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  • 1251.
    Thunberg, Max
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Willgård, Fanny
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Relationsstatus: det är komplicerat: En studie om små detaljhandelsföretag och deras Facebookengagemang för bättre kundrelationer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Aldrig tidigare har företag haft lika goda möjligheter till kommunikation gentemot sin kundbas som idag, vilket är ett resultat av internets tillväxt och skapandet av sociala medier. Facebook som är det största sociala mediet sett till antal användare har en styrka i att ge både företag och privatpersoner breda användarmöjligheter. Med hjälp av sociala medier kan företag gratis skapa ett konto och börja marknadsföra sig själva samt skapa och underhålla kundrelationer på en plattform som många privatpersoner dagligen använder. Det finns många studier som visar på stora positiva möjligheter för företag av alla storlekar vid användande av sociala medier för att skapa och underhålla kundrelationer. Den här studien behöver därmed inte fokusera på faktumet om företag borde utnyttja Facebook för byggandet och förstärkandet av sina kundrelationer, utan snarare hur detta kan göras inom området små detaljhandelsföretag. Syftet för studien att är att kunna beskriva hur företag inom detaljhandel kan använda sig av sociala medier för att skapa och underhålla kundrelationer. Frågeställningen vi valt att besvara är: Hur kan detaljhandelsföretag skapa och underhålla kundrelationer genom Facebook?

    Vi har använt oss av ett abduktivt förhållningssätt baserat på en hermeneutisk ståndpunkt. För att samla in information om hur detaljhandelsföretag använder sig av Facebook för att skapa och underhålla kundrelationer har vi genomfört semistrukturerade intervjuer med tre företag utvalda genom bekvämlighetsurval.

    Studien kom fram till att engagemang och undansatt tid för sociala medier är sällsynt för små företag inom detaljhandeln. Istället är det en redan existerande position som har Facebooksidan som ansvar vid sidan av sina huvudsysslor. Vi kom fram till att de fyra delarna engagemang, tid, strategi/målsättning och interaktion med kund lägger grunden för en framgångsrik kundrelationshantering via Facebook.

    Inom framtida forskning rekommenderar vi ett fokus på redan framgångsrika små detaljhandelsföretag och undersöka vad denna framgång beror på genom att titta på strategier och mätmetoder som dessa företag använder och hur dessa kombinerar engagemang, tid och interaktionsproblematiken som existerar idag.

  • 1252.
    Thyr Alklid, John
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Microenterprise growth advice industry: Scrutinizing content by introducing the views of academics and entrepreneurs on microenterprise growth advice2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to Johansson & Hjalmarsson (2003) the business advice industry targeting microenterprises, small and medium sized businesses is a multibillion pound activity throughout the world, but little research has been conducted upon the theoretical basis for this field. The content of the advice coming from the advice industry targeting microenterprises is questioned by both micro-entrepreneurs and researchers, according to Johansson (1997), who describes that the use of support services among microenterprises doesn’t answer to their needs. To figure out why the conception of growth advice doesn’t correspond between academics, entrepreneurs and advisors, the research question for this study is – what similarities and differences in content of microenterprise growth advice are there between entrepreneurs, academics and advisors? The purpose of the study is to identify and analyse these areas. This is a qualitative study that will be carried out with an inductive approach and exploratory design. Interviews and focus groups have been conducted with advisors and entrepreneurs, and in addition to this, a literature study has been performed. Further, the contents of business advice have been analysed, and in the final section of this paper conclusions are presented regarding what the conceptions are of microenterprise growth advice among academics, entrepreneurs as well as advisors. By having identified the differences and similarities among these conceptions a general statement about the business advice industry is made; in relation to both empirical findings and the theoretical background of this study.

  • 1253.
    Thyr Alklid, John
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Sagan om informationsflödet av feedback från marknaden som inte nådde franchisegivaren: Studie om problem och möjligheter som finns inom klädbranschen när det gäller att säkerställa att informationsflöde gällande feedback från marknaden når franchisegivaren via franchisetagaren2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Informationsteknologin och ett alltmer multifunktionellt internet är en orsak till den så kallade ”informationsrevolutionen”. Ingenting i ett företag sker utan att det föregåtts av någon form av utväxling av information. Information är till för att underlätta för företaget att göra affärer. Det är säljaren som möter kunden har en viktig roll då denna person verkar som koordinator mellan det egna företaget och dess kunder. Säljaren oftast utgör kontaktlänken mellan företaget och marknaden och förmedlar därför informationsflödet uppåt i organisationen. Det finns flera problemområden vad det gäller informationsflödet mellan franchisetagare och franchisegivare. Lokalt etablerade franchisetagare inom klädbranschen i Växjö och deras förhållande till och syn på uppåtriktat informationsflöde om feedback från marknaden pekar på flera problemområden. Man kan ställa sig frågan vilka olika anledningar det finns till varför inte feedback från marknaden når fram till franchisegivaren – mycket av problematiken verkar kretsa kring det faktum att franchisegivare inte inser vikten av information från marknaden och vilken betydelse den har för franchiseorganisationen som helhet. Utmaningen för franchiseorganisationer inom klädbranschen är att förstå slutkundens behov och ta till sig av den feedback som ger indikationer om vart marknaden är på väg. Detta är speciellt viktigt för franchiseorganisationer som verkar i klädbranschen eftersom att de säljer sina produkter direkt till slutkund. Studien är av en empirisk explorativ sort. Metoden består av en semistrukturerad explorativ intervju. Franchisetagare har i en kvalitativ studie intervjuats om hur deras informationsflöden, till exempel gällande kundkrav och kundönskemål, strömmar från marknaden via franchisetagaren till franchisegivare. Informationsutbyte mellan franchisetagare och franchisegivare ses som avgörande för att nå företagsspecifika och systematiska mål inom franchisesystem. Franchisetagarna som blivit intervjuade i studien beskriver att de ibland har en opersonlig relation till sin franchisegivare och att franchisegivaren inte alltid ger franchisetagaren bekräftelse på förmedlad information. De känner ibland att franchisegivaren redan verkar veta allt om marknaden och därför inte är så engagerad av att få mer information. Dessutom tycker franchisetagarna att informationsflöde som handlar om statistik är överskattat. Främst vill man ha fler fysiska möten för att förbättra informationsflödet av feedback. Franchiseorganisationer behöver bland annat decentralisera och fokusera på fler informationskvalitéer för att förbättras. Dessutom bör man vara noga med att konstruera rättvisa avtal, visa engagemang och coacha. Bland det viktigaste är att kalla till fler fysiska möten med franchisetagare så att informationsflöde om feedback förmedlas bättre.

  • 1254.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Beating the headwind to tackle fraud: on local gendered practices of business-dispute resolution2018In: Presented at the 3rd Annual Entrepreneurship as Practice Conference & PhD Consortium, Växjö, Sweden, April 17-20, 2018, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1255.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Foreword: teaching entrepreneurship is walking a tightrope2018In: Revitalizing entrepreneurship education: adopting a critical approach in the classroom / [ed] Karin Berglund & Karen Verduijn, Routledge, 2018, 1, p. xiii-xivChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1256.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Practicing participant observations: capturing entrepreneurial practices2019In: Research handbook on entrepreneurial behavior, practice and process / [ed] William B. Gartner & Bruce T. Teague, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1257.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Socialt entreprenörskap och utveckling av landsbygder2019In: Entreprenörskap för en levande landsbygd: 15 texter om landsbygdsutveckling och entreprenörskap i Norrland / [ed] Karl Wennberg, Växjö: Familjen Kamprads Stiftelse , 2019, p. 221-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1258.
    Tillmar, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Högberg, Lena
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rosell, Erik
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Svensson, Louise
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sektorsöverskridande samverkan: en studie av organisering för välfärd mellan olika samhällssektorer2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport fokuserar på organisering och samverkan över sektorsgränser mellan det offentliga, det privata och civilsamhället. Den samverkan som studeras sker för att hantera välfärdsutmaningar. Sektorerna fyller olika funktioner i vårt samhälle, men samhällskontraktet är statt i förändring. Allt fler tjänster inom välfärdsområdet har under de senaste decennierna utförts av privata företag. Nu vänder sig allt fler till civilsamhället för att hitta lösningar för att hantera välfärdsutmaningarna. Samverkan över sektorsgränser för att lösa utmaningarna kan ses om en del i en större förändringsprocess som rör samhällskontraktet.

    I den här rapporten diskuteras processer och förutsättningar som främjar respektive hindrar sådan samverkan i praktiken. Vi fokuserar på följande frågeställningar:

    • Hur beskriver och uppfattar de involverade aktörerna organisering och samverkan mellan de tre sektorerna?
    • Vilka förutsättningar främjar respektive hindrar samverkan mellan sektorerna?
    • Vilka organisatoriska utmaningar finns vid samverkan mellan sektorer; och hur hanteras utmaningar?

    Frågorna belyses och diskuteras med hjälp av tre fallstudier, kallade Kooperativet, Projektet och Partnerskapet. Forskningen har en så kallad explorativ fallstudiedesign, och vi har genomfört individuella intervjuer och dialoger med aktörer från de tre sektorerna – det offentliga, företagen och civilsamhällets organisationer i de tre fallen. Totalt har cirka 30 intervjuer och ett antal informella dialoger genomförts. Vi har också studerat dokument, och genomfört återföringsdialoger med representanter för de tre samverkansinitiativen.

    De studerade fallen speglar en tid då den offentliga sektorn i landet är i omvandling. Den här rapporten har dokumenterat välfärdsorganisering där nätverkande och marknadslika relationer snarare än byråkratiska principer är avgörande för den verksamhet som sker. Samtliga fall illustrerar betydelsen av nyckelpersoner med förankring i flera sektorer, så kallade gränsgångare. Dessa personer behöver också besitta det vi kallar intersektoriell kompetens, det vill säga kunskaper om och erfarenheter av andra sektorer, samt nätverkskompetens. Sådan kompetens kräver tid och resurser att bygga och utveckla – tidshorisonten för samverkan behöver därför vara lång. Själva samverkan är också tids- och resurskrävande samt förknippad med en hög grad av komplexitet. Våra studier ger genom framförallt i två av fallen visst stöd till de varnande röster som lyfter fram risken att privat sektorslogik tenderar att bli alltmer styrande på samhällets alla områden. Samtidigt ser vi att fruktbar sektorsöverskridande samverkan är möjlig under vissa förutsättningar, vilka vi sammanfattar i termer av fem K:

    • Kompetens – Det krävs drivande gränsgångare som har det vi vill kalla för ”intersektoriell kompetens” och ett starkt engagemang för målgruppen (gränsobjektet).
    • Kontakt – Gränsgångarna måste ha kontakt med andra gränsgångare, med politiker, (andra) tjänstemän samt med gränsobjektet (målgruppen och den samhällsfråga de är en del av).
    • Kapital – Det krävs finansiellt kapital, även från det offentliga. Privat kapital och ideellt arbete kan bidra, men förslår inte i de studerade fallen.
    • Kontinuitet – När förändringar inom organisationerna eller i de externa förutsättningarna blir omfattande, tappar samverkan fart eller blir en omöjlig uppgift. Det behövs en lång tidshorisont.
    • Kontext – Olika organisatoriska lösningar för samverkan fungerar olika bra i olika sammanhang och under olika finansiella förutsättningar. Valet beror av sammanhanget.

    Från de tre studerade fallen kan också lärdomar dras för samverkande aktörer från samtliga tre sektorer. Ett framgångskoncept för alla förefaller vara – att hitta personer i en annan sektor som har samma eller liknande inställning till den aktuella samhällsfrågan och/eller målgruppen – att vara öppen för att lära sig mer om hur de andra sektorerna fungerar – att i möjligaste mån försöka anpassa tempo och rytm till andra samverkande organisationer.

  • 1259.
    Tillmar, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    The embodied multifunctional practices of rural entrepreneuring: the case of green care on farms in Sweden2019In: Presented at the 4th Annual Entrepreneurship as Practice Conference, Nantes, France, April 3-6, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1260.
    Tommysdotter, Anna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    IKEA in India: A study of the cultural aspects of deploying an IKEA store in India2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This study is about organisational culture and different cultural

    influences in a cross-cultural environment at an IKEA office in India.

    Statement of Purpose: The purpose of this master thesis is to provide increased

    understanding of the cross-cultural setting in regards to conceptualisation of the

    concept of culture as well as sense-making and sense-giving processes of employees

    in a trans-cultural environment in India. The case study follows a social

    constructionist understanding of organisations, and can thus provide valuable insights

    into the field without attempting to offer normative solutions (‘the company should do

    this or that’) or predictive views (‘the company will suffer or have success because of

    this’).

    Research Questions: In what ways are employees of an IKEA office in India

    making sense of their complex cross-cultural environment?

    Theoretical Framework: The theoretical framework of this thesis is the

    conceptualisation of cross-cultural management in a transcultural setting. The

    literature on cross-cultural management is in this thesis seen as divided between

    culture as managed and manageable (organisations have cultures and culture is seen

    as an essence) and culture as being organic and developing through interaction (i.e.

    organisations ‘are’ cultures as culture is a non-essentialist, dynamic and on-going

    process of interaction). Woven into these above mentioned conceptualisation of

    culture are sense-making and sense-giving processes.

    Research Methodology: This qualitative case study of an IKEA office in India is

    based on semi-structured in-depth interviews (8) and observations at the research site

    in New Delhi, India.

    Findings: The findings show how sense-making processes of individuals – that

    interact with sense-giving attempts in terms of ‘official’ cultural values and norms –

    construct organisational culture in the form of shared meanings, individual

    interpretations and on-going negotiation processes. Moreover, the findings also point

    to specific cultural influences that are based on the historical situation, i.e. the rule of

    the British Empire in India that lasted nearly two centuries and ended in 1947.

    Discussion: At the office in India, IKEA tried to influence employees through

    sense-giving processes by means of official corporate values, norms, policies and the

    actions by managers. These sense-giving processes, nonetheless, interact with

    individual and collective sense-making processes of employees and various cultural

    influences. For example, linguistic ‘barriers’ (which might influence the sensemaking

    processes of employees), different notions of time, or of how formal or

    informal the organisational context should be, influenced the employees’

    understanding of the official cultural values of the organisation. Furthermore, special

    historical influences (in the case due to Britain’s rule over the Indian subcontinent)

    can create tensions around dominance and authority within the organisation.

    Conclusion: The case study that I present in this master thesis offers the following

    theoretical contributions to the literature on cross-cultural management: it takes the

    conceptualisations of culture in cross-cultural management and provides empirical

    insights based on the view of organisational culture as being constructed and

    negotiated in on-going interaction between individuals. Moreover, it adds a specific

    aspect to the literature on cross-cultural management, as it highlights the importance

    of special historical influences as additional factors that researchers need to consider.

    The practical recommendations that this study provides are – due to the nature of the

    constructionist approach – neither predictive nor normative. Nonetheless, the

    constructionist view of organisational culture in cross-cultural management can help

    people in various positions in organisations (e.g., shop floor employees,

    administrators, managers) in their attempts to analyse and understand the complexities

    of cross-cultural settings. Instead of finding a kind of ‘recipe’ or ‘best practice

    guidelines’, this view can make people aware of individual sense-making process and

    the negotiation of shared meanings, of experts of cultural knowledge within their

    firm, and of historical influences that can become important in the negotiation of

    shared meanings.

  • 1261.
    Torstensson, Adam
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Torstensson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Oderlägets effekter på en organisation: En studie om hur förändringar i orderingången påverkar olika delar i en organisation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    För företag som arbetar inom industrin används ett system som innebär att storleken på personalstyrkan förändras beroende på hur orderläget ser ut. Har företaget mycket att göra anställs folk för att klara av den ökade orderingången och har företagen mindre att göra avslutar man anställningar. Antingen gör man det genom uppsägningar eller så låter man anställningstiden löpa ut. En del företag arbetar med att analysera behovet av personal månadsvis vilket innebär många förändringar i personalstyrkan. Huvudanledningen till att arbeta på det sättet är att minska personalkostnaderna, dock kan det medföra konsekvenser. Konsekvenser som det inte har undersökts tillräckligt kring och som vi intresserat oss för.

    Syfte:

    Att få en djupare förståelse för hur anpassningen av personalstyrkan till orderläget påverkar en organisation. Att ta reda på om det uppstår några konsekvenser för organisationerna för områdena rekryteringsprocessen, personalekonomin och de anställdas trygghet/trivsel.

    Metod:

    Arbetet består av en fallstudie av ett medelstort företag inom industrin. En kvalitativ forskningsmetod har legat till grund för uppsatsen. Det empiriska materialet har samlats in genom intervjuer och observationer.

    Resultat & slutsatser:

    I studien har det konstaterats att en rad konsekvenser uppstår genom att företag anpassar sin personalstyrka till orderläget. De främsta konsekvenserna handlar om att det uppstår tidbrist i rekryteringsprocessen som innebär att vissa moment som t.ex. anställningsintervju prioriteras bort. De anställdas trygghet påverkas också negativt eftersom anställningstiden är kort och risken för uppsägning stor. I studien har också risker analyserats fram ur konsekvenserna.

  • 1262.
    Toubes, Diego R.
    et al.
    Univ Vigo, Spain.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University;Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Scott, Daniel
    Univ Waterloo, Canada.
    Vulnerability of Coastal Beach Tourism to Flooding: A Case Study of Galicia, Spain2017In: Environments, ISSN 2076-3298, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding, as a result of heavy rains and/or storm surges, is a persistent problem in coastal areas. Under scenarios of climate change, there are expectations that flooding events will become more frequent in some areas and potentially more intense. This poses a potential threat to coastal communities relying heavily on coastal resources, such as beaches for tourism. This paper develops a methodology for the assessment of coastal flooding risks, based on an index that compares 16 hydrogeomorphological, biophysical, human exposure and resilience indicators, with a specific focus on tourism. The paper then uses an existing flood vulnerability assessment of 724 beaches in Galicia (Spain) to test the index for tourism. Results indicate that approximately 10% of tourism beaches are at high risk to flooding, including 10 urban and 36 rural beaches. Implications for adaptation and coastal management are discussed.

  • 1263.
    Truong, V. Dao
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa ; National Economics University, Vietnam ; Social Marketing Initiatives, Vietnam.
    Dang, Nam V. H.
    Social Marketing Initiatives, Vietnam.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland ; University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    The marketplace management of illegal elixirs: illicit consumption of rhino horn2016In: Consumption, markets & culture, ISSN 1025-3866, E-ISSN 1477-223X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 353-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the consumption of illegally traded rhino horn. We conducted a survey on 608 males in Vietnam, a country that is identified as among the world's largest recipients of illicit rhino horn. We find that supposed health benefits, such as body detoxification and hangover treatment, were the most common reasons for rhino horn usage. Consumers also used rhino horn to display economic wealth, acquire social status, and initiate business and political relationships. We illuminate the shift in the perceived place of rhino horn from functional to symbolic: rhino horn is not only supposed to possess curative properties but through its circulation within social and professional networks is also considered part of the consumers’ search for a sense of “self,” a sense of “us,” and the delineation of the “other.” We discuss implications for strategies that serve to reduce or prevent further loss of the rhinoceros.

  • 1264.
    Truong, V. Dao
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa ; National Economics University, Vietnam.
    Dang, Nam V. H.
    TRAFFIC International, Vietnam.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland ; University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Dong, X. Dam
    National Economics University, Vietnam.
    The internationalisation of social marketing research2015In: Journal of Social Marketing, ISSN 2042-6763, E-ISSN 2042-6771, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 357-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the internationalisation of social marketing research. Since the social marketing concept was introduced, it has captured increased research attention of scholars. This is evidenced by a growing number of peer-reviewed publications and participation in academic conferences. Although the reasons behind the development of social marketing research have been suggested, its nature, significance and diffusion as a concept has not been examined from an international perspective. Design/methodology/approach – A review of the social marketing and related literature was conducted to identify the patterns, drivers and actors of the internationalisation of social marketing research. Findings – Different levels and dimensions of internationalisation were identified but the overall level of diffusion was relatively low. Growth is concentrated in developed countries. There appears to be a substantial gap with respect to the adoption of the concept by researchers based in the less developed countries. Originality/value – This is arguably the first paper to explore the nature and significance of the degree of internationalisation of social marketing research.

  • 1265.
    Truong, V. Dao
    et al.
    North West Univ, South Africa ; Natl Econ Univ, Vietnam.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand ; Univ Oulu, Finland ; Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Corporate social marketing in tourism: to sleep or not to sleep with the enemy?2017In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 884-902Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social marketing is regarded as an effective consumer-oriented approach to promoting behavioural change and improved well-being for individuals, communities and society. However, its potential for tourism, especially sustainable tourism, remains under-researched. This article examines the utilisation of social marketing by tourism businesses. A search strategy identified 14 behavioural change programmes that involved tourism businesses. Half of these programmes label themselves social marketing; the others tend to be part of corporate social responsibility efforts, using a form of corporate social marketing (CSM). Most programmes seek to encourage pro-environmental behaviours in tourists, tourism businesses and other stakeholders including suppliers. Although tourism businesses can develop social marketing programmes alone, typically they collaborate with public and non-profit agencies as partners and sponsors. The strength of the tie between the promoted behaviour and the sale of a company's product varies considerably. It is suggested that social marketing can make significant contributions to environmentally sustainable tourism. However, this research also suggests that social marketing is not a substitute for, but rather an essential complement to, technological and regulatory approaches to climate change. Changing behaviour is a long process: without a long-term commitment from private sector companies, CSM programmes will fail to achieve behavioural change goals.

  • 1266.
    Truong, V. Dao
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa ; National Economics University, Vietnam.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Exploring the poverty reduction potential of social marketing in tourism development2015In: ASEAS: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Südostasienwissenschaften, ISSN 1999-2521, E-ISSN 1999-253X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 125-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although social marketing has been demonstrated to be an effective tool of behavior change in a variety of contexts, its poverty reduction potential in tourism development has captured limited research attention. This paper explores the potential contribution of social marketing to tourism-related poverty alleviation in Sapa, Vietnam. It does so by creating an understanding of how local residents perceive poverty, then exploring whether social marketing could be a potential solution in the case of Sapa. Through participant observations and semi-structured interviews, this study reveals that local people perceive poverty as a lack of rice and/or income and ascribe it to both internal and external factors. Local women often follow tourists to sell handicrafts, causing discomfort for tourists and driving them away from certain destinations. Insufficient capital and farming land are also identified as a critical barrier to poverty reduction. This study argues that by understanding the poor people's perspectives on poverty, we can identify meaningful approaches to poverty alleviation. Thereby, social marketing can be one of the tools to bring the marginalized voice of poor people to the attention of decision-makers.

  • 1267.
    Tsai, Dun-Hou
    et al.
    National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Johansson, Anders W.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Li, Shang-Jen
    Meiho University, Taiwan.
    Enacting Entrepreneurial Process on Family Business: Case of Health Care Business2013In: Management of Service Businesses in Japan / [ed] Monde, Y, Imai, N., Matsuo, T. and Yamaguchi, N., New Jersey: World Scientific, 2013, p. 71-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1268.
    Tuglu, Nil
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Lived Experience of Activity Based Working: An explorative study of the change of workspaces at IKEA to an activity-based environment2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Backgroud: This master thesis is about discovering the concept of ‘Activity- Based Working (ABW)’ and its application to the specific case of IKEA. ABW is a phenomenon in office design and management. From a physical perspective, it discards private offices, desks and desktop computers assigned for individual’s permanent use (Parker, 2016). Instead, the office space is rearranged with various areas tailored for different work tasks, such as hubs for teamwork, meeting areas, cubicles, phone booths, workshop areas and more (Parker, 2016; Ditchburn, 2014).

    The application of ABW involves in the behavioral environment in addition to the physical one. The behavioral environment is aimed to encourage collaboration, creativity, team work and flexible working (Koetsveld & Kamperman, 2011). The concept of ABW is yet under-researched. The existing literature presents the driving factors of open-plan and partially activity-based workspaces from an organizational perspective. The driving factors and expected outcomes of ABW are steered by the work-related needs by the practitioners and scholars. The needs identified by scholars, which are leading companies to take an action towards ABW are mainly organizational needs. The empirical studies reveal positive and negative outcomes of activity- based way of working, affecting physical and behavioral environments of employees, without building a relationship between the work-related needs and the outcome. In addition, these studies are very limited and they do not cover the reflections of driving factors on employees.

    Addressing this gap, I want to add to the literature on office space by presenting an empirical case of IKEA, which combines the rationales and experiences of employees shortly after their workspace has been transformed to ABW. My purpose is not to point out the positive or negative experience, but to reveal employees’ interpretation of the new workspace and how they experience it.

    Research question: How do employees interpret the rationales around the transformation of their office space into ABW and how do they experience the ABW environment?

    Purpose: To investigate the lived experience of IKEA employees in a physically and behaviorally changing workspace and to problematize the relationship of the rationales and experiences of employees.

    Method: This research is an explorative case study. The data presented in findings is collected through semi-structured interviews. Thirteen interviews conducted in three different locations of IKEA.

    Conclusion: The study concluded as the lived experience of employees is not mainly parallel to the rationales of organization towards changing to an activity-based environment. The findings revealed a tension between the driving factors and the lived experience. Driving factors reflect what is planned by the organization; whereas the lived experience do not directly show the impact of driving factors on the outcome. The lived experience brings the attention to the social needs of employees to be considered in workspace.

  • 1269.
    Tuijnman, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    En postindustriell stads dynamik: Kalmars samarbeten och konkurrenser i strävan efter expansion genom handel2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis strives to reveal the dynamics between a central and a peripheral shopping area in Kalmar, Sweden. The establishment of larger shopping centers has become a hallmark of postindustrial cities. Cities globally are at risk of creating an urban economic rift between the central and peripheral shopping areas. By establishing major shopping venues around the traditional central business districts, cities hope to create a larger customer hinterland and thereby also increased economic growth. The aim of this thesis is answered by two research questions regarding collaboration and competition between two shopping areas; the central Kvarnholmen and peripheral Hansa City Mall. As it theoretical framework, the thesis mobilizes discussions on the postindustrial city as well as additional economic theory concerning the so-called Disneyization. An overview over previous research is provided, and empirical data was produced through the following methods; Semi-structured interview, structured interview, simple observation and document analysis. The results were analyzed using a universal approach.

     

    The thesis concludes that the dynamics between the two shopping areas are fluctuating; sometimes characterized by cooperation, other times by competition. Kalmar municipality’s retail strategy aims and encourages the shopping areas to collaborate. When seeing Kalmar on a smaller scale, this is surely the case: the shopping areas are seemingly united, with common image production and working together towards their hinterland. Viewing the dynamics on a larger local scale, however, a strong competition between Kvarnholmen and Hansa City Mall is evident; as both shopping areas strive to retain their consumers on their specific area of trade. 

  • 1270.
    Törnkvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Alakili, Riham
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Khoshnaw, Rebuar
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Stimulating Creativity: A study about how leadership can stimulate a creative organizational climate2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Creativity is a major source of competitive advantage and a crucial key for organizational success and survival. The ability to achieve competitive advantage largely depends on the way the organization exploits and uses its available resources. Among many resources within an organization, employees’ unique skills and creative abilities are key resources. The term 'creativity' is not easily defined, which is evident by the various different definitions of the term, and also varies depending on the subject area. This is also one of the reasons why leaders avoid bringing forth creativity, because of its ambiguous character, it is considered to be too elusive and intangible to pin down, in other words unmanageable. Consequently, this causes uncertainty among leaders which makes them repellent to stimulating creativity. However, this does not exclude the fact that the importance of leadership not has been given sufficient attention. Several researches indicate that leadership actually plays a key role in stimulating creativity by its impact on organization climate. Therefore, the question raised in this study is how leadership can stimulate a creative organizational climate for employees.

    In this study a literature review has been made where relevant theory has been included in the theoretical chapter. The theory is based primarily on Amabile's ‘The KEYS model’ combined with Ekvall's ‘Ten dimensions’. The two theories are analyzed together and supplemented with other theories where factors are either retained or omitted. Each respective theoretical position makes an important contribution to the understanding of creativity stimulation, from which a conceptual model has been designed. The methodological approach used within this study has been abduction. With a focus on qualitative research as an approach, an operationalization was created and also used during the semi-structured interviews. For this study three different company leaders (two HR-leaders and one innovation leader) have been interviewed.

    The factors that indicate a positive impact on creativity are idea support, risk-taking, playfulness and humor, feedback, rewards and emotional safety. This has been confirmed by the arguments stated in the theory as well as empirical findings. Other factors such as independence, sufficient time, necessary resources, amount of challenges and strictness show a pending impact, meaning that the factor requires a balance in order to avoid inhibiting creativity. Amount of challenges and strictness were originally assigned positive and negative impact, but as now have been assigned pending impact depending on how the theory compared to the empirical findings has been addressed to them. Finally, the negative related factor, conflicts, has been omitted as the factor did not turn out to contribute to a creative climate. Based on this analysis, a model has been created with the intention to fulfil the purpose of this study as it shows how leaders can stimulate creativity by reproducing the factors contributing to creativity.

  • 1271.
    Uddin, Md Reaz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Opportunity Recognition Process of Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on comprehending the opportunity recognition process of immigrant entrepreneurs. A qualitative study was designed centering on the research question: how immigrant entrepreneurs recognize entrepreneurial opportunities in Sweden. The study needed to gather life experiences of immigrant entrepreneurs to understand the process thus individuals were selected purposively who are doing business in Sweden coming from another country. The selected immigrants were interviewed using semi-structured interview guides. The data were properly managed, transcribed in verbatim, coded and used for the analysis applying pattern matching techniques. This study identifies that previous knowledge and experiences assist immigrant entrepreneurs to recognize opportunities. Immigrant entrepreneurs have been categorized into four groups based on experiences: immigrants having home experiences tend to recognize similar opportunities in the host country to transfer previous expertise; immigrants gaining host experiences in an industry tend to look for opportunities in the same industry ; immigrants having diversified experiences from home and other countries search for opportunities in innovative fields; immigrants gaining host experiences in one industry recognize opportunities in another industry focusing on problems and needs. Immigrant entrepreneurs rely on short courses, university degree, TV programs, the internet and research for education and learning that in turn guide in recognizing opportunities. Environment factors directly or indirectly assist immigrant entrepreneurs providing information, technical and consultation services, and inspiration. The components of environment factors identified are Almi, Coompanion, Drivhuset, Science parks, Incubator, Nyföretagarcentrum, Island of entrepreneurs, Banks, Social recognition and the Swedish lifestyle. It is also identified that immigrant entrepreneurs take assistance from the social capital consisting of family, friends, customers, suppliers, entrepreneurs (own country and Swedish) in exchanging ideas to recognize opportunities. Immigrant entrepreneurs express that psychological attributes such as self-actualization, self-confidence, risk taking, optimism and creativity complement their strides in this regard. This study identifies that the prepared mind of immigrants assists to detect phenomena from surrounding to turn into entrepreneurial opportunities. This study presents a broader scenario of opportunity recognition process of immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden. Simultaneously it shows the specific paths of opportunity recognitions with implications of social capital, environment factors, alertness, learning, psychological attributes and social capital in perspective of the experiences of immigrant entrepreneurs. 

  • 1272.
    Unal, Cansu
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Impact of the National Culture on Female Leadership Styles: How does Turkish culture impact on female leadership styles in Turkey?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The culture demonstrates itself in the shared values, attitudes, beliefs, norms and behaviours of people and it is distinguished from each other by differences in those shared meanings of people interacting. As culture is varied across countries, leadership styles are also varied across countries and are not exercised in the same way across different cultures. They are imported in accordance with the cultural environment in which they are perceived. Therefore, understanding the culture is significant in order to explain preferences of leaders concerning leadership styles. The main purpose of the present dissertation is to provide an overview of the relationship between Turkish culture and the way in which leadership is exercised by Turkish female leaders.

    The present study is completed in three steps in order to demonstrate that the existing relationship between the Turkish culture and leadership styles of female leaders in Turkey. In the first step, the study examined what culture is, what dimensions of the national culture are, what leadership is and how leadership styles are culturally-linked. In the second step, the paper investigated how female leaders perceive and exercise different leadership styles across different cultures. In the third step, the study researched what cornerstones of Turkish culture and how anticipated leadership styles of Turkish female leaders are shaped by Turkish culture.    

    The study followed a qualitative research approach based on the grounded theory. Ten female leaders coming from different backgrounds were interviewed in order to draw a holistic picture of the relationship between Turkish cultural values and leadership styles of Turkish female leaders.

    The findings of the study indicate that the Turkish culture has an influence on leadership styles of Turkish female leaders. According to the results, while Islamic values have no significant impact on leadership behaviours of female leaders, such cultural attributes as collectivism, high power distance, uncertainty avoidance and paternalism have a huge impact on leadership styles of Turkish female leaders.      

    The research examined only leadership styles of Turkish female leaders. Therefore, this study recommends a future research which will investigate leadership styles of Turkish males in order to understand whether gender has also an effect on leadership styles of Turkish leaders.

     

  • 1273.
    Vailati, Federico
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    How does culture affect leadership: Case study Thailand2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The culture is a key factor that profoundly changes our perception of the world. The cultural influences on the leadership aspects need to be taken into particular account in order to achieve an effective leadership.

    The main purpose of this thesis is to provide an overview of the relationship between the culture and the way in which leadership is perceived/exercised in Thailand.

    The case study is represented by the current situation in Thailand. The aim is to focus on Thai case in order to demonstrate that leadership styles cannot be imported and exercised in the same way across different cultures and countries. A leadership style may have different effects and meanings in relation to the cultural environment in which it is exercised. Understanding a culture is the essential step in order to consider the real effects of a leadership approach.

  • 1274.
    Vakulenko, Yulia
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    'In Search of the Bear' - Research on Russian Leadership2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1991 Rost brought up words of Barnard who stated in 1948 that leadership at the time was seen as a ‘dogmatically stated nonsense’ (p.80), while by Rost's time, leadership knowledge increase and amount of the literature dedicated to this topic had grew from a small hill to a size of a small mountain (p.175). Nowadays Rost’s “mountain of books” about leadership multiplied many times and leadership is recognized to be not only the way to guide an organization or a country, but also a way of personal and professional life within a group of any kind. ‘To lead is to live dangerously because when leadership counts, when you lead people through difficult change, you challenge what people hold dear – their daily habits, tools, loyalties, and ways of thinking – with nothing more to offer perhaps than a possibility’ (Heifetz & Linsky 2002, p.2).

    Understanding and studying leadership helps groups and groups’ members on all the levels. But among all the “book of the mountain”, curiously enough, very few are dedicated to Russian leadership.

    Russia has experienced plural historical changes that have definitely had a great influence on development of Russian leadership, nevertheless very few authors speak about Russian leadership as it is, other than a politicalpower. Such knowledge would benefit not only Russian leaders and followers, but also representatives of other countries who deal with Russian people for all sorts of reasons as well as those who have some interest in the subject. Knowing one's own strengths and weaknesses allows one to become more efficient in personal and professional life.

    ‘The Art of Leading Others Comes From the Art of Leading Oneself’ (interpretation of Plato by Philippe Daudi).

  • 1275.
    Van cauteren, Victoria
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Management regarding national culture influence2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following master thesis explores the differences and similarities betweenmanagement practices regarding diverse countries. The purpose of this paper is tounderstand how different or similar are the managerial performance through nationalculture influence. This assumption will be studied by observing the management ofhotels in Sweden and in France.Through an empirical investigation, qualitative data have been collected from aFrench hotel manager and a Swedish one by interview them. The results have beenanalyzed with a comparative research design method basis, comparing the style ofthe two managers with existing models. The findings will thus determine thedifferences and similarities between managing a hotel in France and in Sweden.This research can be considered as a basis for further researches on the field ofcross-cultural management, especially in the hospitality industry.

  • 1276.
    Van den Abeele, Aurélie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Legrand, Martin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    The Desirability to Develop Followership, a discussion on three perspectives2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During these past twenty years, we witnessed some important changes in the organizational context and environment that motivate scholars and management academics to examine the topic of followership more deeply. Then, in the leadership literature, we noticed the emergence of a small but growing number of articles that are devoted to this topic and that challenge the previous conceptions of leadership. Numerous scholars developed a more contemporary conception of followership, in which they conceive the role of followers as essential to ensure the organizational performance.

    Consequently, as it is already the case for leadership, many management academics and practitioners recommend organizations to invest and devote part of their time and energy to the development and training of followers. In this context and in front of such recommendations, the question of desirability is addressed along this thesis. More precisely, the purpose of this work is to discuss if it is really desirable to develop followers in the perspective of followers, leaders and organizations. In order to address the research issue, the thesis is divided in two parts. The first one is based on three dominant models from the literature and specifies what we mean by followership. A personal conception of effective followership is then developed and includes two important attributes: an appropriate level of engagement and an active critical thinking. In the second part, the question of desirability is discussed in the perspective of followers, leaders and organizations. For this purpose, we gathered a wide range of information that comes from a personal survey, several theoretical concepts and other empirical data.

  • 1277.
    van Loon, Peter
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Ledarskap på distans: - en studie av indirekt ledarskap ur ett medarbetarperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie tar sitt avstamp i arbetslivets globalisering med dess nya förutsättningar för ledarskapet. I globaliseringens fotspår följer en trend av ”platta” organisationer som har produktionen skild från försäljningsavdelningen, vilken istället hålls nära marknaden. Detta leder till en spridning av de personella resurserna inom organisationen, vilket med stor sannolikhet innebär ett betydande avstånd mellan ledarna och deras medarbetare. Konsekvensen av detta blir då att begreppet indirekt ledarskap kommer att öka i betydelse och användning.

     

    Tanken är att med en kvalitativ studie med abduktion som huvudmetod öka förståelsen för konsekvenserna av ett indirekt ledarskap ur ett medarbetarperspektiv.

  • 1278.
    Vandekerckhove, Theo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Giovagnoli, Jérémy
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Distributed Leadership: Potential & Implementation through self-managed teams2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In days of growing competitiveness, notions of efficiency, productivity and innovation are central inquiries of organizations. In order to meet those challenges, a special attention has to be made to the way the organization is leading its workforce. Leadership is the key component holding together organizations and connecting it to its goal. However, this Leadership should take into account all the internal and external demands of the organizations in order to adapt to it. By looking into a way to match Leadership to its demands, we have developed our model of Distributed Leadership. Detaching the lead from a singular individual and empowering people are solving the main issues that organizations are facing these days. Moreover, it is a unique way of valuing the workforce and capturing its potential. Distributed leadership can be seen as a probable trend in the next decade, because it has already proven its benefits in many organizations.

    In this thesis, we develop our own model of Distributed Leadership that emerged from our research. We collected secondary data through an extended literature review, and we combined it with empirical data collected through case studies realized by the mean of interviews. We focused on illustrating the potential of Distributed Leadership and developing its process of implementation in order for organizations to meet its benefits. 

  • 1279. Veijola, Soile
    et al.
    Höckert, Emily
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Hygge2018In: Matkasanakirja hiljaisuuteen: [ A Travel dictionary to Silence ] / [ed] Soile Veijola, Janne Säynäjäkangas, Helsinki: ntamo , 2018, p. 45-45Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1280.
    Veijola, Soile
    et al.
    University of Lapland, Finland.
    Höckert, Emily
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Carlin, David
    RMIT University, Australia.
    Light, Ann
    University of Sussex, UK.
    Säynäjäkangas, Janne
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Silenr conferences: radical slowness in methodologies, experiences and letters from undressed places2017In: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research, Falun, Sweden, October 4-6, 2017: book of abstracts, 2017, p. 51-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For us the year passed has been one of conferring around the notions of slowness and silence. It has meant committing ourselves to radical slowness in thinking, living and writing together. We have walked through three seasons of thinking-well, living-well and writing-well together. Embracing the potentialities of not knowing, our aim has been to enjoy one season at a time – in present tense.

    The year began with an invitation that sparked collective, speculative imagination of being-well in silence. We entered the season of thinking-well-together, by exchanging short “postcards” of possible social experiments we would like to conduct with each other. The essence of this season was to tune us into artistic methods of dwelling in place, welcoming and being unprepared.

    The following season brought us to living-well-together in real life by way of camping together. By camping we refer to an inclusive and mobile social concept without pre-defined goals and divisions into hosts and guests, performances and audiences, workshops and leisure. The event was rooted in place in multiple ways, bringing together researchers, artists, locals and entrepreneurs to dwell-alongside local forms of life and matter.

    We are currently in a season of writing-well-together. The writings follow e.g. methodologies of Companion Letters (e.g. Carlin, Light & Veijola 2014) and offer unobtrusive guiding to silence, slowness, hospitality and living-well-together.

    Our presentation will set up a small camp around these ideas, their outcomes and new openings. 

  • 1281.
    Veljanovski, Ana
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Basha, Arilda
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Kuznetcova, Polina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Entrepreneurial Ecosystems’ Impact on Immigrant Entrepreneurship: In Context of Kronoberg Region 2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The literature argues that the immigrants act in segregated communities and they, in most of the cases, establish low-risk and low return businesses within their ethnic communities. The importance of connecting immigrant entrepreneurs and the entrepreneurial ecosystems is a challenge to be overcome taking into consideration that the immigrants usually are not involved in it as a consequence of a lack of information about how it can facilitate immigrant entrepreneurship.

    The aim of this research is to explore how the entrepreneurial ecosystem can facilitate the immigrant entrepreneurship by confronting the stories of the entrepreneurial ecosystem to the stories of the immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden, in context of Kronoberg region. Qualitative analysis approach is applied and in-depth interviews are performed on seven organizations that are part of the entrepreneurial ecosystem and four immigrant entrepreneurs. Collected empirical data is then transformed into narratives for each interviewed person. The analysis and the answer to the question are done based on the structure of Isenberg’s Domains of the Entrepreneurship Ecosystem.

    The research showed that the entrepreneurial ecosystem can facilitate the immigrant entrepreneurship by providing micro-loans, alternative ways of financing, equal access to opportunities, embracing the experimentation and drive, consultancy in different areas as legal regulation, accounting and business plan preparation, free of charge working space, seminars and workshops, help with understanding and translation of the language, contacts with early customers and business partners and by providing access to new markets.

    However, empirical data showed that even though these resources exist, there is a missing link between the available resources and immigrant entrepreneurs. What is more, improvement is needed with regards to the challenge of the language barrier and trust issues.

    Finally, the results of this thesis contribute in raising the awareness for the need of a more strategic approach to immigrant entrepreneurs as a vulnerable sub-group in the society and the entrepreneurial ecosystem. What is more, the immigrant entrepreneurs can use it as a valuable source of information for the different benefits are provided by the entrepreneurial ecosystem.  

  • 1282.
    Verde, Ida
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Migranters syn på massturism: En fallstudie av Barcelonas stadskärna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsfrågor: Hur upplever migranter massturismen i Barcelonas stadskärna och vilken plats i samhället anser sig migranterna ha?Syfte: Att undersöka migranters förhållningssätt till massturism i Barcelonas stadskärna.Metod: En hermeneuetisk ansats har legat som grund till studien. Insamlingen av empiriskt material har gjorts via 15 webb-baserade intervjuer med personer med icke-spansk nationalitet. Samtliga var boende eller före detta boende i den centrala stadsdelenCiutat Vella.Slutsats: Turismutvecklingen i Barcelona har direkt påverkan på migranternas vanor och rutiner. Intervjupersonerna i denna undersökning kämpar för att finna sin plats i staden, men ser sig själva som Barcelonabor snarare än lokalbor. Deras grad av irritation och/eller acceptans gentemot turismen har direkt koppling till bostadens distans till centrum samt till huruvida respondenterna har/hade ett jobb inom turismsektorn eller ej. Turismen i sig upplevs dock inte som negativ; endast effekterna av den.

  • 1283.
    Victor, Johansson
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Somehagen, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Shared Leadership and its Future Potential: - Why do, How to and then What?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Leaders are often called upon to make sense out of complicated situations and give direction to others, and the situations have increased in both number and complexity. A solution to this problem has been identified in sharing leadership and engaging the potential of entire organizations. Therefore the purpose of this literature review is to map and identify interesting areas about shared leadership. Investigating if shared leadership can help organisations become more efficient in a world of growing complexity. Focusing on why organisational actors should consider a shared leadership approach. Critically examine the potential outcome from shared leadership and how an organisation could move towards adopting a shared leadership approach, including steps, conditions and actions that would be required.

    Literature about shared leadership and similar concepts has increased extensively, causing dissension in the area. Aiming to explore, understand and express what the literature says about shared leadership we adopted the systems view with an inductive and qualitative approach. Realising that shared leadership most commonly is practiced and studied in teams we adopted this scope and went deeper into the social process and conditions for creating shared leadership in teams.

    Shared leadership was found to solve demands for increased knowledge, skill and ability among modern leaders. Preferably implemented successively by vertical leaders into cross-functional teams conducting knowledge work. Tasks to simple or time to urgent however makes shared leadership ineffective, while misaligned perceptions and purposes between team members might diminish trust and neglect shared leadership. This review then makes valuable implications for future research, suggesting deepened empirical research in the implication of shared leadership.     

  • 1284.
    Vollberg, Alicia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Herhold, Antonia
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Löneförändring: hjälpande eller stjälpande?: En kvalitativ studie av Distriktsveterinärernas nya löneavtal2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order for today’s organizations to survive in the rapidly changing market, there are increasing demands for flexibility and adaptability. The fact is that 70% of all organizational changes fail and one reason is that employees who are affected by the change are not taken into consideration. We therefore aim to study employees understanding of an organizational change. One form of organisational change is to implement a new wage setting in the organisation. We think that previous studies that discuss employees´understanding of a new wage setting shows different results without a deeper explanation. We therefore aim to study employees´understanding of a new wage setting to get a deeper understanding for their emotions. We therefore have chose to make a qualitative study of the Distritsveterinärerna’s new wage agreement that came into force on 1 December 2018. The new wage agreement meant a transition from a collective wage setting to an individual salary setting. We conducted eleven semi-structured interviews with veterinarians who work at Distritsveterinärerna, where they had to tell about their experiences before and after the new wage agreement came into force. We also made two participant observations at the Distriktsveterinärerna’s clinic in Växjö. Through our interviews and observation, we created an understanding of the veterinarians' experiences of organizational change. The study shows that veterinarians at different clinics around Sweden experience the change with the new organizational wage agreement differently. The veterinarians who are dissatisfied with the new pay agreement experience an injustice that results in a reduced motivation. Dissatisfaction also creates a deteriorated working group at these clinics since they feel that the number of conflicts has increased. They also feel like their identity linked to work is less compared to before. The veterinarians who experience positive feelings related to the wage agreement change describe an improved experience of the working environment when the stress has decreased. They also explain that they experience an increased sense of pleasure associated with their work because they can now focus on their areas of interest.

  • 1285.
    von Dahn, Hannes
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Colleagues or competitors?: A cross-cultural study about the effects of commission based salaries in Sweden vs. the U.S.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An important issue that managers are facing in today’s intensive business environment is how to compensate their employees to keep them motivated. The trend is to be rewarded for the individual performances, which has increased the usage of commission based salary systems. Previous research suggests that commission salary provokes internal competition, while it damages cooperation. However, the main issue in feminine and masculine societies is what motivates people, which indicates that the effects of commission based salary systems needed to be examined from a cultural perspective. Therefore, with the main aim was to enhance the understanding of this, the problem was addressed by the overreaching research question: How do commission based salary systems affect cooperation and internal competition in masculine and in feminine societies? To answer this, empirical data was acquired from Sweden and the United States. Sweden is recognized as the most feminine society, where social motives are dominating. The United States on the other hand, is recognized as a masculine society that encourages competition and where money is the main motivator. The empirical data derived from personal interviews with real estate agents that work with commission salary. Three case companies within each country were included in the study and three interviewees within each company participated. The findings showed that commission salary tends to increase the work effort, limit the cooperation, while it increases the internal competition. Nevertheless, the effects it has distinctively differs between the societies. In Sweden, the importance of group cohesion and interpersonal relationship results in a higher level of cooperation than in the United States. Despite that commission salary evokes internal competition, colleagues are colleagues above all in Sweden. In the United States however, cooperation mainly occurs when it serves the individual performances. Here, money and the own success are what matter the most and due to the competitive mindset, internal competition becomes significantly more intensive in the United States than in Sweden. In contrary to Sweden, commission salary can turn colleagues into competitors, for better or for worse.  

  • 1286.
    Vähätalo, Mervi
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Tomi J.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Laiho, Maarit
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Suomi, Kati
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Tevameri, Terhi
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Institutional logics and efficiency pressures in public organizations: what about the healthcare sector?2018In: Paper presented at the 25th Annual EurOMA Conference, Budapest, Hungary, June 24-26, 2018, 2018, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the current state of public sector logic from the perspective of healthcare professionals. More than 1500 healthcare professionals answered the survey concerning the way in which values, decision making and aims appear in the public sector. Healthcare professionals felt that the essential value in the public sector is still the respect for human life. However, they also argued that good care has become subordinate to financial values. In the current age of austerity, improving efficiency in the public sector is inevitable. However, it shouldn’t be done by jeopardizing professionals’ ability to work according to their professional logic.

  • 1287.
    Västerlund, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Samuelsson, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Döende vacker stad: Det komplexa arbetet med att göra en oattraktiv plats attraktiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There’s currently a growing competition between locations to attract visitors, tourists and residents. By increased competition, combined with it’s become more convenient for people to move between locations, it’s become more difficult for rural areas to compete against larger venues. Outshopping has led to that it become harder for shops to establish, and established shops have needed to shut down. This has resulted in less jobs and that larger investments has failed to happen. Tingsryd is no exception of this phenomena and they have experienced and suffered because of the growing marketplaces in neighboring towns. This has resulted in that Tingsryd has become less attractive. It’s not easy to create an attractive place and it requires careful, strategic and long-term work. It’s important to distinguish itself from other locations and prove why the specific location is better and more attractive.

    Research question: How can Tingsryds center commerce become attractive to people who don’t live in the city?

    Purpose: The purpose is to develop proposals on how Tingsryds center commerce can be attractive.

    Methodology: A case study has been conducted. An epistemological approach with hermeneutic focus has been used. The study had a qualitative and deductive approach. Primary data has been used with supplemented secondary data. To collect the empirical material, semi-structured interviews were conducted.

    Research findings: The study conclude that in order to make a place attractive the place first need to identify their current status and situation. Then they need to create an image of the place and what kind of message they want to send. Lastly they need to show the image that has been created.

  • 1288.
    Vétillart, Guillaume
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Creativity & Leadership: The introduction of creative internal communication practices in organizations 2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the impacts of introducing creative experiences in a rigid organization. Based on the methodology suggested by Strauss and Corbin (1998) I have conducted a qualitative study through 8 semi-structured interviews of heterogeneous profiles in an organization where I worked for two years as an apprentice. Specific creative experiences were introduced in order to improve the internal communication, facilitate an organizational change transition and sustain a better social climate. I aimed at understanding the impacts resulting from experiencing such activities both at an individual and organizational level. My findings reveal three positive categories (well-being, corporate affiliation and organizational change facilitation) and three negative categories (individual irritations and a lack of coherence with the corporate identity). I conclude my work with the possible reasons justifying unexpected negative results, stating that trustworthy leadership and the corporate culture are essential when introducing such collaborative activities. My thesis might contribute to the discussions of creative problem solving for the sake of communication and values-added resulting from creative interventions in organizations.

  • 1289.
    Wadström, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Lidman, Anna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Leidek, Kajsa
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Game on: Att spela sig till nya höjder av motivation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “Motivation is the desire within a person causing that person to act” (Mathis & Jackson, 2009, p. 24). Motivation is what makes people act. Lately a tool to create more motivation called Gamification has been more and more popular to use. This study is focusing on the subject motivation and also how gamification can be used as a tool to get more of that. Five theoretical subjects are being used throughout the whole study. These are: human resource, motivation, rewards, gamification and game design. The fields have a lot in common but the most central part is motivation that is represented in all parts. The purpose of this study is to explain the impact of motivation on people and how game mechanics can increase the motivation further. A case study was done at the company Prové using semi structured interviews. To get more empirical data we used websites and blogs. The interviews helped to get a deeper insight in how people get motivated in their work environment. Data gathered from websites and blogs showed how gamification is being used in real life situations.

     

    The result showed that motivation plays a big role in both businesses and among people, especially considering the motivation within a person. If using gamification as a tool to increase motivation it is really important to keep the following in mind; it has to be connection to personal goals, the reasons has to be grounded and everyone has to play by the same rules.

  • 1290.
    Wagenknecht, Ronja
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Seeing Beyond Words: Animals teach us about our natural ability to lead2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nonverbal communication in leadership is a phenomenon which is interesting to get a greater understanding of. Animals only communicate nonverbally and have strong leadership behaviours. Therefore, this study aim is to find out in what way nonverbal communication in leaders is still connected to animal roots and what the implications for modern life are. This study tries to give an overview of the phenomenon with a theoretical approach. Different point of views of nonverbal communication and animal behaviour in leaders have been discussed. A theoretical approach was suitable because of the abundance of literature in the main fields of focus. Connecting the different studies with each other gave valuable insights into the phenomenon. Power, status, submission, territory, space, and mating behaviours are the most used categories associated with leadership behaviours in animal species. Human leadership behaviour consists of the same categories but furthermore, emotional intelligence is an integral part as well. Different postures, gestures, facial expressions as well as distances to each other gave a comprehensive overview of how leaders are naturally behaving. Deciphering the complex nonverbal communication and looking at them with aspects of communication in animals helped with showing the roots and the natural ability to lead. Further research, however, should be conducted to see how nonverbal communication influences complex group dynamics and the effect thereof. Implications for the natural instincts to lead are helpful with how leaders can further their communication skills and become more conscious of their nonverbal communication.

  • 1291.
    Wahnström, Kristin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    In the aftermath of Rana Plaza: Challenges for safety within the garment industry of Bangladesh2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this bachelor's thesis is to investigate the safety culture among employees within the garment factory industry in Bangladesh. This is made in order to increase the understanding of the need for improvements and how these can be made.

    Methodology: This qualitative thesis has an abductive approach. The empirical findings are based on semi-structured interviews with 26 garment factory workers.

    Theoretical framework: The thesis deals with two theoretical areas. It addresses the concepts of safety culture and safety climate as well as their relation to organizational culture. Thereto it addresses theories on method implementations and changes in organizational culture.

    Results: Five recurring themes were found in the semi-structured interviews with factory workers: a new focus among management, training, risk and dangers at work, speaking about safety at work and wish for changes at work. It is hoped that the recurring themes reflect distinctive patterns within organizational and safety culture among garment factory workers in Bangladesh.

    Conclusions: In the aftermath of Rana Plaza the safety culture within the ready-made garment industry have seen major improvements. However, the safety culture still possesses several of shortcomings. In order for international initiatives to succeed in their objective of creating a safer and healthier ready-made garment industry in Bangladesh these shortcomings must be acknowledged. Thereto a bottom-up perspective must complement a top-down perspective in the ongoing implementation process of an organization culture which aim to empower factory workers and support factory owners to take responsibility for safety and health at work.

  • 1292.
    Waleghwa, Beatrice
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    The Nexus of Infrastructural Development and Conservation; An Actor-Network Theory Perspective: Insights from Nairobi National Park2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Protected areas have a myriad of functions. As such they are prone areas for conflicts given the different interests of the involved parties.  Conflicts are complex entities that ought to be analyzed using multiple approaches. Guided by the social constructivist research paradigm, a qualitative approach is employed in this thesis to explore the relational dynamics of conflicts in Protected areas. This thesis presents the perspectives of various actors from a conflict in Nairobi National park. The conflict emerged with the construction of a tarmac road in the park. Findings indicate various meanings of the road for different actors. Ranging from a “conservation threat” to a “boost and threat to wildlife tourism”. The various perspectives in this study inform the proposed a conceptual framework for exploring the conflict in Nairobi National Park.

  • 1293.
    Wallenberg, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Westerberg, Elin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Meningen med aktiekapitalet: – Är aktiekapitalet en gammal förlegad tradition som har bevarats?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There was a reduction in Sweden of the share capital in 2010, in which the share capital was reduced from 100 000 SEK to 50 000 SEK. The reason behind the reduction of the share capital was to enable more people to start limited liability companies in Sweden. Meanwhile in Europe, they questioned the function of the share capital, and as a result of this discussion a number of European countries have abolished the requirement for the share capital in limited liability companies.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate what meaning the share capital has to entrepreneurs based on their own businesses, and to see what function the share capital have for the creditors.

    Problem: What are the meaning of the share capital for today´s entrepreneurs and its creditors?

    Methodology: The study is based on a qualitative research method in which a cross-sectional study was done with four small limited liability companies and four creditors.

    Conclusions: The share capital functions and meaning has lost its intended meaning as creditor protection and the help to facilitate the raising of capital. The share capitals intention has to some extent been eroded. The respondents in the cross-sectional study do not believe that the share capital acts as a creditor protection, the creditors still requires collateral in the form of a pledge and a guarantee commitment. Hence the share capital may act as a barrier today for serious entrepreneurs. The share capital does not provide the legitimacy that it was destined for at the market, it is the limited liability company form that gives the legitimacy.

  • 1294.
    Werr, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Schilling, Annika
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Career factory and expert house: two development environments for experts2016In: The organization of the expert society / [ed] Staffan Furusten & Andreas Werr, New York: Routledge, 2016, 1, p. 171-184Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1295.
    Wessblad, Hans
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    The future is green: a case study of Malmoe, Sweden2014In: The future of events and festivals / [ed] Ian Yeoman, Martin Robertson, Una McMahon-Beattie, Elisa Backer, Karen A. Smith, Routledge, 2014, 1, p. 128-139Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1296.
    Wettermark, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kårfors, André
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Lif, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wickström, Alice
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wiessner, Sofie
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Karin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    On vulnerability and possibility in critical entrepreneurship education: mutual learning between students and teachers2018In: Revitalizing entrepreneurship education: adopting a critical approach in the classroom / [ed] Karin Berglund & Karen Verduyn, Routledge, 2018, p. 211-227Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every time we go in to teach we take a deep breath before entering the classroom and remind ourselves that one or two students in there are likely to know more about the subject than we do. This could be because of their previous experiences and knowledge, or because their gaze from the outside is sharper than ours. At times this exposure of our vulnerability is intimidating for us - we want to be “good”, knowledgeable teachers who make a real contribution. At other times we see outstanding students as a resource and a source of inspiration. Which interpretation comes more naturally depends, we think, on how secure we feel on the topic, but also on how the students function as a group - whether they are defensive and competitive, or curious and willing to share their learnings. In this chapter we will report on a course in which the latter state emerged, and we will suggest that it is precisely because of the presence of those outstanding students that we, as teachers, have the opportunity to learn and develop our courses. We will also suggest that a similar logic of seeing the encounter with others as an opportunity for development can, and should, be incorporated into the teaching of entrepreneurship - not least because entrepreneurship is often circumscribed as creative, curious and open-minded, as an activity to explore new paths or disclose “new worlds” (Spinosa et al., 1999).

  • 1297.
    Wettermark, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lif, Oskar
    Stockholm University.
    Wickström, Alice
    Stockholm University.
    Wiessner, Sofie
    Stockholm University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Stockholm University.
    On vulnerability in critical entrepreneurship education: mutual learning between students and teachers2018In: Revitalizing entrepreneurship education: adopting a critical approach in the classroom / [ed] Karin Berglund & Karen Verduijn, Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 211-227Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1298.
    Wieczorek, Katarina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Wigg, Ellen
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Is Curry something for sweeds?: A study about firms from emerging markets operating in advanced countries and the challenges they experience2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore how emerging market firms enter more advanced markets. The aim is to identify the main challenges that the firms experience and discover how the companies operate to manage these challenges. In order to reach our purpose the thesis has implied a qualitative method as well as a multiple-case study and the empirical data of the thesis have conducted semi- structured interviews.

     

    The literature review is divided into two main parts, whereas the first part is Entry modes which include the following theories: Choice of Entry mode, Barriers to internationalization, the Uppsala Internationalization Model and the Network Model. The second part is cultural differences and consists of the following theories: Levels of culture, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and Trompenaars cross cultural studies.

     

    In the analysis we have connected our empirical findings with the theories mentioned above. The analysis consists of a discussion between the literature review and the empirical data in order to research their consistent and to find a common pattern.

    The conclusion reveals that emerging market firms enter more advanced market differently depending on factors such as the purpose with the entry and previous contacts in the advanced market. The main challenges are connected to the cultural aspects, which are managed differently by the companies.  

  • 1299.
    Wikström, Ida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Wilthorn, Cia
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Virtual Leadership in Brazil - Virtual Intelligence in Multinational Companies: A Field Study on Leadership in a Virtual Context with Focus on its Effect on Teamwork in Cultrurally Diverse Teams.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the technology develops, the communication infrastructure continues to innovate and increase competitiveness. For companies in a country such as Brazil, communicating virtually may be very beneficial in order to become more efficient, as well as more global.

    Due to today’s technological development and globalization, virtual teamwork has increased. For virtual teamwork to be successful, the importance of virtual leadership needs to be addressed by the organizations. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate leadership in a virtual context with focus on its effect on teamwork in culturally diverse teams. Furthermore, due to its emerging market and economic relevance, this study will examine virtual leaders of multinational companies in Brazil.

    From our dialogues we found that there is a lack of technological infrastructure, education, and positive attitude for virtual communication and virtual leadership within multinational companies in Brazil. Brazil as a country, as well as companies in Brazil, needs to provide opportunities and possibilities for excellent virtual communication and leadership. For instance, facetual communication and attication are important concepts on the way for companies of becoming virtualized.

  • 1300.
    Wincent, Maja
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Alla kan bidra med någonting: Effektivt ledarskap ur ett mångfaldsperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study is to explore what leadership styles and behaviours that are effective to use when managers lead employees with mental disabilities. Employees with mental disabilities can have different obsticles to overcome in a workplace, but the managers treatment is an important key for their success. 

    The subject has been examined in a quantitative study by interviewing four managers that has employees with mental disabilities about leadership, values, commitment and empowerment. All managers talk about values as an important part of leading these employees effectivly but the advantages of empowerment is unclear as some employees needs more guiding to manage their work. The managers need to have focus on people first, but has to focus on getting results too. In other words, the manager needs to focus on the employees abilities. 

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