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  • 1301.
    Wahnström, Kristin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    In the aftermath of Rana Plaza: Challenges for safety within the garment industry of Bangladesh2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this bachelor's thesis is to investigate the safety culture among employees within the garment factory industry in Bangladesh. This is made in order to increase the understanding of the need for improvements and how these can be made.

    Methodology: This qualitative thesis has an abductive approach. The empirical findings are based on semi-structured interviews with 26 garment factory workers.

    Theoretical framework: The thesis deals with two theoretical areas. It addresses the concepts of safety culture and safety climate as well as their relation to organizational culture. Thereto it addresses theories on method implementations and changes in organizational culture.

    Results: Five recurring themes were found in the semi-structured interviews with factory workers: a new focus among management, training, risk and dangers at work, speaking about safety at work and wish for changes at work. It is hoped that the recurring themes reflect distinctive patterns within organizational and safety culture among garment factory workers in Bangladesh.

    Conclusions: In the aftermath of Rana Plaza the safety culture within the ready-made garment industry have seen major improvements. However, the safety culture still possesses several of shortcomings. In order for international initiatives to succeed in their objective of creating a safer and healthier ready-made garment industry in Bangladesh these shortcomings must be acknowledged. Thereto a bottom-up perspective must complement a top-down perspective in the ongoing implementation process of an organization culture which aim to empower factory workers and support factory owners to take responsibility for safety and health at work.

  • 1302.
    Waleghwa, Beatrice
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    The Nexus of Infrastructural Development and Conservation; An Actor-Network Theory Perspective: Insights from Nairobi National Park2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Protected areas have a myriad of functions. As such they are prone areas for conflicts given the different interests of the involved parties.  Conflicts are complex entities that ought to be analyzed using multiple approaches. Guided by the social constructivist research paradigm, a qualitative approach is employed in this thesis to explore the relational dynamics of conflicts in Protected areas. This thesis presents the perspectives of various actors from a conflict in Nairobi National park. The conflict emerged with the construction of a tarmac road in the park. Findings indicate various meanings of the road for different actors. Ranging from a “conservation threat” to a “boost and threat to wildlife tourism”. The various perspectives in this study inform the proposed a conceptual framework for exploring the conflict in Nairobi National Park.

  • 1303.
    Wallenberg, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Westerberg, Elin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Meningen med aktiekapitalet: – Är aktiekapitalet en gammal förlegad tradition som har bevarats?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There was a reduction in Sweden of the share capital in 2010, in which the share capital was reduced from 100 000 SEK to 50 000 SEK. The reason behind the reduction of the share capital was to enable more people to start limited liability companies in Sweden. Meanwhile in Europe, they questioned the function of the share capital, and as a result of this discussion a number of European countries have abolished the requirement for the share capital in limited liability companies.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate what meaning the share capital has to entrepreneurs based on their own businesses, and to see what function the share capital have for the creditors.

    Problem: What are the meaning of the share capital for today´s entrepreneurs and its creditors?

    Methodology: The study is based on a qualitative research method in which a cross-sectional study was done with four small limited liability companies and four creditors.

    Conclusions: The share capital functions and meaning has lost its intended meaning as creditor protection and the help to facilitate the raising of capital. The share capitals intention has to some extent been eroded. The respondents in the cross-sectional study do not believe that the share capital acts as a creditor protection, the creditors still requires collateral in the form of a pledge and a guarantee commitment. Hence the share capital may act as a barrier today for serious entrepreneurs. The share capital does not provide the legitimacy that it was destined for at the market, it is the limited liability company form that gives the legitimacy.

  • 1304.
    Werr, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Schilling, Annika
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Career factory and expert house: two development environments for experts2016In: The organization of the expert society / [ed] Staffan Furusten & Andreas Werr, New York: Routledge, 2016, 1, p. 171-184Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1305.
    Wessblad, Hans
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    The future is green: a case study of Malmoe, Sweden2014In: The future of events and festivals / [ed] Ian Yeoman, Martin Robertson, Una McMahon-Beattie, Elisa Backer, Karen A. Smith, Routledge, 2014, 1, p. 128-139Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1306.
    Wettermark, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kårfors, André
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Lif, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wickström, Alice
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wiessner, Sofie
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Karin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    On vulnerability and possibility in critical entrepreneurship education: mutual learning between students and teachers2018In: Revitalizing entrepreneurship education: adopting a critical approach in the classroom / [ed] Karin Berglund & Karen Verduyn, Routledge, 2018, p. 211-227Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every time we go in to teach we take a deep breath before entering the classroom and remind ourselves that one or two students in there are likely to know more about the subject than we do. This could be because of their previous experiences and knowledge, or because their gaze from the outside is sharper than ours. At times this exposure of our vulnerability is intimidating for us - we want to be “good”, knowledgeable teachers who make a real contribution. At other times we see outstanding students as a resource and a source of inspiration. Which interpretation comes more naturally depends, we think, on how secure we feel on the topic, but also on how the students function as a group - whether they are defensive and competitive, or curious and willing to share their learnings. In this chapter we will report on a course in which the latter state emerged, and we will suggest that it is precisely because of the presence of those outstanding students that we, as teachers, have the opportunity to learn and develop our courses. We will also suggest that a similar logic of seeing the encounter with others as an opportunity for development can, and should, be incorporated into the teaching of entrepreneurship - not least because entrepreneurship is often circumscribed as creative, curious and open-minded, as an activity to explore new paths or disclose “new worlds” (Spinosa et al., 1999).

  • 1307.
    Wettermark, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lif, Oskar
    Stockholm University.
    Wickström, Alice
    Stockholm University.
    Wiessner, Sofie
    Stockholm University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Stockholm University.
    On vulnerability in critical entrepreneurship education: mutual learning between students and teachers2018In: Revitalizing entrepreneurship education: adopting a critical approach in the classroom / [ed] Karin Berglund & Karen Verduijn, Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 211-227Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1308.
    Wieczorek, Katarina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Wigg, Ellen
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Is Curry something for sweeds?: A study about firms from emerging markets operating in advanced countries and the challenges they experience2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore how emerging market firms enter more advanced markets. The aim is to identify the main challenges that the firms experience and discover how the companies operate to manage these challenges. In order to reach our purpose the thesis has implied a qualitative method as well as a multiple-case study and the empirical data of the thesis have conducted semi- structured interviews.

     

    The literature review is divided into two main parts, whereas the first part is Entry modes which include the following theories: Choice of Entry mode, Barriers to internationalization, the Uppsala Internationalization Model and the Network Model. The second part is cultural differences and consists of the following theories: Levels of culture, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and Trompenaars cross cultural studies.

     

    In the analysis we have connected our empirical findings with the theories mentioned above. The analysis consists of a discussion between the literature review and the empirical data in order to research their consistent and to find a common pattern.

    The conclusion reveals that emerging market firms enter more advanced market differently depending on factors such as the purpose with the entry and previous contacts in the advanced market. The main challenges are connected to the cultural aspects, which are managed differently by the companies.  

  • 1309.
    Wikström, Ida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Wilthorn, Cia
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Virtual Leadership in Brazil - Virtual Intelligence in Multinational Companies: A Field Study on Leadership in a Virtual Context with Focus on its Effect on Teamwork in Cultrurally Diverse Teams.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the technology develops, the communication infrastructure continues to innovate and increase competitiveness. For companies in a country such as Brazil, communicating virtually may be very beneficial in order to become more efficient, as well as more global.

    Due to today’s technological development and globalization, virtual teamwork has increased. For virtual teamwork to be successful, the importance of virtual leadership needs to be addressed by the organizations. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate leadership in a virtual context with focus on its effect on teamwork in culturally diverse teams. Furthermore, due to its emerging market and economic relevance, this study will examine virtual leaders of multinational companies in Brazil.

    From our dialogues we found that there is a lack of technological infrastructure, education, and positive attitude for virtual communication and virtual leadership within multinational companies in Brazil. Brazil as a country, as well as companies in Brazil, needs to provide opportunities and possibilities for excellent virtual communication and leadership. For instance, facetual communication and attication are important concepts on the way for companies of becoming virtualized.

  • 1310.
    Wincent, Maja
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Alla kan bidra med någonting: Effektivt ledarskap ur ett mångfaldsperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study is to explore what leadership styles and behaviours that are effective to use when managers lead employees with mental disabilities. Employees with mental disabilities can have different obsticles to overcome in a workplace, but the managers treatment is an important key for their success. 

    The subject has been examined in a quantitative study by interviewing four managers that has employees with mental disabilities about leadership, values, commitment and empowerment. All managers talk about values as an important part of leading these employees effectivly but the advantages of empowerment is unclear as some employees needs more guiding to manage their work. The managers need to have focus on people first, but has to focus on getting results too. In other words, the manager needs to focus on the employees abilities. 

  • 1311.
    Woosnam, Kyle M.
    et al.
    University of Georgia, USA.
    Aleshinloye, Kayode D.
    Texas A&M University, USA.
    Strzelecka, Marianna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Erul, Emrullah
    Texas A&M University, USA.
    The Role of Place Attachment in Developing Emotional Solidarity With Residents2018In: Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, ISSN 1096-3480, E-ISSN 1557-7554, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 1058-1066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the body of work concerning emotional solidarity between residents and tourists continues to grow within the tourism literature, little focus has been placed on how the setting factors into such relationships. Using the Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove (a UNESCO World Heritage Site in southwestern Nigeria) as a study site, this research examines the role visitors’ attachment to the place plays in explaining their perceived solidarity with area residents. From confirmatory factor analysis, a measurement model was established, which revealed strong psychometric properties for the two place attachment factors (i.e., place identity and place dependence) and the three emotional solidarity factors (i.e., feeling welcomed, emotional closeness, and sympathetic understanding). Structural equation modeling demonstrated that each of the place attachment factors explained a high degree of variance (e.g., R2 ranging between 45% and 54%) in visitors’ emotional solidarity with residents. Implications and future research opportunities are offered within the close of the article.

  • 1312.
    Woosnam, Kyle M.
    et al.
    Univ Georgia, USA.
    Strzelecka, Marianna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Jagiellonian Univ, Poland.
    Nisbett, Gwendelyn S.
    Univ North Texas, USA.
    Keith, Samuel J.
    Univ Georgia, USA.
    Examining Millennials' Global Citizenship Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions to Engage in Environmental Volunteering2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 2324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volunteering for nature conservation has become an important resource in solving local environmental problems of global importance. The study at hand assessed how well millennials' global citizenship attitudes explain their behavioral intentions to engage in volunteer projects, as well as how prior experience of volunteering in environmental projects affects millennials' global citizenship attitudes. Those who reported past participation in this type of volunteer experience were generally more inclined to partake in future environmental volunteering than those without prior experience. Likewise, for those with prior experience, global citizen factors played a greater role in intentions to experience environmental volunteering. This study makes valuable contributions to the literature surrounding nature conservation, as it illustrates that millennials' global citizenship attitudes predict participation in environmental volunteering. This work concludes with insights concerning what programs (that provide millennials with opportunities to fulfill environmental duties associated with their global environmental citizenship) can do to provide a more valuable experience for young volunteers.

  • 1313.
    Wu, Yuan-Qi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Expatriatehantering i Sverige: En kvantitativ studie om hur man kan minska expatriate-failures i landet som korats som ”årets förlorare”2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trenden visar på att expatriates världen över fortsätter att ökas och värderas mer. Ett allmänt problem i hanteringen av expatriates är att de slutar i förtid och att de kan känna sig hindrade av att prestera till sina fulla kapaciteter. Årets resultat i en omfattande undersökning av expatriates världen över, där man mäter hur lyckliga de är, visade på att Sverige är årets förlorare. Syftet med den här studien är att ta reda på vilka sätt det finns för HR-ansvariga att använda, för att sänka risken för expatriate-failures i Sverige. Utifrån syftet formulerades två frågeställningar som undersökningen baserades på, på vilka sätt kan man minska risken för att expatriate-failures ska ske i Sverige och är de etablerade tillvägagångssätten giltiga i Sverige. Metoden bestod av en enkätundersökning som undersökte vad anledningarna för övervägan att sluta i förtid var för expatsen i Sverige samt hur deras besittning av vissa attribut korrelerade till att ha en risk för expatriate-failure. Undersökningen visade på att kulturshockar var huvudanledningen för att expatriate-failures sker i Sverige och att besittning av eftertraktade attribut skulle minska risken för expatriate-failures. Resultatet visade då på att de etablerade tillvägagångssätten är giltiga i Sverige för att minska risken för expatriate-failure. Andra effektiva tillvägagångssätt gavs också som förslag för att motverka frekventa anledningarna som emprin visade på.

  • 1314.
    Wuertele, Ramona
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    THE INFLUENCE OF THE QUEEN BEE SYNDROME ON THE ATTITUDES, BEHAVIORS, AND EMERGING LEADERSHIP STYLES OF THE MILLENNIALS 2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past couple of decades, women have conquered most obstacles in their effort to scale the mountains of leadership and management, seemingly only to fall at the last hurdle by purposefully derailing and mistreating each other.

    As a large percentage of the workforce in the Western hemisphere is composed of women, the likelihood of experiencing a female superior throughout their career is very high for both men and women, giving rise to the threat of dealing with the Queen Bee Syndrome.

    The antecedent aim of this master thesis paper is to explore the reasons that give rise to and legitimize the so-called Queen Bee phenomenon, which describes a usually senior female holding a higher leadership-position, who actively opposes the rise of other females in male-dominated organizations, in connection to the Millennial Generation.

    For this purpose, the methodology approach of Grounded Theory was chosen, first and foremost establishing a theoretical framework comprising literature gathered from academic journals, professional and specific print and sources, as well as relevant writings from contemporary and topical media channels, such as the New York Times newspaper, or the Harvard Business Review.

    Second, a qualitative empirical study was conducted, for which several women from both the Millennial and its predecessor generation were interviewed, in order to explore opinions on perceived biases against female leaders and managers which, among other things may lead to typical Queen Bee behavior, its provenances, and their implications for business women and organizations. The gained insights are culminating in the emergence of a new theory, according to which female Millennials’ inherent narcissistic tendencies may not hinder them to pursue much-needed mentoring relationships with other females and even suggest the possibility of a diminishment of the dreaded female bully-boss paradigm.

  • 1315.
    Yan, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Musika, Carol
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    The Social Media and SMEs Business Growth: How can SMEs Incorporate Social Media2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The dramatic increase of the popularity of social media has affected in a large extent how SMEs reach and engage with their target customers to promote their products or services and to brand their firms. How SMEs incorporate social media for better business growth has gained huge attention from both academic and industrial sectors.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the aspects that are incorporated by SMEs when implementing social media in order to gain knowledge how SMEs could incorporate those factors when implementing social media.

    Research questions: What are those aspects that SMEs are incorporating to implement social media?

    Methodology: This study adopts six semi-structured interviews with six case organizations to identify and evaluate the aspects that are incorporated by SMEs to implement social media in the context of Sweden. Three small size and three medium-size firms in Växjö, Sweden who use social media for business purposes have been selected.

    Conclusion: The findings of this research identified and evaluated several aspects that are incorporated by all SMEs to implement social media in the context of Sweden: decision making about platform(s) and their deploying; governance responsibility; value metrics; accessibility; risk management; online community followers growing; content creation and updating; incentive strategy; monitoring social media sites; comments utilizing for future development; message processing rules; customer feedback timelines and report creating and sharing. The result shows the new approach of social media implementation which brought by Culnan, McHugh, and Zubillaga (2010) can help the researchers to identify and evaluate the aspects that SMEs are incorporating to implement social media, and chose to acquire knowledge that they can take advantage of from those aspects to incorporate and reinforce their social media implementation. Equally by putting into practice these aspects SMEs foster their growth in a number of ways such as customer relations, external and internal communication and several other ways.

  • 1316.
    Yang, Lei
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    How to make guests behave more environmentally friendly in hotel rooms?: The exploration of motivation factors from guests' perspective 2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hotel industry, as the largest sub-sector of tourism often generates huge negative environmental impacts, including waste of freshwater, consumption of energy and carbon dioxide emissions. It is clear that the guests’ choices and actions in hotel rooms shape the environmental sustainability of the hotel industry. Previous studies offer concrete theoretical foundations for promoting hotel guests’ environmental behavior, either by specifying environmental performances or examining various factors that influence guests’ environmental behaviors. However, the research results have somewhat overlooked the disconnection between guests’ attitudes and behaviors.

    Based on this, this study focuses on exploring guests’ opinions about how different factors can motivate them to behave environmentally friendly in hotel rooms. Aligning with ongoing discussion within Tourism Research and the so called Environmental Responsible Behavior model (ERB) within Environmental Education, the main factors are categorized as internal and external factors. While internal factors include environmental knowledge, environmental attitudes, individual responsibility, external factors consist of governmental regulation, marketing strategies and social norms. Empirical material of the study was collected through ten qualitative structured interviews among hotel guests.

    The analysis of this study show how majority of the interviewees emphasized the importance of internal factors in their own environmentally friendly behaviors in hotel rooms. This indicated that participants considered that their consciousness played a direct and effective role in their environmental behaviors. At the same time, the thesis suggests that different elements act different roles for how factors can effectively motivate guests’ environmental behaviors in hotel rooms, the elements are benchmark (environmental knowledge), psychological distance (environmental attitudes), personal good feeling and moral obligation (individual responsibility), indirect influences and mandatory regulation (governmental regulation), personal interests (marketing strategies), instructional function (social norms).

    The study suggests that the knowledge about guests’ opinions can be further used, for instance, by authorities and the supply side of hotels. Then, refining motivational strategies can contribute to environmental sustainability in hotel rooms. 

  • 1317.
    Yarashuk, Elvira
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Health promotion at the workplace: Promoting health by embracing the concept of corporate social responsibility2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main issues, which arise in that research project, are connected with

    health dimensions.

    There are emphasised points, which contribute to the employees’ health and

    well-being, solutions, which organisations implement to prevent workers

    from diseases and illnesses, to track their current condition of body and

    mind and generally to improve their overall health situation.

    From the very beginning the main stress was supposed to lie on physical

    activity promotion being an integral part of health promotion at the

    workplace but the obtained information from the conducted interviews

    verified that idea. The research also touches other variables contributing to

    the employees’ health and cons

    tituting the idea of health promotion at the

    workplace, namely health profiles and Corporate Social Responsibility.

    It is argued who may benefit from workplace physical activities and to which

    extent such programs may succeed. Interviews showed double points of

    views according to the necessity to encourage employees to train within the

    organization.

    Basis for the discussion of the topic were interviews gained from the

    interaction with the staff of the organization Xylem located in Sweden in

    Emmaboda, a world leader in water solutions. The chosen methodology

    based on the case study appeared to be the most relevant to explore health

    issues thanks to the clear empirical example. The company was

    distinguished because of the sport and rehabilitation centre, which it had in

    its possession and which seemed to make Xylem be different from the

    competitors and gave advantages for the employees in the form of additional

    benefits causing going in for sport at the company’s expense.

    The results of the research indicate that health promotion at the workplace

    may be viewed as a part of Corporate Social Responsibility. The evidences for

    IV

    that perspective are presented with a proper motivation mostly in the

    conclusion part.

    The research intended to show to the readers to what extent health

    promotion at the workplace incorporating physical activities, health profiles

    and CSR is important, how it is regarded and how much attention, time and

    efforts is and should be devoted to deal with that dimension in a proper way.

  • 1318.
    Yelijiang, Arefujiang
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Judging A Photograph: Analyzing destination choice based on user-generated content on social media2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, authors’ main goal is to test two hypotheses to compare if the tourists are more likely to make their destination choice based on user generated photographs on social media, as well as, tourists’ sustainable destination choice based on photographs with sustainable green content. The quantitative research method was used to conduct the survey with experimental design. It was aimed to compare the tourist’ trust in different photo types, the consumers’ trust was expected to be measured by three dimensions: first impression, intention, and persuasiveness, recommended by previous studies. However, the findings revealed that the tourists are not more likely to trust user generated content on social media to make their destination choice.  

  • 1319.
    Zambrell, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Arts in business: a management venture for organizational development and identity work2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arts in business, as it is expressed in this paper, is a manifestation of a management approach to leadership. It is interpreted as an activity that influences the participants’ approach to work, to job assignments, to the organization and accordingly also to the identity work. The main interest here is, as a way to better understand arts in business, to emphasize managers practicing a leadership which, as a result of the meaning making processes in work, may empower the construction of both social and personal identity. Based on interviews with more than thirty Swedish managers with experiences from AIRIS (an artistic intervention project) findings show that most of them are very focused on the human aspects in work. They care for working conditions and inspiring tasks, they love to see their employees grow as persons, they create a sense of “us” and they initiate activities consciously, like artistic interventions, to “trigger” the development of humans and organization. This way of leading is what I would like to denominate a”culturalistic” leadership. Activities in work, like artistic interventions, accordingly impinge both the social identity and the construction of personal identity. These aspects of arts based initiatives in business are an unexplored dimension, to be developed in research about artistic approaches.

  • 1320.
    Zambrell, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Leadership and artistic interventions: manager characteristics and leadership expressions2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the manager perspectives in artistic interventions trying to understand what kinds of manager that hire an artist (!) for a year. The Swedish managers, who are the empirical ground in the current study, express different experiences from their artistic intervention, showing several expressions for doing “leadership” (compared to doing “management”). They: create company culture; stimulate different activities; trigger creativity; concern for relations and express liking. This symbolic management is interpreted as expressions that strengthen the managers’ identities as leaders, parallel with holding their managers’ positions. However the decision-making, the planning and implementing of the artistic intervention are connected to doing “management”, so leadership and management are really intermingled by these managers. Another striking characteristic is that these managers are well established with almost 20 years in a management position in average.

  • 1321.
    Zambrell, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Managers' identity construction at work: artistic interventions as triggers for identity work2016In: Organizational Aesthetics, E-ISSN 2168-8575, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 34-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many scholars discuss how experiences from work are an important source for the construction of the personal identity. In this paper the various contextual dimensions at work that influence identity construction, are discussed. The empirical data consists of interviews with 33 Swedish managers with experiences in bringing arts into business. These, so called artistic interventions, are a growing phenomenon mainly initiated by managers. The findings are twofold: First to identify and describe a typology of five identity-related dimensions in the work context (built on Zambrell, 2004), dimensions that emerge in managers’ expressed experiences, both from work in general and from the artistic intervention. In particular, among these managers a touching dimension emerges, i.e. experiencing honest appreciation and trust at work, which touches the inner self. Second, to discuss artistic interventions as triggers for identity work. Since interventions with arts are non-traditional projects, they challenge the participants’ identity construction, especially the identities of the managers that introduce such different activities. The awareness of identity-related dimensions is important for understanding work experiences and its influence on identity. It is especially important for managers, who may influence the identity-related dimensions through organizing work and shaping its conditions.

  • 1322.
    Zambrell, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Gothenburg.
    Managers in artistic interventions and their leadership approach2015In: Artistic Interventions in Organizations: Research, Theory and Practice / [ed] Ulla Johansson Sköldberg, Jill Woodilla, Ariane Berthoin Antal, Routledge, 2015, 1, p. 185-203Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1323.
    Zambrell, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Resurser och examination: Utbildningsanslagens fördelning inom Linnéuniversitetet samt möjliga examinationsformer för resurssvaga ämnen.2013In: Universitetspedagogik i praktiken: Sexton lärartexter om pedagogisk utveckling / [ed] Henrik Hegander & Martin Stigmar, Kalmar/Växjö: Linnéuniversitetet , 2013, 1, p. 139-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resurstillgången är en central förutsättning för verksamheten inom högskolan. Resurser för utbildning tilldelas från staten utefter vilket ämnesområde en kurs tillhör (enligt gamla och enligt mitt tycke obsoleta principer om ämnesinnehåll och torra och våta ämnen). Även om varje enskilt lärosäte har full frihet att omfördela resurserna efter andra kriterier, förekommer det sällan. Lägst tilldelning för en helårsstudent som klarar samtliga 60 hp ges humaniora/samhällsvetenskap och teologi (ca 42 500 kr år 2012). Högst ersättning ges för Mediaklassad undervisning (ca 518 700). Enligt uppgifter från årsredovisningen 2010 kan institutionernas genomsnittliga anslag per hst beräknas. I den jämförelsen ligger Design i topp med ca 160 000 kr/hst och Ekonomihögskolan i botten med ca 46 000 kr/hst. Att ämnena har radikalt olika förutsättningar är ingen överdrift. Givetvis har t.ex. media och designutbildningarna helt andra kostnader för lokaler, utrusning, administrativt stöd etc., än vad t.ex. utbildning i företagsekonomi, historia eller juridik har. Dock visar exemplet i tabell 2 ovan att även om hänsyn tas till omkostnaderna finns det fortfarande stora skillnader i hur mycket pengar som institutionerna får kvar till utbildning/undervisning. Exempelvis en lärare med lön 35 000kr (+ lkp) kostar 365 kr/timme. Efter de påslag som de olika institutionerna tillämpar för oh och lokaler blir den lägsta timkostnaden ca 840 kr/timme (avser PPI) och den högsta 1270 kr (NV). Skillnader i konteringsprinciper kan förklara en viss olikhet men långt ifrån all. Mitt förslag är att utreda om en omfördelning inom Lnu vore möjlig i syfte att mera rättvist fördela lärarresurserna mellan ämnena.

     

    En annan frågeställning handlar om hur tilldelningen av timmar (kursbudget) går till i praktiken. Efter samtal med representanter för olika institutioner framkommer att vissa använder schablonmodeller, ofta utformade enligt praxis. Grunden är studentantal och kursens längd. En alternativ variant är att kursens upplägg är grund för tilldelningen. Att beräkna timtilldelning på basis av faktorer för olika undervisningsformer förekommer också.

     

    Grunden för timschablonen kan dels baseras på hur stora intäkter/anslag som den enskilda kursen genererar och att timmar fördelas på basis av det. En annan variant är att bestämma en miniminivå t.ex. att en student på en kurs om 7,5hp ska ha 30 lärarledda timmar.

    Oavsett grunderna för beräkning är det många tjänsteplanerare som efterfrågar ett mer lätthanterligt system för tilldelning av timmar per kurs och lärare.

     

    När det gäller frågan kring hur stor del av resurserna som går till examination visar exemplet från Ekonomihögskolan att andelen ökar ganska kraftigt i relation till kursbudgeten totalt. Vid stora studentgrupper (drygt 100) åtgår hälften av kursbudgeten till examination enligt den schabloniserade beräkningsmodell som tillämpas. Många synpunkter från lärare indikerar att det i verkligheten t.o.m. tar ännu mera tid. Det talar för att det är angeläget att diskutera hur resurserna ska räcka till mer varierad examination.

     

    Hur ska då dessa resurser för examination kunna utnyttjas på ett varierat och för lärandet positivt sätt? Utifrån litteraturen presenteras ovan fjorton examinationsformer som antingen visar på alternativ till salsskrivningar (som är den mest förekommande examinationsformen idag) eller där själva bedömningen kan underlättas på olika sätt. Några av de mer intressanta bygger på studenters egen medverkan t.ex. som kamratbedömare eller självvärderare.

     

    Huvudsyftet med denna rapport är att diskutera examination inom ämnet företagsekonomi och en mängd alternativ presenteras ovan. Aspekter och idéer som jag särskilt vill lyfta fram är:

     

    1. Begär/utveckla administrativt stöd eller administrativa system som avlastar lärarens kursadministration. Välutvecklade lärplattformar kan vara en möjlig lösning. En annan är att arvodera äldre studenter t.ex. magisterstudenter som administrativa medhjälpare.

     

    1. Diskutera pedagogisk utveckling, didaktik och metodik på institutionen i högre omfattning än vad som sker idag. Det bör vara möjligt att ge enskilda kurser mer resurser för ambitiösa upplägg.

     

    1. Utveckla digitala lösningar t.ex. självrättande multiple choice-test som komplement till andra prov eller portfolio-reflektioner via kursportal eller facebook. Regelbundna, självrättande quiz och andra former av löpande examination stimulerar lärandet.

     

    1. Använd studenter, i stor sett den enda outnyttjade resurs vi förfogar över. Studenter kan tidigt i utbildningen medvetet involveras i examination på olika sätt. Självskattning, även gruppvis, medverkan som rättare av quiz, opponentskap, självbedömning och kamratvärdering är exempel på möjliga former.

     

    1. Se över examinationens omfång och variation: Individuella tentor med få frågor som testar och stimulerar förståelse vilka med fördel kan kombineras med andra examinationsformer (t.ex. faktakunskapstest med självrättning eller ett antal miniquiz).

     

    1. Arbeta för en intern omfördelning inom Linnéuniversitetet som medger en mer rättvis fördelning av undervisningsresurserna mellan olika ämnesområden (jfr Högskolan i Kristianstad)

     

    Avslutningsvis kan jag konstatera att det är lätt att förlamas av känslan av att anslagen/resurserna inte räcker för att variera undervisning och examination i syfte att stimulera lärandet. Jag vill dock påstå att det finns alternativ om man som lärare bestämmer sig för att pröva lite nya former. Poängen är inte bara att försöka förbättra studenternas lärande och/eller att spara timmar. Alternativa former och variation kan dessutom vara stimulerande och motiverande både för läraren själv och fram för allt för studenterna.

  • 1324.
    Zapata Campos, María José
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland ; University of Eastern Finland, Savolinna, Finland ; Freiburg Institute of Advanced Studies, Germany.
    Introduction: Narratives of organising waste in the city2013In: Organising Waste in the City: International Perspectives on Narratives and Practices / [ed] María José Zapata Campos, C. Michael Hall, Policy Press, 2013, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1325.
    Zapata Campos, María José
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Hall, C. MichaelLinnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland ; University of Eastern Finland, Finland ;Freiburg Institute of Advanced Studies, Germany.
    Organising waste in the city: International perspectives on narratives and practices2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book offers a critical perspective on the issue of organising waste in cities, which has often been positioned in terms of relatively narrow engineering, economic and physical science approaches. It emphasises the ways in which the notion of waste, and the narratives and discourses associated with it, have been socially constructed with corresponding implications for waste governance and local waste handling practices. Organising waste in the city takes a broad and international approach to the ways in which the issue of waste is framed, and brings together narratives from cities as diverse as Amsterdam, Bristol, Cairo, Gothenburg, Helsingborg and Managua. Organised into four main sections and with an integrative introduction and conclusion, the book not only provides new insights into the hidden stories of urban and municipal household solid waste and waste landscapes, but also connects concerns regarding urban waste to such issues as globalisation, governance, urban ecology, and social, economic and environmental justice.

  • 1326.
    Zhang, Jin-He
    et al.
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Zhang, Yu
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Zhou, Jing
    China Construct Engn Design Grp Corp Ltd, Peoples Republic of China.
    Liu, Ze-Hua
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Zhang, Hong-Lei
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Tian, Qing
    Tongren Polytech Coll, Peoples Republic of China.
    Tourism water footprint: an empirical analysis of Mount Huangshan2017In: Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, ISSN 1094-1665, E-ISSN 1741-6507, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 1083-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is an important factor for the sustainable development of tourism. We constructed a comprehensive model of the tourism water footprint (TWF), including tourism sewage and water for management, and used the world heritage Mount Huangshan as an example. The results showed that the total TWF, which included green, blue and grey water of Mount Huangshan in 2012, was about 10.19 million m(3)/year, approximately per tourist 3.39m(3)/day or 3387L/day. Tourism sewage and food were the main factors of water consumption. The spatial transfer of TWF led the spillover of tourism environmental impact, not only affecting Mount Huangshan but the Huangshan City and even nationwide. Tourist flow and temperature had a highly significant positive correlation with the TWF. Quantifying the TWF can reflect the pressure of tourists on water resources, and provide an effective decision-making basis for rational use of water resources.

  • 1327.
    Zhang, Yu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Zhang, Jin-He
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Tian, Qing
    Tongren Polytech Coll, Peoples Republi of China.
    Liu, Ze-Hua
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Zhang, Hong-Lei
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Virtual water trade of agricultural products: A new perspective to explore the Belt and Road2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 622, p. 988-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road. However, in terms of each country, >40 spanning countries were in virtual water trade surplus with China and eased water shortages. Russia had the largest net imported virtual water from China. Furthermore, the proportion of the grey water footprint that China exported to the spanning countries was much higher than that imported, no matter from the whole or different geographical regions. Moreover, more than half of the countries' virtual water trade with China conformed to the virtual water strategy, which helped to ease water crises. Furthermore, the products that they exported to China were mainly advantageous products that each spanning countries have. Virtual water trade is a new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. Agricultural products trade with China definitely benefits both the countries along the Belt and Road and China from the perspective of virtual water. The findings are beneficial for the water management of the countries along the Belt and Road and China, alleviating water shortages, encouraging the rational allocation of water resources in the various departments. They can provide references for optimizing trade structures as well. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 1328.
    Zhou, Chuanhui
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Yu, Anqi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    The World Heritage on Öland: An investigation into the Motivations of Chinese Travelers toTravel abroad2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to explore how Öland could attract Chinese tourists to sustain its development. This study is conducted on the basis of group interviews among 20 respondents selected from Chinese tourists. This research reveals that learning and experiencing, building a social relationship and enjoying natural landscape are the major reason for Chinese tourists traveling abroad, among which, the main motivations for Chinese tourists visiting Öland is the attractive spot. The research finds that not many Chinese tourists have been to Öland before. However, among those who have been, they said that Borgholm Castle was the most attractive tourist spot. The major approaches for Chinese tourists accessing information of Öland are travel agencies, travel apps, TV shows, movies and the internet , whereas little marketing strategies such as advertising (in Chinese) and cooperating with local travel agencies has been utilized by the government. An analysis of the key motivations of Chinese tourist reveals one challenge in attracting Chinese tourists facing the government: Öland is not well recognized as a World Heritage among Chinese tourists compared to other popular travel destinations. The strength and weakness of Öland tourism indicates that Öland need to take more active marketing strategies to brand their tourism targeting Chinese tourists.

  • 1329.
    Åhlander, Julia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Bylander, Isabelle
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Johansson, Filip
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    E-handel av livsmedel i utveckling: En studie om främjande aspekter samt barriärer som påverkar konsumenten i köpbeslutsprocessen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the promotional aspects as well as barriers that have an impact on consumer purchasing decisions in e-commerce.

    • What does the digital purchase decision-making process look like and where does the barriers occur in the process?

    Theory: The theoretical reference framework of the study includes a presentation of the aspects that influence the consumer's purchasing decisions in e-commerce, which are product quality, brand confidence, price, experience, demographic aspects, time and convenience as well as website design. Furthermore, it explains the purchase decision-making process that the consumer reviews when a purchase decision is taken, which includes the following steps; need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase and post purchase evaluation.

    Methodology: The study is based on a qualitative methodology with a deductive approach. The empirical data collection consists of four focus groups.

    Conclusion: The study has resulted in a design of a digital purchase decision-making process that also illustrates where in the process the consumer’s perceived barriers arise. The digital purchase decision-making process consists of the following steps; need recognition, valuation, decision making, payment and delivery as well as post purchase evaluation.

  • 1330.
    Åhsberg, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Ecotourism in a developing island destination: -A field study of Bali2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how ecotourism impact on Balinese traditional lifestyle through economic, sociocultural and environmental structures. A field study was conducted in the island of Bali, Indonesia where the researcher investigated the situation of traditional living and how it is perceived by local people and eco-friendly businesses. The research method used was a deductive and qualitative research as this method seemed to be most suitable for this research. The result shows that ecotourism makes impact on traditional lifestyle. Whether it is for the better or worse are difficult to say as people have different opinions on what is important. While some impacts show positive results such as employment, infrastructure, encourage of traditional practices, there are also negative impacts such as cultural adulteration and staged traditional practices. Before, traditional living in Bali were self-sufficient in agriculture and to provide food for its inhabitants. Now they are becoming more vulnerable due to ecotourism and they are dependent on others for food. On the other hand, ecotourism has contributed to modern conveniences and better infrastructure which improves the living conditions for local people in rural areas. Balinese traditional lifestyle cannot be completely excluded from ecotourism development, as tourism is a major catalyst of change. However, the traditional lifestyle could be used as a foundation for future Balinese structure when keeping the balance between pleasing ecotourists while at the same time conserving for traditional living.

  • 1331.
    Åkerblom, Ellen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Gustafsson, My
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Lind, Matilda
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    What's in it for me?: En tolkande studie om det upplevda värdet av formella nätverk2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of formal networks is widely spread and appreciated as a way of building long-term relationships and creating value for the company. Value contains a number of different meanings and can therefore be valued differently by different people and businesses. This thesis focus on micro companies and how they create value through formal business networks. The thesis is all through divided into four different themes; networking, intentions, values and problems with formal networks. The themes are focusing on both aspects from theory and our seven respondents. The data collected through theories as well as interviews with members and former members has given a conclusion of what is most important while being in a formal network. The respondents had different views on what exactly they wanted to get out of being active in business networks. Overall we got a clear picture of the importance of goals, dedication, curiosity, loyalty, trust and preparation while attending a formal network.

  • 1332.
    Åkerlund, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Truong, Linda
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Förväntningsgapets dynamik2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The dynamics of the Audit expectation gap

    Introduction: The audit expectations gap is the difference that exists between what auditors and users of accounting information expects an independent auditor to do. Since the definition arose in 1974, much research has been done about the gap. What is relatively unexplored is how the gap changes over time within a country, and how it is affected by external events. This lack of knowledge has motivated this study.

    Problem: How has the audit expectation gap changed in Sweden, from the emergence of the definition until today? In which way have corporate scandals and legislative changes affected the gap?

    Purpose: The aim is to identify and create an understanding of how the audit expectation gap has changed in Sweden. Furthermore, we want to clarify how financial crises, corporate scandals and legislative changes have affected the gap, and if there is any connection between these three factors. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the audit expectation gap literature and provide insight into how Swedish standards develop.

    Method: The study has been addressed from an abductive approach. The theoretical framework consists of previous research and theory about the audit expectation gap and the sociology of law. In the empirical analysis, a qualitative method was used, and material in the form of secondary data was collected. The starting point was FARs professional association magazine, Balans. This source was supplemented by including regulatory work, books and websites, which have been the basis for the analysis and conclusion.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that the audit expectation gap is a dynamic concept in the areas of: definition, components, occurrence, contributing factors and reduction solutions. In addition, dynamics has been demonstrated related to the sociology of law and several important relationships have been clarified.

  • 1333.
    Åkerman, Niklas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    An international learning typology: strategies and outcomes for internationalizing firms2014In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 382-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of heterogeneous strategies for new knowledge development in the internationalization processes of firms. Design/methodology/approach - A typology of international learning strategies is developed. The typology is supported by a case study of seven Swedish international firms that show heterogeneous strategies. The case study suggests links between learning strategies and international growth. Findings - The results suggest an international learning-strategy typology derived from extant theory on knowledge acquisition in internationalization, constituted by four types: Passive Learners, Endogenous Learners, Exogenous Learners, and Diversified Learners. The results further suggest that the typology is empirically relevant and, moreover, suggest a potential heterogeneity in outcomes for these strategies. The study suggests that there is a link between learning strategy and outcomes in terms of growth and international sales distribution. Research limitations/implications - The strategy for how firms learn when internationalizing has implications for the firm's international growth. The case-study design has limitations for generalizability and future quantitative validation is called for. Practical implications - Managers need to be aware of the consequences of their learning strategy for the internationalization performance. This study informs strategic decision making for how to learn from international markets. Originality/value - The results suggest a typology based on heterogeneity of international learning strategies and their consequences for internationalization.

  • 1334.
    Åkerman, Niklas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    International opportunity realization in firm internationalization: non-linear effects of market-specific knowledge and internationalization knowledge2015In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 242-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on determinants of the realization of international opportunities. Market knowledge and internationalization knowledge are applied in order to understand how opportunities are realized in internationalization, and these relations are tested for linearity. The study relies on data collected from 144 Swedish firms that export to the Baltic States, Poland, Russia, and China. The results of the study give a theoretical contribution concerning growth behavior beyond early internationalization by integrating learning dimensions from internationalization theory and international opportunities from international entrepreneurship. The results suggest that knowledge about the local business network is significantly associated with international opportunity realization, with an increasing marginal effect. The non-linearity gives an accelerated effect of further learning about the local business network. The results also suggest that multiple national contexts are beneficial to a certain point, after which the marginal effect is negative, thus exhibiting an inverted U-shape. This advocates that a firm’s capability to realize opportunities in international markets is developed positively from the initial internationalization but only to a certain point. Consequently, there is a threshold for when the marginal effect of further internationalization becomes negative for international opportunity realization. Non-significant results for knowledge about the institutional context suggest a downplayed role of the institutional context in favor to the business network. Furthermore, non-significant results for international depth show that time in international markets may be less important than diversity in international contexts.

  • 1335.
    Åkerman, Niklas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Knowledge-acquisition strategies and the effects on market knowledge – profiling the internationalizing firm2015In: European Management Journal, ISSN 0263-2373, E-ISSN 1873-5681, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge management and experiential knowledge in particular has for long been at the core of theory on the behavior of internationalizing firms. However, the strong emphasis on direct experience in extant literature has been challenged. This study addresses the influence of various knowledge-acquisition strategies on market knowledge. Empirical studies on this topic are largely missing. The empirical base for this study is 144 internationalizing Swedish firms operating in the Baltic States, Poland, Russia, or China. Four knowledge acquisition strategies are identified based on the utilization of knowledge sources. The strategies are profiled through a cluster analysis, which is validated using a regression analysis to show the effects of strategy on market knowledge. The results show that firms with a passive strategy have less market knowledge. Firms that are focusing primarily on internal or external sources hold equal levels of knowledge about the market. Firms actively utilizing all available sources have the highest levels of market knowledge. This calls for a reevaluation of the relative importance of direct experiential knowledge in internationalization processes and supports the notion that more sources of knowledge than direct experience need to be taken into account in order to understand internationalization behavior.

  • 1336.
    Åkerman, Niklas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Learning strategies for international growth: On knowledge acquisition and opportunity realization2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature on firm internationalization has pointed out knowledge and learning as central components in the internationalization process. While much research has emphasized the development of experience in the firm as the main source of new knowledge, this notion has also been challenged. Furthermore, in internationalization literature, most attention has been paid to market entry and far less to growth in the market thereafter. This research addresses how internationalizing firms capture growth opportunities by acquiring new knowledge in foreign markets. The purpose is to describe and explain how internationalizing firms learn about foreign markets by combining various knowledge sources in order to realize growth opportunities in these markets.

    To address this purpose, data from two steps of data collection is analyzed. The first step contains qualitative focus-group data from seven Swedish firms and aims to describe learning from a combination of knowledge sources, which leads to the development of a typology of learning strategies. The tentative results from the first step are established in the second step, which contains survey data from 144 internationalizing Swedish firms. In addition to validating the typology, data from the second step explains heterogeneous knowledge outcomes based on differences in learning strategies, suggesting that a diversified strategy has the greatest potential for learning. These results indicate that external knowledge matters more than what has been previously recognized. Furthermore, the results show curvilinear effects of knowledge of the local network and international spread on the realization of international growth opportunities.

    By integrating components from international entrepreneurship, this research may contribute to internationalization-process literature by (1) describing the typology of how internationalizing firms learn in foreign markets, (2) establishing the described types and explaining the knowledge consequences for internationalizing firms, and (3) explaining how this knowledge impacts the ability to realize international opportunities. This chain of components provides the links between learning and growth of the internationalizing firm beyond the initial market entry. 

  • 1337.
    Íñigo Pascual, Aguirre
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Manke, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Talent management: An illustration through sports2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The word talent is becoming more important nowadays in a world where every-thing is getting globalizing. Along this thesis, the authors take a close look to the definition of talent and the role of the talent management theory. It is also mentioned other topics such as knowledge management and human resources management, and how both are connected to talent management through tal-ent itself. This process is mainly structured in three key elements: To find, develop and retain a talent. During the whole process, the concept of leader-ship and leader will be present. The authors use the world of sports as illus-tration to make the talent management and leadership topics more visible to the reader. Several experts were interviewed from different fields and with their knowledge and experiences, Íñigo and Andreas come to the final conclusion where it can be appreciated how business can learn and beneficiate from sports and vice versa.

  • 1338.
    Ögren Kull, Signe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Spindler Jonsson, Stephanie
    Att betala utan pengar: En studie om Sveriges största bankkoncerners produktutvecklingsprocesser av betalningslösningar och hur dessa kan effektiviseras genom ökad kundinvolvering 2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New innovation and technology have influenced the development of product development processes and the four largest banks in Sweden have more or less been forced to adapt their products and services along new customer requirements. It may therefore be considered appropriate to involve customers in this process. This by collecting customer information and allow customers to influence the process to a greater extent. The payment solutions of Sweden’s largest banks' continue to evolve and to pay with electronic money has come to change banks' product development processes of payment solutions. This process should not only create an innovative product but should also be performed with continuous quality, sharp focus and prioritization, fast action, team focus, customer involvement, follow-through, and with a final product with strong competitive advantages that satisfies customer needs.

    The purpose of this study is with help from Sweden's four largest banking groups; Handelsbanken, Swedbank, Nordea and SEB, create the optimal product development process that includes customer involvement, customer impact, and clearly indicate where and how the collection of customer data should occur. This, with the help of a developed analysis tool - as a result of the study, can be applied to analyze the extent to which customers can be considered to be involved and influence the product development process.

    The four banks do not involve customers in a sufficiently large extent in the current situation in their product development processes. Customer information is collected but not always implemented and the instances where customers may be involved and influence are too few. By modifying the process and eliminating and adding new process phases and in these involve customers with complementary methods has an optimal product development process been developed with a focus on the collection of customer information, customer involvement and customer impact. This process aims to create competitive advantages for banks through increased customer focus. 

  • 1339.
    Öst Grundemark, Sara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Larsson, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    It's All About the Money: A Study on Tourism Entrepreneurship in a Socialist State2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Minor Field Study, undertaken as a Bachelor’s Thesis within the field of tourism,

    examines the role of entrepreneurship in the socialist state of Cuba. The study focuses

    on the business and ownership of private room renting, called Casas Particulares;

    examining influencing factors, means and implications of the business. Recent

    political changes has lead to a more encouraging approach towards private businesses,

    allowing Casas Particulares to become one of the most common forms of tourist

    accommodation. From examining the role of tourism entrepreneurship in a strictly

    regulated country the aim is to develop the knowledge and stereotype perception of

    entrepreneurship and the entrepreneur.

    Cuba is developing into a popular destination for tourists. Countless of Cubans are

    now employed or self-employed within the tourism industry where the Cuban form of

    Bed & Breakfast, Casas Particulares, is the most frequent profession (Cerviño and

    Cubillo, 2005). Gilmore and Pine (2007) highlight that individuals more and more

    crave for authenticity and people seek engagement and personal experiences. Findings

    suggested that tourists visited Cuba and chose Casas Particulares as accommodation

    urged by the want to experience the island “before it changes” and to meet the “real”

    Cuba, i.e. seeking authenticity.

    Cuba is a country with strong governmental control and regulation where contextual

    factors have shown to be imperative in the development of entrepreneurship.

    Holmquist (2009) distinguishes the connection between contextual factors and

    entrepreneurship through highlighting the context as a determining factor for

    recognising entrepreneurial ventures, or through changes in the context enabling the

    recognition. The role of the context can only be acknowledged as crucial for the

    existence of Casas Particulares, as well as any entrepreneurial activity in Cuba.

    Engaging in Casas Particulares can be seen as a venture challenging the norm of the

    Cuban society.

  • 1340.
    Östmark, Sanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Persson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Guanxi och familjeföretag: En uppsats kring förutsättningar för entreprenörskap i Taiwan2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to examine the conditions for entrepreneurship in Taiwan by the occurrence of cultural phenomenon guanxi. Based on the concept of familiness and guanxi, the family is central in this study of family business. Traditional descriptions of the Asian culture claim that guanxi is vital in the business context. Though, recent studies indicate that significance of guanxi seems to be changing. Therefore the purpose of this thesis is to create an understanding of the importance and relevance of guanxi in the context of Taiwanese family business.

    By travelling to Kaohsiung, Taiwan to interview six managers of Taiwanese family firms this study’s empirical material was gathered for further processing based on a qualitative approach. This material led to the theoretical fields of social capital, familiness, Confucian culture and guanxi. Furthermore four propositions were modelled to test the expressions of guanxi in the visited companies. By testing these propositions a wide dissemination of perceptions about family and business was identified in the result. How guanxi is embodied in Taiwanese family business is due to how the owning family is structured and how the owning family choose to relate to international influences. The conclusion of this essay is therefore that guanxi is expressed by individual values in the company and is not as visible in the company it self as traditions would claim. The family is still central in Taiwanese culture and business, but how the importance of the family is expressed has changed with the development of guanxi.

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