perspectives for the diffusion of small-scale wood pellet heating technology2005Inngår i: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 29, nr 3/4, s. 327-347Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to environmental and supply security concerns associated with fossil fuels, promising small-scale wood heating systems with sizable market potentials have started to penetrate the residential heating market in Europe and elsewhere. Despite significant technological progress that led to cost reduction, increased levels of convenience, improved reliability and reduced environmental impact, the widespread diffusion of such systems will nonetheless take many years or even decades. Framework and market conditions, and especially drivers and barriers and the overall merits of such systems in comparison to alternative solutions, need to be properly understood by policy-makers and entrepreneurs for the successful promotion of these technologies. In this article we cover three important aspects related to small-scale wood pellet heating systems. First, we summarise recent technological, socio-economic and institutional trends. Second, results from a comparative analysis of the direct and indirect external costs and benefits of these technologies versus other heating technologies are reported. Third, the usefulness of various diffusion modelling approaches used in economics is discussed in the light of the technology scrutinised and existing data constraints.

  • 113.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Implementering av energieffektiviseringsåtgärder i befintlig bebyggelse: Report prepared for the Swedish Energy Agency2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 114.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Implementing energy efficiency measures in existing Swedish building stock2008Inngår i: World Sustainable Energy Days 2008, 5-7 March 2008, Wels, Austria, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large potential for improving energy efficiency in the existing Swedish building stock. However, how successful the implementation of the efficiency measures will be, depends on economical and technical factors as well as on the attitudes and perceptions of the relevant actors. In this paper we use Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory to analyze various factors affecting implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish detached houses and apartment buildings. Results of recent Swedish household surveys concerning adoption of heating systems showed that majority of the respondents were satisfied with their heating systems and did not intend to install a new one. Economic aspects and functional reliability were important factors in the choice of heating systems, while installers/vendors were the most important sources of information on heating system. We discuss upcoming empirical studies on implementation of other energy efficiency measures, e.g. energy efficient windows and additional insulation, including that of heating systems, in detached houses and apartment buildings.

  • 115.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Näslund, Lisa
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Cost of collection, processing and transportation of forest residues and CO2 benefits of fossil fuel replacementManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 116.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Pingoud, Kim
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Carbon dioxide balance of wood substitution: comparing concrete- and wood-framed buildings2006Inngår i: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 667-691Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a method is suggested to compare the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from the construction of concrete- and wood-framed buildings. The method is then applied to two buildings in Sweden and Finland constructed with wood frames, compared with functionally equivalent buildings constructed with concrete frames. Carbon accounting includes: emissions due to fossil fuel use in the production of building materials; the replacement of fossil fuels by biomass residues from logging, wood processing, construction and demolition; carbon stock changes in forests and buildings; and cement process reactions. The results show that wood-framed construction requires less energy, and emits less CO2 to the atmosphere, than concrete-framed construction. The lifecycle emission difference between the wood- and concrete-framed buildings ranges from 30 to 130 kg C per m2 of floor area. Hence, a net reduction of CO2 emission can be obtained by increasing the proportion of wood-based building materials, relative to concrete materials. The benefits would be greatest if the biomass residues resulting from the production of the wood building materials were fully used in energy supply systems. The carbon mitigation efficiency, expressed in terms of biomass used per unit of reduced carbon emission, is considerably better if the wood is used to replace concrete building material than if the wood is used directly as biofuel.

  • 117.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Embodied energy and CO2 emission of wood- and concrete-framed buildings in Sweden2004Inngår i: 2nd World Biomass Conference, Rome, Italy, 2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 118.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Energy and CO2 analysis of wood substitution in construction2011Inngår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 105, nr 1-2, s. 129-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative analysis of the energy and carbon balances of wood vs. non-wood products is a complex issue. In this paper we discuss the definition of an appropriate functional unit and the establishment of effective system boundaries in terms of activity, time and space, with an emphasis on the comparison of buildings. The functional unit can be defined at the level of building component, complete building, or services provided by the built environment. Energy use or carbon emissions per unit of mass or volume of material is inadequate as a functional unit because equal masses or volumes of different materials do not fulfil the same function. Activity-based system boundaries include life cycle processes such as material production, product operation, and post-use material management. If the products compared are functionally equivalent, such that the impacts occurring during the operation phase are equal, we suggest that this phase may be dropped from the analysis allowing a focus on material flows. The use of wood co-products as biofuel can be analytically treated through system expansion, and compared to an alternative of providing the same energy service with fossil fuels. The assumed production of electricity used for material processing is another important energy-related issue, and we suggest that using marginal production data is more appropriate than average production. Temporal system boundaries include such aspects of the wood life cycle as the dynamics of forest growth including regeneration and saturation, the availability of residue biofuels at different times, and the duration of carbon storage in products. The establishment of spatial boundaries can be problematic, because using wood-based materials instead of non-wood materials requires more land area to capture solar energy and accumulate biomass. We discuss several possible approaches to meet this challenge, including the intensification of land use to increase the time rate of biomass production. Finally, we discuss issues related to scaling up an analysis of wood substitution from the micro-level to the macro-level of national, regional or global.

  • 119.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Intensive, integrated biomass-based material and energy systems: Swedish experience2008Inngår i: First International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, Proceedings Vols 1-3, Dalian University Technology Press , 2008, s. 1299-1306Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development of the built environment requires the production of increased quantities of construction materials and energy services, produced within the constraints of natural systems. This paper presents recent findings from Sweden on the intensive use of renewable forest resources within integrated material and energy systems. Production of materials for wood-framed construction uses less primary energy than for comparable reinforced concrete construction. Multiple wood-based products can be co-produced from the forest biomass, increasing the efficiency of raw material use. Biomass by-products from the entire wood product chain, including forestry, wood processing, construction and demolition, can be recovered for use as biofuel. The biofuel energy available over the life cycle of a wood-framed building is greater than the primary energy used to produce the materials. Increasing forest management intensity gives greater energy returns on management energy inputs. Intensive production of forest biomass is maintained by closing nutrient cycles through application of wood ash and nitrogen fertiliser.

  • 120.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Towards a sustainable building sector: Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of a wood-framed apartment building with biomass-based energy supply2010Inngår i: Joint Session of the UNECE Timber Committee (TC) and Society of Wood Science and Technology (SWST) 53rd International Convention. Geneva, Switzerland, 11-15 October, 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 121.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Variability in energy and carbon dioxide balances of wood and concrete building materials2006Inngår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 41, nr 7, s. 940-951Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of factors affect the energy and CO2 balances of building materials over their lifecycle. Previous studies have shown that the use of wood for construction generally results in lower energy use and CO2 emission than does the use of concrete. To determine the uncertainties of this generality, we studied the changes in energy and CO2 balances caused by variation of key parameters in the manufacture and use of the materials comprising a wood- and a concrete-framed building. Parameters considered were clinker production efficiency, blending of cement, crushing of aggregate, recycling of steel, lumber drying efficiency, material transportation distance, carbon intensity of fossil fuel, recovery of logging, sawmill, construction and demolition residues for biofuel, and growth and exploitation of surplus forest not needed for wood material production. We found the materials of the wood-framed building had lower energy and CO2 balances than those of the concrete-framed building in all cases but one. Recovery of demolition and wood processing residues for use in place of fossil fuels contributed most significantly to the lower energy and CO2 balances of wood-framed building materials. We conclude that the use of wood building material instead of concrete, coupled with greater integration of wood by-products into energy systems, would be an effective means of reducing fossil fuel use and net CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  • 122.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Climate change effects over the lifecycle of a building - Report on methodological issues in determining the climate change effects over the life cycle of a building: Final report for Boverket2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 123.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Svenningsson, P
    Substituting Fossil Fuels with Biomass1996Inngår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 37, nr 6/8, s. 1211-1216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 124.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Bioenergy pathways for cars: Effects on primary energy use, climate change and energy system integration2016Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 115, nr 3, s. 1779-1789Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Different pathways and technologies can be used to convert woody biomass to transport services, but the biomass use and climate implications vary strongly between the alternatives. This study focuses on primary energy use and climate change effects of using bioenergy for transportation in the context of a renewable-based energy system. Integrated pathways to improve the energy efficiency of power and transportation sectors and integrated intermittent renewable energy are considered. The results show that the bioenergy pathway that produces biomotor fuels to replace fossil fuels leads to high primary energy use and instantaneous biogenic CO2 emission per km of driving distance, thus increasing global warming during the first 40e50 years, compared to fossil alternatives. The electric vehicle pathway using bioelectricity from combined heat and power plants leads to immediate global cooling and much greater climate benefits in the long run compared to biomotor fuels. Climate change effects of light-duty vehicles could be strongly reduced by changes in technology together with system integration that links the transport sector to the electricity and heating sectors. The use of biomass should be considered in the context of the overall integrated energy system, and in relation to the development of energy conversion technologies between different sectors.

  • 125.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Coproduction of district heat and electricity or biomotor fuels2011Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, nr 10, s. 6263-6277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The operation of a district heating system depends on the heat load demand, which varies throughout the year. In this paper, we analyze the coproduction of district heat and electricity or biomotor fuels. We demonstrate how three different taxation scenarios and two crude oil price levels influence the selection of production units to minimize the district heat production cost and calculate the resulting primary energy use. Our analysis is based on the annual measured heat load of a district heating system. The minimum-cost district heat production system comprises different production units that meet the district heat demand and simultaneously minimize the district heat production cost. First, we optimize the cost of a district heat production system based on the cogeneration of electricity and heat with and without biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle technology. We considered cogenerated electricity as a byproduct with the value of that produced by a condensing power plant. Next, we integrate and optimize different biomotor fuel production units into the district heat production system by considering biomotor fuels as byproducts that can substitute for fossil motor fuels. We demonstrate that in district heating systems, the strengthening of environmental taxation reduces the dependence on fossil fuels. However, increases in environmental taxation and the crude oil price do not necessarily influence the production cost of district heat as long as biomass price is not driven by policy measures. Biomotor fuel production in a district heating system is typically not cost-efficient. The biomotor fuels produced from the district heating system have to compete with those from standalone biomotor fuel plants and also with its fossil-based counterparts. This is also true for high oil prices. A carbon tax on fossil CO2 emissions based on social cost damage will increase the competitiveness of biomass-based combined heat and power plants, especially for BIGCC technology with its high electricity-to-heat ratio.

  • 126.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Effects of different bioenergy pathways on primary energy efficiency, climate mitigation and energy system integration2015Inngår i: The 10th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES 2015. September 27- October 3, 2015, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Woody biomass is an important renewable energy resource that can be used directly or indirectly in the electricity, heat and transport sectors. Different technologies and conversion pathways can be used to convert woody biomass to supply different types of energy services. The primary energy and climate implications of bioenergy systems depend on which conversion technologies and pathways are used to produce the energy services, as well as how the services would have been supplied without the bioenergy system. Here, we focus on bioenergy for transportation in the context of a total renewable-based energy system. We contrast two different pathways: (i) biomotor fuel production in stand-alone plants and (ii) bioelectricity production in standalone plants and district heating systems with CHP plants and heat storage capacity for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. We quantify the primary energy use and the instantaneous biogenic CO2 of the two alternatives, per km of driving distance. We consider both commercially available technologies and emerging technologies for biomass-based conversion systems. Furthermore, for the two alternatives we discuss potential benefits of integration between the electricity, heating and transport sectors, to enable a better use of infrastructure. The results show that primary energy use and instantaneous biogenic CO2 emission vary strongly between the alternatives. The primary energy efficiency is much higher and gives less instantaneous biogenic CO2 emission for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles compared to vehicles using biomotor fuels. Furthermore, the potential integration benefits between the electricity, heating and transport sectors are much larger due to the integration potential of heat storage capacity in DHS and battery storage capacity in electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, as well as an improved overall integration capacity between the sectors. This study suggests that use of biomass should be considered in the context of the overall energy system, and in relation to the development of energy conversion technologies and integration potential between different energy sectors, to find primary energy efficient alternatives giving climate benefits in both a short- and long-term perspective.

  • 127.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Primary energy implications of heat savings in district heated buildings2012Inngår i: Presentation at International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2012, Jul 5-8, 2012, Suzhou, China, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 128.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Effects of environmental taxations on district heat production structures2011Inngår i: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11 / [ed] Bahram Moshfegh, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, s. 3420-3427Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 129.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Uddin, Noim
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Efficient Use of Forest Resources2003Inngår i: International Nordic Bioenergy Conference, September 3-5, 2003, Finland, 2003, s. 165-170Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 130. Haavik, T.
    et al.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Deliverable 2.1 Report on stakeholder interests: Report prepared for Nordic Innovation Centre2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 131. Haavik, T.
    et al.
    Tommerup, H.
    Vanhoutteghem, L.
    Svendsen, S.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Renovation of single family houses: an emerging market2010Inngår i: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 132.
    Haavik, Trond
    et al.
    Segel As, Norway.
    Aabrekk, Synnøve
    Segel As, Norway.
    Svendsen, Svend
    Danish Technical University, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Tommerup, Henrik
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Paiho, Satu
    VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    Ala-Juusela, Mia
    VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    Report on stakeholders interests, Deliverable D2.2 of the project Successful Sustainable Renovation Business for Single-Family Houses - SuccessFamilies.2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 133.
    Haavik, Trond
    et al.
    Segel As, Norway.
    Tommerup, Henrik
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Svendsen, Svend
    Danish Technical University, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Paiho, Satu
    VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    Ala-Juusela, Mia
    VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University.
    Aabrekk, Synnøve
    Segel As, Norway.
    Næsje, Peik
    Mlecnik, E.
    Cré, Johan
    Vrijders, Jeroen
    New business models for holistic renovation solutions of single family houses2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Single family houses represent the biggest potential for energy savings within residential buildingsin the Nordic countries. In earlier research project [1] it highlighted that there is a missing linkbetween the single family house owner and various segregated offers of single solutions forrenovation and/or energy efficiency installations. In the two international research projectsSuccessFamiles and One Stop Shop, establishment of new business models as pilots for bridgingthis gap are now being monitored.Two of the pilots as “one stop shops”, a retailer chain in Finland and a daughter company of aNorwegian manufacturer of insulation, are described and discussed.A key issue for any business model which offers an integrated service from analysis of the houseand recommendations for measures is the trustworthiness of the supplier.As a holistic energy efficient renovation project is a “new” and unknown service to single familyhouse owner and at same time a costly investment, it is important for the suppliers to findadequate ways of communicating through each phase of the buying process. There are variouschallenges in each of the phases which have to be solved differently.

  • 134.
    Haus, Sylvia
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Climate mitigation comparison of woody biomass systems with the inclusion of land-use in the reference fossil system2014Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 65, s. 136-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While issues of land-use have been considered in many direct analyses of biomass systems, little attention has heretofore been paid to land-use in reference fossil systems. Here we address this limitation by comparing forest biomass systems to reference fossil systems with explicit consideration of land-use in both systems. We estimate and compare the time profiles of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) of woody biomass systems and reference fossil systems. A life cycle perspective is used that includes all significant elements of both systems, including GHG emissions along the full material and energy chains. We consider the growth dynamics of forests under different management regimes, as well as energy and material substitution effects of harvested biomass. We determine the annual net emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 for each system over a 240-year period, and then calculate time profiles of cRF as a proxy measurement of climate change impact. The results show greatest potential for climate change mitigation when intensive forest management is applied in the woody biomass system. This methodological framework provides a tool to help determine optimal strategies for managing forests so as to minimize climate change impacts. The inclusion of land-use in the reference system improves the accuracy of quantitative projections of climate benefits of biomass-based systems. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 135.
    Haus, Sylvia
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Greenhouse Gas Emission Comparison of Woody Biomass Systems with the Inclusion of Land-use in the Reference Fossil System2013Inngår i: 21st European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, Copenhagen, June 3-7, 2013, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, , 2013, s. 1794-1799Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While issues of land-use have been considered in many analyses of biomass systems, little attention has heretofore been paid to land-use in reference fossil systems. In this study we address this limitation by comparing forest biomass systems to reference fossil systems with explicit consideration of land-use in both systems. We estimate and compare the time profiles of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) of woody biomass systems and reference fossil systems. A life cycle perspective is used that includes all elements of both systems and all GHG emissions along the full material and energy chains. We consider the growth dynamics of forests under different management regimes, as well as energy and material substitution effects. We determine the annual net emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 for each system over a 240-year period. We then calculate time profiles of CRF as a proxy for climate change impacts. The results show greatest CRF reduction when fertilized forest management is applied in the woody biomass system. The results show the relevance of including land use options in both the biomass and the fossil system to accurately determine the climate impacts and benefits of forest management and product use.

  • 136.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Contractor Perceptions of Very Energy Efficient New Multi-Story Residential Buildings2014Inngår i: World Sustainable Building 2014 Barcelona Conference: Sustainable Buildings: Results ; Are We Moving as Quickly as We Should? It's Up to Us!, GBCe , 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate design of policies and strategies which aim to promote a sustainable development of the built environment, a deeper understanding of factors influencing the decisions taken in construction projects is needed. This study investigates Swedish contractors’ perceptions of the new-build of very energy efficiency multi-storey residential buildings (e.g. passive houses). The results of interviews with twenty selected contracts managers disclose several perceived disadvantages and risks associated with such buildings which influence the interest to invest in high energy efficiency. These include several cost and market-related issues as well as issues relating to the performance of the buildings. Without market intervention it seems unlikely that very energy efficient multi-storey residential buildings will diffuse to any substantial degree within the Swedish construction industry.

  • 137.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    The sociotechnical regime and Swedish contractor perceptions of structural frames2017Inngår i: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 184-195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To deepen the understanding of the sociotechnical regime that directs the selection of structural frames in multifamily buildings in Sweden, we study the perceptions of contractor representatives. Contract managers (CMs) employed at contractor firms were interviewed regarding their role, the selection of the structural frame and how they perceived different options. The results show that CMs largely influence the selection of the structural frame in multifamily buildings, which are guided by the established concrete-based sociotechnical regime. The regime is maintained through cognitive rules regarding structural frame options and the alignment of skills of construction professionals. Because of their influence and their investments in the skills of construction workers, CMs make important contributions to maintain the regime and the concrete path dependency. Furthermore, the regime varies in strength in different locations. Some locations carry a strong norm to cast concrete frames on site. This makes it more difficult to deviate from the established practice. In other locations, wood-promoting initiatives have changed the cognitive rules associated with the regime. Nonetheless, the sociotechnical regime makes the selection of concrete structural frames beneficial. This prevents wood-framed multifamily buildings from entering common usage, even though such buildings can contribute to mitigating climate change.

  • 138.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University.
    Adoption of innovations in building construction: Hindrances and actor influence as perceived by Swedish architects2011Inngår i: Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011, s. 1133-1140Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A better understanding of general hindrances to the diffusion of innovations in the construction sector may help to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. This study uses a web-based questionnaire to collect information on Swedish architects’ perceptions of hindrances to the adoption of innovations in building construction. The responding architects characterise the Swedish construction industry as having a low level of innovativeness. The most influential hindrances to innovativeness were perceived as the focus on project costs instead of life-cycle costs, the economic risks that innovations imply, the focus on traditional engineering models, the construction industry’s tendency to use proven materials and methods, and contractors’ inability to adjust processes. In terms of the involved actors, construction clients were perceived to have the greatest influence on innovativeness, and stronger cooperation between the architect and construction client was recognised as important to facilitate innovativeness.

  • 139.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Architects’ perception of the innovativeness of the Swedish construction industry2017Inngår i: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 244-260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to enhance the understanding of architects’ perceptions of the propensityto adopt innovations in building construction.

    Design/methodology/approach – Based on a theoretical underpinning of the multilevel perspective on socio-technical transitions, a web-based questionnaire (n = 412) was used to empirically investigate Swedish architects’ perceptions of innovativeness in the building construction industry. Specifically, the study looks at perceptions of the level of innovativeness (propensity to adopt innovations), relevant barriers to the adoption of innovations, the influence of different actors and ways of facilitating innovativeness.

    Findings – Architects perceive a low level of innovativeness in the Swedish building construction industry because of a number of barriers of varying relevance. These barriers belong to interwoven regulative,normative and cognitive rules (i.e. institutions) that guide actor behaviour, which contribute to the path dependency of the industry. The site-specific nature of building construction, promotional activities from suppliers and the level of competition in the industry is perceived as being of little relevance. The findings suggest that a number of interventions are necessary to facilitate innovativeness of the Swedish construction industry. To change the lock-in mechanisms of the established cognitive and normative rules, regulative rulesneed to change as well. According to architects, contractors and construction clients are the most influentialand therefore have the most power to change the rules associated with path dependency.

    Research limitations/implications – The focus on a single construction professional in Sweden necessitates a discussion on these perceptions from the standpoint of other actors.

    Practical implications – Architects perceive a need for change in the construction industry and suggestthat changed regulative rules can help overcome path dependency and facilitate innovativeness. Considering the strong interrelatedness of the lock-in mechanisms that guide the actors of the industry, policies may be needed to encourage and support the establishment for more sustainable development.

    Originality/value – A multilevel perspective is used to analyse the type of barriers to innovativeness that the architects perceive as relevant and how they contribute to the resistance to change and path dependency in the building construction sector.

  • 140.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Mittuniversitetet.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Mittuniversitetet.
    Perceptions and willingness of Swedish architects towards use of wood frames in multi-storey buildings2010Inngår i: Forests for the future: Sustaining society and the environment / [ed] Parrotta, John A and Carr, Mary A., 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 141.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Mittuniversitetet.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Mittuniversitetet.
    Perceptions and willingness of Swedish private forest owners towards increasing forest productivity2010Inngår i: Forests for the future: Sustaining society and the environment / [ed] Parrotta, John A. and Carr, Mary A., 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 142.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Perceptions, attitudes and interest of Swedish architects towards the use of wood frames in multi-storey buildings2011Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, s. 1013-1021Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of wood frames from sustainable forestry instead of non-wood frames in multi-storey buildings can reduce primary energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in construction. However, construction actors might have different perceptions towards wood frames than towards steel and concrete frames. Such perceptions may influence the actors' decision to adopt wood frames. In this study we use a web-based questionnaire to assess Swedish architects' perceptions, attitudes and interest towards steel, concrete and wood frames in multi-storey buildings (n = 412). Results indicate that the responding architects find concrete the most suitable frame material in buildings of 3-8 storeys, mainly because of the performance of concrete with regards to the engineering aspects (e.g. stability and fire safety) that were considered important in the choice of frame material. Although wood is considered the least suitable frame material, the overall attitude towards, and interest in, using wood is positive and related to the perceived environmental benefits of wood. This may derive from an increased discussion of and information about the environmental impact of buildings. Wood may be perceived as new and innovative while not considered as adequately proven as steel and concrete with regards to engineering aspects.

  • 143.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Public perceptions and acceptance of intensive forestry in Sweden2014Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 196-206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of intensive forestry on part of the forested area in Sweden increases the production of forest biomass and enables an increased use of such biomass to mitigate climate change. However, with increasing conflicting interests in forests and forestry, the success of such a strategy depends on the public acceptance. In this paper, the results of a mail survey show that although a majority of the general public in Sweden supports measures to increase forest growth, they oppose the use of intensive forestry practices such as the cultivation of exotic tree species, clones, and forest fertilization. The acceptance of such practices is mainly influenced by the perceptions of their environmental consequences. Public acceptance was highest for forest fertilization, whereas clone cultivation was the least accepted practice.

  • 144.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Swedish architects’ perceptions of hindrances to the adoption of wood frames and other innovations in multi-storey building construction2011Inngår i: SB11 Helsinki World Sustainable Building Conference, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A better understanding of general hindrances to the diffusion of innovations (new products,services, processes, systems, or concepts) in the construction sector may help improve thesustainability of buildings. Adoption of innovations such as multi-storey wood frames may e.g.reduce the primary energy use and carbon dioxide emissions of building construction. This studyuses a web-based questionnaire to collect information on Swedish architects‟ perceptions ofhindrances to the adoption of innovations in building construction in general, and to the adoption ofmulti-storey wood frames in particular. Results show that the most influential hindrances to thegeneral adoption of innovations were perceived as the focus on project costs instead of life-cyclecosts, the economic risk adopting an innovation imply, the focus on traditional engineering models,the construction industry´s tendency to use proven materials and methods, and contractors‟inability to adjust processes. Concrete and steel were perceived as more advantageous than woodwith regards to several aspects influencing the innovativeness of the Swedish construction industry,but wood was perceived as better with regards to opportunities to support local industry. Thearchitects also had more positive perceptions of the performance of concrete and steel in multistoreybuildings, than of wood. While gender and size of company seem to have little influence,perceptions of innovativeness and frame materials vary with age and regions.

  • 145.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Swedish private forest owners’ perceptions and intentions with respect to adopting exotic tree species2013Inngår i: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 132, nr 3, s. 433-444Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish forest growth can be increased through intensive forestry practices, enabling an increased use of forest biomass for climate-change mitigation. However, the diffusion of such practices depends on the forest owners’ adoption of them. We study Swedish private forest owners’ perceptions and intentions with respect to increasing forest growth by adopting exotic tree species. The results of a mail-in questionnaire survey show that although a majority of forest owners desire increasing forest growth, most owners have only a basic understanding of exotic tree species and a smaller proportion is interested in adopting them. The intention to adopt exotics seems to depend on the perceived performance of the species with respect to the economic aspects of forest management rather than on environmental or recreational concerns. Whereas a knowledge gap among the private forest owners regarding how to increase forest growth is implied, forest owners with higher self-rated knowledge of forestry and exotics have stronger intentions to adopt such species.

  • 146.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    The perceptions of Swedish architects and structural engineers towards use of wood frames in multi-storey buildings2010Inngår i: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 147.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Efficient use of wood - a comparison between chemical and mechanical pulping2005Inngår i: Proceedings of the 14th European Biomass Conference and exhibition: Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, Florence: ETA - Renewable energies , 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is energy intensive and consumes large amounts of wood. Here, the total biomass use is estimated for the production of one tonne paper in a cradle-to-factory gate scope, assuming that all energy, including electricity and motor fuels, are produced from forest biomass. We consider the production of newsprint made from mechanical pulp; lightweight coated paper from a mixture of mechanical and chemical pulp; and fine paper from chemical pulp, under Swedish conditions. The results indicate that chemical pulp papers require less biomass resources per tonne of paper produced than do mechanical pulp papers. For mechanical pulp papers, external electricity requires the largest part of the biomass. Motor fuel production accounts in no case for more than 10%. Between 27% and 38% of the total biomass used is embodied in the paper product, indicating that waste paper recovery options are important.

     

  • 148.
    Holmberg, Jonas M.
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Biomass use in chemical and mechanical pulping with biomass-based energy supply2007Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 331-350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is energy intensive and consumes large amounts of wood. Biomass is a limited resource and its efficient use is therefore important. In this study, the total amount of biomass used for pulp and for energy is estimated for the production of several woodfree (containing only chemical pulp) and mechanical (containing mechanical pulp) printing paper products, under Swedish conditions. Chemical pulp mills today are largely self-sufficient in energy while mechanical pulp mills depend on large amounts of external electricity. Technically, all energy used in pulp- and papermaking can be biomass based. Here, we assume that all energy used, including external electricity and motor fuels, is based on forest biomass. The whole cradle-to-gate chain is included in the analyses. The results indicate that the total amount of biomass required per tonne paper is slightly lower for woodfree than for mechanical paper. For the biomass use per paper area, the paper grammage is decisive. If the grammage can be lowered by increasing the proportion of mechanical pulp, this may lower the biomass use per paper area, despite the higher biomass use per unit mass in mechanical paper. In the production of woodfree paper, energy recovery from residues in the mill accounts for most of the biomass use, while external electricity production accounts for the largest part for mechanical paper. Motor fuel production accounts for 5–7% of the biomass use. The biomass contained in the final paper product is 21–42% of the total biomass use, indicating that waste paper recovery is important. The biomass use was found to be about 15–17% lower for modelled, modern mills compared with mills representative of today's average technology.

  • 149.
    Holmberg, Jonas M
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Systems aspects on new energy technologies in the pulp and paper industry2007Inngår i: Proceedings. 3rd International Green Energy Conference IGEC-III June 18 - 20, 2007 Västerås, Sweden, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about energy security, energy prices, and the impact of energy use on the global climate have put focus on ways to reduce CO2 emissions and oil dependency. In this paper we examine consequences of new energy technologies in the pulp and paper industry and estimate the costs for achieving certain CO2 emissions and oil use reductions with different pulp mill technologies. Stand-alone production of electricity and transportation fuel from biomass is included to balance the systems compared, so that they produce the same CO2 emission and oil use reductions. The technologies considered are black liquor gasification (BLG) with electricity and motor fuels production in chemical pulp mills and increased energy efficiency in mechanical pulp mills. The entire production chain from the extraction of primary resources is included in the analysis. Changes in the production chain are assumed to affect energy production on the margin. The technology alternatives are evaluated with respect to five parameters: Net CO2 emission, oil use, primary energy use, biomass use and monetary cost. We find that BLG in chemical pulp mills is favourable compared to stand-alone production of fuels and electricity from biomass. If both CO2 emission reductions and oil use reductions are to be achieved, it is more efficient to implement BLG with motor fuels production and stand-alone electricity production from biomass, than to implement BLG with electricity production and stand-alone production of motor fuels. Increased energy efficiency in refining of thermomechanical pulp is found to achieve CO2 savings more efficiently than stand-alone production of electricity from biomass.

  • 150.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    A life cycle energy perspective on the passive house concept2008Inngår i: First International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, Proceedings Vols 1-3 / [ed] Liu, JJ; Zhang, TF; Zhai, ZQ, Dalian, China: Dalian University Technology Press , 2008, s. 549-556Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When low-energy houses are being built the focus is often to minimize the final (purchased) energy in the operation phase. However, the primary energy is more relevant when evaluating buildings from an environmental perspective. As the. energy for operation decreases, the relative importance of the other life cycle phases increases and influences an optimization aiming at minimizing the life-cycle energy use. We have studied the primary energy use for production and operation of four types of buildings, when using different types of energy supply systems for the heating. We show that a house from the 1970s after refurbishment and change of heating supply system had about the same primary energy use as a so-called passive house. The CO2 emissions were 64% lower, when a biomass-based heating system was used. We also illustrate the higher relative importance of the production phase for a building with low energy demand and efficient heat supply systems for operation.

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