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  • 151.
    Al-Seadi, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Leva med ADHD: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 152.
    Alsterhed, Andréa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mäns upplevelser av prostatacancer: En Litteraturstudie baserad på självbiografier2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 153.
    Alstermark, Mirjam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Fluorescens in situ hybridisering: Optimering och vidareutveckling av en kurslaboration på Biomedicinska analytikerprogrammet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorescens in situ hybridization (FISH) is used to detect cytogenetic aberrations and abnormalities of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA). The FISH begins with chromosome extraction of the desired cell preparation then a direct or indirect fluorescently labeled probe (15-30 base pair long) is hybridized to its genetic target sequence. The preparation can thereafter be analyzed in fluorescence microscope to see bound probe at chromosome level. In the course “Advanced laboratory methodology” for the Biomedical Scientist program, Linnaeus University, a FISH laboratory experiment is conducted where results have not been clear nor reproducible.

    The aim of this study was to improve the laboratory experiment FISH.

    Human Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HCMEC) was grown to 60 % and 80 % confluence, to an estimated number of ≥ 3 x106, and analyzed by G-band staining and DNA-FISH. G-band staining showed many cells in interphase and few free chromosomes of cells with 60 % confluence. G-band staining and DNA-FISH showed that cells grown to 80 % confluence showed more free chromosomes from metaphase. The cancer cell lines VMM1 and H1915 were therefore grown to 80 % confluence and ≥ 3 x106. Multicolor-FISH on VMM1 and H1915 showed results from all painting probes blue/aqua, red and green. The conclusion is that in chromosomal extraction from cultured adherent cells should be 80 % confluent to give clear and reproducible probe staining of chromosomes in metaphase when assayed with Multicolor FISH. Analysis of 80 % confluent cells and the use of Multicolor FISH technology is a clear improvement to the “Advanced laboratory methodology” course.

  • 154.
    Alsén, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jalonen, Simon
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Triagera vid ett högt patientflöde: ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 155.
    Alvariza, Anette
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Sweden;Capio Palliative Care Dalen, Sweden.
    Holm, Maja
    Sophiahemmet University, Sweden.
    Benkel, Inger
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Norinder, Maria
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Sweden;Capio Palliative Care Dalen, Sweden.
    Ewing, Gail
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Grande, Gunn
    Univ Manchester, UK.
    Hakanson, Cecilia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ohlen, Joakim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    A person-centred approach in nursing: Validity and reliability of the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool2018In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 35, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) was developed for use among family caregivers in palliative care for assessment of their support needs. The purpose of this study was to translate and evaluate the validity and reliability of the CSNAT in a sample of Swedish family caregivers and nurses in a palliative care context. Methods: Data for this validation study was collected during 2016 in the context of palliative home care in two larger Swedish cities. The study was conducted in three stages to reach conceptual, semantic, operational and measurement equivalence between the original UK version and the Swedish version. Stage I consisted of translation to Swedish. In Stage II, cognitive interviews were performed with 8 family caregivers and 10 nurses. Data were analyzed based on relevance, clarity and sensitivity. In Stage III, the CSNAT and related self-rating measures (caregiver burden, preparedness for caregiving and quality of life) were completed by 118 family caregivers. Data quality, construct validity and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Results: The CSNAT items were considered relevant and useful to identify areas of support needs. The Swedish CSNAT showed sound psychometric properties with satisfactory data quality and few problems with missing data across items (1.8%-6.1%). All items except one correlated as expected (rho > 0.3) with caregiver burden, supporting construct validity. All items had satisfactory test-retest reliability (kappa w = 0.45-0.75). Conclusions: This study further adds to the validity of the CSNAT and shows in addition that it is reliable and stable for use among family caregivers in palliative care.

  • 156.
    Alvariza, Anette
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Sweden;Dalens Hospital, Sweden.
    Holm, Maja
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Bylund Grenklo, Tove
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Goliath, Ida
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Ersta Hospital, Sweden.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Sweden;Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Viktigt att stärka närståendes möjligheter att förbereda sig2016In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 113, no 47, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När svårt sjuka patienter vårdas i det egna hemmet har närstående ofta en avgörande roll.

    De närstående har också, utöver vårdsituationen, att hantera sina egna känslor kring förlust, sorg och död.

    Närstående är ofta otillräckligt förberedda för sin vårdarroll och har behov av information och stöd.

    Att vara förberedd har lyfts fram som ett viktigt fenomen för närstående. Det har visat sig relatera till flera positiva faktorer och anses ha en skyddande effekt mot negativa konsekvenser.

    Med en öppen, ärlig kommunikation och ett riktat stöd ökar närståendes möjligheter att förbereda sig för en vårdande roll samt det faktum att sjukdomen är obotlig och leder till döden.

  • 157.
    Alvariza, Anette
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Univ Coll ; Dalen Hosp, Stockholm ; Karolinska Institutet.
    Lovgren, Malin
    Ersta Sköndal Univ Coll ; Karolinska Institutet.
    Bylund Grenklo, Tove
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Hakola, Pia
    Stockholms Sjukhem Fdn.
    Furst, Carl Johan
    Lund University ; Region Skåne.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal Univ Coll ; Karolinska Institutet.
    How to support teenagers who are losing a parent to cancer: Bereaved young adults' advice to healthcare professionals-A nationwide survey2017In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 313-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The loss of a parent to cancer is considered one of the most traumatic events a teenager can experience. Studies have shown that teenagers, from the time of diagnosis, are already extremely worried about the consequences of a parent's cancer but tend to be left to manage these concerns on their own. The present study aimed to explore young adults' advice to healthcare professionals on how to support teenagers who are losing a parent to cancer. Methods: This work derives from a Swedish nationwide survey and employs a qualitative approach with a descriptive/interpretive design to obtain answers to an open-ended question concerning advice to healthcare professionals. Of the 851 eligible young adults who had lost a parent to cancer when they were 13-16 years of age within the previous 6 to 9 years, 622 participated in our survey (response rate = 73%). Of these 622 young adults, 481 responded to the open-ended question about what advice to give healthcare professionals. Results: Four themes emerged: (1) to be seen and acknowledged; (2) to understand and prepare for illness, treatment, and the impending death; (3) to spend time with the ill parent, and (4) to receive support tailored to the individual teenager's needs. Significance of Results: This nationwide study contributes hands-on suggestions to healthcare staff regarding attitudes, communication, and support from the perspective of young adults who, in their teenage years, lost a parent to cancer. Teenagers may feel better supported during a parent's illness if healthcare professionals take this manageable advice forward into practice and see each teenager as individuals; explain the disease, its treatments, and consequences; encourage teenagers to spend time with their ill parent; and recommend sources of support.

  • 158.
    Alvariza, Anette
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Sweden;Dalen Hospital, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Family members' experiences of integrated palliative advanced home and heart failure care: a qualitative study of the PREFER intervention2018In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 278-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic heart failure is a disease with high morbidity and symptom burden for patients, and it also places great demands on family members. Patients with heart failure should have access to palliative care for the purpose of improving quality of life for both patients and their families. In the PREFER randomized controlled intervention, patients with New York Heart Association classes III-IV heart failure received person-centered care with a multidisciplinary approach involving collaboration between specialists in palliative and heart failure care. The aim of the present study was to describe family members' experiences of the intervention, which integrated palliative advanced home and heart failure care.

    METHOD: This study had a qualitative descriptive design based on family member interviews. Altogether, 14 family members participated in semistructured interviews for evaluation after intervention completion. The data were analyzed by means of content analysis.

    RESULTS: Family members expressed gratitude and happiness after witnessing the patient feeling better due to symptom relief and empowerment. They also felt relieved and less worried, as they were reassured that the patient was being cared for properly and that their own responsibility for care was shared with healthcare professionals. However, some family members also felt as though they were living in the shadow of severe illness, without receiving any support for themselves.

    SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Several benefits were found for family members from the PREFER intervention, and our results indicate the significance of integrated palliative advanced home and heart failure care. However, in order to improve this intervention, psychosocial professionals should be included on the intervention team and should contribute by paying closer attention and providing targeted support for family members.

  • 159.
    Alvarsson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelsen av att vara närstående till en patient med cancer2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, more than 50,000 people is affected of cancer every year, but it's not just patients who are affected it is also next-of-kin. About 35 % of all cancers cannot be cured and the treatment is palliative, which seeks to prevent and alleviate the suffering of the patient and their family. To be next-of-kin in this situation evokes many feelings.Purpose: The aim of this study is to illuminate the experience of being next-of-kin to a palliative patient with cancer.Method: The study was conducted based on a qualitative approach and is based on six biographies where the results have been processed by means of a qualitative content analysis.Results: The experience of being next-of-kin to a patient with cancer brings out many feelings such as anxiety, hope, despair, and peace. The importance as a next-of-kin to be confirmed from the patient and the healthcare is elucidated, as well as the importance of getting help and support from the health care system to cope and to be the strong one who is always there for the patient. The importance of family and friends is also highlighted.Conclusion: This study clearly shows that healthcare must be much better at an early phase to see the family and also to see their needs. The importance of information, to know what will happen, what can be expected and what help you can get. Many feel that they first receive the help and support they need when palliative care is a reality.

  • 160.
    Alvelid, Liza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Stenvik, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patientens upplevelser av symtom i samband med en akut hjärtinfarkt: En integrativ litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Bakgrund: Hjärtinfarkt kan vara livshotande och kräver omedelbar sjukhusvård. För att reducera skada på hjärtat är det viktig att patienten kommer till omedelbar reperfusionsbehandling. Om symtom inte känns eller relateras till hjärtat, kan det göra att personen avvaktar med att söka vård och därmed försenas diagnos och behandling vilket kan leda en till ökad risk för att dö. För att öka kunskapen inom detta område vill vi med vår analys undersöka patienters upplevelse av symtom vid en akut hjärtinfarkt.

    Syfte: Att undersöka patientens upplevelse av symtom vid en akut hjärtinfarkt.

    Metod: En integrativ litteraturöversikt genomfördes vilken baserades på sökningar i Cinahl och Pubmed. Nio vetenskapliga artiklar med både kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats valdes ut.

    Resultat: Studierna visade stor variation av patienternas upplevda symtom och symtomdebutens karaktär. Det fanns även skillnader mellan förväntade och upplevda symtom och resultatet visade att det råder en generell kunskapsbrist om AMI symtom bland allmänheten. Detta sammantaget leder till fördröjning i patienternas beslutsprocess för att uppsöka vård och behandling.

    Slutsats: Om tiden till behandling kortas, kan det leda till stora förbättringar vad gäller personens hälsa, välmående och livskvalitet. Det borde därmed finnas ett stort intresse att investera i strategier för att öka kunskapen om de olika och varierande symtom vid akut hjärtinfarkt hos allmänheten och även hos yrkesverksamma inom vård- och omsorg.

  • 161.
    Alvgrim, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lilienberg, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nydiagnostiserade kvinnors upplevelser av att ha drabbats av bröstcancer: En systematisk litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 162.
    Alvunger, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Variation in number of vertebrae in populations of pike (Esox lucius) in the south-east of Sweden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vertebral number (VN) is known to vary greatly across different taxa, but also within species orpopulations. Extensive research has shown that VN in fish is the result of interactions between geneticstructure and plastic responses to environmental cues during ontogeny. A frequently reported pattern is the tendency for VN to vary with body shape and/or length of the fish. The pike (Esox lucius) of the Baltic Sea has a complex population structure, with genetically distinct subpopulations consisting of homing anadromous individuals. Individuals belonging to these subpopulations are sympatric for most of their lives and become allopatric briefly during spawning each year. This study examined the distribution of VN in three anadromous sympatric subpopulations of pike in the Baltic. Significant differences in VN were found between juveniles and adults belonging to different subpopulations, but also across life-stageswithin all three subpopulations. Results from a common-garden experiment indicated that differences in VN among subpopulations were in part the result of genetic differences, indicative of evolutionary change. Furthermore, a quadratic regression revealed a curvilinear relationship between VN and bodylength of juveniles. Taken together, these results suggest that the combined effects of stabilizing and divergent selection might have played a role in shaping the distribution of VN in pike of the Baltic. The distribution of VN within subpopulations seems to be under the influence of stabilizing selection. Differences among subpopulations might instead reflect local adaptations driven by divergent selection. These findings signal the need for conservationists to view these subpopulations as unique units of management.

  • 163.
    Alwan, Hanan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Zeed, Frida
    Om patientsäkerhetens påverkan av sjuksköterskans arbetsrelaterade stress: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Arbetsrelaterad stress förekommer inom sjuksköterskans arbete. Vårdkvalitén riskerar att försämras när sjuksköterskan upplever stress i sitt arbete. Sjuksköterskans kärnkompetenser innebär bland annat att sjuksköterskan ska ge god omvårdnad samt mäta och följa upp vårdkvalitén. Den teoretiska referensramen som speglar litteraturstudien är det vårdvetenskapliga begreppet vårdande möten utifrån Dahlberg och Segesten (2010).

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva hur sjuksköterskors arbetsrelaterade stress påverkar patientsäkerheten inom slutenvård.

    Metod: Litteraturstudien baserades på tio artiklar, kvalitativa, kvantitativa och mixad metod. Databaserna Cinahl och Pubmed användes för att söka artiklar. Kvalitetsgranskning av artiklar utfördes med Carlsson och Eimans kvalitetsgranskningsmall. En integrerad analys användes i dataanalysen enligt Kristenssons metod.

    Resultat: Litteraturstudiens resultat redovisades i fem kategorier: ”konsekvenser av tidsbrist”, ”konsekvenser av arbetsbelastning”, ”konsekvenser av sjuksköterskans stressupplevelse”, ”bristande kommunikation” och ”misstag inom omvårdnad och kliniskt arbete”.

    Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor inom slutenvården upplever arbetsrelaterad stress på grund av olika orsaker. Arbetsrelaterad stress påverkar patientsäkerheten. Hög arbetsbelastning ligger till grund för sjuksköterskan tidsbrist. Konsekvenser av hög arbetsbelastning och tidsbrist kan vara vårdskador. Mötet mellan sjuksköterska och patient uteblir vilket försämrar vårdkvalitén för patienterna. Författarna anser att orsakerna till sjuksköterskors arbetsrelaterade stress ska uppmärksammas för att främja patientsäkerhet inom sjuksköterskans arbete.

  • 164.
    Amann, Laura
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Development and Validation of an Analytical Method for Phenolic Acid Extraction from Cereals and Quantification using HPLC-UV2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cereals are rich in phenolic acids, a group of secondary plant metabolites that are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. The objective was to develop and internally validate a method for extraction and quantification of phenolic acids in cereals using HPLC-UV and to apply this method for quantification of the content of phenolic acids in several species of Swedish cereals. Different procedures for extraction of phenolic acids from cereal grains using acid or base hydrolysis with and without subsequent enzymatic treatment were tested. Both the extraction procedure and the chromatographic conditions for quantification with HPLC-UV were optimized. Phenolic acids from 14 cereal samples, representing different cultivars of rye, wheat, barley, and oat, were extracted and analyzed under optimized conditions. Using the optimized method, 15 phenolic acids could be quantified with limits of detection and quantification ranging from 0.4 to 11.4 µg/g and from 1.3 to 38.0 µg/g, respectively. The hydrolysis procedure and further sample treatment showed a substantial effect on the yield of phenolic acids from cereals. The highest yield was achieved by 90‑minute base hydrolysis at room temperature using sodium hydroxide solution containing ascorbic acid and EDTA. Mean recoveries ranged from 88 to 108%. The following phenolic acids were found in the analyzed cereal grains with ferulic acid being the most abundant one: p‑hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, vanillin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, and 3,4‑dihydroxybenzaldehyde. A further compound was p‑coumaric acid or the co‑eluting syringaldehyde or a mixture of both. The content of phenolic acids in Swedish cereals ranged from 6 µmol/g DM in rye to 3 µmol/g DM in oat and a barley cultivar. In conclusion, a simple and accurate method for extraction and quantification of phenolic acids in cereals was developed and successfully applied.

  • 165.
    Amarasinghe, Jayathu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Saying Hejsan or Suffering in Silence?: What experiences do International Students have of mental health issues while studying in Sweden?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine international students’ experiences of mental health issues during their studies in Sweden. These experiences are seldom represented in academic literature, and thus this paper aims to recount international students’ experiences of mental health issues, the methods in which they handle those issues and the role that Swedish culture, people and institutions have played in those experiences. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with international students currently enrolled at the Linnaeus University in Växjö, Sweden – and subsequently analyzed through inductive thematic analysis. The results were summarized in four main themes; Acculturation, Mental Health, Under-utilization of Healthcare Facilities and Loneliness. The study concludes that international students may suffer from mental health issues that go undetected by university officials and mental health resources, and that universities may benefit from investing in programs to identify and offer support towards students in general, and international students in particular.

  • 166.
    Ambashta, Ritu D.
    et al.
    Bhabha Atom Res Ctr, India.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sillanpää, Mika E. T.
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol, Finland.
    Supported iron-based catalysts under influence of static magnetic field for the removal of TBP and EDTA2015In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 2700-2709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zerovalent metals offer decontamination of organic toxins in aqueous medium. In the present study, alumina-based iron and iron-nickel in the presence and the absence of magnetic field for the decontamination of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been compared. TBP decontamination was improved in the presence of zerovalent metals. EDTA decontamination was not enhanced in the presence of zerovalent metals. The decontamination of TBP using iron-based alumina was higher than iron-nickel. The surface interaction on alumina surface, as characterized by attentuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the surface interaction on metallic elements, as characterized by evaluating the magnetic moment values helped to understand the reason for the difference in role of alumina-based iron and iron-nickel on decontamination of TBP and EDTA.

  • 167.
    Ammann, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    van der Knaap, Willhelm O.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Lang, Gerhard
    Biberach an der Riß, Germany.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaltenrieder, Petra
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Rösch, Manfred
    Landesamt für Denkmalpflege, Germany.
    Finsinger, Walter
    Institut de Botanique, France.
    Wright, Herbert E.
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Tinner, Willy
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    The potential of stomata analysis inconifers to estimate presence of conifer trees: examples from the Alps2014In: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 249-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To estimate whether or not a plant taxon found in the fossil record was locally present may be difficult if only pollen is analyzed. Plant macrofossils, in contrast, provide a clear indication of a taxon’s local presence, although in some lake sediments or peats, macrofossils may be rare or degraded. For conifers, the stomata found on pollen slides are derived from needles and thus provide a valuable proxy for local presence and they can be identified to genus level. From previously published studies, a transect across the Alps based on 13 sites is presented. For basal samples in sandy silt above the till with high pollen values of Pinus, for example, we may distinguish pine pollen from distant sources (samples with no stomata), from reworked pollen (samples with stomata present). The first apparent local presence of most conifer genera based on stomata often but not always occurs together with the phase of rapid pollen increase (rational limit). An exception is Larix, with its annual deposition of needles and heavy poorly dispersed pollen, for it often shows the first stomata earlier, at the empirical pollen limit. The decline and potential local extinction of a conifer can sometimes be shown in the stomata record. The decline may have been caused by climatic change, competition, or human impact. In situations where conifers form the timberline, the stomata record may indicate timberline fluctuations. In the discussion of immigration or migration of taxa we advocate the use of the cautious term “apparent local presence” to include some uncertainties. Absence of a taxon is impossible to prove.

  • 168.
    Amnebrink, Dennis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Infection intensity and molecular characterization of eye flukes in round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus).2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is an invasive species to the Baltic Sea and is rapidly expanding its range. Apart from competition with native fish, a novel species may face, or introduce, pathogens. Previous research has shown that round gobies have a high infection rate by eye flukes of the Diplostomum genus. To study prevalence and infection intensity of Diplostomum parasites in fish in an area recently colonized by round gobies, the shallow water community of round goby, common bleak (Alburnus alburnus) and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) was examined. The fish were screened for presence of parasites in the lenses of caught fish, and abundance of parasites was compared between the host species. The round goby had the highest infection intensity of the host species, and there was no difference in infection intensity between the common bleak and three spined stickleback. To support microscopy-based identification, the parasites from the round gobies were determined to genus/species level using molecular detection and sequencing, enabling a Diplostomum species composition inventory in round gobies. Results showed that at least three species of Diplostomum infected round gobies in this population, and that there was a negative correlation between body condition and the parasite intensity indicating fitness effects resulting from infection.

  • 169.
    Amnebrink, Dennis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Transcriptomic profiling of marine bacteria between development and senescence phases of a phytoplankton bloom2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterioplankton provide important ecosystem functions by carrying out biogeochemical cycling of organic matter. Playing an important role in the microbial loop they help remineralize carbon and nutrients. Bacteria also interact with phytoplankton during phytoplankton blooms. However, fundamental understanding on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the degradation of phytoplankton-derived organic matter is still in its infancy. Therefore, we analysed data from a mesocosm experiment following a natural phytoplankton-bloom from an upwelling system in the North- East Atlantic Ocean. The purpose was to contribute a mechanistic understanding based on functional gene expression analysis of natural microbial assemblages. Our results show the difference in functional gene expression within a bacterial metacommunity and how this functional response drastically switches between bloom build up and senescence. Transcripts showed a broad change in gene expression involving major SEED categories, with the bloom senescence phase exhibiting a higher relative abundance in major categories such as Carbohydrates, Protein Metabolism and Amino Acids and Derivatives. Within these categories genes connected to carbon utilization and transport systems (Ton and Tol) as well as chemotaxis showed a higher abundance during bloom senescence. The change in functionality based on transcripts showed a different bacterial community composition appearing over a very short time. We thus conclude that the bacterial functional gene expression response between build-up and degradation bloom phases is remarkably different and associated with a change in the identity of bacteria with active expression. Our findings highlight the importance of bacterial substrate specialists with different functional roles during different time points of phytoplankton blooms.

  • 170.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Diffuse emissions from goods: influences on some societal end products2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    End products of society (e.g. sewage sludge and incineration ashes) can be used as indicators of the use of chemicals in consumer goods. Through upstream work the sources of substances released from goods may be identified before the emissions reach the end products.

    This thesis is a result of five studies, of which four were conducted using substance flow analyses (SFA) for silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi) and copper (Cu) reaching sewage sludge. The fifth is an SFA that explores the implications of the presence of As (from CCA-treated wood) in ashes. These studies helped fulfil the specific and overall aims of the thesis; to contribute to the general knowledge on diffuse emissions reflected in end products, by examining emissions of some heavy metals from various societal goods and the implications for end products, in this case sewage sludge and, to some extent, ashes.

    The results from the studies, of which four had Stockholm as a study object, show the urban flows and accumulated amounts (stocks) of the heavy metals. The largest sources of the metals Ag, Bi and Cu in sewage sludge were identified to be textiles (Ag), cosmetics (Bi) and brake linings (Cu). For As (in CCA-treated wood) and Cu updated SFAs were performed and compared with earlier studies in order to follow the development and changes in flows over time.

    The current use of the heavy metals studied can also be seen as a loss of resources, and as the metals should ideally be recovered as a part of a circular economy, urban and landfill mining as well as recycling are alternatives that need further exploring. The legislation of chemicals in consumer goods was identified as an important step in handling corresponding diffuse emissions.

  • 171.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Strategier att reducera silver och vismut i urbant avloppsvatten2015In: Nationella Konferensen Avlopp & Miljö, Örebro, 20-21 januari 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Upstream Silver Source Mapping2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden, Stockholm.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bismuth and Silver in Cosmetic Products: A Source of Environmental and Resource Concern?2016In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 99-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bismuth (Bi) and silver (Ag) are used in increasing amounts and are consequently being emitted from various sources and showing high accumulation rates in soils when sewage sludge is applied on arable land. This study aimed to analyze the amounts of Bi and Ag in three cosmetic products (foundation, powder, and eye shadow) in order to study the flows in urban wastewater in Stockholm, Sweden. Analyses showed that Bi was present in very high concentrations (7,000 to 360,000 milligrams per kilogram) in one third of the analyzed foundation and powder samples, whereas Ag concentrations all were below the detection limit. These cosmetic products explained approximately 24% of the measured total Bi amounts per year reaching the WWTP (wastewater treatment plant), making cosmetics a major Bi source, whereas for Ag the corresponding contribution was <0.1% of the measured annual Ag amounts. The results were roughly adapted for Europe and the United States, estimating the Bi flows from cosmetics to WWTPs. On a global scale, these flows correspond to a non-negligible part of the world Bi production that, every year, ends up in sewage sludge, limiting the reuse of a valuable metal resource. From an environmental and resource perspective, foundations and powder products should be considered as significant sources of measured Bi amounts in sludge. This large Bi flow must be considered as unsustainable. For Ag, however, the three analyzed cosmetic products are not a significant source of the total Ag load to WWTPs.

  • 174.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Monitoring urban copper flows in Stockholm, Sweden: implications of changes over time2017In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 903-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for copper (Cu) was conducted, in which theinflow, stock, and outflow (in the form of diffuse emissions to soil and water) for Stockholmwere estimated for 2013 and compared with a previous study from 1995, hence allowing adiscussion on changes over time. A large number of applications containing Cu were analyzed(including power cables, copper alloys, heavy electrical equipment, tap water systems, roofs,cars, various consumer electronics, wood preservatives, and contact cables for the railroad).The results show that the inflow of Cu to Stockholm has increased between 1995 and 2013,both in total and per person, mainly as the result of an increase in heavy electrical equipment,power cables, and cars. The stock remains relatively unchanged, whereas the outflow hasincreased. For the outflow, the emission increase from brake linings is of greatest quantitativeimportance, with an estimated 5.8 tonnes annual emission of Cu to the environment ofStockholm in 2013 compared to 3.9 tonnes in 1995. Given that increasing inflows of limitedresources drive the global demand, continuous monitoring of flows through society andmanagement of outflow routes are crucial, including improvement of national legislationand regional environmental plans as well as efforts to increase resource-use efficiency andrecycling

  • 175.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Upstream silver source mapping2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistiska Centralbyrån.
    Lagerkvist, Ragnar
    Stockholm Vatten.
    Upstream silver source mapping - a case study in Stockholm, Sweden2014In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 392-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silver (Ag) can be a problem for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and their capability to use sewage sludge as a soil fertilizer. Due to a high accumulation rate in soils, the levels of Ag in the incoming water at the WWTP must be reduced. This study aims to identify major diffuse emission sources in the technosphere through a comprehensive substance flow analysis of Ag in Stockholm, Sweden. Large inflows and stocks of Ag were present in electrical and electronic goods and appliances as well as in jewellery and silverware. The total inflow was 3.2 tonnes (4.2 g/person), the total stock was 100 tonnes (140 g/person) and the total outflow was 330 kg (430 mg/person). Major identified Ag sources with emissions ending up in the WWTP (total 26 kg, 34 mg/person) were food, amalgam and beauty products (via urine and faeces, 12 mg/person or 11% of incoming amount), and textiles (via washing, 17 mg/person or 16% of incoming amount). This study explains approximately 35% of the total 80 kg Ag in the incoming water at Henriksdal WWTP in Stockholm. Plastic, photography and beauty products were identified as possible sources of Ag that need to be examined further.

  • 177.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Lagerkvist, Ragnar
    Stockholm Vatten.
    Kotsch, Maria
    Stockholm Vatten.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Strategier att reducera silver och vismut i urbant avloppsvatten2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Silver och vismut är två metaller som på sikt kan anrikas i mark i samband med slamspridning och som därför är prioriterade enligt REVAQ, ett certifieringssystem för svenska reningsverk.

    I Naturvårdsverkets förslag till ny författning (slamförordning) föreslås gränsvärden för bland annat silver. Silver är en toxisk tungmetall med antibakteriella egenskaper som ger skadliga effekter på båda människors hälsa och miljö redan vid låga koncentrationer. Vismut är en tungmetall som anses vara ”ogiftig” men som också kan ge skadliga effekter vid högre koncentrationer.

     

    En substansflödesanalys utfördes för båda metallerna för att kartlägga inflödet till, stocken (upplagrad mängd i teknosfären) och utflödet från Stockholm under 2012. Avgränsning har gjorts till utflöden som hamnar i avloppsvattnet och på det sättet påverkar Henriksdals reningsverk. Utflödet i substansflödesanalysen blir därmed lika med ett inflöde till reningsverket. Fokus ligger på diffusa utsläpp av silver och vismut, men identifierade punktkällor räknas in i det slutliga resultatet med målet att förklara så mycket som möjligt av de uppmätta halterna av silver och vismut i Henriksdals reningsverk. Källor som har ett utflöde till avfall eller återvinning har inte inkluderats i denna rapport.

     

    För år 2102 uppmättes en tillförsel av 61 kg silver och 116 kg vismut för Henriksdals reningsverk i Stockholm. Källor har identifierats för ca 56 % av uppmätt silver och 49 % av uppmätt vismut i denna studie. De källor med störst bidrag silver bedöms vara textilier (19 %), urin och fekalier (från bland annat amalgamfyllningar och föda) (15 %) samt städprodukter (7 %). För vismut är det kosmetika (23 %), plast (13 %) samt fordonstvättar (9 %) som bedöms vara källor med störst bidrag.

     

    Utifrån erhållna resultat föreslår vi några åtgärder/strategier för reduktion av silver respektive vismut i urbant avloppsvatten. Vi diskuterar även aktörer som har möjlighet/rådighet att genomföra åtgärderna (Svenskt Vatten, avloppsreningsverk, myndigheter, producenter, verksamhetsutövare samt individer/konsumenter). En strategi som föreslås är att myndigheter ska informera och påverka producenter och verksamhetsutövare när det gäller silver och vismut i olika produkter samt verka för ändrad lagstiftning. Producenter kan ta ett eget ansvar att minska silver- och vismutinnehåll i produkter. Två identifierade kunskapsluckor och potentiella källor är silver i städprodukter samt vismut i plast.

     

  • 178.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bismuth in cosmetic products and its implications for sewage sludge management2015In: SETAC Europe 25th Annual Meeting, Barcelona, 3-7 May, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bismuth (Bi) is a heavy metal that over recent years has shown increasing concentrations in sewage sludge in Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), indicating an increasing Bi use in the society. The high accumulation rate of Bi in soil when sewage sludge is used as fertilizer on arable land is of environmental concern. Bismuth is used in various consumer products to replace lead, but which sources in the society that explain the increasing amount of Bi in sewage sludge in the municipal WWTPs is however unknown. This study aimed to analyze one product group suspected to contain Bi, cosmetics, and three different products were chosen (foundation, powder and eye shadow) in order to study the flows in urban wastewater in Stockholm, Sweden. The chemical analyses showed that Bi was present in very high concentrations (>100 000 mg/kg) in one third of the analyzed foundation and powder samples, while mainly low concentrations were found in eye shadow. These cosmetic products explained approximately 24 % of the measured total Bi amounts reaching the WWTP in 2012, making cosmetics a major Bi source. It is therefore recommended to monitor the Bi concentrations in sewage sludge regularly. Efforts should be made to further examine the sources of Bi to WWTPs and to decrease the emission from Bi in cosmetics to the WWTPs.

  • 179.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The Increase in Bismuth Consumption as Reflected in Sewage Sludge2015In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, no 4, p. 1-11, article id 92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the use of dangerous substances in consumer products increases, these substances may also be found in society’s end products, among them sewage sludge. Measuring concentrations in sewage sludge can be a way to reflect the consumption of a substance. By using substance flow analysis, the inflow, stock and outflow of the specific substance to, e.g. a city region, may be analysed. Bismuth is a heavy metal that is found in increasing levels in sewage sludge in Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a similar increase cannot be excluded for WWTPs around the world. This study aims to examine possible sources that could explain the amounts measured in one Swedish WWTP. Household products such as cosmetics (24 %) and plastics (14 %) are found to be major sources of Bi measured in sewage sludge. The remaining unidentified amounts in this study (approximately 50 %) are most likely found in effluent waters from industries or sources outside the household. There is, however, no information on measurements of Bi released by industry available and there is no legislation in place that may encourage industry to conduct such measurements.

  • 180.
    Amundsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Åman, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patientflöden till akutmottagningen: En kvantitativ punktprevalensstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Patient flows to Swedish emergency departments are increasing. With an increased inflow of patients, the demands on the healthcare staff at the emergency department increase. With a discrepancy between in-, through- and outflow, risks of crowding are created, with consequences such as increased waiting times for patients, increased patient safety risks and suffering as a result. The emergency nurse's responsibility includes knowledge of patient flows, patient safety and alleviation of suffering. Nevertheless, there is little research about patient flows to the emergency department nationally.

    Purpose. The purpose of the study was to study the inflow of patients to the emergency departments at two regional hospitals.

    Method. The study was conducted as a quantitative point-prevalence study with an inductive approach. The analysis includes an analysis of data from two emergency departments in Region Dalarna, n = 201.

    Results. Over 70 percent of the patients that presented to the emergency departments had a previous healthcare contact. It was most common that younger patients used their own initiative and that elderly presented by ambulance. There were more men than women who came from community health centres with referral. Patients who had another healthcare contact before the visit had a higher medical priority or risk of admittance to the hospital than the patients who came on their own initiative.

    Conclusion. A physical meeting with healthcare staff can be of great importance for reducing the inflow of patients to the emergency department. It may be that there is a low capacity in the health care system to treat low-acuity patients.

  • 181.
    Amylon, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Jämförelse av ögonansträngning vid läsning på papper och på mobilskärm2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare Digital Eye Strain DES-symptoms after reading on a printed hardcopy versus a smartphone. To understand if results obtained from earlier studies that have showed DES when reading in from computer also applies to smartphones.

    Methods: 16 participants in the study were asked to read a Swedish book quietly for 20 minutes, either on a hardcopy or on a smartphone. The participants were told to use their normal working distance while reading from book or smartphone. They read the same book with the same textsize and font in both conditions. Directly after reading the participants completed a written questionnaire that consisted of ten questions about their level of ocular discomfort during the task.  

    Results: This study showed significant differences in mean symptom scores between printed hardcopy and smartphone on three of the symptoms; blurred vision while viewing the text (p=0,016), eyestrain (0,023) and tired eyes (0,015). In all three cases the symptoms were higher during smartphone use. No significant differences were found between the other seven symptoms. There were a significant difference in reading distance, smartphone were held closer than the hardcopy.

    Conclusion: This study shows that the symptoms after smartphone use is perceived as more severe than after reading on a hardcopy. The three symptoms that showed a significant difference were all higher after smartphone use.

  • 182.
    Andersen, K. H.
    et al.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Berge, T.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Goncalves, R. J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ;Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Argentina ; Estn Fotobiol Playa Union, Argentina.
    Hartvig, M.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Copenhagen, Denmark ; Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Heuschele, J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Jacobsen, N. S.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Lindemann, C.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Martens, E. A.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Neuheimer, A. B.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Hawaii Manoa, USA.
    Olsson, K.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Palacz, A.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Prowe, A. E. F.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Germany.
    Sainmont, J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Traving, S. J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Visser, A. W.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Wadhwa, N.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Kiorboe, T.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Characteristic Sizes of Life in the Oceans, from Bacteria to Whales2016In: Annual Review of Marine Science, ISSN 1941-1405, E-ISSN 1941-0611, Vol. 8, p. 217-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The size of an individual organism is a key trait to characterize its physiology and feeding ecology. Size-based scaling laws may have a limited size range of validity or undergo a transition from one scaling exponent to another at some characteristic size. We collate and review data on size-based scaling laws for resource acquisition, mobility, sensory range, and progeny size for all pelagic marine life, from bacteria to whales. Further, we review and develop simple theoretical arguments for observed scaling laws and the characteristic sizes of a change or breakdown of power laws. We divide life in the ocean into seven major realms based on trophic strategy, physiology, and life history strategy. Such a categorization represents a move away from a taxonomically oriented description toward a trait-based description of life in the oceans. Finally, we discuss life forms that transgress the simple size-based rules and identify unanswered questions.

  • 183.
    Andersen, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Metylfenidat vid ADHD: Effekt och säkerhet vid långtidsbehandling?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: During the last 10 years, the number of children and adults diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increased. One of the factors is the advancement made within this scientific field, that has created an increased knowledge about ADHD. Another factor is a greater awareness of the condition. As more and more people are being diagnosed with ADHD, tailored medicinal products are being prescribed to a larger extent. ADHD is a neuropsychiatric impairment of function. Characteristic symptoms for the diagnosis are attention problems, excessive activity, difficulties completing task and possible impulse control problem. About five percent of all schoolchildren are diagnosed with ADHD and it has been considered more abundant among male than among females. Among the patients diagnosed whit ADHD, approximately one -fourth has a family member or relative with a similar problem. The most accepted biochemical theory suggests that the action of dopamine in the brain may explain symptoms as inadequate executive functions i.e. the processes in the brain responsible for the control and coordination of our behavior. Methylphenidate is a central stimulating, long acting medicinal product. The mechanism of action is not yet fully understood, but it is believed to inhibit the reuptake of noradrenaline and dopamine in presynaptic neurons, resulting in an increased amount of monoamines in the synaptic cleft. Then it comes to aspects of safety, for treatment with the central stimulating medicinal product, several parameters deserve attention such as side effects where short-term safety has been relatively well studied but there is a lack of long-term studies. Then it comes to cardiovascular effects, blood pressure increases in average approximately 3-4 mm Hg and the pulse rate increases around six beats /min in both children and adults.

    Objective: To study the effect and safety of long-term treatment of ADHD with methylphenidate. Method: The scientific articles for the literature study were retrieved by searching the PubMed database and five articles were chosen examining the long-term effects of methylphenidate.

    Results: The patients included in the studies were evaluated by experienced psychiatrist. The drug effect was assessed by different instruments like DSM-IV ADHD RS and SDS. The CGI-I rating scale assess the overall change in the disorder and CGI-S which helped to assess the patient ́s current condition. The results show that methylphenidate are well tolerated during long-term use and had a significantly better effect compared to placebo. Methylphenidate are proved also to increase the cerebral blood flow in thalamus which reflects increased dopamine neurotransmission due to the neurochemical imprinting of methylphenidate.

    Discussion: Overall, methylphenidate has a good effect in most persons but has several side effects and therefore is not appropriate for all and everyone. Common side effects are headache, insomnia, reduced weight increase and height increase. Every year, the medicinal treatment of ADHD should be reassessed due to the insufficient study basis regarding long-term treatment with methylphenidate. As many children and adults become long-term users, there is a great need for more long-term studies, covering several years 

  • 184.
    Andersen, Patricia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hult, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av samarbetet mellan slutenvård och kommunal sjukvård kring den äldre patienten.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Background: The frail and/or sick elderly are a growing group of patients who are often caught in between healthcare instances when misunderstandings occur in transition between inpatient and municipal healthcare providers. Previous research has shown that, among other things, lack of information between instances are one of the most common causes of preventable harm. Improved cooperation between these two primary health facilities work is of paramount importance for patient safety.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to examine nurses experiences of cooperation between inpatient care and municipal healthcare concerning geriatric patients.

    Method: A qualitative method was chosen to investigate the nurses' experience of cooperation between inpatient care and municipal healthcare. A total of 27 nurses from both municipal and inpatient answered an electronic questionnaire via e-mail. Their answers were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Nurses from both inpatient care and municipal healthcare believes that the cooperation is in need of improvement in order to increase patient safety. Shortcomings occur in cooperation, especially regarding medicinal management, communication and information transfer. They are also under the impression that an increased understanding of each other's work situations are crucial. Suggestions of improvement are increased education within the common communicational tool and also visits to each other’s workplaces to increase the understanding of the different work situations.

    Conclusion: An increased and improved cooperation between municipal healthcare and inpatient care can improve patient safety if medicinal management and transference is secured, better care plans are set up with and for the patient, and also that information transfer is conducted properly. These things will enable a good cooperation and transition of caregiver will not be as noticeable to the patient. The existing tool for communication, if used to its full extent, is a great support in doing this.

  • 185.
    Andersen, Pia
    et al.
    Region Kronoberg;Linköping University.
    Holmberg, Sara
    Region Kronoberg;Lund University.
    Lendahls, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Region Kronobergen.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University.
    Kristenson, Margareta
    Linköping University.
    Physical Activity on Prescription with Counsellor Support: A 4-Year Registry-Based Study in Routine Health Care in Sweden2018In: Healthcare, E-ISSN 2227-9032, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Public health gains from physical activity on prescription (PAP) depend on uptake in routine care. We performed an evaluation of the implementation, in a Swedish county council, of counsellors who give personalized support to PAP recipients aimed at facilitating PAP delivery. The aim was to compare characteristics between PAP recipients and the health care population as well as between PAP recipients who used and did not use counsellor support. We also investigated professional belonging and health care setting of health care professionals who prescribed PAP. Methods: All patients' >= 18 years who received PAP during 2009-2012 in primary and secondary care in the County Council of Kronoberg were included (n = 4879). Data were retrieved from electronic medical records. Main outcome measures were patient and professional characteristics. Results: A third of the PAP recipients had diseases in >= 5 diagnostic groups and more than half had >= 11 office visits the year before receiving PAP. Counsellor support was used by one-third and PAP recipients who used counsellor support had more multiple diagnoses and office visits compared with non-users. Physicians issued 44% of prescriptions and primary care was the predominant setting. The amount of PAP did not change over time, but the proportion of physicians' prescriptions decreased while the proportion of nurses' prescriptions increased. Conclusions: PAP recipients had high morbidity and were frequent health care attenders, indicating that PAP was predominantly used for secondary or tertiary prevention. PAP rates did not increase as intended after the implementation of counsellor support.

  • 186.
    Andersen, Pia
    et al.
    Region Kronoberg;Linköping University.
    Lendahls, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Region Kronoberg.
    Holmberg, Sara
    Region Kronoberg;Lund University.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University.
    Patients' experiences of physical activity on prescription with access to counsellors in routine care: a qualitative study in Sweden2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundPhysical activity on prescription (PAP) has been implemented in several countries, including Sweden, to support patients who might benefit from increased physical activity. This study explores the experiences of recipients of PAP in routine health care in Sweden that offers the recipients support from physical activity counsellors. The aim was to explore influences on engagement in physical activity by PAP recipients' from a long-term perspective.MethodsWe conducted individual semi-structured interviews using a topic guide with a purposively selected sample of 13 adult PAP recipients 1.5 to 2.5years after PAP. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed through inductive and deductive content analysis. The questions were informed by Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B), which was also used as a framework to analyse the data by means of categorizing the factors (influences on the behaviour).ResultsTen factors (i.e. sub-categories) that influenced the participants' engagement in physical activity were identified. PAP recipients' capability to engage in physical activity was associated with adapting the PAP to the individual's physical capacity and taking into account the individual's previous experiences of physical activity. PAP recipients' opportunity to engage in physical activity was related to receiving a prescription, receiving professional counselling and follow-up from a physical activity counsellor, collaboration between prescriber and counsellor, having access to appropriate activities, having a balanced life situation and having support from someone who encouraged continued physical activity. PAP recipients' motivation to engage in physical activity was associated with the desire to improve his or her health condition and finding activities that encouraged continuation.ConclusionsPAP recipients' engagement in physical activity was influenced by their capability, opportunity and motivation to undertake this behaviour. Numerous extraneous factors influence capability and motivation. Physical activity counsellors were found to be important for sustained activity because they use an individual approach to counselling and flexible follow-up adapted to each individual's need of support.

  • 187.
    Anderson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sahlberg, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Den emotionella intelligensens betydelse för konflikthantering hos studenter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between emotional intelligence and conflict management is an area, which is relatively poorly researched especially in a university environment. In the present study, the effect of level of emotional intelligence on preference for varying styles of conflict management is investigated. The research instruments “The Assessing Emotion Scale” and “The Dutch Test for Conflict Handling” were given to 100 students in order to assess level of emotional intelligence and preference for conflict management style. Results indicated that neither level of emotional intelligence nor conflict management styles were statistically significantly influenced by gender. A strong association between “Problemsolving” and “Compromising” to level of emotional intelligence was seen in women. In men, this association was not seen. The results of this study indicate that styles to resolve conflict were not directly gender related, but rather related to the qualities shown by each individual. Additionally, individuals with a higher level of emotional intelligence preferred “Problemsolving” and “Compromising” in conflict management.

  • 188.
    Andersson, A.
    et al.
    Umeå University;Umeå Marine Science Centre.
    Brugel, S.
    Umeå University;Umeå Marine Science Centre.
    Paczkowska, J.
    Umeå University;Umeå Marine Science Centre.
    Rowe, O. F.
    Umeå University;Umeå Marine Science Centre;Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Figueroa, D.
    Umeå University;Umeå Marine Science Centre.
    Kratzer, S.
    Stockholm University.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Influence of allochthonous dissolved organic matter on pelagic basal production in a northerly estuary2018In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 204, p. 225-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria are key groups at the base of aquatic food webs. In estuaries receiving riverine water with a high content of coloured allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM), phytoplankton primary production may be reduced, while bacterial production is favoured. We tested this hypothesis by performing a field study in a northerly estuary receiving nutrient-poor, ADOM-rich riverine water, and analyzing results using multivariate statistics. Throughout the productive season, and especially during the spring river flush, the production and growth rate of heterotrophic bacteria were stimulated by the riverine inflow of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, primary production and photosynthetic efficiency (i.e. phytoplankton growth rate) were negatively affected by DOC. Primary production related positively to phosphorus, which is the limiting nutrient in the area. In the upper estuary where DOC concentrations were the highest, the heterotrophic bacterial production constituted almost 100% of the basal production (sum of primary and bacterial production) during spring, while during summer the primary and bacterial production were approximately equal. Our study shows that riverine DOC had a strong negative influence on coastal phytoplankton production, likely due to light attenuation. On the other hand DOC showed a positive influence on bacterial production since it represents a supplementary food source. Thus, in boreal regions where climate change will cause increased river inflow to coastal waters, the balance between phytoplankton and bacterial production is likely to be changed, favouring bacteria. The pelagic food web structure and overall productivity will in turn be altered. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 189.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå university.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University.
    Eilola, Kari
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Department of Ecology.
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Supplement 3, p. S345-S356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 degrees C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase similar to 30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  • 190.
    Andersson, Amanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Elevers förståelse av begrepp inom området människokroppen: En kvalitativ studie om elevers begreppskunskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Elevers begreppsförståelse är ett väl undersökt område inom fysik, dock inte inom den svenska gymnasieskolans biologiundervisning, än mindre inom området människokroppen och dess funktioner. Syftet med denna studie är att belysa elevers förståelse och missuppfattningar kring vissa begrepp om kroppen och kroppensfunktioner hos totalt 39 elever som läser biologi 2 på gymnasiet från två olika klasser. Frågeställningarna i studien är (1) Vilken förståelse har eleverna kring begrepp inom ämnet kroppens funktioner? (2) Vilka begrepp har eleverna bristande förståelse för?Studien använder sig av både enkäter och intervjuer för att besvara frågeställnigarna där enkätens begrepp baseras på begrepp från kursbok, styrdokument och tidigare studier. Intervjufrågorna baseras på enkäten där missuppfattnignar eller avvikande svar visas. Eleverna intervjuas två och två, där klasserna representeras av fyra elever var. Genom att använda öppna frågor i enkäten och intervjun kan elevernas kunskap och förståelse kring de utvalda begreppen visas tydligare än om eleverna får givna svarsalternativ.Studien visar att det finns bristande förståelse och missuppfattningar kring delar inom detta ämne, likt tidigare studier finns det missuppfattningar och svårigheter i att förstå begreppet meios. Vad detta kan bero på diskuteras utifrån bland annat om förståelsen endast beror på tidigare erfarenheter och vardagsföreställningar.

  • 191.
    Andersson, Amanda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sörensen, Mathilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anorexia Nervosa: En systematisk litteraturstudie om föräldrars erfarenhet av att leva med ett barn som drabbats av Anorexia Nervosa2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 192.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hardin, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Riskfaktorer för postoperativt delirium efter hjärtkirurgi: En systematisk litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Heart surgery can save a patient's life but can also lead to an increased risk of suffering from a complication such as postoperative delirium. Delirium is not an illness but a state of mental confusion that affects the patient's attention, awareness and cognitive ability. Postoperative delirium can lead to many negative consequences which can cause patient suffering. Nursing care has aimed to alleviate a patient's suffering by seeing the entire patient in the caring relationship. This is the core in nursing science. Research has shown that it is important for the patient's postoperative recovery to be able to detect and prevent postoperative delirium in an early stage. It has appeared that intensive care nurses need more education and knowledge in this area in order to be able to detect and prevent postoperative delirium after heart surgery.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to identify risk factors that are associated with the development of postoperative delirium after heart surgery within patients in the intensive care unit.

    Method: A systematic literature review that analyzed quantitative articles according to a method of analysis by Bettany-Saltikov and McSherry (2016).

    Result: Four categories emerged from the analysis: Patients background, length of mechanical ventilation, Heart- and lung machine duration and Complications after heart surgery that were risk factors which affected the development of postoperative delirium.

    Conclusion: The overall knowledge that the study has provided can form a basis for intensive care nurses in the care of patients with postoperative delirium. Further research is needed on risk factors for postoperative delirium and how the mental confusion affects both the patient and relatives. More research is also needed about how postoperative delirium can be prevented.

  • 193.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sparavec, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta med telefonrådgivning på hälsocentral.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Bakgrund: Telefonrådgivning har blivit en alltmer vanlig arbetsuppgift för sjuksköterskor som arbetar på hälsocentral inom primärvården. Det är ett sätt för uppringeren att komma i kontakt med hälso- och sjukvården. Telefonrådgivning innebär att telefonsjuksköterskan gör en snabb bedömning av uppringarens tillstånd  och hänvisar uppringaren till lämplig vårdnivå men även ger råd, stöd och undervisning. Kommunikationen har central betydelse där telefonsjuksköterskan måste kunna tolka även icke-verbal kommunikation. Telefonsjuksköterskan måste anpassa sitt arbete och sina beslut efter vetenskapliga, organisatoriska , ekonomiska och tekniska aspekter.

    Syfte: Att belysa telefonsjuksköterskans erfarenhet av att arbeta med telefonrådgivning.

    Metod: En litteraturöversikt baserad på åtta  artiklar som inkluderades efter kvalitetsgranskning. Resultatet sammanställdes utifrån en integrerad analys.

    Resultat: I analysen identifierades fyra huvudkategorier; möte med uppringaren, att göra bedömningar och ta beslut , ökande kravbild, samt känslor för arbetet, vilka  utmynnade i 7 underkategorier.  Faktorer som identifierades var att inte se uppringaren när man kommunicerar och tolkar både de verbala och icke visuella signalerna och att samtidigt vara både dörrvakt  och vårda uppringarna. Att rätt frågor ställs för att göra rätt bedömning betonas. Arbetet upplevs stimulerande men även stressande för telefonsjuksköterskor.

    Slutsats: Telefonrådgivning är en utmanande och stimulerande men svår arbetsuppgift. Att kunna sortera och förstå problemen utan att se uppringaren och samtidigt ställas inför de etiska svårigheter som genus och etnicitet gör att det ställs stora krav på telefonsjuksköterskan.

  • 194.
    Andersson, Annie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Nathalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anhörigas upplevelser vid Alzheimers sjukdom2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Idag lever cirka 100 000 med Alzheimers sjukdom. Alzheimers är en av många demenstillstånd. Orsaken till uppkomsten av sjukdomen är i nuläget oklar. Riskerna att insjukna ökar bland annat med åldern och livsstil. Alzheimers är en anhörigsjukdom. Tidigare forskning visar att anhöriga upplever att relationen med personen med Alzheimers förändras samtidigt som det sker en rollförändring. Rollen som anhörigvårdare medför både fysisk och psykiskt påfrestning.

    Syfte: Syftet var att belysa upplevelsen av att vara anhörig vid Alzheimers sjukdom.

    Metod: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie med induktiv ansats av fem självbiografier.

    Resultat: Anhöriga upplever att rollen som anhörigvårdare är påtvingad eller som en äktenskaplig plikt. I samband med anhörigrollen upplevs känslor som skuld, maktlöshet, ensamhet och frustration. Anhöriga upplever att de ständigt måste anpassa sig till den sjuke och prioriterar inte sig själv, sin hälsa och sina behov.

    Slutsatser: Sjuksköterskor men även andra professioner behöver uppmärksamma anhöriga mer genom att lyssna och ta del av deras upplevelser. Sjuksköterskan har ett stort ansvar att organisera vård och omsorg till personer med Alzheimers sjukdom och stötta deras anhöriga.

  • 195.
    Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    National Police Board.
    Algafoor, Nabeel Abd
    University of Mustansiryah, Irak.
    Al Nima, Ali
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being.
    Schütz, Erica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being ; University of Gothenburg.
    Archer, Trevor
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being ; University of Gothenburg.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being ; University of Gothenburg.
    Police Personnel Affective Profiles: Differences in Perceptions of the Work Climate and Motivation2016In: Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, ISSN 0882-0783, E-ISSN 1936-6469, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 2-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The affective profile model was used to investigate individual differences in police personnel perceptions about the working climate and its influences on motivation. The Positive Affect, Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was used to assign police personnel, sworn and non-sworn (N = 595), to four affective profiles: self-fulfilling, low affective, high affective, and self-destructive. The work climate was assessed using the Learning Climate Questionnaire (Management Relations and Style, Time, Autonomy and Responsibility, Team Style, Opportunities to Develop, Guidelines on How to do the Job, and Contentedness). Motivation was evaluated using a modified version (to refer specifically to the individual’s work situation) of the Situational Motivation Scale (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation). Self-fulfilling individuals scored higher on all work climate dimensions compared to the other three groups. Compared to low positive affect profiles, individuals with profiles of high positive affect scored higher in intrinsic motivation and identified regulation. Self-destructive individuals scored higher in amotivation. Different aspects of the work climate were related to each motivation dimension among affective profiles. Police personnel may react to their work environment depending on their affective profile. Moreover, the extent to which the work influences police personnel’s motivation is also related to the affective profile of the individual. © 2015, The Author(s).

  • 196.
    Andersson, Astrid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Magnusson, Nathalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjälp! Hjärtat sviker mig: Patientens upplevelse av att leva med kronisk hjärtsvikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I världen dör ca 41 miljoner människor årligen av kroniska sjukdomar. En av dessa är kronisk hjärtsvikt. Hjärtsvikt innebär otillräcklig blodcirkulation med försämrad perfusion. Detta leder till besvärliga symtom som i sin tur påverkar patientens livskvalitet. Kronisk hjärtsvikt är en obotlig sjukdom som innebär mycket egenvård för patienten. Det är en stor patientgrupp som sjuksköterskan möter överallt inom vården. Genom att sammankoppla världen och subjektet kan en helhetssyn skapas om livsvärlden. Om patientens verklighet, upplevelser och erfarenheter bekräftas kan ett vårdande förhållningssätt tillämpas.Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka patientens upplevelse av att leva med kronisk hjärtsvikt.Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie genomfördes där resultatet bestod av tio vetenskapliga kvalitativa artiklar som togs fram via CHINAL och PsycINFO. Artiklarna kvalitetsgranskades och en innehållsanalys genomfördes.Resultat: Resultatet presenterades utifrån tre teman; Upplevd symtombörda med underkategorier; Upplevelse av fysiska symtom; Upplevelse av psykologiska symtom; Upplevelse av sociala symtom, Vikten av professionell information & stöd och En förändrad kropp & livsstil. Många patienter upplevde att de var tvungna att göra en livsstilsförändring som kunde påverka livskvaliteten negativt. Slutsatser: Studiens resultat visade att patienten som lever med kronisk hjärtsvikt står inför en känslomässig och påfrestande livsstilsförändring. Vissa patienter upplevde en försämrad livskvalitet, bristande kunskap och bristfälligt stöd. Genom att sjuksköterskan är lyhörd för patientens behov kan en förbättrad livskvalitet upplevas. 

  • 197.
    Andersson, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Påverkar statiner effekter av fysisk aktivitet/skelettmusklernas funktion?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I Sverige år 2016 drabbades 25 700 personer av akut hjärtinfarkt och 25% av dem dog inom en månad. Ungefär 19% av Sveriges befolkning dvs 1,9 miljoner människor lever med en hjärtkärlsjukdom. År 2017 dog 31 616 svenskar av hjärtkärlsjukdom och det motsvarar 35,2% av alla avlidna svenskar det året. Dyslipidemi är en av de bakomliggande orsakerna till olika hjärtkärlsjukdomar och preparat vid behandling av dyslipidemi är i första hand statiner. Statiner är dessvärre kända för biverkningar såsom lever- och muskelpåverkan vilket har väckt frågan om de även påverkar effekter av fysisk aktivitet negativt. En eventuell interaktion mellan statiner och fysisk aktivitet skulle minska dess behandlande syfte då både statiner och fysisk aktivitet sägs sänka blodlipiderna. Syfte: Studiens syfte var att undersöka om statiner påverkar effekter av fysisk aktivitet/ skelettmusklernas funktion. Metod: Detta gjordes genom sökning efter relevanta artiklar på PubMed för att sedan sammanställa resultat från vetenskapliga artiklar inom området. Sökord som användes var ”statins physical activity”. Resultat: Det råder delade meningar gällande statiners ev. interaktion med effekter av fysisk aktivitet fast övervägande resultat pekar på att statiner inte påverkar effekter av fysisk aktivitet negativt. Även när det gäller muskelpåverkan som tex myalgi så är det svårt att koppla det till statinanvändningen. Däremot föreligger det inga delade meningar när det gäller statiners effekt som lipidsänkande läkemedel. Slutsats: Det är övervägande studieresultat som tyder på att statiner inte påverkar effekter av fysisk aktivitet/ skelettmuskelfunktion negativt men trots detta så fortsätter inrapportering av biverkningar som statininducerad muskelpåverkan att ske. Framtida forskning kanske kräver andra tillvägagångssätt, studiemarkörer etc. för att kunna påvisa ev. interaktioner mellan statiner och effekter av fysisk aktivitet/ skelettmuskelfunktion.

  • 198.
    Andersson, Christina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Palomino Chocano, Ghelen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelse av långvarig smärta.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund: Långvarig smärta är en individuell upplevelse och kan orsakas av skador eller sjukdomar, och är ihållande mer än tre månader. Detta kan innebära att det blir svårt att klara av sina vardagliga aktiviteter då funktionsförmågan kan försämras, vilket kan medföra ett lidande för individen.

    Syfte: Syfte med studien var att belysa individers upplevelser av långvarig smärta.

    Metod: En systematisk litteratur studie genomfördes och 14 kvalitativa studier kvalitetsgranskades utifrån Forsberg och Wengströms (2013) checklista för kvalitativa studier. Artiklar analyserades enligt Axelssons (2012) metod som innebär att gå från helhet till delar och till slut komma fram till en ny helhet, detta resulterade sedermera i sex teman.

    Resultat: Att leva med långvarig smärta kunde påverka och begränsa individens liv både fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt. Smärtan gjorde att individerna försökte anpassa sin vardag genom att hitta strategier för att hantera sin smärta. En del beskrev bristande förståelse från både anhöriga och vårdpersonal.

    Slutsats: Genom att lyssna och vara lyhörda kan sjuksköterskor öka sin förståelse för hur individer upplever långvarig smärta. Detta för att kunna hjälpa till att lindra dennes lidande.

    Nyckelord: Chronic pain, Persistent pain, Experience, Aged, Elderly .

     

  • 199.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Waste Management in the Mekong Delta: Characterisation and evaluation of organic waste2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project investigated landfills that takes care of municipal solid waste in an area around the Mekong delta, namely An Giang province, Vietnam. The main objective for this study was to provide basic work in order to create a discussion with the local food markets to separate the household’s food waste from the rest. Such a discussion is possible to create through collaboration with local authorities and inform or guide stakeholders on how waste management can be improved, out of existing knowledge from Sweden. Therefore, this study aims to illuminate and give knowledge for improvements in questions regarding efficiency, organisation, participation, recycling and opportunities associated with a more efficient waste management system.Since a significant percentage of the household waste generated in Long Xuyen City, An Giang province are organic, the opportunity to convert organic waste into soil amendments was examined. Leachate from one of the landfills in the area was also analysed in order to get further understanding for its composition, focusing on organic parameters.

  • 200.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hoveida, Samira
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Cancer förändrar allt: Kvinnors upplevelser av bröstcancer2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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