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  • 1101.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    Subjektsplacering i utveckling: om subjektsposition och informationsstruktur hos svenskspråkiga barn2013In: Svenskans beskrivning: [SvB.] 32, Förhandlingar vid trettioandra sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning, Karlstad den 13-14 oktober 2011 / [ed] Björn Bihl, Peter Andersson & Lena Lötmarker, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet , 2013, p. 326-337Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I svenskan kan ett substantiviskt subjekt (ett s.k. DP-subjekt) i mittfältet stå antingen före eller efter en negation (1), medan ett pronominellt subjekt endast kan stå före en negation (såvida det inte är betonat, då det även kan stå efter en negation) (2).

    (1) a. Varför kommer fotografen inte imorgon istället?

    b. Varför kommer inte fotografen imorgon istället?

    (2) a. Varför kommer hon inte imorgon istället?

    b. *Varför kommer inte hon imorgon istället?

    Inom den formella grammatiken har det föreslagits att det finns två positioner för subjekt, en högre position för subjekt som uttrycker känd information och en lägre position för subjekt som uttrycker ny information (t.ex. Westergaard 2008). Eftersom pronominella subjekt normalt refererar till kända subjekt står de oftast i den högre positionen. Forskning har visat att svenskspråkiga barn redan i tidig ålder placerar subjekt i den högre positionen, medan den lägre subjektspositionen används först i ett senare skede (Waldmann 2008). Subjektets informationsstruktur har dock inte beaktats i tidigare forskning om svenskspråkiga barn.

    I denna presentation behandlas interaktionen mellan subjektsposition och subjektets informationsstruktur i förstaspråksinlärning av svenska. Det undersökta materialet består av 45 000 barnyttranden från 4 svenskspråkiga barn i åldern 1;3–4;0. Resultaten visar att barnen föredrar den högre positionen för pronominella subjekt (84 % pron-neg) och den lägre positionen för DP-subjekt (80 % neg-DP). Ur ett utvecklingsperspektiv uppträder pron-neg och neg-DP cirka 6 månader före neg-pron och DP-neg i barnens produktion.

    Dessutom har ett material bestående av barnriktat tal (54 000 vuxenyttranden) undersökts. Resultaten visar att de mönster som återfinns i barnens produktion i stor utsträckning återspeglar de mönster som återfinns i den input som barnen exponeras för. Det verkar alltså som att barn är känsliga för informationsstrukturella egenskaper redan i tidig ålder.

  • 1102.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    The acquisition of embedded verb placement in Scandinavian: On transfer, verb type and input2014In: 17th World Congress of the International Association of Applied Linguistics (AILA), Brisbane, August 10-15, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Verb placement in main and embedded clauses has attracted much attention among first language acquisition researchers. For example, to researchers on the acquisition of the Scandinavian languages one central question is why children acquiring verb second in main clauses and the Mainland Scandinavian (MSc) verb placement in embedded clauses (Negation-Verb order) never make verb placement errors in main clauses but incorrectly place verbs before negation/adverbs in embedded clauses:

    (1) *…om ni   behöver inte några brädor. (Swedish, Harry 3;0)       …if   you need       not   any    boards       ‘…if you don’t need any boards.’       Target: …om ni inte behöver några brädor.

    In previous research on Faroese, Norwegian and Swedish, various factors and their influence on the acquisition of embedded verb placement have been explored, such as transfer of the syntax of verb second from main to embedded clauses, the specific syntactic properties of auxiliaries and modals, and misinterpretation of the language input. Yet, it is still unclear what factors influence the acquisition of Negation-Verb order in embedded clauses. One problematic aspect is the lack of comparable data from different ages, both within languages and between languages.

    In this presentation, new data on the acquisition of Negation-Verb order in embedded clauses are presented. The data come from two elicitation experiments with Swedish-acquiring children aged 4-6 years. The results of the first experiment, which was conducted with 17 5-6 year old children, suggest that the syntactic properties of auxiliaries and modals, but not transfer, may influence the placement of verbs in embedded clauses. The second experiment, which is currently being designed, will be conducted to evaluate these results with 4-5 year olds.

    The new data will complement existing spontaneous and elicited data from Faroese, Norwegian and Swedish children; the influence of various factors on the acquisition of verb placement in embedded clauses will be investigated.

  • 1103.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature. Umeå University.
    The acquisition of Neg-V and V-Neg in embedded clauses in Swedish: A microparametric approach2012In: Decennium : The First Ten Years of CASTL, Tromsö, September 13, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation deals with the acquisition of embedded verb placement in Swedish children, focusing the position of the finite verb in relation to a negation or sentence-medial adverb. In Swedish, the verb typically follows the negation/sentence adverb in embedded clauses (Neg-V); however, in embedded clauses introduced by att ‘that’, the verb may sometimes precede the negation/sentence adverb (V-Neg):

    (1) De   frågade om han inte ville     komma imorgon. (Neg-V)

         they asked    if   he   not   wanted come    tomorrow

    (2) De   trodde   att  han ville    inte komma imorgon. (V-Neg)

         they thought that he  wanted not  come    tomorrow

    Investigating child speech and child-directed speech from four Swedish-speaking children between the age of 1;6 and 4;0, it is demonstrated that, despite the lack of clear evidence for the Neg-V order in the input to Swedish children, the children distinguish between different types of embedded clauses in the acquisition of Neg-V and V-Neg already between the age of 3 and 4. However, at the earliest stage, the children often use V-Neg in embedded clauses that only allow Neg-V in adult Swedish.

    It is argued that the findings can be neatly accommodated in a microparametric approach to language acquisition, according to which children are sensitive to very fine syntactic distinctions in the input and are able to produce these fine distinctions at an early age (see for example Westergaard 2008, 2009a, 2009b). The findings are also in agreement with the hypothesis of economy of movement developed by Westergaard & Bentzen (2007). At the earliest stage, a principle of economy of movement creates an overuse of V-Neg order in Swedish children’s embedded clauses, while the extremely low frequency of the target-consistent Neg-V order in child-directed Swedish obstructs children from revising their initial hypothesis about the verb placement in embedded clauses, creating a delay in the acquisition of Neg-V.

    Finally, comparing child-directed Swedish to child-directed German, it is further proposed that the presence of clear evidence for verb-final in the input to German children aids error-free acquisition of embedded verb placement in German (see for example Rothweiler 1993).

    REFERENCES

    Rothweiler, Monika. 1993. Der Erwerb von Nebensätzen im Deutschen: eine Pilotstudie. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

    Westergaard, Marit. 2008. Acquisition and change: on the robustness of the triggering experience for word order cues. Lingua 118(12), 1841-1863.

    Westergaard, Marit. 2009a. The Acquisition of Word Order: Micro-cues, information structure, and economy. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    Westergaard, Marit. 2009b. Usage-based vs. rule-based learning: the acquisition of word order in wh-questions in English and Norwegian. Journal of Child Language 36(5), 1023-1051.

    Westergaard, Marit & Kristine Bentzen. 2007. The (non-) effect of input frequency on the acquisition of word order in Norwegian embedded clauses. In Insa Gülzow & Natalia Gagarina (eds.), Frequency effects in language acquisition: defining the limits of frequency as an explanatory concept, 271-306. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

  • 1104.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå university.
    The Acquisition of Neg-V and V-Neg Order in Embedded Clauses in Swedish: A Microparametric Approach2014In: Language Acquisition, ISSN 1048-9223, E-ISSN 1532-7817, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 45-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the acquisition of embedded verb placement in Swedish children, focusing Neg-V and V-Neg order. It is proposed that a principle of economy of movement creates an overuse of V-Neg order in Swedish children’s embedded clauses and that the extremely low frequency of the target-consistent Neg-V order in child-directed Swedish obstructs children from revising their initial hypothesis about the verb placement in embedded clauses, creating a delay in the acquisition of Neg-V. However, it is also demonstrated that, despite the lack of clear evidence for the Neg-V order in Swedish children’s input, the children distinguish between different types of embedded clauses in the acquisition of Neg-V and V-Neg order already between the age of three and four years, supporting a microparametric approach to language acquisition. Comparing child-directed Swedish to child-directed German, it is further proposed that the presence of clear evidence for verb-final in the input to German children aids error-free acquisition of embedded verb placement in German.

  • 1105.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Byrman, Gunilla
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Inte ens en gång: a tautological colloquial construction2003In: Grammatik i fokus : Festskrift till Christer Platzack den 18 november 2003 : Volume 2: Grammar in focus : Festschrift for Christer Platzack 18 November 2003 : Volume 2 / [ed] Lars-Olof Delsing, Cecilia Falk, Gunlög Josefsson, Halldór Á. Sigurdsson, Lund: Institutionen för nordiska språk, Lunds universitet , 2003, p. 377-382Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1106.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Byrman, Gunilla
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Inte ens en gång: En tautologisk talspråkskonstruktion2003In: HumaNetten, ISSN 1403-2279, no 13Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I sydsvenskt talspråk används ofta den tautologiska konstruktionstypen ens en gång i stället för ens för att uttrycka emfas i förbindelse med negation. Det negativa polaritetsordet ens har tidigare undersökts i förbindelse med negationen inte (Waldmann 2002). Det visar sig i den studien att realisationen kan beskrivas utifrån Chomsky (1999).

    I de sydsvenska dialekterna verkar däremot konstruktionen ens en gång vara en regionalmotsvarighet till ens och tillika den vanligast förekommande konstruktionstypen i äldres kånska dialekter (Isaksson 2002). Excerpter ur dialektsamlingarna i Dialekt- och Ortnamnsarkivet i Lund (DAL) och SOFI Dialektavdelningen i Uppsala (DA) visar 6 belägg på inte ens en gång i Skåne, 2 i västra Blekinge och 1 i södra Halland. Men konstruktionen kan givetvis finnas i andra dialektområden utan att vara belagd i dialektarkiv (jfr Eaker 2002). I denna studie behandlas konstruktionen ens en gång när den förekommer tillsammans med satsnegationen.

  • 1107.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Dockrell, Julie
    University College London, UK.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University.
    Att stötta talspråklig förmåga: lärmiljöer, lärtillfällen och interaktioner2016In: ASLA : Språk och norm: Sammandrag av sektionsföredrag, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den talspråkliga förmågan ligger till grund för och interagerar med läs- och skrivutvecklingen och med inlärning i andra skolämnen. En begränsad språklig förmåga hos barn medför en högre risk för svårigheter med läs- och skrivinlärningen, och för svaga skolprestationer. Alla barn har rätt till en skolmiljö som stöttar deras talspråksutveckling, tillfällen att öva och utveckla sina talspråkliga färdigheter och interaktioner med mer kvalificerade samtalspartners som utmanar deras talspråkliga förmåga. Läraren och undervisningen spelar en avgörande roll för att förskolebarn/skolelever ska kunna utveckla sina talspråkliga färdigheter. Hur barns/elevers talspråkliga utveckling stöttas i förskolan/skolan är dock oklart. Som stöd i sin professionella utveckling kan lärare använda verktyg för att identifiera såväl styrkor som utvecklingsbehov i de fysiska lärmiljöerna, lärtillfällena och interaktionerna i lärmiljöer/klassrum med fokus på hur dessa stöttar barns/elevers talspråks- utveckling. I denna presentation redovisar vi resultaten från en undersökning av 20 klassrum i årskurs 1 där lärare har använt en svensk version av ett evidensbaserat observationsverktyg för att identifiera såväl styrkor som utvecklingsbehov i de fysiska lärmiljöerna, lärtillfällena och interaktionerna. Observationsverktyget som användes i undersökningen (Communication Supporting Classroom Observation Tool) utvecklades i Storbritannien och bygger i alla delar på forskningsevidens om vilka lärmiljöer, lärtillfällen och interaktioner som utgör språkutvecklande inslag i undervisningen. Syftet var att undersöka observationsverktygets tillämpbarhet i en svensk skolkontext. Kvantitativ och kvalitativ data samlades in. Resultaten redovisas och diskuteras i relation till resultaten från en stor undersökning i 101 klassrum i Storbritannien. 

  • 1108.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Dockrell, Julie
    University College London, UK.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University.
    Supporting indigenous bilingual children's oral language development2015In: ALAA/ALANZ/ALTAANZ 2015: Learning in a Multilingual World, Adelaide, November 30-December 2, 2015: Abstract Listing : As at 25 November 2015, 2015, p. 132-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child states that children from minority groups have the right to learn, use and develop their indigenous/minority languages, and a primary goal for the Sami school in Sweden is to support each child’s functional Sami-Swedish bilingualism. However, Sweden continues to receive criticism from the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe for the lack of a comprehensive and structured approach towards minority language education, resources, materials, and teacher training. Oral language development is central to a child ́s ability to access the curriculum and develop literacy skills. All children need an environment supportive of oral language development, and opportunities and interactions with more knowledgeable conversational partners to practice and develop oral language skills. Little is known about how bilingual children’s oral language development in Sami and Swedish is supported. Teachers can be supported by tools that they can use to describe the language learning environments, opportunities and interactions, and to develop their professional practice in the area of effectively supporting young bilingual children ́s oral language development. We report on a pilot study that has adapted the Communication Supporting Classrooms Observation Tool to the Swedish school context. This adaption is a first step towards adapting and using this tool in bilingual North and South Sami (pre)schools. The results of the pilot study are discussed in relation to the challenges of setting up a research project examining the support of oral language development in both the indigenous Sami languages and the national language Swedish.

  • 1109.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Dockrell, Julie
    University College London, UK.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University.
    Supporting language learning environments, opportunities and interactions in bilingual Sami-Swedish (pre)school contexts2016In: 14th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Education, Honolulu, January 3-6, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child states that children from minority groups have the right to learn, use and develop their indigenous/minority languages:

    In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practise his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language. (Article 30).

    In Sweden, the parliament affirmed the right of national minorities to learn, use and develop their minority languages in 2005, and in 2009 this right was written into Swedish law (the Swedish Language Act 2009:600, and the Act on National Minorities and National Minority Languages 2009:724). However, Sweden continues to receive strong criticism from the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (2015) for the lack of a comprehensive and structured approach towards minority language education, resources, materials, and teacher training.

    Oral language development “is central to a child´s ability to access the curriculum and develop literacy skills” (Dockrell et al 2010). In a minority language context, supporting oral language skills is central for language maintenance and revitalization, and for developing a functional bilingualism. A primary goal for the Sami school in Sweden is to support each child’s functional Sami-Swedish bilingualism. Considering the importance of oral language, all children need an environment supportive of oral language development, and opportunities and interactions with more knowledgeable conversational partners to practice and develop oral language and communication skills for all languages. Supporting and enhancing oral language skills for the diverse learners in school settings can be challenging, and little is known about how bilingual children’s oral language development in Sami and Swedish is supported. Teachers can be supported by tools that they can use to describe the language learning environments, opportunities and interactions, and to develop their professional practice in the area of effectively supporting young bilingual children´s oral language development. In this presentation, we report on a pilot study that has adapted the Communication Supporting Classrooms Observation Tool (Dockrell et al 2015) to the Swedish school context. This adaption is a first step towards adapting and using this tool in bilingual North and South Sami (pre)schools. The results of the pilot study are discussed in relation to the challenges of setting up a research project examining the support of oral language development in both the indigenous Sami languages and the national language Swedish.

    References

    Council of Europe. (2015). European charter for regional or minority languages. Application of the Charter in Sweden. 5th Monitoring Cycle. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/minlang/Report/EvaluationReports/SwedenECRML5_en.pdf [downloaded on July 16, 2015].

    Dockrell, J.E, Bakopoulu, I., Law, J., Spencer, S. & Lindsey, G. 2015. Capturing communication supporting classrooms: The development of a tool and feasibility study. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 1-16.

    Dockrell, J.E., Stuart, M., & King, D. 2010. Supporting early oral language skills for English language learners in inner city preschool provision. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 4, 497-515.

    Act on National Minorities and National Minority Languages (2009:724).

    Swedish Language Act (2009:600)

    United Nations. (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. http://www.ohchr.org/ Documents/ProfessionalInterest/crc.pdf [downloaded on July 16, 2015].

  • 1110.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University.
    Tankar kring kring: En diakron studie av prepositionsbruket vid kognitionsverb2017In: Språk & Stil, ISSN 1101-1165, Vol. 27, p. 96-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the usage of Swedish prepositions with cognition verbs. Our main focus is on the usage of the preposition kring ‘around’. The study is done within the framework of Cognitive Linguistics, and the notions of trajectory (TR) and landmark (LM) are used to describe the relationships involved. Questions asked are 1. Has the usage of kring with cognition verbs changed over time? If so, how? and 2. Has the preposition usage with the cognition verbs filosofera ‘philosophize’, fokusera ‘focus’, forska ‘research’, fundera ‘contemplate’, reflektera ‘reflect’, resonera ‘reason’, spekulera ‘speculate’, and tänka ‘think’ changed over time? If so, how?

    The study is based on news texts from the period of 1923-2012 from the Korp Corpus. Taken together, the investigated data contains 3.7 million sentences and 56 million tokens of press texts.

    Our results show that changes in the usages of the prepositions are specific to each verb rather than following an overall trend. Throughout the period, the verbs fokusera, fundera, reflektera, spekulera and tänka are used with prepositions that suggest that people’s thoughts (TR) are directed down towards, or into, abstract topics (LM). The verbs filosofera, forska, and resonera, on the other hand, are used with prepositions that suggest thinking (TR) around abstract topics (LM). There is an increase in the usage of kring with resonera, and a decrease in the usage of kring with fokusera.

  • 1111.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Kroik, David
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Supporting minority languages: issues and problems with creating and using spoken language corpora2014In: 17th World Congress of the International Association of Applied Linguistics (AILA), Brisbane, August 10-15, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation considers creation of spoken minority language corpora and how these can be used to support minority language education across the entire educational spectrum. The Saami languages are a group of minority languages spoken in Northern Scandinavia, Finland and Russia. In the Saami context there is currently one major language project that focuses on North Saami, Davvisámegiel mánáid giellaovdáneapmi (DASAGO), and is building two longitudinal corpora, one for monolingual acquisition and one for bilingual North Saami/Norwegian. Of the Saami languages, North Saami is the most widely spoken with approximately 25 000 speakers. The DASAGO project has no explicit educational objectives, yet its findings will be of relevance for the development of educational materials for North Saami. Another project creating an oral language corpus for a Saami language is Mávulasj, a spoken Lule Saami documentation project that has explicit educational objectives. Lule Saami has approximately 500 speakers. Creating spoken language corpora that are of relevance for education is complex. Drawing on the experiences of creating these corpora, we explore the complexities of spoken minority language corpus creation through an ongoing South Saami project based in Umeå, Sweden. South Saami is a language with circa 500 speakers and in contrast to North Saami the speakers are spread over a large geographic area. The low number of speakers, the geographical spread, and the even lower number of advanced first language speakers, poses additional problems for the South Sami spoken corpus’ construction, and its use in the development of education materials. Using examples, we illustrate how corpora can be used to support the development of culturally relevant innovative teaching materials that can assist in language revitalization, and illustrate how corpora can be misused and result in linguistically incorrect teaching materials.

  • 1112.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå University.
    Skriven textproduktion hos elever med och utan lässvårigheter2018In: Presented at ASLA-symposiet 2018, Karlstad, Sweden, April 12-13, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1113.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Sullivan, Kirk PH
    Umeå University.
    Att stödja barns språkliga utveckling: Miljöer, lärtillfällen och interaktioner i klassrum2017In: Språk och norm: Rapport från ASLA:s symposium, Uppsala universitet 21-22 april 2016 / [ed] Saga Bendegard, Ulla Melander Marttala, Maria Westman, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2017, p. 160-168Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1114.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Umeå University.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University.
    Using tablets to facilitate authentic language learning opportunities and interactions: A case study of young isolated language learners2013In: 3rd combined ALANZ & ALAA Conference, Wellington, November 27-29, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young language learners require rich exposure to natural language input coupled with opportunities to use and practice their language skills in a range of authentic interactive contexts. Without such opportunities it has been shown that children are at greater risk of formal educational failure; home and the classroom settings have been shown to be important for children’s language growth, and lexical, syntactic and pragmatic ability. Some young language learners are isolated from the community in which the language is spoken. This can, for example, be the case for young indigenous language learners, heritage language learners, and young refugees who are often learners of these language as an additional language to the language of the community in which they are living. Young additional language learners such as these are at risk of not receiving rich language exposure, language learning opportunities and authentic language interactions in their additional languages, and at risk of not developing linguistic skills in these languages.

    To investigate whether tablets facilitate authentic language learning opportunities and interactions for young isolated additional language learners an action research study was undertaken. Four isolated language learners (aged 3, 7, 9 and 11) were given iPads to communicate with their heritage language grandparents; previously Skype on stationary computers had been used. The children were free to use either the stationary computer or the iPad. The richness of the interactions increased with the iPad being embedded in the authentic interactions in a way that the stationary computer had not been. Further the children preferred the iPad and an increase in the quality and quantity of the language interactions was observed. The potential for introducing iPad to support additional language learning will be discussed, and the virtual additional language tablet pre-school outlined.

  • 1115.
    Wastesson, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    L’atténuation en traduction: Étude traductologique des marqueurs de probabilité en français et en suédois2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a comparative study of how epistemic markers in French and Swedish are treated in translation. The study focuses on epistemic markers indicating high probability, such as säkert, nog, jag tror (att) and epistemic (not deontic) måste in Swedish, and, in French, certainement, sans doute, je crois (que), epistemic devoir etc.

    The epistemic markers qualify the truth of what is being asserted (cf. epistemic modality), indicate the nature of the source that underlies what is being asserted (cf. evidentiality), and show the speaker’s epistemic attitude towards what is being asserted (doubt, belief etc.). Moreover, the epistemic markers are speech acts softeners, related to politeness in language.

    The material used consists of extracts from 15 Swedish novels and their French translations, and extracts from 15 French novels and their Swedish translations. More than 1500 examples collected from this material show that there are some translational problems connected to epistemic markers, especially interference – influence between languages – which manifests itself as “translationese”, i.e. features that characterize translated texts compared to source texts in the same language. For example, the epistemic adverb antagligen (Eng. probably) is over-represented to a great extent in Swedish translations from French, while the epistemic particle väl (Eng. I suppose) is rarely used by Swedish translators.

    Furthermore, the study describes several translational difficulties such as how to keep the subjectivity of the speaker. The indication of subjectivity, which means that the epistemic judgement is made by the speaker alone, is inherent in the particles nog and väl as well as in the mental state predicate jag tror (att) / je crois (que) (Eng. I think), while epistemic adverbs like probablement and sans doute can receive an intersubjective interpretation, indicating that the responsibility for the degree of truth of what is being asserted is shared between the speaker and others.

  • 1116.
    Waubert de Puiseau, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Das Passiv im Deutschen und im Schwedischen: Eine kontrastive und übersetzungsbezogene Untersuchung2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [de]

    In dieser Arbeit werden deutsche und schwedische Passiv- und Passiversatzformen eines authentischen Materials der Europäischen Kommission aus einer syntaktischen und informationsstrukturellen Perspektive analysiert. Das Material besteht aus deutschen Originaltexten und schwedischen Übersetzungen. In der Arbeit wird u.a. festgestellt, welche Konstruktionen bei der Übersetzung von deutschen Passivformen bevorzugt werden.

  • 1117.
    Weiland, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Kavata flickor och känsliga pojkar: Zur Übersetzung schwedischer Kollokationen ins Deutsche am Beispiel von zwei Sachtexten über schwedische Kinderliteratur2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with translation changes and problems that occur when translating collocations, i.e. sequences of words that are usually combined such as work hard, from Swedish to German. Being an essential part of our communication, collocations are common both in everyday-life and in technical terminology. This qualitative research deals with collocations in scientific texts about children’s literature and aims to increase attention on collocations in the translation process.

    The term collocation as used here refers to the concept of hierarchical relations between the lexemes of a collocation by the German linguist F. J. Hausmann (1984), distinguishing between bases and collocators. It proved itself useful in the translation process and showed that the translator must pay special attention to the collocator in order to find the equivalent expression in the target language. In doing so he/she is not at all obliged to translate a collocation with the respective target collocation. In fact due to stylistic reasons collocations were replaced by individual lexemes or paraphrases.

    Referring to Hausmann’s terminology and the studies of Baker (1992) this essay highlights the importance of considering collocations as translation units, i.e. not translating the lexemes of a collocation separately. Furthermore the assumption was disproved that translation errors, e.g. interferences and semantic deficits, are mainly caused when translating collocations to a foreign language. Even translators translating into their mother tongue have to examine collocations carefully to avoid errors that can result in doubts about the quality of the whole translation.

  • 1118.
    Wejrum, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Lästriangeln – en modell för systematisk läsundervisning 2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    International student assessments show that reading comprehension among Swedish pupils has decreased and the Swedish school system has become less successful in compensating for the variety of pupils’ background. The aim of this study is to examine whether the reading triangle, which is an adaption of the text triangle, provides a beneficial model to use at lower secondary level to enhance advanced reading comprehension and to systematize the teaching of reading on the basis of models developed in research on writing. The study draws on Anglo-Saxon and Nordic research on the teaching of reading and writing, as well as theories of metacognition and visual learning. The results show that the reading triangle, after some modifications, can serve as a tool to make pupils aware of their reading process and at what level they read and analyse texts. Moreover, the model can be a tool for teachers to systematize their teaching of reading and clarifying on what levels they need to focus when planning their teaching of reading.

  • 1119.
    Wennemark, Ingela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    A diachronic study of the semantics of the adjectives mean and gay2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay explores the semantic change of the adjectives mean and gay from the 1920s to the2000s. This was done by going through concordance lines which was collected from the Time Corpus. The aim of the paper is to investigate if there has been any change of meaning of the two words, and if that is the case how have they changed. The results showed that both words have had a tremendous change in meaning, the most prominent one being the adjective gay which has gone from denoting something or someone who is happy to referring to a homosexual person. The adjective mean has also had a change in meaning, or has rather gained several new meanings along with the original one.

  • 1120.
    Wennhager, Lena
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Oedipus in Ireland: Betrayal and Reconciliation in Neil Jordan’s Sunrise with Sea Monster2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay I argue that the plot in Sunrise with Sea Monster, written by Irish writer Neil Jordan, is based on the Oedipal myth, such as interpreted by Freud and psychoanalyst literary theory. By applying aspects of this theory we discover meanings buried within the novel. The Oedipus situation arises when the main character Donal falls in love with his piano teacher Rose, but so does his father, who decides to marry her. The desire both men have for the same woman creates a conflict of interest, as well as leading to a series of betrayals, of which the worst and ultimate one is of the father, Sam, by the son, Donal. The situation is not helped further by the lack of communication which exists between the two men. When the Oedipal stage is overcome, when both Rose and Sam are out of the picture, this leads to a sort of reconciliation between Sam and Donal. Betrayal and reconciliation are the two main themes and these are governed by the Oedipal framework of the novel. I also argue that the imagery, in particular that of water and what it is connected to adds depth to the novel as well as closely relating to the main themes and the Oedipal background: the diverse aspects of the Oedipal conflict are expressed symbolically, metaphorically etc. in the novel.

  • 1121.
    Westerberg, Fabienne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    "In space, no one can hear you translate": Translating the textual persona in Packing for Mars2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper investigates the expression and translation of the author's textual persona in the popular science text Packing for Mars (Roach 2011). One chapter from this book is translated into Swedish and compared to a parallel translation of another text by Roach, as well as a translation of the novel Shantaram (Roberts 2003; 2007). The specific features under investigation are Roach's use of appositional constructions, first and second person pronouns, and unstandardised direct quotation. The paper argues for the contribution of these features to the expressive, personal and humorous nature of the text, and draws parallels to the genres of journalism and literary fiction. Translation choices are then discussed with reference to Ingo, Newmark, Venuti and others, with an emphasis on furthering the textual persona through an equivalent effect on the reader. The possibility of equivalent effect is questioned, and strategies such as compensation and consistency suggested as solutions when formal equivalents are lacking in the target language.

  • 1122.
    Westerholm, Sylvia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    "Du pratar som dom i Sommarpratarna": Om gymnasieelevers respons på argumenterande tal och attityder till respons2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate oral peer review on argumentative speech and to study the attitudes towards this peer review. The investigation was performed in an up-per secondary school class, and it focused on the different types of oral responses students give each other. In addition, the study investigated in what way the students experience this type of peer review. The results show that students reflect on form and performance as well as content, but they place more emphasis on form and performance than content. Students are positive about peer review and its importance for their progress. The investigation shows that peer review is needed, but the methods need to be developed further as response should mirror all parts of a work process, peer review can be used in other situations such as work life as well as in the teaching of other subjects.

  • 1123.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Affären und Karrieren – Familienbildung im Wirtschaftswunderjahrzehnt in der Bundesrepublik: Martin Walsers Roman Ehen in Philippsburg2015In: Moderna Språk, ISSN 2000-3560, E-ISSN 2000-3560, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 78-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Martin Walsers Debütroman Ehen in Philippsburg erschien 1957, im ersten Jahrzehnt des Wirtschaftswunders der 1950er und 1960er Jahre. Das Thema Liebe und Ehe ist seitdem bei Walser frequent. Er schildert in diesem Roman verschiedene Ehen in einer bessergestellten sozialen Schicht, kontrastiert diese aber auch mit der Welt der einfachen Arbeiter. Die Fragestellung des vorliegenden Artikels ist, wie insbesondere die junge Generation mit der Frage von Familie und Ehe umgeht und welche Form des Zusammenlebens sie wählt. Nur ein Jahrzehnt vorher endete ein für alle umstürzendes Kriegsgeschehen, das die Welt in Trümmern und zerbrochene Familien hinterlassen hatte. Die ersten, ansatzweise modernen Jahrzehnte des 20. Jahrhunderts, in denen auch neue Formen des Zusammenlebens erprobt wurden, waren damit ausradiert. In der sogenannten Stunde Null mussten alle gesellschaftlichen Strukturen neu formiert werden. Wie sah es nun für die Ehe und Familie aus? Lassen sich bei den jüngsten Protagonisten Desorientierung, Re-Orientierung an alten Formen oder ein Neubeginn hinsichtlich des familiären Gefüges feststellen? Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt auf, wie der Problemkomplex bei Walser literarisch verarbeitet wird und wie sich diese Darstellung auch mit den gesellschaftlichen Bedingungen verknüpfen lässt. Ein ehe- und familienhistorischer Abriss soll dabei Kontext und Orientierung liefern.

  • 1124.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Alexander Bareis: Fiktionales Erzählen. Zur Theorie der literarischen Fiktion as Make-Believe.2007In: Moderna Språk, ISSN 0026-8577, no 2, p. 179-183Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 1125.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Betrachtung einer Erzählform.: Erste Skizzen zu einer narratologischen Untersuchung von Martin Walsers "Ein fliehendes Pferd"2000In: Text im Kontext: Beiträge zur 2. Arbeitstagung schwedischer Germanisten, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1126.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Die Mauerspringer – DDR-litteraturen före och efter murens fall2004In: Humanetten, ISSN 1403-2279, no 14Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    In der ehemaligen DDR war keine Kunstart so eng mit der politischen Sphäre verbunden, wie die Literatur. Sie war nämlich sowohl Werkzeug als auch Übermittler von der Ideologie und den Richtlinien der staatstragenden Partei, der SED, und gleichzeitig war sie die von derselben Partei am strengsten bewachte Kunstform. Der Artikel schildert die Bedingungen, in denen die Literatur der DDR sich befand, um nach den Eckdaten zur Wende einige der Themenbereiche einzukreisen, die sich nach 1989 in der Literatur herausgeschält haben.

  • 1127.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Elke Reinhardt-Becker: Seelenbund oder Partnerschaft.: Liebessemantiken in der Literatur der Romantik und der Neuen Sachlichkeit2006In: Studia Neophilologica, ISSN 00393274, p. 243-249Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 1128.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Erzählsituation, Modus, Perspektive, Fokalisierung: eine Neuorientierung2002In: Text und Welt.: Beiträge auf der 11. Internationalen Tagung Germanistische Forschungen zum literarischen Text, Germersheim, Universität Vaasa , 2002, p. 30-38Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1129.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Jochen Vogt: Einladung zur Literaturwissenschaft2001In: Studia Neophilologica, ISSN 00393274, no 73, p. 241-242Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 1130.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Kollision der Leitkulturen: heilige Ehe oder promiskuitive Zweisamkeit?: Bilder mono- und multikultureller Beziehungen in Martin Walsers Lebenslauf der Liebe“2014In: Leitkulturen und Wertediskussionen.: Zur Darstellung von Zeitgeschichte in deutschsprachiger Gegenwartsliteratur. / [ed] Martin Hellström; Edgar Platen, München: IUDICIUM Verlag GmbH, 2014, 13, p. 12-38Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Martin Walser, als „Geschichtsschreiber des Alltags“ bezeichnet, ist ein Autor, der die bundesdeutsche Verfasstheit seit den fünfziger Jahren verfolgt. Er setzt sich immer wieder mit zentralen Phänomenen deutscher Geschichte und (Leit)-kultur auseinander. Ehe und Liebe sind in Walsers Romanwelt oft zentrale Fluchtpunkte, an denen Wechselwirkungen zwischen Individuum und Umwelt dargestellt und fiktiv erprobt werden.

    In seinem 2001 erschienenen Roman Lebenslauf der Liebe wird die monokulturelle Ehe des vermögenden Ehepaares Susi und Edmund Gern durch offene sexuelle Ausschweifungen des Ehemannes mit verheirateten Frauen und Prostitutierten und die vom Ehemann gebilligten kompensatorischen Vergnügungen der Ehefrau mit wechselnden – und bevorzugt arabischen – Liebhabern auf den Prüfstein gestellt. Nach dem Tod ihres Mannes heiratet die mittlerweile gealterte Protagonistin schlieβlich einen jungen gläubigen Moslem, mit dem sie eine völlig andere Art ehelichen Zusammenlebens erlebt.

    Die monogame heterosexuelle Ehe als Basis der heilen Familie und tragendes Element einer Gesellschaft, in der Tugenden wie Treue und Selbstlosigkeit Leitwerte der christlichen Tradition dargestellt haben, werden durch den Pakt der promiskuösen Ehepartner konsequent und bewusst untergraben. Auffällig ist die Rolle der auβereuropäischen Ausländer bei den erotischen Ausschweifungen der Protagonistin Susi Gern. Es stellt sich die Frage, inwiefern die Ethnizitäten der Liebhaber und des zweiten Ehemannes der Protagonistin bedeutsam sind. Sind sie als Vertreter des „Anderen“ Provokationen, idealisierte Konstruktionen des Sinnlichen und Korrektive der verkommenen Gernschen Ehe? Oder sind sie Objekte eurozentrischer Ausbeutung, Selbstsucht und Ressentiments? Die Erwähnung von Goethes West-östlichem Divan in Walsers Roman  lässt einen Anschluss an die postkoloniale Forschung, insbesondere die des Orientalismus als sinnvoll erscheinen. Gesellschaftliche Leitwerte  und moralische Grundprinzipien werden in Lebenslauf der Liebe neu verhandelt.

  • 1131.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Literaturdidaktik in der Hochschullehre?2009In: Studia Neophilologica, ISSN 0039-3274, E-ISSN 1651-2308, Vol. 81, no 2, p. 207-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Im Rahmen eines interdisziplinären Forschungsprojekts zu didaktischen Fragen an der Universität Växjö in Schweden, wurde im Herbstsemester 2004 eine Studie zu Lernstrategien von Studierenden im literaturwissenschaftlichen Seminar des ersten Semesters im Fach Germanistik erstellt. Ausgangspunkt war der Stadienübergang von Gymnasium zu Hochschule. Die anzunehmende Diskrepanz zwischen der gymnasialen Arbeit mit fremdsprachlichen belletristischen Texten, die vornehmlich in Auszügen und Anthologien vermittelt werden, und derjenigen der Universität, wo Studierende mit einem umfangreichen Lesestoff und der Arbeitsweise einer wissenschaftlichen Erzähltextanalyse erstmals konfrontiert werden, war dabei der primäre Ansatz. In diesem Artikel sollen die Ergebnisse dieser Studie vorgestellt in den Kontext der universitären Lehre in Schweden und der deutschsprachigen Forschung zu Lernstrategien gestellt werden.

  • 1132.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Martin Walser: Die Frauengestalten in ’Jagd’. Wunschproduktion oder Mangel?1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The protagonists in Walser's work are male antiheroes, incapable of adapting to the competitive postwar German society. Their only refuge is at home within marriage. This conservative portrayal of relationships has made some critics call Walser misogynist. In the novel "Jagd" (Hunt) from 1988 Walser describes six women from three different generations, all with different backgrounds. This study focuses on the portrayal of these women. Can the women only be regarded as a virgin or a whore (a target for male desire) or is it possible to find a problematized gender identity? The analysis tries to point out structures and motives that show that Walser's intention goes beyond a simple affirmation of the traditional stereotype.

  • 1133.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Martin Walser: Ein springender Brunnen2001In: Humanetten, ISSN 1403-2279, no 8Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1134.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Modus, Erzählsituation, Perspektive, Fokalisierung: Bemerkungen zu zentralen Begriffen der narratologischen Analyse2002In: Text im Kontext 4.: 4. Arbeitstagung schwedischer Germanisten, Universität Stockholm , 2002, p. 233-243Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1135.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. tyska.
    Nadja Hadek: Vergangenheitsbewältigung im Werk Martin Walsers2008In: Colloquia Germanica: Internationale Zeitschrift für Germanistik, ISSN 0010-1338, Vol. 39, no 3/4, p. 423-425Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 1136.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Nikolas Förster: Die Wiederkehr des Erzählens: deutschsprachige Prosa der 80er und 90er Jahre.2000In: Studia Neophilologica, ISSN 00393274, no 72, p. 105-106Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 1137.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Ulrike Schnaas: Das Phantastische als Erzählstrategie in vier zeitgenössischen Romanen.2005In: Moderna Språk, ISSN 0026-8577, Vol. XCIX, no 2, p. 234-236Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 1138.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Vilse i metoddjungeln.: Funderingar kring litteraturvetenskapens väsen och berättigande2000In: Humanetten, ISSN 1403-2279, no 6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1139.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Vom Umgang mit den Zeitgenossen: Gegenwartsdarstellung und zeitgenössische Kunst in Silke Scheuermanns Shanghai Performance2018In: Erzählen von Zeitgenossenschaft: Zur Darstellung von Zeitgeschichte in deutschsprachiger Gegenwartsliteratur / [ed] Linda Karlsson Hammarfeldt, Edgar Platen & Petra Platen, München: IUDICIUM Verlag GmbH, 2018, p. 182-197Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    In Shanghai, der „Fortschrittsphantasmagorie aus Stein und Stahl“ (FAZ, 11. 2. 2011) bilden Globalisierung, Innovationsdruck und neue Medien den Rahmen für die Geschichte einer modernen berufstätigen jungen Frau, die als Assistentin der berühmten Performance-Künstlerin Margot Wincraft arbeitet. Tätig in der schnelllebigen internationalen Kunstszene versucht die Protagonistin ihr Leben zu gestalten und gleichzeitig ständig wechselnde Bekanntschaften privater und geschäftlicher Art mit dem Bedürfnis nach Kontinuität zu vereinbaren. In den rasanten spatio-temporalen Veränderungen werden Mitmenschen zu enigmatischen Zeichen der Zeit, denn diesem harten Geschäft bleiben ihr viele Zeitgenossen und das veränderliche Zeitgeschehen bis zum Ende ein Rätsel. Auch an der Figur der Künstlerin wird die Frage nach Verstrickung und Schuld gestellt. Grundlegende Fragen des Lebens umfassen eben doch größere Zeiträume als die raschen Entscheidungen der trendbewussten Szene. In diesem Aufsatz wird die Darstellung der vergehenden Zeit des „Jetzt-Augenblickes“ im Verhältnis zu Gestern und Morgen aufgezeigt. Das Zeitgenössische erscheint dabei ein wie ein Lichtkegel, der die Orientierung in die Vergangenheit und die Zukunft eher erschwert als erleichtert.

  • 1140.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Wahrscheinlich sollte man reden miteinander.: Die narrativen Modi als Mittel der Gestaltung von Ehe und Beziehungsproblemen in Martin Walsers Novelle "Ein fliehendes Pferd".2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is centrally concerned both to investigate he depiction of marriage and relationship problems in Martin Walser's 'Ein fliehndes Pferd' ('A Runaway Horse') while at the same time giving a carefull account of narrative techniques (notably free indirect discourse) and shedding light in their function.

  • 1141.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Was hat Klaus mit der heiligen Helene zu tun?: Kierkegaards Tagebücher und Martin Walsers "Ein fliehendes Pferd".2005In: Text im Kontext 6: Beiträge zur 6. Arbeitstagung schwedischer Germanisten, Göteborg, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1142.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Är den tyska litteraturen död i Sverige?1998In: Humanetten, ISSN 1403-2279, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1143.
    Westphal, Bärbel
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Johansson, EvaldVäxjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.Wåghäll Nivre, ElisabethVäxjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Text im Kontext: Beiträge zur 2. Arbeitstagung schwedischer Germanisten, Växjö, 5-6 Februar 19992000Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 1144.
    Widegren, Johannes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The Laughter of Literature: A diachronic study of the social functions of laughter in British literature2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the historical development of the social functions of laughter in literature using linguistic analysis. Many previous studies have analyzed the connection between humor and laughter, but very few have looked at laughter in literature. In this paper, using the eight social functions of laughter defined by Foot and McCreaddie (2007), instances of the word laugh and its variants were analyzed in canonical British literature from the 14th century to the 21st and then compared. In the literature investigated, derision laughter was the most common function during the 15th through 17th centuries. In the centuries to follow humorous laughter took that position. An explanation for this could be that there was no clear division between derision laughter and humorous laughter until the 18th century (Classen, 2010). Also noted was an increase in the frequency of instances of laughter per 1000 words since the 17th century in the investigated literature, as well as an increase in variation of social functions used. The low frequency of laughter in the past may have been a result of the teachings of the church in England. The increased variation in functions of laughter could indicate that the pragmatic feature of laughter has acquired new functions, or that some functions were not depicted in the older literature of this study.

  • 1145.
    Wigbrand, Hugo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Los murmullos improbables: La representación del Realismo mágico en la novela Pedro Páramo de Juan Rulfo desde la perspectiva estructural-semiótica2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this study is to investigate the structure and the representation of Magical Realism in the novel Pedro Páramo by the Mexican author Juan Rulfo. The intention is to show the reader of this study some distinguished aspects of the Magical Realism and how this aspects are shown in the novel. The analysis is made with the help of some theories of how the structure of a text works. We have then compared the structure with some general aspects of the Magical Realism. We are bringing up different parts such as the topic, the characters and the room.

    Furthermore this study is based on the premise that many people characterize this novel being one of the first Latin-American novels using Magical Realism, but also making use of a complex structure that easily confuse the reader and the interpretation of the novel.

    Our study shows that the structure of Pedro Páramo is very extraordinary but at the same time the novel contains many general aspects of the Magical Realism. One example is the timeaspect, jumping back and forth. Another is the symbolism between the nature and some different scenarios of the story. Last but not least we have the topic of death.

    The aim of the essay is mainly to bring some clearness and to help other readers to interpret and analyze this fantastic novel.

  • 1146.
    Wijk, Ann-Katrin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Att läsa för att lära: Om ordförståelse i ämnet historia hos gymnasieelever med svenska som andraspråk2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker brister i ordförståelsen i ämnet historia hos elever med svenska somandraspråk. Forskningsfrågorna är:Vilka ord tycker eleverna, både elever med svenska som andraspråk och elevermed svenska som modersmål, är svåra i historieboken?Vilka ord tror lärarna att eleverna har svårt med?Hur korrelerar lärarnas uppfattningar med elevernas?Sjutton elever med svenska som andraspråk läste två textutdrag ur två läromedel i historia A.De markerade ord som de inte förstod. För undersökningen valdes text 2 ut. För att ta reda påhur lärare tänkte om vilka ord som var svåra i ämnet historia fick dessutom fyra läraremarkera vilka ord de trodde att eleverna hade svårt att förstå. Utifrån de markerade svåraorden genomfördes ett kvalitativt ordkunskapstest med utvalda småord som eleverna ochlärarna i stort sett inte hade markerat. Denna fick gruppen av elever med svenska somandraspråk men också en kontrollgrupp av elever med svenska som modersmål besvara.Lärarna markerade olika många ord, flest ämnesspecifika, men trodde att eleverna förstod90–98 % av hela texten. Flest ord markerade läraren i svenska som andraspråk och minst ordmarkerade modersmålsläraren. Eleverna med svenska som andraspråk markerade 36 ord ocheleverna i kontrollgruppen 17. De markerade att de förstod 80–85 % av texten.Resultatet i ordkunskapstestet visar tydligt att kontrollgruppen i stor utsträckning förstårorden i testet och är cirka 20 till 35 poäng bättre än elever med svenska som andraspråk. Detär dessutom liten eller ingen skillnad i ordförståelsetestet mellan elever med svenska somandraspråk, oavsett om de varit 1,5 år eller 17 år i Sverige. Sammantaget betyder detta attelever med svenska som andraspråk förstår betydligt mindre av texten än de säger sig göra,men detta gäller också för elever med svenska som modersmål. Ytterligare ett resultat är attlärarna i denna undersökning enbart har en vag uppfattning om vilka ord som elever medsvenska som andraspråk inte förstår, vilket kan vara ett pedagogiskt problem.

  • 1147.
    Wikhede, Simone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Ta sig i kragen: En kvalitativ studie om relationen mellan samarbetsprincipen, metaforer och liknelser i samtal2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka hur metaforer och liknelser inverkar på ömsesidig förståelse i samtal. Som teoretisk utgångspunkt har jag använt Grices (1989) teori om konversationella implikaturer samt Lakoff & Johnsons (1980) teori om konceptuella metaforer, Stålhammars (1997) teori om förståelse av metaforer och Levinsons (1983) kritik av Grice för dennes påstående om metaforer som brott mot samarbetsprincipen vid konversation. Min analysmetod är samtalsanalys, Conversation Analysis. Materialet för uppsatsen består av transkriberade utdrag ur ett radioprogram som bjuder in lyssnare att ringa in och tala om ett förutbestämt ämne med programledaren och i det här fallet även en bisittare. Resultatet visar att det finns fall där metaforer går obemärkt förbi och inte skapar problem för den ömsesidiga förståelsen i samtalet, men det finns även exempel på att bruk av metaforer och liknelser försvårar förståelsen.

  • 1148.
    Wilkins Rivera, Ariana
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    El uso de TIC, ?herramienta útil o sobreestimada?: Un estudio desde el punto de vista del profesor de español2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1149.
    Willert, Janet
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Läsutveckling i år 1: Lärare beskriver hur de arbetar med läsutveckling2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det huvudsakliga syftet med denna undersökning är att spegla hur lärare beskriver arbetet med läsutveckling i år 1. Jag har utgått ifrån en kvalitativ undersökningsmetod och gjort samtalsintervjuer med sex lärare. Det jag funnit är att lärarna vid skolstart följer upp förskolans arbete med språklig medvetenhet. Elevernas förmåga att kunna urskilja ljud i ord och att kunna sätta ihop ljud till ord testas. Lärarna kontrollerar också vilka bokstäver eleverna känner till och om de kan läsa. Under höstterminen arbetar man med en bokstav i veckan. Eleverna arbetar individuellt i arbetsböcker och tränar läsning på olika nivåer och i olika böcker. Motivationen anser lärarna vara en viktig del och mycket görs för att skapa lust och intresse. Lärarna ger också eleverna läxor i olika omfattning. Elevernas läsutveckling följs upp genom testning, genom kontinuerliga iakttagelser, genom olika kartläggningsmaterial, genom att ge tid för att göra klart arbetsuppgifter och genom speciallärarstöd.

     

     

     

     

  • 1150.
    Winberg, Martin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Les sentiments ambigus d'Ousmane Guèye: La négritude, la polygamie et l'homme sénégalais dans Un chant écarlate de Mariama Bâ.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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