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  • 151.
    Johansson Östbring, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Lund University.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hellström, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Medication beliefs and self-reported adherence - results of a pharmacist’s consultation: A pilot study2014In: European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy: Science and Practice, ISSN 2047-9956, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 102-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesClinical outcomes in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease depend on the patients’ adherence to prescribed medicines. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered approach used to change different health behaviors. The objective of this pilot study was to explore the impact of a clinical pharmacist’s consultation on beliefs about medicines and self-reported medication adherence among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).

    MethodsCHD-patients participating in a prevention program at the Kalmar County Hospital were randomized to control or intervention. The intervention consisted of a medication review focused on cardiovascular drugs, and a semi-structured interview based on MI-approach, with a follow-up phone call two weeks later. The intervention was conducted by a clinical pharmacist at the cardiology unit three months post-discharge.

    Primary outcome measures were the results from the Beliefs about medicines-Specific (BMQ-S) and the 8-Item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) two weeks after intervention.

    Results21 enrolled patients (11 intervention) all completed to follow-up. MMAS-8 was very similar in the intervention and control groups. In BMQ-S the intervention group had a mean (SD) necessity score of 21 (4) and a concern score of 12 (6), corresponding results in the control group were 21 (3) and 10 (5). However, since there was a difference in BMQ-S at baseline, seven intervention patients shifted towards more positive beliefs compared to two control patients.

    ConclusionNo difference was found in adherence and beliefs at follow-up. However, after consultation a larger proportion of patients changed towards more positive beliefs compared to control.

  • 152.
    Johansson Östbring, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Council.
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Malmö University;Norwegian University of Sciences and Technology, Norway.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hellström, Lina
    Kalmar County Council.
    Motivational Interviewing and Medication Review in Coronary Heart Disease (MIMeRiC): Intervention Development and Protocol for the Process Evaluation2018In: JMIR Research Protocols, ISSN 1929-0748, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-12, article id e21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Trials of complex interventions are often criticized for being difficult to interpret because the effects of apparently similar interventions vary across studies dependent on context, targeted groups, and the delivery of the intervention. The Motivational Interviewing and Medication Review in Coronary heart disease (MIMeRiC) trial is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an intervention aimed at improving pharmacological secondary prevention. Guidelines for the development and evaluation of complex interventions have recently highlighted the need for better reporting of the development of interventions, including descriptions of how the intervention is assumed to work, how this theory informed the process evaluation, and how the process evaluation relates to the outcome evaluation.

    OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to describe how the intervention was designed and developed. The aim of the process evaluation is to better understand how and why the intervention in the MIMeRiC trial was effective or not effective.

    METHODS: The research questions for evaluating the process are based on the conceptual model of change processes assumed in the intervention and will be analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative data are used to evaluate the medication review in terms of drug-related problems, to describe how patients' beliefs about medicines are affected by the intervention, and to evaluate the quality of motivational interviewing. Qualitative data will be used to analyze whether patients experienced the intervention as intended, how cardiologists experienced the collaboration and intervention, and how the intervention affected patients' overall experience of care after coronary heart disease.

    RESULTS: The development and piloting of the intervention are described in relation to the theoretical framework. Data for the process evaluation will be collected until March 2018. Some process evaluation questions will be analyzed before, and others will be analyzed after the outcomes of the MIMeRiC RCT are known.

    CONCLUSIONS: This paper describes the framework for the design of the intervention tested in the MIMeRiC trial, development of the intervention from the pilot stage to the complete trial intervention, and the framework and methods for the process evaluation. Providing the protocol of the process evaluation allows prespecification of the processes that will be evaluated, because we hypothesize that they will determine the outcomes of the MIMeRiC trial. This protocol also constitutes a contribution to the new field of process evaluations as made explicit in health services research and clinical trials of complex interventions.

  • 153.
    Johansson Östbring, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Council.
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Malmö University;Norweigan University of Sciences and Technology, Norway.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hellström, Lina
    Kalmar County Council.
    Motivational Interviewing and Medication Review in Coronary Heart Disease (MIMeRiC): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating Effects on Clinical Outcomes, Adherence, and Quality of Life2018In: JMIR Research Protocols, ISSN 1929-0748, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1-15, article id e57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Preventive treatment goals for blood pressure and cholesterol levels continue to be unmet for many coronary patients. The effect of drug treatment depends on both its appropriateness and the patients' adherence to the treatment regimen. There is a need for adherence interventions that have a measurable effect on clinical outcomes.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effects on treatment goals of an intervention designed to improve patient adherence and treatment quality in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. A protocol for the prespecified process evaluation of the trial is published separately.

    METHODS: The Motivational Interviewing and Medication Review in Coronary heart disease (MIMeRiC) trial is a prospective, randomized, outcomes-blinded trial designed to compare individualized follow-up by a clinical pharmacist using motivational interviewing (MI) and medication review with standard follow-up. Patients were randomized to 2 groups after stratification according to their beliefs about medicines. After standard follow-up at the cardiology clinic, patients in the intervention group are seen individually by a clinical pharmacist 2 to 5 times as required over 7 months, at the clinic. The pharmacist reviews each patient's medication and uses MI to manage any problems with prescribing and adherence. The primary study outcome is the proportion of patients who have reached the treatment goal for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 12 months after discharge. Secondary outcomes are the effects on patient adherence, systolic blood pressure, disease-specific quality of life, and health care use.

    RESULTS: The protocol for this study was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee, Linköping, in 2013. Enrollment started in October 2013 and ended in December 2016 when 417 patients had been included. Follow-up data collection will conclude in March 2018. Publication of the primary and secondary outcome results from the MIMeRiC trial is anticipated in 2019.

    CONCLUSIONS: The MIMeRiC trial will assess the effectiveness of an intervention involving medication reviews and individualized support. The results will inform the continued development of support for this large group of patients who use preventive medicines for lifelong treatment. The design of this adherence intervention is based on a theoretical framework and is the first trial of an intervention that uses beliefs about medicines to individualize the intervention protocol.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02102503; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02102503 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6x7iUDohy).

  • 154.
    Järhult, Bengt
    et al.
    Vårdcentralen Ryd.
    Andersson, Christer
    Inst. för allmänmedicin, Umeå universitet.
    Cizinsky, Stella
    Specialist i kardiologi, Örebro.
    Ekerstad, Niklas
    Med dr, spec kardiologi Trollhättan.
    Elisasson, Mats
    Professor, spec internmedicin, Umeå.
    Ervander, Cecilia
    Spec allmänmedicin Lund.
    Flordal, Per Anders
    Spec kirurgi, Stockholm.
    Hagström, Bertil
    Spec allmänmedicin, Horred.
    Halldin, Jan
    Specialist i psykiatri och socialmedicin, Stockholm.
    Järhult, Johannes
    Professor em. Jönköping.
    Löfmark, Rurik
    Med dr Gävle.
    Petersson, Christer
    Allmänmedicinare, Växjö.
    Sandberg, CG
    Spec psykiatri och företagshälsovård, Stockholm.
    Schmitt, Christian
    Spec allmänmedicin, Sätila.
    Svenberg, Torgny
    Specialist i kirurgi, Stockholm.
    Tjärnström, Johan
    Specialist i kirurgi, Trollhättan.
    Wingstrand, Hans
    Professor i ortopedi, Lund.
    Zur-Mühlen B, Bengt
    Med dr, öl neurologi, Uppsala.
    Akner, Gunnar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Läkarförbundet bör ta strid mot PaRIS – för kompetens och läkaretik.2017In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114, article id 170223Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 155.
    Järhult, Bengt
    et al.
    Vårdcentralen Ryd.
    Andersson, Christer
    Inst. för allmänmedicin, Umeå universitet.
    Cizinsky, Stella
    Specialist i kardiologi, Örebro.
    Ekerstad, Niklas
    Med dr, spec kardiologi Trollhättan.
    Elisasson, Mats
    Professor, spec internmedicin, Umeå.
    Hagström, Bertil
    Spec allmänmedicin, Horred.
    Halldin, Jan
    Specialist i psykiatri och socialmedicin, Stockholm.
    Järhult, Johannes
    Professor em. Jönköping.
    Löfmark, Rurik
    Med dr Gävle.
    Petersson, Christer
    Allmänmedicinare, Växjö.
    Sandberg, CG
    Spec psykiatri och företagshälsovård, Stockholm.
    Schmitt, Christian
    Spec allmänmedicin, Sätila.
    Svenberg, Torgny
    Specialist i kirurgi, Stockholm.
    Tjärnström, Johan
    Specialist i kirurgi, Trollhättan.
    Wingstrand, Hans
    Professor i ortopedi, Lund.
    Zur-Mühlen B, Bengt
    Med dr, öl neurologi, Uppsala.
    Akner, Gunnar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ska värdebaserad vård införas av konsulter utan vetenskaplig evidens?2017In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114, article id 170116Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 156.
    Jönsson, Annica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ojämn addition och ackommodationsamplitud hos presbyoper2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att se om presbyopin, det vill säga minskningen av ackommodationsamplitud, utvecklas likadant i båda ögonen. Syftet var även att se om en ojämn addition i vissa fall gav bättre subjektiv respons än en binokulär jämn addition.

    Metod: Studien innefattade 33 deltagare där samtliga var mellan 43-57 år. Med hjälp av en RAF-stav mättes den monokulära ackommodationsamplituden för höger och vänster öga med push-up/push-down metoden. Utöver detta gjordes en binokulär och en monokulär additionsbestämning. Skilde sig resultaten åt från dessa additionsbestämningar fick deltagaren bestämma vilken styrka som subjektivt gav bäst upplevda synskärpa.

    Resultat: Resultaten visade att 11 deltagare hade en skillnad >0,25 D i ackommodationsamplitud mellan ögonen. 8 av de 11 hade en skillnad >0,50 D mellan ögonen. Mätresultaten visade att 24 av de 33 medverkande fick en skillnad i addition mellan ögonen vid den monokulära additionsbestämningen. Som slutgiltig addition föredrog 14 personer en monokulär ojämn addition och 19 personer en binokulär jämn addition. Det fanns en god korrelation (r = 0,71) mellan en skillnad i ackommodationsamplitud och en skillnad i addition mellan ögonen (p<0,001). Det vill säga att det fanns ett samband mellan en lägre ackommodationsamplitud monokulärt och en högre vald addition i det ögat samt vice versa.

    Slutsats: Denna studie fann skillnader i både monokulär ackommodationsamplitud och addition hos presbyoper. Genom att uteslutande bestämma additionen binokulärt tar undersökaren ej hänsyn till dessa skillnader. För att tillgodose de personer som föredrar en ojämn addition som optimal närkorrektion så rekommenderas en monokulär additionsbestämning.

  • 157.
    Kalin Winkler, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Centrering av kontaktlinsen MiSight®1days behandlingszoner vid konventionell linstillpassning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 158.
    Karlsson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Demens och dess påverkan av kontrastseendet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka ifall det fanns en skillnad av kontrastseendet mellan icke-dementa människor över 65 år jämförelsevis med människor som var diagnostiserade med demens. Även denna grupp hade nått en ålder över 65 år.

    Metod

    Studien genomfördes på olika demensboenden eller hemma hos deltagarna. Först fick alla deltagare genomgå en kontroll av närvisus för att se om de kunde läsa 8 punkter eller bättre på en närvisustavla. Om det visade sig att de klarade detta fick de delta i studien. Därefter fick de, binokulärt, läsa så långt de kunde på Mars letter kontrast sensitivity test. Luminansen på tavla rekommenderades till 85 cd/m2 och samtliga deltagande låg runt detta värde.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visade att de personer som var diagnostiserade med demens i olika former presterade sämre på Mars letter contrast sensitivity test än de som inte hade sjukdomen. Medelvärdet för de utan demens var 1.61±0.16 medan de med demens hamnade på ett medelvärde av 1.29±0.28. Detta visade att de utan demens kunde läsa nästan en rad bättre på Mars letter contrast sensitivity test jämfört med de med demens. Skillnaden som visades i resultatet var statistiskt signifikant (P<0.01).

    Slutsats

    Sammanfattningsvis visade resultatet på ett sämre kontrastseende hos de personer som led av demens. Därför är det viktigt att deras omgivning anpassas efter deras synproblem. Att till exempel inte ha en vit dörr mot en ljus vägg då det kan vara svårt för en person att hitta dörren. Att tänka på att ha starkare kontraster i en miljö där en dement vistas kan underlätta mycket för hur personen klarar sig i sin vardag.

  • 159.
    Karlsson, Victor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effektiviteten av synträning för konvergensinsufficiens: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To report the effectiveness of vision therapy for symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI) by looking at studies and articles that have been written in this area.

    Method: This study has been done by using articles and their references, that have been found on Google Scholar and PubMed. The keywords used were Effectiveness, Efficacy, Vision Therapy and Convergence Insufficiency.

    Results: The result of this study shows that vision therapy is an effective treatment for children between the ages of 8-18 in improving the symptoms of Convergence Insufficiency. It also shows that out of the most common, Office-Based Vergence/Accommodative Therapy with Home Reinforcement is the most efficient method to deal with symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency.

    Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is that vision therapy for symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency is an effective and sustainable method for children between the ages of 8-18, since the improvments are sustained for 1 year after completed vison therapy.

  • 160.
    Khudaida, Hussein
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Brytningsfelfördelning och den ackommoderande funktioner i en grupp av 8-21 år Mellanösternpersoner i Sverige.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the occurrence of refractive errors in a sample of Middle East people aged 8-21 who live in Sweden and to evaluate the accommodating functions in this sample and compare it with the normative data.

    Method: The study was carried out from 1 April  to 30 April  in Norrköping / Sweden. A subjective binocular refraction was performed on the patients where spherical equivalence was applied. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent break at least -0.50 D. Prevalence of hyperopia, defined as a spherical equivalent break of at least +0.75 D.When measuring visus, decimal point is used. Accommodative facility was measured using a (+2.00 / -2.00 D) flippers at 40 cm both monocular and binocular. Nott dynamic retinoscopy was used to measure accommodation respons. To measure the amplitude of accommodation in the eyes, the push-up technique was used. A cover-uncover test was performed to confirm the diagnosis if strabismus was detected.

    Results: As for the types of refractive error, the prevalence as such was: Simple myopia 7 persons (22.58%), compound myopic astigmatism 7 persons (22.58%), simple myopic astigmatism 1 person (3.22%), simple hypermetropic 2 persons (6.45%), compound hypermetropic 1 person (3.221%), Emmetropi 13 people (41.93%). The myopia occurrence was highest in the age group 16-21 years. The refractive errors of the subjects ranged from -0.50 to -7.25 D with a mean refraction of -1.75 D. Minimum amplitude 11.5 D, mean amplitude 14.3 D and maximum amplitude was 19.4 D. The average amplitude of accommodation: OD 11.7 D, OS 11.6 D and OU 12.8 ± 1.33 D. The normal average of  NOTT OD 0.66 D and OS 0.70 D. Distance cover test 19 people were subj. orto and 12 people were subj. exotropy. Near cover test 15 people were subj. orto and 16 people were subj exotropy. When examining obj. distance cover test and obj. near cover tes, 3 persons were exotropic and 28 persons were ortho. The average of accommodative of  facility for OD 10.4 cpm, OS 10.5 cpm and OU were 10.6 cpm.

    Conclusion: The results of the study showed a higher incidence of myopia than hyperopia in the population between 8-21 years from the Middle East. The most common visual impairment in all occupational groups was myopia. The results of the study also showed that the prevalence of myopia in the Middle East is lower than in Sweden. One reason for this may be less close work. The people in the Middle East do not devote as much time to near work as in Sweden, and it has been shown that much near work and uncorrected refractive errors affect near-sightedness development. Heredity also affects the near-sightedness when myopia is to some extent hereditary. The binocular and monocular amplitude of accommodation was consistent with the formula proposed by Hofstetter. Ack.amplitud and NOTT was consistent with normative data. Den binocular and monocular accommodative of facility was significantly higher compared to studies in Sweden but agree with the recommended data.

  • 161.
    Klinthage, Jakob
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Koffeins påverkan på osmolariteten i tårfilmen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate if there was a difference in the tear film’s osmolarity before and after drinking coffee. '

    Method: All subjects in this study were asked to fill in a questionnaire to diagnose factors in their subjective symptoms, the questionnaire TERTC-DEQ. The subjects with a total graduated points of over 17 were not allowed to participate in the further measurements. In the study there was a total amount of 38 subjects, were 5 participated twice for both measurements, coffee and water. The measurements were done by TearLab to bring the the osmolarity values, of coffee and water, the before and after measurements, to be compared with each column. Each subject was measured before the drinks was served, 200 milliliters of water or 200 milliliters of coffee. 45 minutes after the first measurement, after the intake of one of the liquids, then the second measurement was occured with TearLab.  All of these values and measurements was later compared to each columns of coffee or water.

    Results: There was no significant difference between neither the coffee or water results (p>0,05). Though there was a little quotable difference between the before and after measurement values of coffee, but not significant.

    Conclusion: There was no significant difference related to coffe drinking and tear osmolarity. There is no contribution to the tear film’s osmolarity and it will not work as a factor into the dry eyes diagnosis. 

  • 162.
    Klompstra, L. Verheijden
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Ostbring, M. J.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Jaarsma, T.
    Linköping University.
    Martensson, J.
    Jönköping Univ.
    Stromberg, A.
    Linköping University.
    Thylen, I.
    Linköping University.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Evaluation of cardiovascular educational websites in Sweden2014In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 13, p. S61-S61Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Klompstra, Leonie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson Östbring, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ågren, Susanna
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Carina
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hjelmfors, Lisa
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ingadottir, Brynja
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Liljeroos, Maria
    Linköping University, Sweden;Sörmland County Council, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Jan
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Mourad, Ghassan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Thylen, Ingela
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Walfridsson, Ulla
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    The Appropriateness and Presentation of Commonly Available Cardiovascular Web Pages Providing Information About Cardiovascular Diseases2019In: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, ISSN 1538-2931, E-ISSN 1538-9774, Vol. 37, no 10, p. 493-497Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Krasniqi, Dafina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Repeterbarheten hos I-Pen®2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 165.
    Könönen, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Arbetsavståndets påverkan på mätningar av dissocierad fori och fixationsdisparitet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 166.
    Larsson, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Binokulär balansering: Jämförelse mellan monokulär refraktion och två balanseringsmetoder2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med den här studien var att jämföra två olika binokulära balanseringsmetoder, samt att jämföra metodernas resultat med resultatet från en monokulär refraktion.

    Metod: I studien medverkade 30 personer med en medelålder på 23 år (±3år). Det gjordes en monokulär refraktion och två olika binokulära balanseringsmetoder på alla medverkande. De balanseringsmetoder som användes var polariserande röd/grönt-test och modifierad Humphriss. Skillnaden mellan ögonen räknades ut och jämfördes mellan de olika metoderna.

    Resultat: Det fanns inte någon statistiskt signifikant skillnad (p>0,05) mellan metoderna. Inte heller när balanseringsmetoderna jämfördes med en monokulär refraktion fanns det någon statistisk signifikant skillnad i resultaten (p>0,05).

    Slutsats: Det fanns ingen skillnad på de olika balanseringsmetoderna. Inte heller någon skillnad mellan balanseringsmetoderna och en helt monokulär refraktion. Så länge patienten har ett fungerande binokulärseende så kan metod väljas ut efter vilken undersökaren finner mest praktisk och känner sig mest säker på.

  • 167.
    Larsson, Marie C.
    et al.
    Linköping Univ Hosp.
    Lerm, Maria
    Linköping Univ.
    Angeby, Kristian
    Karolinska Univ Hosp ; Univ W Indies, Jamaica.
    Nordvall, Michaela
    Linköping Univ Hosp.
    Jureen, Pontus
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linköping Univ ; Kalmar County Hospital.
    A luciferase-based assay for rapid assessment of drug activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis including monitoring of macrophage viability2014In: Journal of Microbiological Methods, ISSN 0167-7012, E-ISSN 1872-8359, Vol. 106, p. 146-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intracellular (IC) effect of drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is not well established but increasingly important to consider when combining current and future multidrug regimens into the best possible treatment strategies. For this purpose, we developed an IC model based on a genetically modified Mtb H37Rv strain, expressing the Vibrio harvei luciferase (H37Rv-lux) infecting the human macrophage like cell line THP-1. Cells were infected at a low multiplicity of infection (1:1) and subsequently exposed to isoniazid (INH), ethambutol (EMB), amikacin (AMI) or levofloxacin (LEV) for 5 days in a 96-well format. Cell viability was evaluated by Calcein AM and was maintained throughout the experiment. The number of viable H37Rv-lux was determined by luminescence and verified by a colony forming unit analysis. The results were compared to the effects of the same drugs in broth cultures. AMI, EMB and LEV were significantly less effective intracellularly (MIC90: >4 mg/L, 8 mg/L and 2 mg/L, respectively) compared to extracellularly (MIC90: 0.5 mg/L for AMI and EMB; 0.25 mg/L for LEV). The reverse was the case for INH (IC: 0.064 mg/L vs EC: 0.25 mg/L). In conclusion, this luciferase based method, in which monitoring of cell viability is included, has the potential to become a useful tool while evaluating the intracellular effects of anti-mycobacterial drugs. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 168.
    Lennartsson, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Prevalens av färgseendedefekter i Guatemala, på barn & ungdomar mellan 8-20 år2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka prevalensen av färgseendedefekter i Guatemala Hur många barn och ungdomar mellan 8-20 år som hade färgseendedefekter.

     

    Metod: Studien bestod av att utföra Ishiharas test på barn och ungdomar mellan 8-20 år. Det är en bok med 14 olika pseudoisokromatiska bilder, boken ska hållas 75 cm ifrån patienten och patienten ska tala om vilken siffra det är på bilden. Om patienten har mer än tre fel på testet betraktas personen som att ha en färgseendedefekt. Mindre än tre fel betraktas som ingen defekt eller en väldigt mild defekt.

     

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att det inte är någon större skillnad av färgseendedefekter mellan flickor och pojkar i denna studie, men några fler flickor hade färgseendedefekter än pojkarna. 133 personer mellan 8-20 år medverkade, 7,5% av dessa hade färgseendedefekter. 66 pojkar medverkade och 6 % hade färgseendedefekter och 67 flickor medverkade och 8,95 % hade färgseendedefekter.

     

    Slutsats: Studien visar att fler flickor hade färgseendedefekter än pojkar.

  • 169.
    Lenneer, Klara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Jämförelse i kontrastkänslighet och ackommodativ respons mellan MiSight® och Proclear® Multifocal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 170.
    Lewis, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Improving Peripheral Vision Through Optical Correction and Stimulus Motion2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The loss of central vision subsequent to macular disease is often extremely debilitating. People with central field loss (CFL) must use other peripheral areas of the retina in order to see; areas with inferior resolution capacity, which are also affected by off-axis optical errors. The overall aim of the work encompassed by this thesis was to identify and evaluate methods of improving vision for people with CFL; with focus on the effects of off-axis optical correction and stimulus motion on resolution acuity and contrast sensitivity.

    Off-axis optical errors were measured using a commercially-available COAS-HD VR open-view aberrometer. We used adaptive psychophysical methods to evaluate grating resolution acuity and contrast sensitivity in the peripheral visual field; drifting gratings were employed to   measure the effect of motion on these two measures of visual performance. The effect of sphero-cylindrical correction and stimulus motion on visual performance in healthy eyes and in subjects with CFL was also studied; in addition, the effect of adaptive optics aberration correction was examined in one subject with CFL.

    The COAS-HD aberrometer provided rapid and reliable measurements of off-axis refractive errors. Correction of these errors gave improvements in low-contrast resolution acuity in subjects with higher amounts of oblique astigmatism. Optical correction also improved high-contrast resolution acuity in most subjects with CFL, but not for healthy subjects. Adaptive optics correction improved both high and low contrast resolution acuity in the preferred retinal locus of a subject with CFL. The effect of stimulus motion depended on spatial frequency; motion of 7.5 Hz improved contrast sensitivity for stimuli of low spatial frequency in healthy and CFL subjects. Motion of 15 Hz had little effect on contrast sensitivity for low spatial frequency but resulted in reduced contrast sensitivity for higher spatial frequencies in healthy subjects. Finally, high-contrast resolution acuity was relatively insensitive to stimulus motion in the periphery.

    This thesis has served to broaden the knowledge regarding peripheral optical errors, stimulus motion and their effects on visual function, both in healthy subjects and in people with CFL. Overall it has shown that correction of off-axis refractive errors is important for optimizing peripheral vision in subjects with CFL; the use of an open-view aberrometer simplifies the determination of these errors. In addition, moderate stimulus motion can have a beneficial effect on contrast sensitivity for objects of predominantly low spatial frequency.

  • 171.
    Lewis, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Rosen, Robert
    Royal Institute of Technology KTH.
    Lundström, Linda
    Royal Institute of Technology KTH.
    Unsbo, Peter
    Royal Institute of Technology KTH.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Objectively Determined Refraction Improves Peripheral Vision2014In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 91, no 7, p. 740-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was twofold: to verify a fast, clinically applicable method for determining off-axis refraction and to assess the impact of objectively obtained off-axis refractive correction on peripheral low-contrast visual acuity. Methods. We measured peripheral low-contrast resolution acuity with Gabor patches both with and without off-axis correction at 20 degrees in the nasal visual field of 10 emmetropic subjects; the correction was obtained using a commercial open-field Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, the COAS-HD VR aberrometer. Off-axis refractive errors were calculated for a 5-mm circular pupil inscribed within the elliptical wavefront by COAS using the instruments' inbuilt "Seidel sphere" method. Results. Most of the subjects had simple myopic astigmatism, at 20 degrees in the nasal visual field ranging from -1.00 to -2.00 DC, with axis orientations generally near 90 degrees. The mean uncorrected and corrected low-contrast resolution acuities for all subjects were 0.92 and 0.86 logMAR, respectively (an improvement of 0.06 logMAR). For subjects with a scalar power refractive error of 1.00 diopters or more, the average improvement was 0.1 logMAR. The observed changes in low-contrast resolution acuity were strongly correlated with off-axis astigmatism (Pearson r = 0.95; p < 0.0001), the J(180) cross-cylinder component (Pearson r = 0.82; p = 0.0034), and power scalar (Pearson r = -0.75; p = 0.0126). Conclusions. The results suggest that there are definite benefits in correcting even moderate amounts of off-axis refractive errors; in this study, as little as -1.50 DC of off-axis astigmatism gave improvements of up to a line in visual acuity. It may be even more pertinent for people who rely on optimal peripheral visual function, specifically those with central visual field loss; the use of open-field aberrometers could be clinically useful in rapidly determining off-axis refractive errors specifically for this patient group who are generally more challenging to refract.

  • 172.
    Lewis, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Holm, Victoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Dynamic Stimulus Presentation Facilitates Peripheral Resolution Acuity2013In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 54, article id e-abstract 574Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Peripheral high-contrast resolution is sampling limited; the center to center spacing between ganglion cells ultimately limiting visual performance (Thibos et al., 1987). Although retinal image motion in the fovea has a detrimental effect on visual acuity, previous studies have suggested that retinal image motion may be advantageous in the peripheral visual field (Bex et al., 2003; Brown, 1972; Macedo et al., 2010). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of drift motion on peripheral resolution acuity.

    Methods: Peripheral high-contrast resolution acuity in a group of 26 subjects (age 23.5 ± 3.2 years) was initially determined using a 2-alternative forced-choice Bayesian algorithm; the threshold value defined as the spatial frequency resulting in a 75% correct response rate. The stimuli used to measure static visual acuity were stationary Gabor-patches with a visible diameter of 2° and were presented at 20° in the nasal visual field. We determined the percentage correct response rate for varying velocities using drifting Gabor patches of the same spatial frequency as determined during measurement of static visual acuity. The sine-wave gratings drifted within the Gaussian envelope at one of 10 angular velocities, varying from 0.2 to 2.0 degrees/second in 0.2 degrees/second steps.

    Results: Results showed an overall improvement in the subjects’ performance for all velocities. There was a significant difference in the percentage of correct responses between static stimulus presentation and for velocities of between 0.4 to 1.2 degrees/second (p < 0.05, One-way repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests). The average “correct response” for static stimulus presentation was 76 ± 2 %, improving to at least 85 % for velocities between 0.4 to 1.2 degrees/second. At velocities greater than 1.2 degrees/second performance was still better than for static stimulus presentation, but showed a gradual decline with increasing speed.

    Conclusions: In line with previous studies stimulus motion has a positive effect on peripheral high-contrast resolution acuity. Presenting moving stimuli may benefit patients who rely on peripheral visual function, such as those with central visual field loss subsequent to AMD.

  • 173.
    Lewis, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Venkataraman, Abinaya Priya
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Linda
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Contrast sensitivity in eyes with central scotoma: effect of stimulus drift2018In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 95, no 4, p. 354-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significance

    In the field of visual rehabilitation of patients with central visual field loss, knowledge on how peripheral visual function can be improved is essential. This study presents measurements of peripheral dynamic contrast sensitivity (with optical correction) for off-axis viewing angles in subjects with central visual field loss.

    Purpose

    Subjects with central visual field loss (CFL) rely on a peripheral preferred retinal locus (PRL) for many visual tasks. It is therefore important to ascertain that contrast sensitivity (CS) is maximized in the PRL. This study evaluates the effect of stimulus motion, in combination with optical correction, on CS in subjects with CFL.

    Methods

    The off-axis refractive errors in the PRL of five young CFL subjects were measured with a COAS open-view Hartmann-Shack aberrometer. Low-contrast (25% and 10%) and high-contrast resolution acuity for stationary gratings was assessed with and without optical correction. High-contrast resolution was also measured for gratings drifting at 7.5 Hz (within a fixed Gaussian window). Furthermore, resolution CS was evaluated for both stationary and moving gratings with optical correction for a total of 2-3 spatial frequencies per subject.

    Results

    High-contrast resolution acuity was relatively insensitive to stimulus drift motion of 7.5 Hz, whereas CS for gratings of 0.5 cycles per degree improved with drift for all subjects. Furthermore, both high- and low-contrast static resolution improved with optical correction.

    Conclusions

    Just as for heathy eyes, stimulus motion of 7.5 Hz enhances CS for gratings of low spatial frequency also in the PRL of eyes with CFL. Concurrently, high contrast resolution is unaffected by the 7.5 Hz drift, but improves with off-axis optical correction. This highlights the importance of providing optimal refractive correction for subjects with CFL, and that stimulus motion can be used to further enhance CS at low spatial frequencies.

  • 174.
    Lima Ramos, Pedro
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Santana, Rui
    Univ Nova Lisboa, Portugal.
    Moreno, Laura Hernandez
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Marques, Ana Patricia
    Univ Nova Lisboa, Portugal.
    Freitas, Cristina
    Hosp Braga, Portugal.
    Rocha-Sousa, Amandio
    Univ Porto, Portugal;Ctr Hosp Sao Joao, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Univ Minho, Portugal.
    ., The Portuguese visual impairment study group
    Predicting participation of people with impaired vision in epidemiological studies2018In: BMC Ophthalmology, ISSN 1471-2415, E-ISSN 1471-2415, Vol. 18, article id 236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The characteristics of the target group and the design of an epidemiologic study, in particular the recruiting methods, can influence participation. People with vision impairment have unique characteristics because those invited are often elderly and totally or partially dependent on help to complete daily activities such as travelling to study sites. Therefore, participation of people with impaired vision in studies is less predictable than predicting participation for the general population.

    Methods

    Participants were recruited in the context of a study of prevalence and costs of visual impairment in Portugal (PCVIP-study). Participants were recruited from 4 Portuguese public hospitals. Inclusion criteria were: acuity in the better eye from 0.5 decimal (0.30logMAR) or worse and/or visual field of less than 20 degrees. Recruitment involved sending invitation letters and follow-up phone calls. A multiple logistic regression model was used to assess determinants of participation. The J48 classifier, chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were applied to investigate the possible differences between subjects in our sample.

    Results

    Individual cases were divided into 3 groups: immediate, late and non-participants. A participation rate of 20% was obtained (15% immediate, 5% late). Factors positively associated with participation included years of education, annual hospital attendance, and intermediate visual acuity. Females and greater distance to the hospital were inversely associated with participation.

    Conclusion

    In our study, a letter followed by a phone call was efficient to recruit a significant number of participants from a larger group of people with impaired vision. However, the improvement in participation observed after the phone call might not be cost-effective. People with low levels of education and women were more difficult to recruit. These findings need to be considered to avoid studies whose results are biased by gender or socio-economic inequalities of their participants. Young subjects and those at intermediate stages of vision impairment, or equivalent conditions, may need more persuasion than other profiles.

  • 175.
    Lima Ramos, Pedro
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Santana, Rui
    Univ Nova Lisboa, Portugal.
    Sousa, Ines
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Rocha-Sousa, Amandio A.
    Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Prevalence of Visual Impairment in the Municipality of Braga -Portugal using capture-recapture methods2018In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, no 9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Lind, Maja
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Strukturella och funktionella förändringar orsakat av multiple skleros2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur ögats visuella och funktionella system påverkas av diagnosen MS, genom att undersöka färgseendet och synnerven. Denna studie ska utföras på lika många patienter med konstaterad MS som på patienter utan MS.

    Metod: I studien undersöktes 14 patienter, 7 med konstaterad MS och 7 kontrollpatienter utan MS. Deltagarnas ålder var mellan 41 och 56 år. Alla mätningar genomfördes monokulärt. De mätningar som utfördes var avstånd visus, färgseende test med hjälp utav Hardy Rand Rittler och Farnsworth’s Dichotomous test - D-15 test, kontrastseendetest med hjälp utav The Mars Letter Contrast Sensitivity Test och sist anvädes OCT för att få en 2 dimitsonell bild av det retinala nervfiber lagret (RNFL).

    Resultat: Resultatet av denna studie var förväntat och visar att patienter med MS har ett nedsatt färg- och kontrastseende men även också en förtunning utav det RNFL. Detta resultat styrks av tidigare studier. Den visar dock inga signifikanta skillnader mellan MS patienternas höger öga och kontrollpatienternas höger öga. Samma gäller för vänster.

    Slutsats: Detta arbete visar att optiker bör vara medvetna om dessa förändringar hos patienter med MS.

  • 177.
    Lindberg, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effekten av inducerad prismatisk obalans i höjdled på horisontala fusionsvergenser2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur horisontella fusionsvergenser på nära håll påverkas av en inducerad vertikal prismatisk obalans mellan ögonen. Detta för att utreda om det okulomotoriska systemet kan kompensera för skillnader som påminner om en anisometropikorrektion vid ett ökande negativt och positivt fusionsvergensstimuli.  

    Metod: Mätningar utfördes på 23 deltagare. Mätningar av positiva och negativa fusionsvergensreserver gjordes på 40 cm i autoforopter med och utan en vertikal prismatisk obalans av 1 ∆ bas ner inducerat prisma framför höger öga, samt mätning av vertikala fusionsvergensreserver på nära håll.   

    Resultat: I studien hittades ingen signifikant skillnad mellan brytpunkt eller återgångspunkt för varken negativa eller positiva fusionsvergensreserver med inducerat prisma jämfört med utan. Brytpunkt och återgångspunkt för fusionsvergensmätning i vertikalled hade ett medelvärde något högre än uppmätt i tidigare studier.

    Slutsats: I studien hittades ingen statistiskt signifikant skillnad mellan horisontella fusionsvergensreserver utan och med en inducerad prismatisk obalans på 1 ∆ bas ner på höger öga. Detta tyder på att de allra flest kommer att kunna kompensera för skillnader  som uppstår vid en mindre anisometropi. 

  • 178.
    Lindow, Thomas
    et al.
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Kron, Josefine
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Ljungström, Erik
    Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Pahlm, Olle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Erroneous computer-based interpretations of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter in a Swedish primary health care setting2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 426-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe the incidence of incorrect computerized ECG interpretations of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter in a Swedish primary care population, the rate of correction of computer misinterpretations, and the consequences of misdiagnosis. Design: Retrospective expert re-analysis of ECGs with a computer-suggested diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Setting: Primary health care in Region Kronoberg, Sweden. Subjects: All adult patients who had an ECG recorded between January 2016 and June 2016 with a computer statement including the words 'atrial fibrillation' or 'atrial flutter'. Main outcome measures: Number of incorrect computer interpretations of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter; rate of correction by the interpreting primary care physician; consequences of misdiagnosis of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Results: Among 988 ECGs with a computer diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, 89 (9.0%) were incorrect, among which 36 were not corrected by the interpreting physician. In 12 cases, misdiagnosed atrial fibrillation/flutter led to inappropriate treatment with anticoagulant therapy. A larger proportion of atrial flutters, 27 out of 80 (34%), than atrial fibrillations, 62 out of 908 (7%), were incorrectly diagnosed by the computer. Conclusions: Among ECGs with a computer-based diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, the diagnosis was incorrect in almost 10%. In almost half of the cases, the misdiagnosis was not corrected by the overreading primary-care physician. Twelve patients received inappropriate anticoagulant treatment as a result of misdiagnosis.

  • 179.
    Lundberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Billore, Soniya
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Axelsson, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Diabetes Among Children (DAC): project - Exploring opportunities with support from mobile applications in a cross cultural Indo-Swedish study2017In: BIOSTEC 2017: Final Program and Book of Abstracts, Portugal, 2017, p. 85-, article id 89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present opportunities and challenges to meet the worldwide challenge of diabetes. Diabetes has devastating long term complications that cause very great personal suffering and social costs locally and globally. The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally as an epidemic and affects 415 million people today which is expected to increase to 642 million is 2040. Int this paper we explore the possibilities to join an Indo-Swedish collaboration. we present a research framework for mobile applicaiton development between Sweden and India. the scientific frameowrk is elaborated and this paper ends with speciifc challenges and future work.

  • 180.
    Lundberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Billore, Soniya
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Axelsson, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Diabetes Among Children (DAC) Project - Exploring Opportunities with Support from Mobile Applications in a Cross Cultural Indo-Swedish Study2017In: Proceedings of the 10th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, Vol 5: HEALTHINF / [ed] VanDenBroek, EL Fred, A Gamboa, H Vaz, M, SciTePress, 2017, p. 407-412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present opportunities and challenges to meet the worldwide challenge of diabetes. Diabetes has devastating long-term complications that cause very great personal suffering and social costs locally and globally. The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally as an epidemic and affects 415 million people today, which is expected to increase to 642 million in 2040. In this paper we explore possibilities to join in Indo-Swedish R&D collaboration. We present and motivate the research purpose. Furthermore we present a research framework for mobile application development between Sweden and India. The scientific framework is elaborated and this paper ends with specific challenges and further work.

  • 181.
    Lundström, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Short-term effects on contrast sensitivity and its correlation to over-refraction when using MiSight®1day contact lenses2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 182.
    Lundström, Linda
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Venkataraman, Abinaya Priya
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lewis, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Unsbo, Peter
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity in the 10 degrees visual field2016In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 57, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 183.
    Lupu, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effect of sustained near work on accommodative functions in myopes and emmetropes2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 184.
    Löv, Susanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Samband mellan vergensproblem och astenopiska besvär vid närarbete hos barn i årskurs 32014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om det finns något samband mellan eventuella vergensproblem och astenopiska besvär vid närarbete hos barn i årskurs 3.

    Metod: I studien deltog totalt 32 barn. Inledningsvis fick barnen tillsammans med föräldrarna svara på en enkät som behandlade ögonrelaterade symptom vid närarbete. Objektiv refraktion genomfördes för att sedan genomföra alla mätningar med korrektion i provbåge. Kliniska mätningar genomfördes därefter för att undersöka de eventuella vergensproblemen. Det som undersöktes var: fixationsdisparitet, fori på 40cm, fusionsvergenser på 40cm, konvergensnärpunkt (KNP) och vergensfacilitet.

    Resultat: Majoriteten av eleverna hade inga astenopiska besvär vid närarbete enligt enkäten. Det visade sig att största delen av eleverna hade en exofori på nära håll. Det fanns en viss korrelation, som dock inte var statistiskt signifikant, mellan poäng på symptomenkäten och forier (p>0,05, r=0,3). En korrelation kunde även till viss del ses mellan enkätpoäng och vergensfacilitet (p>0,05, r=0,3) men inte heller denna statistiskt signifikant. Medelvärdet för vergensfaciliteten hamnade på 11,3(±3) cykler per minut (cpm). En svag korrelation kunde ses mellan KNP och enkätpoäng (r=0,3) men saknade statistisk signifikans (p>0,05). Korrelation kunde inte ses mellan övriga mätningar och symptom vid närarbete.

    Slutsats: Denna studie visar att det inte finns något signifikant samband mellan vergensproblem och astenopiska besvär vid närarbete hos barn i årskurs 3.

  • 185.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho, Portugal.
    Encarnação, Tito J.
    Ctr. de Diagnóstico da Visão, Portugal.
    Vilarinho, Daniel
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Baptista, António M. G.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    An exploratory study of temporal integration in the peripheral retina of myopes2017In: Proceedings of SPIE 10453, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2017, Vol. 10453, article id 104532GConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The visual system takes time to respond to visual stimuli, neurons need to accumulate information over a time span in order to fire. Visual information perceived by the peripheral retina might be impaired by imperfect peripheral optics leading to myopia development. This study explored the effect of eccentricity, moderate myopia and peripheral refraction in temporal visual integration. Myopes and emmetropes showed similar performance at detecting briefly flashed stimuli in different retinal locations. Our results show evidence that moderate myopes have normal visual integration when refractive errors are corrected with contact lens; however, the tendency to increased temporal integration thresholds observed in myopes deserves further investigation.

  • 186.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho, Portugal.
    Lima Ramos, Pedro
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Hernandez-Moreno, Laura
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Cima, Joana
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Baptista, António M. G.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Marques, Ana Patricia
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Massof, Robert
    Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute, USA.
    Santana, Rui
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Visual and health outcomes, measured with the activity inventory and the EQ-5D, in visual impairment2017In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 95, no 8, p. e783-e791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Generic instruments to assess health utilities can be used to express the burden of health problems in widely used indexes. That is in contrast with what can be obtained with condition-specific instruments, outcomes are very specific and difficult to compare across conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess health and visual outcomes and its determinants in patients with visual impairment (VI) using the EQ-5D-3L and the Activity Inventory (AI).

    Methods

    Participants were recruited in different hospitals during the PCVIP-study. A total of 134 patients with acuity 0.30 logMAR or less in the better eye were interviewed. The AI includes 46 goals split between three objectives: social functioning, recreation and daily living, and was used to measure visual ability. The EQ-5D consists of five questions covering one domain each and was used to provide a measure of health states. Responses to each domain were combined to produce a single individual index.

    Results

    The AI and the EQ-5D-3L showed enough discriminatory power between VI levels (p < 0.001), and their results were strongly correlated r(134) = 0.825, (p < 0.001). Explanatory factors for visual ability were level of VI in better eye, age and gender, R2 = 0.43, (p < 0.001). Explanatory factors for the EQ-5D-3L were level of VI in the better eye, comorbidities and gender, R2 = 0.36, (p < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    Our results showed that the EQ-5D-3L is useful when characterizing the burden of VI and to compute, when necessary, quality-adjusted-life-years (QALY) changes due to VI. However, it is important to consider that the EQ-5D-3L uses a coarse response scale, assesses a limited spectrum of domains and is influenced by comorbidities. This might limit its responsiveness to small changes in visual ability.

  • 187.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Santos, Diana
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Hernandez-Moreno, Laura
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Leitao, Marta
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Latham, Keziah
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, UK.
    Linhares, Joao
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Exploring barriers to physical activity faced by people with vision loss2018In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, no 9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Malm, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Färguppfattning genom Multilens färgade filter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to see if there would be any difference in color vision perception between two different Multilens prototype filter-lenses product for people with color vision deficiencies in the red-green spectrum. The filters were also tested in normal individuals who acted like as controls.

    Methods: 32 people participated in this study. 13 had a color vision deficiency in the red-green spectrum and 19 of them had normal color vision. Two of Multilens new filter-lens prototypes, filter B and filter D, was tested against no filter. Instrument used was the Cambridge Research System´s Metropsis. The test for measurements was CCT-Ellipse 10a, which presented results in terms of ellipses. The necessary values were analysed by Friedman test.

    Results: Multilens filter-lenses gave a significant change in color perception for both subjects with normal- or deficient color vision. A significant change in color vision between filter B and filter D was shown for those with normal color vision. Subjects with deficient color vision only experienced a significant change with filter D. The subjective impression of the filter-lenses was generally positive for those with deficient color vision.

    Conclusion: Filter B and D gives an improvement on color vision for some of the participants but is not statistically significant. All participants experienced changed color vision, but when a specific hue became easier to see, other hues became more difficult to see. Subjectively, some of the participants with color deficiency saw a big positive difference between with and without the filter-lenses.

  • 189.
    Marisa, Ferreira
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal ; Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Pereira, Paulo A.
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal ; University of Minho, Portugal.
    Parreira, Marta
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Sousa, Inês
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Cerqueira, João J.
    University of Minho, Portugal ; Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho, Portugal.
    Using endogenous saccades to characterize fatigue in multiple sclerosis2017In: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, ISSN 2211-0348, E-ISSN 2211-0356, Vol. 14, p. 16-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is likely to cause dysfunction of neural circuits between brain regions increasing brain working load or a subjective overestimation of such working load leading to fatigue symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate if saccades can reveal the effect of fatigue in patients with MS.

    Methods

    Patients diagnosed with MS (EDSS<=3) and age matched controls were recruited. Eye movements were monitored using an infrared eyetracker. Each participant performed 40 trials in an endogenous generated saccade paradigm (valid and invalid trials). The fatigue severity scale (FSS) was used to assess the severity of fatigue. FSS scores were used to define two subgroups, the MS fatigue group (score above normal range) and the MS non-fatigue. Differences between groups were tested using linear mixed models.

    Results

    Thirty-one MS patients and equal number of controls participated in this study. FSS scores were above the normal range in 11 patients. Differences in saccade latency were found according to group (p<0.001) and trial validity (p=0.023). Differences were 16.9 ms, between MS fatigue and MS non-fatigue, 15.5 ms between MS fatigue and control. The mean difference between valid and invalid trials was 7.5 ms. Differences in saccade peak velocity were found according to group (p<0.001), the difference between MS fatigue and control was 22.3°/s and between MS fatigue and non-fatigue was 12.3°/s. Group was a statistically significant predictor for amplitude (p<0.001). FSS scores were correlated with peak velocity (p=0.028) and amplitude (p=0.019).

    Conclusion

    Consistent with the initial hypothesis, our study revealed altered saccade latency, peak velocity and amplitude in patients with fatigue symptoms. Eye movement testing can complement the standard inventories when investigating fatigue because they do not share similar limitations. Our findings contribute to the understanding of functional changes induced by MS and might be useful for clinical trials and treatment decisions.

  • 190.
    Marques, Ana Patricia
    et al.
    NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho Braga, Portugal .
    Hernandez-Moreno, Laura
    University of Minho Braga, Portugal .
    Lima Ramos, Pedro
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Butt, Thomas
    University College London, UK;Peking University, China .
    Rubin, Gary
    University College London, UK.
    Santana, Rui
    NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    The use of informal care by people with vision impairment2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 6, article id e0198631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To estimate and characterize the use of informal care by people with vision impairment in Portugal.

    Methods

    A total of 546 visually impaired individuals were recruited from Portuguese hospitals. Clinical information was obtained from medical records, socio-demographic details and informal care use were collected during face-to-face interviews. In addition, participants responded to a functional vision questionnaire (activity inventory) to assess their visual ability. Logistic regression was used to determine independent factors associated with informal care use and linear regression was used to determine independent predictors of intensity of informal care use.

    Results

    Informal care was reported by 39.6% of the participants. The probability of reporting informal care was higher in non-married, those with comorbidities, with lower visual ability and worse visual acuity. The median number of caregivers’ hours per year was 390 (mean = 470; 95%CI = 488–407), which represent a median opportunity cost of €2,586. Visual ability was the only independent predictor of number of hours of informal care received.

    Conclusions

    Informal care was frequently used by individuals with impaired vision. Improving visual ability of people with impaired vision when performing valued activities may reduce the burden of visual loss at personal and societal level. This could be achieved with person-centred visual rehabilitation.

  • 191.
    Marques, Ana Patricia
    et al.
    NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Lima Ramos, Pedro
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Moreno, Laura Hernandez
    University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Butt, Thomas
    Peking University, Peoples Republic of China;University College London, UK.
    Rubin, Gary
    University College London, UK.
    Santana, Rui Santana
    NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Productivity Losses and Their Explanatory Factors Amongst People with Impaired Vision2019In: Ophthalmic Epidemiology, ISSN 0928-6586, E-ISSN 1744-5086, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To estimate productivity losses amongst people with impaired vision in Portugal and to investigate explanatory factors associated with non-participation in the labour market.

    Methods: A total of 546 visually impaired individuals participated in face-to-face interviews. Participants were asked about their workforce participation to determine productivity (employment status questionnaire), their health-related quality of life – HRQoL (EQ-5D) and their visual acuity and visual ability (Activity Inventory). Productivity losses included absenteeism and reduction in workforce participation. Logistic regression was used to determine independent factors associated with participation in the labour market.

    Results: From the 546 participants, 50% were retired, 47% were of working age and 3% were students. The employment rate was 28%, and the unemployment rate was 21% for the working age sample. For those of working age, productivity losses were estimated at €1.51 million per year, mean of €5496 per participant. The largest contributor to productivity losses was reduced workforce participation, estimated from 159 early retired or unemployed participants. After controlling for visual acuity and ability, younger individuals, with more years of education, without comorbidities and high HRQoL had a higher probability of being employed.

    Conclusions: Our findings show a high unemployment rate and high productivity losses amongst people with impaired vision. The probability of being employed was associated with education, HRQoL and comorbidities. We speculate that promoting education and health through effective visual rehabilitation programs may help to increase participation in the labour market. These findings can inform decisions to intervene to reduce the burden of vision loss.

  • 192.
    Mathold, K.
    et al.
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Wanby, Pär
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Brudin, Lars
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Von, S. P.
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Carlsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Alterations in bone turnover markers in patients with noncardio-embolic ischemic stroke2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The major cause of ischemic stroke is unstable or thrombogenic atherosclerotic plaques. Vascular calcification, a process that appears crucial for plaque stability, shares common features with bone formation. Many bone turnover proteins exhibit metabolic properties, but the evidence is conflicting regarding their possible involvement in vascular disease. Antibodies against sclerostin and dickkopf-1 are currently being evaluated as potential therapy for treating bone disorders. It is important to carefully assess the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of these proteins. The aim of the present study was to explore serum levels of bone turnover markers in patients with acute noncardio-embolic ischemic stroke in comparison with healthy controls. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we compared 48 patients aged. 75 years with noncardio-embolic ischemic stroke and 46 healthy controls. Serum levels of dickkopf-1, sclerostin, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin and osteocalcin were determined by Luminex technique. Results We found clearly increased serum levels of osteoprotegerin, sclerostin, dickkopf-1 and osteopontin in patients with stroke compared with healthy controls. No difference was seen in serum levels of osteocalcin between the two groups. Conclusion Our findings strengthen the hypothesis of bone turnover markers being involved in vascular disease. Whether these proteins can be used as candidate markers for increased stroke risk or prognostic biomarkers remains to be further elucidated.

  • 193.
    Mehretab, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Structural and functional characteristics of the healthy macula using the OPKO OCT/SLO2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To establish normative values for macular light sensitivity in healthy subjects using the OPKO SD-OCT/SLO microperimetry device. This instrument allows direct superimposition of macular function with its structure measured with OCT.  

     

    Methods: 32 normal subjects with mean age of 25 years participated in this study. A 56 point grid covering and area of 18 by 22 degrees of visual field was used. Each subject was tested for the dominant eye. Additional control measures included visual acuity and contrast sensitivity.

     

    Results: The mean (SD) visual acuity in the tested eye was −0.09 (0.088) logMAR. The mean contrast sensitivity in the tested eye was 1.61 (0.102) log contrast. The mean total threshold in the tested eye for all points was 16.60 (1.53) dB. There was a statistically significant correlation between the retinal sensitivity and the total macular thickness, r = −0.392, p-value 0.026 for 48 points per participant.

     

    Conclusions: In this study there was a correlation between the retinal sensitivity and thickness of the macular zone. The values obtained using the microperimetry in undilated eyes was similar to values obtained with dilation. Retinal sensitivity values obtained using this instrument are in agreement with previous studies.

  • 194.
    Melin, Eva Olga
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden;Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Region Kronoberg, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Hillman, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Ralph
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Landin-Olsson, Mona
    Lund University, Sweden;Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Thunander, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden;Region Kronoberg, Sweden;Central Hospital Växjö, Sweden.
    Lower HDL-cholesterol, a known marker of cardiovascular risk, was associated with depression in type 1 diabetes: a cross sectional study2019In: Lipids in Health and Disease, ISSN 1476-511X, E-ISSN 1476-511X, Vol. 18, p. 1-10, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression, metabolic disturbances and inflammation have been linked to cardiovascular disease and mortality. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), a known marker of cardiovascular risk, have been observed in patients with major depression in psychiatric populations. Our main aim was to explore associations between depression, antidepressants, and metabolic and inflammatory variables in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A secondary aim was to explore variables associated with HDL-cholesterol. Methods: Cross-sectional design. T1D patients (n = 292, men 55%, age 18-59 years, diabetes duration >= 1 year) were consecutively recruited from one specialist diabetes clinic. Depression was defined as 8 points for Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression sub scale. Blood samples, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and data regarding medication and life style were collected from electronic health records. Non-parametric tests, multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Results: The depression prevalence was 10 and 8% used antidepressants. Median (q(1), q(3)) HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) was for the depressed 1.3 (1.2, 1.5) and for the non-depressed 1.6 (1.3, 1.8), p = 0.001. HDL-cholesterol levels (per mmol/l) were negatively associated with depression (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.2, p = 0.007), and the use of antidepressants was positively associated with depression (AOR 8.1, p < 0.001). No other metabolic or inflammatory variables, or life style factors, were associated with depression when adjusted for antidepressants. Abdominal obesity was associated with antidepressants in women (AOR 4.6, p = 0.029). Decreasing HDL-cholesterol levels were associated with increasing triglyceride levels (p < 0.001), increasing high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels (p = 0.021), younger age (p < 0.001), male sex (p < 0.001), and depression (p = 0.045). Conclusions: Lower HDL-cholesterol levels, known predictors of cardiovascular disease, were associated with depression in patients with T1D. The use of antidepressants was associated with abdominal obesity in women. Depression, low-grade inflammation measured as hs-CRP, higher triglycerides, male sex, and lower age were independently associated with lower HDL-cholesterol levels.

  • 195.
    Melkersson, Ellen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Är det någon förändring i läshastighet hos olika åldrar med hjälp av overlays?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there was any difference in the reading speed with a coloured overlay when it was used on top of the text of a newly developed swedish reading test. The study also investigated if there were any differences in the change of reading speed between two different age groups.

    The study consisted of a number of clinical tests, the tests were visual aquity assessment for near and distance, colour vision and stereopsis. If the participants managed the normal values for these tests they were allowed to read a swedish reading test out loud three times for one minute each. The first time was for learning the structure of the reading test, the second time was read without overlay and the third time was read with an overlay. In the last two times the number of words were counted and noted.

    There was a significant difference in the reading speed with and without overlay (p < 0.001). In both the age groups there was an increase in reading speed when the overlay was used. The increase was 7.3 % with overlay in the younger age group and in the group where the participants were over 18 years old, the increase was 6.1 %. In both of the groups there was a small number of people whose reading speed was reduced when using an overlay. Overall this study shows that overlays can increase the reading speed in both children and adults. The chosen colour on the overlay differed between the two groups.

  • 196.
    Miranda, Antonio Miguel
    et al.
    University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Nunes-Pereira, Eduardo J
    University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Eye movements, convergence distance and pupil-size when reading from smartphone, computer, print and tablet2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science, ISSN 1891-0882, E-ISSN 1891-0890, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the use of eye-tracking glasses to monitor visual behaviour when reading from electronic devices and paper in free-viewing conditions. The Tobii-Pro-Glasses were used to monitor 20 subjects with normal vision during reading tasks. Reading was performed in a smartphone, computer, paper and tablet. Texts from the IReST-test were read in devices in a random order. Participants read one text in each device and then repeated the same task 1 hour later; in total each participant read eight different texts. The sequence for the devices was randomized. We found differences between devices for saccade amplitude, fixation duration, convergence distance and pupil size. Reading speed between computer and tablet was slightly different (8 words-per-minute) and pupil size reduced up to 20% in electronic devices compared to print. Behavioural changes observed whilst reading from different devices may reflect an attempt from readers to optimize performance. The need to maintain visual performance under different visual condition may lead to increased visual symptoms. Eye-tracking glasses could be a valuable tool to investigate visual aspects of digital strain.

  • 197.
    Moharra, Montse
    et al.
    Agcy Healthcare Qual & Assessment Catalonia, Spain..
    Almazan, Cari
    Agcy Healthcare Qual & Assessment Catalonia, Spain..
    Decool, Marie
    Agcy Healthcare Qual & Assessment Catalonia, Spain..
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Allegretti, Natalia
    Lombardia Informat SpA, Italy..
    Seven, Merik
    NICTIZ, Netherlands..
    Implementation of a cross-border health service: physician and pharmacists' opinions from the epSOS project2015In: Family Practice, ISSN 0263-2136, E-ISSN 1460-2229, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 564-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective(s). To explore the opinions of health professionals with experience of the European Patient Smart Open Services (epSOS) system regarding the epSOS services perceived utility, potential impact and main barriers and facilitators to its use. Methods. Qualitative study design involving focus groups with health care professionals with experience of epSOS system. A semi-structured topic guide was developed to guide the discussion. Results. epSOS services were seen as interesting intuitive services and easy to operate. The greatest impact was in terms of positive impact on communication, clinical safety and patient management. Data reliability, difficulties in accessing the service and aspects related to information technology architecture were considered the most relevant barriers. Conclusion. This study has provided insights into the strengths and limitations of two new eHealth services for use across countries within the European Union, and has provided indications of how those services could be improved.

  • 198.
    Mohlin, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Neural progenitor cell-derived neurotrophic support for the degenerating retina: an in vitro study2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Mohlin, Camilla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Taylor, Linnea
    Univ Lund Hosp.
    Ghosh, Fredrik
    Univ Lund Hosp.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Örebro universitet.
    Autophagy and ER-stress contribute to photoreceptor degeneration in cultured adult porcine retina2014In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 1585, p. 167-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate rod and cone photoreceptor degeneration in organotypic cultures of adult porcine retina. Our hypothesis was that the photoreceptors accumulate opsins, which, together with exposure to cyclic dim light illumination, induce autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER-stress) to overcome damaging protein overload. For this purpose, retinas were cultured for 48 h and 72 h during which they were illuminated with dim light for 8 h/day; specimens were analyzed by means of immunohistochemistry, Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and transmission electron microscopy. ER-stress and photoreceptor degeneration was observed in conventionally cultured retinas. The additional stress in the form of dim light illumination for 8 h/day resulted in increased levels of the ER-stress markers GRP78/BiP and CHOP, as well as increased level of active caspase-12. Increased autophagic processes in cone and rod photoreceptors were detected by LC3B-II increases and occurrence of autophagosomes at the ultrastructural level. Illumination also resulted in altered protein expression for autophagy inducers such as p62 and Beclin-1. Moreover, there was a decrease in phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which further indicate an increase of autophagy. Rod and cone photoreceptors in retinas from a diurnal animal that were exposed to dim light illumination in vitro displayed autophagy and ER-stress processes. As no alteration of rhodopsin mRNA was observed, autophagy and ER-stress are suggested to decrease rhodopsin protein at the posttranscriptional level. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 200.
    Mohlin, Camilla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Taylor, Linnéa
    Lunds universitet.
    Ghosh, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Autophagy en ER-stress contribute to photoreceptor degenenration in cultured adult porcine retinaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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