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  • 1101.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. Uppsala University, Sweden;Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Developing students' disciplinary literacy?: The case of university physics2018In: Global developments in literacy research for science education / [ed] Kok-Sing Tang & Kristina Danielsson, Springer, 2018, p. 357-376Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we use the concept of disciplinary literacy (Airey, 2011a, 2013) to analyze the goals of university physics lecturers. Disciplinary literacy refers to a particular mix of disciplinary-specific communicative practices developed for three specific sites: the academy, the workplace and society. It has been suggested that the development of disciplinary literacy may be seen as one of the primary goals of university studies (Airey, 2011a). The main data set used in this chapter comes from a comparative study of physics lecturers in Sweden and South Africa (Airey, 2012, 2013; Linder, Airey, Mayaba, & Webb, 2014). Semi-structured interviews were carried out using a disciplinary literacy discussion matrix (Airey, 2011b), which enabled us to probe the lecturers' disciplinary literacy goals in the various semiotic resource systems used in undergraduate physics (i.e. graphs, diagrams, mathematics, language). The findings suggest that whilst physics lecturers have strikingly similar disciplinary literacy goals for their students, regardless of setting, they have very different ideas about whether they themselves should teach students to handle these disciplinary-specific semiotic resources. It is suggested that the similarity in physics lecturers' disciplinary literacy goals across highly disparate settings may be related to the hierarchical, singular nature of the discipline of physics (Bernstein, 1999, 2000). In the final section of the chapter some preliminary evidence about the disciplinary literacy goals of those involved in physics teacher training is presented. Using Bernstein's constructs, a potential conflict between the hierarchical singular of physics and the horizontal region of teacher training is noticeable. Going forward it would be interesting to apply the concept of disciplinary literacy to the analysis of other disciplines-particularly those with different combinations of Bernstein's classifications of hierarchical/horizontal and singular/region.

  • 1102.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. Uppsala University.
    Larsson, Johanna
    Uppsala University.
    What Knowledge Do Trainee Physics Teachers Need to Learn?: Differences in the Views of Training Staff2014In: International Science Education Conference ISEC 2014, National Institute of Education, Singapore, 25-27 November, 2014, Singapore: Ministry of Education, National Institute of Education , 2014, p. 62-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the impact of disciplinary differences on teaching and learning has been extensively discussed in the literature (e.g. Becher 1989; Becher and Trowler 2001; Lindblom-Ylännea et al. 2006; Neumann 2001; Neumann and Becher 2002), little research has explored this issue in relation to teacher training. In particular, we know of no work that examines differing views about the knowledge that trainee teachers need to learn across different settings. In this paper we analyse differences in the expressed views of staff involved in the training of prospective physics teachers in three environments: the education department, the physics department and schools. We analyse these differences in terms of two constructs: disciplinary literacy goals (Airey 2011, 2013) and disciplinary knowledge structures (Bernstein 1999).

    In terms of disciplinary literacy we find a stronger emphasis on learning goals for the academy expressed by informants from the physics and education departments. This can be contrasted with the view that the needs of the workplace are paramount expressed by school practitioners.

    Then, using Bernstein’s knowledge structures, we also identify clear differences in views about the nature of knowledge itself with a more hierarchical view of knowledge prevalent in the physics department and the more horizontal view of knowledge prevalent in the education department.

    The study highlights the often-conflicting signals about what constitutes useful knowledge that prospective physics teachers need to negotiate during their training. We tentatively suggest that more attention should be paid to both the theory/practice divide and potential epistemological differences in the training of prospective teachers.

  • 1103.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. Uppsala University.
    Lauridsen, Karen M.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Rasanen, Anne
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Salo, Linus
    Stockholm University.
    Schwach, Vera
    Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education, Norway.
    The expansion of English-medium instruction in the Nordic countries: Can top-down university language policies encourage bottom-up disciplinary literacy goals?2017In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 561-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, in the wake of the Bologna Declaration and similar international initiatives, there has been a rapid increase in the number of university courses and programmes taught through the medium of English. Surveys have consistently shown the Nordic countries to be at the forefront of this trend towards English-medium instruction (EMI). In this paper, we discuss the introduction of EMI in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). We present the educational setting and the EMI debate in each of these countries and summarize relevant research findings. We then make some tentative suggestions for the introduction of EMI in higher education in other countries. In particular, we are interested in university language policies and their relevance for the day-to-day work of faculty. We problematize one-size-fits-all university language policies, suggesting that in order for policies to be seen as relevant they need to be flexible enough to take into account disciplinary differences. In this respect, we make some specific suggestions about the content of university language policies and EMI course syllabuses. Here we recommend that university language policies should encourage the discussion of disciplinary literacy goals and require course syllabuses to detail disciplinary-specific language-learning outcomes.

  • 1104.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. Uppsala University.
    Linder, Anne
    Uppsala University.
    Mayaba, Nokhanyo
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa.
    Webb, Paul
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa.
    Problematising Disciplinary Literacy in a Multilingual Society: The Case of University Physics in South Africa2013In: 21st Annual Conference of the Southern African Association for Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa, 14 - 17 January, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over a decade has passed since Northedge (2002) convincingly argued that the role of the university lecturer should be viewed as one of leading students on excursions into the specialist discourse of their field. In his view, disciplinary discourses have come into being in order to create and share disciplinary knowledge that could not otherwise be appropriately construed in everyday discourse. Thus, Northedge’s conclusion is that in order for disciplinary learning to occur, students will need explicit guidance in accessing and using the specialist discourse of their chosen field. Building on this work, Airey (in press) argues that all university lecturers are, at least to some extent, teachers of language—even in monolingual settings. A radical approach to this claim has been suggested by Wickman and Östman (2002) who insist that learning itself be treated as a form of discourse change.

    In an attempt to operationalise Wickman and Östman’s assertion, Airey (2011b) suggests that the goals of any undergraduate degree programme may be framed in terms of the development of disciplinary literacy. Here, disciplinary literacy is defined as the ability to appropriately participate in the communicative practices of a discipline. Further, in his subsequent work, Airey (2011a) claims that all disciplines attempt to meet the needs of three specific sites: the academy, the workplace and society. He argues that the relative emphasis placed on teaching for these three sites will be different from discipline to discipline and will indeed vary within a discipline depending on the setting. In the South African setting two questions arise from this assertion. The first is: For any given discipline, what particular balance between teaching for the academy, the workplace and society is desirable and/or practicable? The second question follows on from the first: Having pragmatically decided on the teaching balance between the academy, workplace and society, what consequences does the decision have for the language(s) that lecturers should be helping their students to interpret and use? In order to address these two questions we conducted an interview-based case study of the disciplinary literacy goals of South African university lecturers in one particular discipline (physics). Thus, our overarching research question is as follows: How do South African physics lecturers problematise the development of disciplinary literacy in their students?

    The data collected forms part of a larger international comparative study of the disciplinary literacy goals of physics lecturers in Sweden and South Africa. A disciplinary literacy discussion matrix (Airey, 2011a) was employed as the starting point for conducting in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 20 physics lecturers from five South African universities. The choice of these five universities was purposeful—their student cohorts encompassing a range of different first languages and cultural backgrounds. The interviews were conducted in English, lasted between 30 and 60 minutes, and were later transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were then analysed qualitatively. This involved “working with data, organizing it, breaking it into manageable units, synthesizing it, searching for patterns, discovering what is important and what is to be learned, and deciding what you will tell others” (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992:145).

    The main finding of this study is that all the lecturers mentioned language as being problematic in some way. However, there were a number of important differences in the ways the lecturers problematise the development of disciplinary literacy both across and within the different university physics departments. These differences can be seen to involve on the one hand, the lecturers’ own self-image in terms of whether they are comfortable with viewing themselves as language teachers/literacy developers, and on the other hand, their recognition of the diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds of their students. The differences will be illustrated and discussed using transcript excerpts. These findings are in contrast to parallel data collected in Sweden. In that particular (bilingual) setting, language was viewed as unproblematic, and the most striking characteristic was the very similarity of the responses of physics lecturers (Airey, in press). It is thus suggested that the differences in findings between Sweden and South Africa are a product of the latter’s diverse multilingual and multicultural environment. One pedagogical conclusion is that, given the differences in approach we find, inter- and intra faculty discussions about undergraduate disciplinary literacy goals would appear to have the distinct potential for reforming undergraduate physics. Similarly, an administrative conclusion is that a one-size-fits-all language policy for universities does not appear to be meaningful in such a diverse multilingual/multicultural environment.

    Finally, it should be mentioned that our choice of physics as an exemplar in this study has important implications for the interpretation of the findings. Drawing on Bernstein (1999), Martin (2011) suggests that disciplines have predominantly horizontal or hierarchical knowledge structures. Here it is claimed that physics has the most hierarchical knowledge structure of all disciplines. Thus, the findings presented here should be taken as illustrative of the situation in disciplines with more hierarchical knowledge structures (such as the natural and applied sciences). Kuteeva and Airey (in review) find that the issue of the language of instruction in such disciplines is viewed as much less problematic than in disciplines with more horizontal knowledge structures (such as the arts, humanities and, to some extent, social sciences). See Bennett (2010) for a provocative discussion of language use in such disciplines.

  • 1105.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Linder, C
    Language and the experience of learning university physics in Sweden2006In: European journal of physics, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 553-560Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1106.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala University.
    A Disciplinary Discourse Perspective on University Science Learning: Achieving Fluency in a Critical Constellation of Modes2009In: Journal of Research in Science Teaching, ISSN 0022-4308, E-ISSN 1098-2736, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 27-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this theoretical article we use an interpretative study with physics undergraduates to exemplify a proposed characterization of student learning in university science in terms of fluency in disciplinary discourse. Drawing on ideas from a number of different sources in the literature, we characterize what we call “disciplinary discourse” as the complex of representations, tools and activities of a discipline, describing how it can be seen as being made up of various “modes”. For university science, examples of these modes are: spoken and written language, mathematics, gesture, images (including pictures, graphs and diagrams), tools (such as experimental apparatus and measurement equipment), and activities (such as ways of working—both practice and praxis, analytical routines, actions, etc.). Using physics as an illustrative example, we discuss the relationship between the ways of knowing that constitute a discipline and the modes of disciplinary discourse used to represent this knowing. The data comes from stimulated recall interviews where physics undergraduates discuss their learning experiences during lectures. These interviews are used to anecdotally illustrate our proposed characterization of learning and its associated theoretical constructs. Students describe a repetitive practice aspect to their learning, which we suggest is necessary for achieving fluency in the various modes of disciplinary discourse. Here we found instances of discourse imitation, where students are seemingly fluent in one or more modes of disciplinary discourse without having related this to a teacher-intended disciplinary way of knowing. The examples lead to the suggestion that fluency in a critical constellation of modes of disciplinary discourse may be a necessary (though not always sufficient) condition for gaining meaningful holistic access to disciplinary ways of knowing. One implication is that in order to be effective, science teachers need to know which modes are critical for an understanding of the material they wish to teach.

  • 1107.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala University ; University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Bilingual Scientific Literacy2011In: Exploring the landscape of scientific literacy / [ed] C. Linder, L. Östman, D. Roberts, P.-O. Wickman, G. Ericksen & A. MacKinnon, London: Routledge , 2011, p. 106-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1108.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Bilingual Scientific Literacy...2008In: Paper presented at Canadian Society for the Study of Education Conference 31 May-3 June 2008, University of British Columbia, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1109.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Bilingual Scientific Literacy? The Use of English in Swedish University Science Courses2008In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 145-161Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1110.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Disciplinary learning in a second language: A case study from university physics2007In: Researching Content and Language Integration in Higher Education / [ed] Wilkinson, R. & Zegers, V., Maastricht:: Maastricht University Language Centre , 2007, p. 161-171Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1111.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Inte en fråga om vilket språk som är bäst …2006In: Debattartikel universitetsläraren 14-2006Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1112.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Language, Bandwidth and the Shared Space of Learning2004In: EARLI SIG 9 Conference: Phenomenography and Variation Theory Go to School. 18-21 August 2004. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1113.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Languages, Modality and Disciplinary Knowledge2006In: ICLHE 2006: Integrating Content and Language in Higher Education. 28 June – 1 July 2006. University of Maastricht, Maastricht, Netherlands, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1114.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Learning from complementary representations: a disciplinary discourse approach2007In: 12th biennial EARLI 2007 conference, 27 August - 1 September 2007. University of Szeged, Budapest, Hungary, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1115.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Learning in a Second Language. Two Case Studies from University Physics2006In: ICLHE 2006: Integrating Content and Language in Higher Education, University of Maastricht, Netherlands, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1116.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Learning through English: further insights from a case study in Swedish university physics2008In: Paper presented at NU2008, Kalmar, University of Kalmar, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1117.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Looking for Links between Learning and the Discursive Practices of University Science2005In: 11th EARLI biennial conference, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1118.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Representations, tools and activities: A disciplinary discourse approach to multimodal science learning2006In: EARLI SIG-2 biennial meeting, 30 August - 1 September 2006, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1119.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. Uppsala University.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala University.
    Social semiotics in university physics education: Leveraging critical constellations of disciplinary representations2015In: Science Education Research: Engaging learners for a sustainable future / [ed] Jari Lavonen, Kalle Juuti, Jarkko Lampiselkä, Anna Uitto, Kaisa Hahl, European Science Education Research Association , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social semiotics is a broad construct where all communication is viewed as being realized through signs and their signification. In physics education we usually refer to these signs as disciplinary representations. These disciplinary representations are the semiotic resources used in physics communication, such as written and oral languages, diagrams, graphs, mathematics, apparatus and simulations. This alternative depiction of representations is used to build theory with respect to the construction and sharing of disciplinary knowledge in the teaching and learning of university physics. Based on empirical studies of physics students cooperating to explain the refraction of light, a number of theoretical constructs were developed. In this presentation we describe these constructs and examine their usefulness for problematizing teaching and learning in university physics. The theoretical constructs are: fluency in semiotic resources, disciplinary affordance and critical constellations.

    The conclusion formulates a proposal that has these constructs provide university physics teachers with a new set of meaningfully and practical tools, which will enable them to re-conceptualize their practice in ways that have the distinct potential to optimally enhance student learning.

  • 1120.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    The disciplinary discourse of university physics: learning through fluency in a critical constellation of representations2008In: Paper presented at NU2008, Kalmar, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1121.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Linder, Cedric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Tvåspråkig ämneskompetens? En studie av naturvetenskaplig parallellspråkighet i svensk högre utbildning: Bilingual disciplinary literacy? A study of parallel language use in Swedish undergraduate science2010In: Språkvård och språkpolitik: Svenska språknämndens forskningskonferens i Saltsjöbaden 2008 = Language planning and language policy : proceedings of the Swedish Language Council Research Conference in Saltsjöbaden 2008 / [ed] Lars-Gunnar Andersson, Olle Josephson, Inger Lindberg, Mats Thelander, Stockholm: Norstedts Förlag, 2010, p. 195-212Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1122.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. Uppsala University.
    Urban, Eriksson
    Uppsala University ; Kristianstad University.
    A Semiotic Analysis of the Disciplinary Affordances of the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram in Astronomy2014In: The 5th International 360 Conference, Encompassing the multimodality of knowledge, May 8-10 2014, Aarhus University, Denmark, Aarhus: Aarhus University , 2014, p. 22-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the central characteristics of disciplines is that they create their own particular ways of knowing the world through their discourse (Airey & Linder 2009). This process is facilitated by the specialization and refinement of disciplinary-specific semiotic resources over time. Nowhere is this truer than in the sciences, where it is the norm that disciplinary-specific representations have been introduced and then refined by a number of different actors (Airey 2009). As a consequence, many of the semiotic resources used in the sciences today still retain some traces of their historical roots. This makes the aquisition of disciplinary literacy (Airey, 2013) particularly problematic (see Eriksson et al. 2014 for an example from astronomy).

     In this paper we analyse one such disciplinary-specific semiotic resource from the field of Astronomy—the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We audit the potential of this semiotic resource to provide access to disciplinary knowledge—what Fredlund et al (2012) have termed its disciplinary affordances. Our analysis includes consideration of the use of scales, labels, symbols, sizes and colour. We show how, for historical reasons, the use of these aspects in the resource may differ from what might be expected by a newcomer to the discipline.

    We suggest that some of the issues we highlight in our analysis may, in fact, be contributors to alternative conceptions and therefore propose that lecturers pay particular attention to the disambiguation of these features for their students.

  • 1123.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. Uppsala University.
    Urban, Eriksson
    Uppsala University ; Kristianstad University.
    What do you see here?: Using an analysis of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in astronomy to create a survey of disciplinary discernment.2014In: The first Conference of the International Association for Cognitive Semiotics, Lund, Sweden, 25-27 Sept 2014, 2014, p. 52-53Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming part of a discipline involves learning to interpret and use a range of disciplinary-specific semiotic resources (Airey, 2009). These resources have been developed and assigned particular specialist meanings over time. Nowhere is this truer than in the sciences, where it is the norm that disciplinary-specific representations have been introduced and then refined by a number of different actors in order to reconcile them with subsequent empirical and theoretical advances. As a consequence, many of the semiotic resources used in the sciences today still retain some (potentially confusing) traces of their historical roots. However, it has been repeatedly shown that university lecturers underestimate the challenges such disciplinary specific semiotic resources may present to undergraduates (Northedge, 2002; Tobias, 1986).

    In this paper we analyse one such disciplinary-specific semiotic resource from the field of Astronomy—the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. First, we audit the potential of this semiotic resource to provide access to disciplinary knowledge—what Fredlund et al (2012) have termed its disciplinary affordances. Our analysis includes consideration of the use of scales, labels, symbols, sizes and colour. We show how, for historical reasons, the use of these aspects in the resource may differ from what might be expected by a newcomer to the discipline. Using the results of our analysis we then created an online questionnaire to probe what is discerned (Eriksson, Linder, Airey, & Redfors, in press) with respect to each of these aspects by astronomers and physicists ranging from first year undergraduates to university professors.

    Our findings suggest that some of the issues we highlight in our analysis may, in fact, be contributors to the alternative conceptions of undergraduate students and we therefore propose that lecturers pay particular attention to the disambiguation of these features for their students.

  • 1124.
    Aisindi, Jonna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The Marginal Social Worker: Exploring how Namibian social work students perceive and implement knowledge from a study exchange in Sweden.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how social work approaches and methods developed and practiced in one context can be interpreted, transferred and implemented in another. Additionally it focuses on how cultures and societies are organised both in individualistic and collectivistic societies and its effects on different approaches and conditions for social work. The data was collected from Namibian social work students that have participated in the Linnaeus Palme exchange program, which is an ongoing cooperation between the Swedish University West and University of Namibia. The results show that what the Namibian students foremost learn during their exchange studies in Sweden has to do with client interaction, critical thinking and dimensions of increased self-awareness. The assimilation of knowledge and possibilities to transfer and implement what they have learned in Sweden in a Namibian social work context is understood with the help of the theoretical concepts of the marginal man and transferability of knowledge. Shaped by the Namibian hybrid society, where the respondents are part of an ongoing negotiation between different antipoles and mediation between various cultural contexts, I argue that they are marginal social workers. Through their marginal experience they are in possession of qualities that are crucial in their process of transferability of knowledge and further create conditions for implementing new knowledge in the Namibian work practice.

  • 1125.
    Aissani, D.
    et al.
    University of Bejaia, Algeria.
    Flammini, Francesco
    University of Maryland University College (UMUC) Europe, Germany.
    Editorial2017In: International Journal of Critical Computer-Based Systems, ISSN 1757-8779, E-ISSN 1757-8787, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1126.
    Aittokallio, Mihail
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Provocation and Millennials: Explorative study on millennials ́ emotional response2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction​: Market has saturated in the point where customers are facing advertising overload. For companies it can be difficult task to achieve attention among desired target audience. Millennials

    have become one of the most valuable target group that companies are aiming to target. One way to achieve attention is to do provocative advertising that aims to shock, or violate millennials norms, principles or social cause. Millennials is a special demographic group, compared to previous ones, baby boomers and generation X, since they are more resistant towards provocation. Thys, thesis stress the importance of exploring millennials emotional response when they are exposed to provocation.

    Purpose: ​The purpose of this paper is to explore Millennials ́ emotional response when exposed to provocative advertising. Research Questions: ‘​Which negative emotions provoke millennials?’ and ‘Which positive emotions provoke millennials?’

    Theoretical Framework: ​Theory foundation is builded on provocative advertising and emotional response. Provocative advertising is divided into shock, and social cause. Emotional response concentrates on positive and negative emotions.

    Method: ​The authors of this paper used qualitative approach, deductive structure with explorative purpose that is aiming for in-depth information. Total amount of 8 semi-structured interviews were recorded. Information from interviews were further comprehended via coding schedule.

    Empirical Investigation: ​Empirical chapter presents the main patterns of information from interviews. Chapter is divided into negative and positive parts. This chapters are following the coding schedule structure where main chapters are divided into subchapters based on the sub-categories of coding schedule.

    Analysis: ​The analysis of the empirical investigation showed important information regarding millennials emotional response. Analysis presented that negative emotional response of fear, anger,

    sadness and disgust are evoked when millennials are exposed to provocative advertising. While emotional response of positive emotions, millennials expressed emotional response of contentment to provocative advertising. Thus, no emotional response of love, pride, or happiness was found.

    Conclusion: ​Conclusion of the thesis presented the important findings that millennials are more likely expressing negative than positive emotional response when they are exposed to provocative advertising. Thus emotional response of fear, anger, sadness, disgust or/and contentment were Millennials emotional response to provocative advertising.

  • 1127.
    Ajazaj, Vanessa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Guldhjelm, Alexandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mäns livskvalité efter en radikal prostatektomi: En systematisk litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Prostatacancer är den mest förekommande cancerdiagnosen i Sverige. Diagnosen kan vara påfrestande för mannen och symtom såsom smärta och känslan av rädsla är vanligt. En av de vanligaste behandlingarna är radikal prostatektomi där hela mannens prostata avlägsnas. Det är viktigt att sjuksköterskan kan ge mannen stöd och hjälp i att förbättra sin livskvalité. Studien har förankrats i Världshälsoorganisationens definition av livskvalité samt Sprangers och Schwartz teoretiska modell om response shift.

    Syfte: Beskriva livskvalitén hos män som har genomgått en radikal prostatektomi. Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie med induktiv ansats. Datainsamlingen resulterade i att 21 artiklar kvalitetsgranskades. Totalt inkluderades åtta artiklar i resultatet och en kvalitativ innehållsanalys genomfördes.

    Resultat: I resultatet identifierades huvudkategorierna: Fysiska symtom, Psykiska symtom, Behovet av stöd och Den nya vardagen. Det som främst påverkade livskvalitén var de urologiska besvären och att det sexuella samlivet påverkades. Många män fann att stödet från en partner och sjukvården hade stor betydelse för deras tillfrisknande samt hur de upplevde sin livskvalité.

    Slutsats: Majoriteten av männen upplevde en negativ påverkan på livskvalitén efter en radikal prostatektomi. Värderingar och prioriteringar lades om bland många män, vilket kan tyda på att response shift inträtt. Denna studie kan ge sjuksköterskor en ökad kunskap om hur mannens livskvalité kan påverkas efter en radikal prostatektomi relaterat till response shift.

  • 1128.
    Ajdahi, Sami
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stolthet-statusmodellen och attityder till utbildning: En kvantitativ studie om hur gymnasielevers upplevelser av stolthet och social status korrelerar med deras attityder till utbildning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research by Cheng, Tracy and Henrich (2010) has identified relationships betweentwo facets of pride and two different strategies to attain social status. These relationships havebeen conceptualized to a pride-status model. The model has been tested on an Americanpopulation and only in one study has it been tested in a Swedish context. Moreover, there areno previous studies on the possible relationship between the pride-status model and positiveattitudes towards post-secondary education. Therefore, the purposes of this study were toinvestigate if the pride-status model is valid on a Swedish population and investigate how thedifferent status strategies and facets of pride relate to positive attitudes towards post-secondary education. In order to examine this, a convenience sample consisting of 609students in high school preparing for post-secondary education rated subjective experiences offacets of pride, social status strategies and attitudes towards post-secondary education. Thestudents’ ratings were correlated with each other and the difference between the correlationswas examined. The findings show that the pride-status model is partly valid on a Swedishpopulation and that the status strategies correlated significantly with positive attitudes towardspost-secondary education. The facets of pride were significantly correlated with positiveattitudes towards post-secondary education to some extent. Possible explanations of thefindings are discussed together with a methodology discussion and proposals for futureresearch within the area of the pride-status model and attitudes towards education.

  • 1129.
    Ajdinovic Abdulah, Sanita
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Kulturell mångfald i förskola: Hur förskollärare anser sig behandla barns olika kulturer i en gemenskap som förskola2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att ta reda på hur en grupp förskollärare beskriver sitt arbete med fokus på kulturell mångfald i förskolan. I studien undersöks dels hur förskollärarna förhåller sig till begreppet kulturell mångfald i verksamheten med barnen, dels vad de lyfter fram som viktigt i kontakten med föräldrarna sett ur detta perspektiv. Vidare studeras vad förskollärarna anser om den egna kompetensen beträffande kulturell mångfald i förskolan. Undersökningen baseras på sju kvalitativa intervjuer. Förskolorna som ingick i studien bestod både av homogena och av heterogena barngrupper utifrån den kulturella aspekten.

    Tydlighet i mötet både med barnen och deras föräldrar, samt öppenhet, nygikenhet och förmåga att se till hela individen är enligt förskollärarna det essentiella i arbetet med kulturell mångfald. Resultatet visar att respondenterna huvudsakligen knyter begreppet kulturell mångfald till skillnader mellan länder, även om kultur också innebär olikhete ri synsätt, livsstil, uppväxtvillkor etc. Förskollärarna anser sig i stort sett förberedda för att möta och arbeta med barn från olika kulturer samtidigt som de gärna vill skaffa sig ytterligare kunskaper om andras kultur.

  • 1130.
    Ajeta, Vjosa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Social Work.
    Hasselquist, Maja
    Mottagandet i särskolan: -En kvalitativ studie på vilka bedömningsgrnder två kommuner fattar beslut om elevers rätt till inskrivning i särskolan2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1131.
    Ajvazaj, Albina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Påverkande faktorer på internkommunikation: En fallstudie på en offentlig verksamhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1132.
    Akampurira, Sam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Understanding the role of regulation in improving the contribution of private sector towards health care delivery  in Uganda2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1133.
    Akan, Fatih
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Backman, Wilhelm
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Kok, Kim Fai
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    How to wrestle the Dragon to overcome the Great Wall: A case study on how Swedish SME’s handle institutional barriers in China2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decade there have been a large increase of Swedish companies entering the Chinese market. It has been explained that entering the Chinese market can be the biggest challenge a firm will face. It has therefore been of great interest to study this problem. We have in this thesis chosen to study Swedish SME’s established in China, and how they have used their business network to overcome institutional barriers. This study also has the objectives of giving a description of the general procedures of setting up a business in China, and to prepare other firms that have plans on entering the Chinese on what the most common obstacles there are when setting up a business in China.

    To be able to fulfill our objectives a qualitative research method and an abductive research approach must be applied. The empirical findings will consist of primary data and that is collected through semi-structured interviews in both Sweden and China. The theoretical framework consists of theories regarding Institution theory, Business Network theory, and the concept of guanxi.

    In our analysis we have combined our empirical data with our theoretical framework to be able to analyze and answer to what extent a business network can be used to overcome institutional barriers when setting up a business in China.

    Through our analysis we have drawn the conclusion that through the business network’s knowledge, experience and guanxi it has made it possible for firms to set-up in China.

    Keywords

    Institutional Barriers, Legitimacy, Business Network, Experiential Knowledge, Guanxi, China.

  • 1134.
    Akeab, Imad
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Accurate techniques for 2D electromagnetic scattering2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three parts. The first part is an introduction and referencessome recent work on 2D electromagnetic scattering problems at high frequencies. It alsopresents the basic integral equation types for impenetrable objects. A brief discussionof the standard elements of the method of moments is followed by summaries of thepapers.Paper I presents an accurate implementation of the method of moments for a perfectlyconducting cylinder. A scaling for the rapid variation of the solution improves accuracy.At high frequencies, the method of moments leads to a large dense system of equations.Sparsity in this system is obtained by modifying the integration path in the integralequation. The modified path reduces the accuracy in the deep shadow.In paper II, a hybrid method is used to handle the standing waves that are prominentin the shadow for the TE case. The shadow region is treated separately, in a hybridscheme based on a priori knowledge about the solution. An accurate method to combinesolutions in this hybrid scheme is presented.

  • 1135.
    Akeab, Imad
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    High frequency scattering and spectral methods2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of five parts. The first part is an introduction with references to some recent work on 2D electromagnetic scattering problems at high frequencies. It also presents the basic integral equation types for impenetrable objects and the standard elements of the method of moments. An overview of frequency modulated radar at low frequencies is followed by summaries of the papers.

    Paper I presents an accurate implementation of the method of moments for a perfectly conducting cylinder. A scaling for the rapid variation of the solution improves accuracy. At high frequencies, the method of moments leads to a large dense system of equations. Sparsity in this system is obtained by the modification of the path in the integral equation. The modified path reduces the accuracy in the deep shadow.

    In paper II, a hybrid method is used to handle the standing waves that are prominent in the shadow for the cylindrical TE case. The shadow region is treated separately, in a hybrid scheme based on a priori knowledge about the solution. An accurate method to combine solutions in this hybrid scheme is presented.

    In paper III, the surface current in the shadow zone of a convex or a concave scatterer is approximated by extracting the dominant waves. An accurate technique based on the symmetric discrete Fourier transform is used to extract the complex wavenumbers and amplitudes for those waves. The dominant waves constitute a concise form of scaling that is used to improve the performance of the method of moments. The effect of surface curvature on the dominant waves has been investigated in this work.

    In paper IV, frequency modulated continuous wave radar (FMCW) at low frequency is studied as a way to locate targets that are normally not detected by conventional radar. Three separate platforms with isotropic antennas are used for this purpose. The trilateration method is a way to locate the targets accurately by means of spectral techniques.

    The problem of ghost targets has been studied for monostatic and multistatic radar. In the case of confluent echoes in the spectra, potentially missing echoes are reinserted in order to locate all targets. The Capon method is used to obtain high resolution spectra and thus reduce the confluence problem. The need for bandwidth is also reduced.

  • 1136.
    Aked, Lotta
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Andersson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pedagogers tolkningar kring kvalitetsarbete2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårt syfte med detta arbete är att ta reda på pedagogers syn på kvalitet i förskolan, hur pedagoger arbetar med kvalitetsarbete systematiskt samt vilka förutsättningar som finns. Undersökningen är gjord genom kvalitativa intervjuer med åtta pedagoger som idag arbetar inom förskolan. Resultatet som framkommit i undersökningen visar att alla intervjuade pedagoger har en samsyn när det gäller vad begreppet kvalitet i förskolan står för och vi har mött åtta engagerade, duktiga och professionella pedagoger med stora hjärtan som gör allt för att försöka driva en god förskola med barnet i fokus. En viktig förutsättning för att uppnå god kvalitet är att det finns resurser i form av anpassad personaltäthet till barngruppens storlek men också att tid finns avsatt för att utföra systematiskt kvalitetsarbete. Resultatet visar också att pedagogerna har full kunskap om hur arbetet bör göras för att kvalitetsarbeta systematiskt men att mycket fallerar på grund av förutsättningarna.

  • 1137.
    Akermark, Adam
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering.
    Svensson, Martin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering.
    Piratkopiering - en oändlig historia?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract (English)

    Background: Illegal copying increases rapidly. Software-, game- and music industry are experiencing troubled times at the moment. Today, a practically ignorant person would have no problems to get hold of a newly published record before it reaches the stores because of the

    illegal copying. This problem is made possible due to that no good solution exists. Copy protection isn’t good enough and peer-to-peer-networks are bigger than ever. In this work we will examine specifically the music industry.

    Purpose: We will specialize in the term of illegal copying. Further we want to enlight and inform the music industry as well as the users of the problem and it´s future. We hope the result we will achieve can be a foundation for further research.

    Realization: We have gathered our information from articles on the Internet and also from updated literature. Interviews were made over the phone with Magnus Mårtensson, IFPI (International Federation of the Phonographic Industry), Anna Burén, lawyer of copyright at

    Swedish Radio, Per Sandin, General manager EMI marketing and also a lot of Internetsuppliers. We have also compilated an inquiry which has been replied to by many people.

    Conclusion: Many of the buyers from the past consider the cost of a CD far too high. Instead they have discovered the illegal copying and its unlimited functions. They have also realized how easy you can get new music without reprisals, which mostly depends on the vague and

    not to scary laws. Music companies are losing money and therefore they raise the prize of a single CD, simultaneously as they work to find the perfect copy protection. The future looks uncertain and for the moment, those who are copying along with peer-to-peer-networks have

    all the trumps.

    Keywords: mp3, CD, copy-protection, peer-to-peer-networks, copyright, illegal copying, music companies.

  • 1138.
    Akhabari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Scarbrough, Paul
    Brock University, St Catharines, Canada.
    Wennberg, Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Target Costing as a Dynamic Capability in Swedish Publicly Traded Companies2012In: Paper presented at the 8th Asia-Pacific Management Accounting Association Annual Conference, Xiamen, China, November 14-17, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The increased importance of product development can be seen in both recent research on Dynamic Capabilities as well as research on the use of Target Costing (TC). The Dynamic Capabilities literature is primarily developed in the USA and Europe, while the TC practice is rooted in Japanese practices and has been transferred to the west. This study examines the relationship between the Dynamic Capabilities of the product development team and the implementation of Target Costing (TC) in publicly traded companies in Sweden. Using established concepts from both the Dynamic Capabilities and Target Costing literatures we find partial support for the relationship. We suggest that there may be a bias in the development of Dynamic Capability research that does not comprehend organization practices such as those seen in Japan, Sweden and in Lean Production organizations more generally. Reasons for this are discussed and proposals for further research are proposed.

  • 1139.
    Akhbari, Mohammad Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sullivan Svensson, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Påverkan mellan ekonomistyrningen och inköpsfunktionen: En studie av Sandvik och Scania2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title:

    The Impact of Management Control Systems on the Purchaser Function - A study of Scania and Sandvik Authors: Mohammad Reza Akhbari and Johanna Sullivan Svensson Published: 2011 Keywords: Management control, purchasing function, impact, control, control instruments, Key Performance Indicators, measurement, communication and organizational structure. Background and problem formulation: In order for a company’s business idea or vision to be fulfilled, the management of a company needs assistance from various means to intentionally affect the operation in the desired direction. Management control concerns activities of both financial and non-financial character in order to implement the strategy of a company and to reach profitability. Since the purchaser function is responsible of spending 50 percent of a company’s total revenue, the function has an optimal starting point to be a key actor in the shaping and execution of a company’s strategic plan. The management control and the purchaser function can therefore impact each other, and how this appears and why, constitutes the problem that we have studied. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine the impact between the management control and the purchaser function and to explain why it appears this way.

    Method:

    To answer our objective we chose to interview and to study two companies in the manufacturing industry in order to compare and draw similarities, as well as differences in how our problem seems in reality. The approach of our study can be seen as deductive as we have built upon theory in order to compare the result with the empirical data when we drew the conclusion.

    Theory:

    We have studied a variety of literature and articles that treat the management control system in its entirety and governance within the purchaser function. In our theoretical references one can find Inga-Lill Johansson different perspectives of the use of information in 4

    an organization, the aspect of measurement and follow-up on the management control system by van Weele, as well as the theory of the purchaser function as a gatekeeper by Lau et al.

    Conclusion:

    The result of the study proves that there is an impact between the management control system and the purchaser function. This influence already occurs when the choices of the control instruments are being made, as these are based on the overall strategy and vision of the company. By doing performance measurements the companies can se whether the impact is negative or positive. We further prove the impact of the purchaser function on the management control based on its location in the organizational structure. Finally we draw the conclusion that the flow of information between the management control and the purchaser function is used as basis for the impact between the two.

  • 1140.
    Akhbari, Mohammad Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Wennberg, Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Target Costing i Large Cap: -2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Master Thesis G3 in Business Administration, Business School at Linnaeus University, Management Control, 4FE90E, Spring 2012

    Authors: Mohammad Akhbari och Eric Wennberg

    Tutor: Jan Alpenberg

    Title: Target Costing in Large Cap

    Background and problem formulation: Since the 1980s, the product of the company has become increasingly important, because of increased competition and rapid technological development. To succeed in the Product development, “Target Costing” can be used as an important financial tool to calculate costs based on an established price and profit margin. Research shows that the method widely has been applied in Japan, but studies of the method’s prevalence in Sweden, however, are quite limited.

    Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the Swedish companies applying “Target Costing” in their product development process. Furthermore, the study aims to analyze respondents’ dysfunctional, performance related, successfulness and dynamic experiences of the method. Finally, the intention is to interpret the correlation between the use and experiences of the method in relation to the corporate influential factors. The essay is limited to the companies listed on the “Large Cap” on the Stockholm Stock Exchange and engaged in activities related to product development.

    Theory: We have studied a variety of literature and articles that treat the Target Costing in its entirety within the product development processes. In our theoretical references one can find Ansari et al, Cooper, Robinson and several other researcher describing the implementation and performance factors of Target Costing.

    Method: The study is based on a quantitative survey carried out to 40 companies. The empirical data have been analyzed by theoretical studies and research in this area. Study findings and conclusions are finally discussed based on the thesis of reference.

    Conclusion: Target Costing is used by 22 of 32 companies on Large Cap, which amounts to 69 percent. The use is influenced by the factors; industrial type, sales orientation, profit margin, revenue and staff numbers. Correlations have also been established between their experiences and the factors mentioned above, where the sales approach excels.

  • 1141.
    Akhsassi, Rania
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Foreign Market Entry Strategy & International Franchising: Doing Business in Morocco2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s market environment is increasingly growing due to the economical globalization; with international trade, financial transfers and foreign direct investments the economy is becoming highly interconnected. The advances in communication and transportation technology combined with free-market ideology, have given products and services remarkable mobility. Nowadays, international companies are focusing on opening the world markets to their goods especially in emerging markets in order to take advantage of these markets opportunities and be part of its developing and growing infrastructure.

    In order for international companies to enter foreign markets, there are a variety of factors to consider while planning a strategic approach to reach new customers and differentiate their products and services from national and international competitors within the chosen market. This thesis will focus on featuring the significant factors that could affect companies entering new markets; the study is a qualitative single case study of IKEA, it will specifically investigate IKEA’s franchising in the Moroccan market and forms of internal and external factors that could affect IKEA’s entry into the market as well as it will highlight the main concepts that managers should consider when planning to enter the Moroccan market.

    The study was based on theoretical framework combined with empirical findings that were collected from secondary data such as annually reports and trade documents as well as through conducting in-depth interviews with IKEA’s managers to increase the study reliability and validity.

    According to the study findings and analytical results, the conclusion is that IKEA will not face major internal and external obstacles that would affect their operations significantly. There are few factors that could arise while entering the Moroccan market but from a holistic view this minor interferences can be overcame through IKEA’s full awareness of the market and their application of a vigorous, flexible and convenient strategic approach.

  • 1142.
    Akhtar, Asim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Alahi, Hassan Mateen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Sehnan, Moeed
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Simulation of Phased Arrays with Rectangular Microstrip Patches on Photonic Crystal Substrates2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the investigation of photonic crystals as a substrate in microstrip phased array antennas. Alumina with a relative dielectric constant of 9.6 is used as substrate to obtain miniaturization of the components in the high-frequency range. The proposed design consists of four rectangular patches in a linear array conguration operating at 12 GHz. The antenna elements are excited by a microstrip feed line using the inset feeding technique for perfect impedance matching. A beam steering of 20o is achieved using a switched line phase shifter. Antenna parameters, including impedance matching, bandwidth, gain, directivity and the S parameters of the proposed array antenna are obtained. The simulation results are obtained with the Advanced Design System (ADS) simulator.

  • 1143.
    Akhtar, Mahroz
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Mahmood, Awais
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Challenges faced by “Pakistani entrepreneurs” in different cultural context2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research paper is to explore the challenges faced by Pakistani entrepreneurs in different cultural context of Sweden and Pakistan.

    Design/methodology/approach – In order to collect primary data, authors has conducted six interviews of Pakistani entrepreneurs. Three entrepreneurs were taken from Pakistan and three were taken from Sweden. For this research paper, authors has used Inductive approach as Research approach, Case study as research design, Qualitative data as research strategy, primary and secondary data as data sources and in-depth semi-structured interviews as data collection method, purposive and snowball method were used to select sample size. For the sake of collecting secondary data, two search engines were used; One Search and Google Scholar. Different published articles and journals were utilized in order to critically analyze Literature on similar topic.

    Conclusion – Challenges faced by Pakistani entrepreneurs in Pakistan are brand registration problem, corruption, Lack of support, Labour problem, Law and order, High taxes, Loan problem, Load shedding problem, high approach and high rental expenses. Explored challenges in Sweden are; Language barrier, Employees problem, Loan problem, High taxes, Saturation, less availability of shops, Racism, requirements for Swedish licences.

    Research limitations/implications – This research paper is only limited to Pakistani entrepreneurs who have start-ups in Pakistan and in Sweden.

  • 1144.
    Akhtar, Mehreen
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Female and Gender Leadership: Under Representation of Female Leaders2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When we talk about the females employment in different organization, it is till treated in different disciplines. There are some gaps linked to it which still need to be filled in order to give equal opportunities to females as well. Although, from the last few decades it is been said and noticed that the number of females are rising to the top which is a symbol of progressive social change. However, it is also been noticed that there is still gender inequality in top management positions which leads to under presentation of females in top management position.

    The society and the masculine man has developed some theories. Due to which, it is been said that female qualities do not contribute to the required management attributes. For instance, In order to have an executive role, a person must be more aggressive, competitive, more task oriented etc. but females always have the opposite qualities. For instance, interpersonal relations, emotional, collaborative etc.

    This paper is an effort that shows the obstacles that woman faces in order to reach top management positions. Moreover, I also tried to describe that the traditional leadership model is linked to the masculine stereotypes. Henceforth, I tried to explain that the new organizational culture requires also the feminine stereotypes (emotions, interpersonal relations, cooperation etc). So, one could say that the leadership is not just linked to the masculine stereotypes but it also requires more of feminine qualities as well.

    The empirical study involves the semi structured interviews from men and women on management positions and also general discussions with the public. Based on these interviews and discussions I tried to analyze if both male and female follow the gender stereotypes and if they have difference in leadership styles according to gender.

    Hence, companies should have a more diversity in their organization in order to have more flexibility in organizational culture.

  • 1145.
    Akhtar, Naeem
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering.
    Alzghoul, Ahmad
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering.
    Time performance comparison in determining the weak parts in wooden logs2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The steadily increasing demand of wood forces sawmills to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of their equipments. The weak parts and the twist in wooden logs have been documented as the most common and crucial defect in sawn lumber.

    In this thesis we are going to implement a program which is able to determine the weak parts in wooden logs. The implementation will be in two languages C++ and Matlab. Parts of the program are going to be implemented sometimes by C++ and sometimes by Matlab therefore different designs are going to be tested. The aim of this thesis is to check whether these designs will meet the real time bound of 10 m/s.

    The result shows that there is a huge difference in time performance for the different designs. Therefore, different discretization levels were used in order to meet the deadline of 10m/s. We found that in order to get better speed one should calculate the matrix for the function F and the Jacobian function J by using C++ not by Matlab. Also we found that when we called functions from one language to another an extra time is added.

  • 1146.
    Akillioglu Popescu, Sabrinne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Barnets bästa i komplexa vårdnadstvister: En kvalitativ intervjustudie ur familjerättssekreterares perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how family law caseworkers in Sweden handle the mediation process in child custody disputes. Three themes were emphasized: the child’s best interest, strategies to maintain the child’s best interest and family conflicts and high-conflict families. To get an understanding of how these themes relate to child custody disputes, I conducted semi-structured interviews with family law caseworkers, since working with custody cases is part of their daily work. I chose a qualitative method because I was striving for diverse and comprehensive responses about family caseworkers’ practical experience in dealing with custody disputes. When asked about the definition of the child’s best interest, all respondents agreed that it is an open concept, implying that the definition depends on the specific circumstances surrounding the case. Generally, the respondents were of the opinion that the child’s best interest is synonymous with joint custody. The respondents stated that they employ different strategies to ensure that the child’s best interest is maintained, which is a result of their relatively high discretion. They stressed that while their primary focus is on dialogue with the parents, they use child testimonies as an additional guidance when determining what constitutes the child’s best in the case at hand. However, they also pointed out that a child’s wishes do not always coincide with the child’s best interest. When it comes to high-conflict families, the respondents concluded that the term has not been established in practice, although the problems associated with such families were recognized. After I presented the formal definition outlined in American research, the respondents agreed that the definition is useful in practice.

  • 1147. Akimov, D.
    et al.
    Bergstrom, L.
    Bilger, R.
    Bogoslavsky, D.
    Bolozdynya, A.
    Bondar, A.
    Calen, H.
    Carius, Staffan
    Uppsala University.
    Clement, H.
    Chernyshev, B.
    Chilingarov, A.
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  • 1148.
    Akin, Serdar
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Företagsvärdering av Betsson AB: En jämförelse mellan kassaflödesvärdering och Relativvärdering2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1149.
    Akinder, Linnea
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Brink, Sandra
    Hur ofta får elever vara med och bestämma?: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om hur elever ser på sin delaktighet och inflytande på fritidshemmet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med studien är att få en överblick över hur barn ser på sin delaktighet och sitt inflytande i verksamheten på fritidshemmet. En kvalitativ intervjustudie har genomförts på elever i årskurs tre samt elever i förskoleklass. Syftet är att undersöka elevernas egen syn på sin delaktighet och inflytande, samt om synen på delaktighet skiljer sig mellan de yngre och äldre eleverna på fritidshemmet. Med tanke på att vi vill närma oss elevernas egna tankar och perspektiv, använde vi oss utav semistrukturerade fokusgruppsintervjuer. 21 elever har intervjuats i studien. Eleverna blev indelade i heterogena grupper om 3-4 elever i varje grupp. Studiens resultat ger en uppfattning om hur elever ser på sin delaktighet på fritidshemmet, samt hur det skiljer sig mellan åldrarna. Eleverna i båda årskurserna uttryckte att de inte får vara delaktiga i någon större utsträckning på fritidshemmet, och att de gärna hade sett att de hade fått vara med och bestämma lite mer.

  • 1150.
    Akintola, Abayomi Rasheed
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    User Adoption of Big Data Analyticsin the Public Sector2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis was to investigate the factors that influence the adoption of big data analytics by public sector employees based on the adapted Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. A mixed method of survey and interviews were used to collect data from employees of a Canadian provincial government ministry. The results show that performance expectancy and facilitating conditions have significant positive effects on the adoption intention of big data analytics, while effort expectancy has a significant negative effect on the adoption intention of big data analytics. The result shows that social influence does not have a significant effect on adoption intention. In terms of moderating variables, the results show that gender moderates the effects of effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating condition; data experience moderates the effects of performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating condition; and leadership moderates the effect of social influence. The moderation effects of age on performance expectancy, effort expectancy is significant for only employees in the 40 to 49 age group while the moderation effects of age on social influence is significant for employees that are 40 years and more. Based on the results, implications for public sector organizations planning to implement big data analytics were discussed and suggestions for further research were made. This research contributes to existing studies on the user adoption of big data analytics. 

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