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  • 151. Christersson, Linus
    et al.
    Blomqvist, Maria
    Grannas, Karin
    Thollesson, Mikael
    Laroucau, Karine
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Eliasson, Ingvar
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Herrmann, Björn
    A novel Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium found in fecal specimens from sea birds from the Bering Sea.2010In: Environmental Microbiology Reports, ISSN 1758-2229, E-ISSN 1758-2229, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 605-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The family Chlamydiaceae contains several bacterial pathogens of important human and veterinary medical concern, such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila psittaci. Within the order Chlamydiales there are also an increasing number of chlamydia-like bacteria whose biodiversity, host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and which are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. In this study we present 16S rRNA, rnpB and ompA gene sequence data congruently indicating a novel chlamydia-like bacterium found in faecal specimens from opportunistic fish-eating sea birds, belonging to the Laridae and Alcidae families, from the Bering Sea. This novel bacterium appears to be closer to the Chlamydiaceae than other chlamydia-like bacteria and is most likely a novel genus within the Chlamydiaceae family.

  • 152.
    Chryssanthou, E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp.
    Wennberg, H.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Kalmar County Hospital ; Uppsala University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Occurrence of yeasts in faecal samples from Antarctic and South American seabirds2011In: Mycoses (Berlin), ISSN 0933-7407, E-ISSN 1439-0507, Vol. 54, no 6, p. E811-E815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During an expedition to the Southern Argentinean town of Ushuaia, the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic Islands and the Falkland Islands, we collected 94 faecal specimens from wild birds to screen for yeast within the different bird species. The yeast species were identified by morphological features and commercial characterisation kits. From 54% of the specimens, we isolated 122 strains representing 29 yeast species. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lambica and Candida krusei were the most frequently isolated species. We found a plethora of yeasts in birds living in proximity to humans, whereas birds living in more remote areas were colonised with a lower number of fungal species.

  • 153. Cinner, J. E.
    et al.
    Daw, T. M.
    McClanahan, T. R.
    Muthiga, N.
    Abunge, C.
    Hamed, S.
    Mwaka, B.
    Rabearisoa, A.
    Wamukota, Andrew
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Fisher, E.
    Jiddawi, N.
    Transitions toward co-management: The process of marine resource management devolution in three east African countries2012In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 651-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communities are increasingly empowered with the ability and responsibility of working with national governments to make decisions about marine resources in decentralized co-management arrangements. This transition toward decentralized management represents a changing governance landscape. This paper explores the transition to decentralisation in marine resource management systems in three East African countries. The paper draws upon expert opinion and literature from both political science and linked social-ecological systems fields to guide exploration of five key governance transition concepts in each country: (1) drivers of change; (2) institutional arrangements; (3) institutional fit; (4) actor interactions; and (5) adaptive management. Key findings are that decentralized management in the region was largely donor-driven and only partly transferred power to local stakeholders. However, increased accountability created a degree of democracy in regards to natural resource governance that was not previously present. Additionally, increased local-level adaptive management has emerged in most systems and, to date, this experimental management has helped to change resource user's views from metaphysical to more scientific cause-and-effect attribution of changes to resource conditions. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved,

  • 154.
    Cinner, Joshua E.
    et al.
    James Cook Univ, Australia.
    McClanahan, Tim R.
    Wildlife Conservat Soc, USA.
    MacNeil, M. Aaron
    Australian Inst Marine Sci, Australia.
    Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    James Cook Univ, Australia.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Univ E Anglia, UK;Stockholm University.
    Mukminin, Ahmad
    Wildlife Conservat Soc, Indonesia.
    Feary, David A.
    Univ Technol Sydney, Australia.
    Rabearisoa, Ando L.
    Conservat Int, Madagascar.
    Wamukota, Andrew
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Coral Reef Conservat Program, Kenya.
    Jiddawi, Narriman
    Univ Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Campbell, Stuart J.
    Wildlife Conservat Soc, Indonesia.
    Baird, Andrew H.
    James Cook Univ, Australia.
    Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A.
    James Cook Univ, Australia.
    Hamed, Salum
    Lahari, Rachael
    Wildlife Conservat Soc Papua New Guinea Program, Papua N Guinea.
    Morove, Tau
    Wildlife Conservat Soc Papua New Guinea Program, Papua N Guinea.
    Kuange, John
    Wildlife Conservat Soc Papua New Guinea Program, Papua N Guinea.
    Comanagement of coral reef social-ecological systems2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 14, p. 5219-5222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an effort to deliver better outcomes for people and the ecosystems they depend on, many governments and civil society groups are engaging natural resource users in collaborative management arrangements (frequently called comanagement). However, there are few empirical studies demonstrating the social and institutional conditions conducive to successful comanagement outcomes, especially in small-scale fisheries. Here, we evaluate 42 comanagement arrangements across five countries and show that: (i) comanagement is largely successful at meeting social and ecological goals; (ii) comanagement tends to benefit wealthier resource users; (iii) resource overexploitation is most strongly influenced by market access and users' dependence on resources; and (iv) institutional characteristics strongly influence livelihood and compliance outcomes, yet have little effect on ecological conditions.

  • 155.
    Classon, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Vanor och compliance hos kontaktlinsbärare:  En enkätstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Många studier gällande compliance har genomförts och flertalet har visat att nivån av compliance är låg. De huvudsakliga områdena där compliance brister är handhygien, rengöring av linsetui, överbärande av kontaktlinser, brist på fullgod uppföljning och felaktigt användande av linsvätskor. Några av dessa områden har tagits upp i denna studie.

    Syfte: Syftet med examensarbetet var att undersöka hur kontaktlinsbärandet ser ut hos ett litet antal Internetanvändande personer i Sverige. Personernas vanor och compliance studerades i relation till tidigare studier inom detta område.

    Metod: En webbenkät med, för syftet, relevanta frågor skapades i webbprogrammet Google Docs. Enkäten bifogades i en länk och presenterades som ett evenemang på Facebook. Personer som använde kontaktlinser uppmanades att svara på enkäten. Resultaten från enkäten samlades i Google Docs och därifrån kunde svaren analyseras.

    Resultat: Enkäten gav 84 svar. Majoriteten var kvinnor och studerande. Vanligast var användandet av månads-/tvåveckorslinser och på en daglig basis. Både kvinnor och män valde i högre grad att köpa sina kontaktlinser hos optiker men män var något överrepresenterade för köp av kontaktlinser på Internet. 22,6 % uppgav att de ofta bar samma par kontaktlinser längre än rekommenderat, 40,5 % gjorde en linskontroll varje år, 31,0 % sov med linser ibland, 13,1 % visste inte om deras kontaktlinser var godkända att sova i och 61,9 % uppgav att de någon eller några gånger behövt avstå från att använda kontaktlinser på grund av ögonproblem.

    Slutsats: Denna studie visade, likt andra studier, att non-compliance är ganska vanligt. Ett fortsatt arbete med att höja nivån av compliance är viktigt för att undvika allvarliga komplikationer och för att minska antalet användare som avbryter sitt bärande.

  • 156.
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Holocene local forest history at two sites in Småland, southern Sweden: Insights from quantitative reconstruction using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Dahlberg, Simon
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Comparison between Corneal and Internal Contribution of Ocular Aberrations with Age2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 158.
    Dahlbäcker, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Utveckling av ett lågkaloripulver med chokladsmak2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, obesity is the cause for many diseases such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Very low calorie diets (VLCD) are formulated foods with 450-800 kilocalories per day intended for use as the sole dietary source of energy during weight loss. These diets have proven useful in short-term weight loss and show improvements in blood pressure, serum lipids and glycaemia in obese people with type 2 diabetes.

    Currently, there is no harmonised legislation throughout the EU for VLCD-products, however Codex Alimentarius has developed a standard (Codex Standard 203-1995) which the Nordic Council of Ministers have based their Nordic recommendations (Report 1993:557) on. The Swedish recommendations are based on this report and The Swedish National Food Administration direct the control and labelling of products merchandised inSweden.

    The current recommendations for VLCD have been summarized in this study. A review of scientific studies of the use of VLCD-products demonstrated the safe use of these products for a limited time to achieve weight loss, due to nutritional composition preventing loss of lean body mass.

    The aim of this study was to formulate a recipe for a chocolate flavoured VLCD-powder based on The Swedish National Food Administration’s VLCD recommendations. First, a theoretical recipe was calculated and based on sensory analysis different sources of raw materials and the amounts were evaluated and adjusted in different trials. In the fifth and final trial, a product with a satisfying taste and texture was created.

    The results from the different trials showed that the low energy content in the product demanded the right type of raw material to achieve a pleasant flavour and correct amount of nutrients. The raw material used in the project was presented and described in the background.

    All together the project gave an overview of VLCD-products whereby no evidence of serious adverse effects was found in the literature from using VLCD for a limited time. In formulating a VLCD powder it was important to use the right raw materials and combination of ingredients to develop a product with a satisfying taste and texture.

     

  • 159.
    Dahlström, Karolina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    How fining agents affect the tendency of pear base wine to form and stabilize foam2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company Kiviks Musteri AB produces a pear base wine that forms stable foam, which is problematic from a production perspective. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the factors underlying foam stability in the pear base wine and to find means for its reduction. This was done by foam testing wines and varying several variables, such as the fining agents normally used in the wine production (bentonite, gelatin, siliceous earth and activated carbon), enzyme treatment, and by changing the fermenting yeast species.

    Results: The wine started to form stable foam during fermentation, and foam stability could be reduced by using more bentonite and carbon during the fining process. The other fining agents appeared to have only limited impact on foaming characteristics. No pectin was present according to the pectin test, but protein bands were evident from SDS PAGE analysis, though absent in samples treated with increased doses of bentonite.

    In conclusion, pectin is not a major foaming agent in the wine, the yeast is most likely the producer of the foaming agents, carbon and bentonite have a reducing effect on foam stability, bentonite also reduces protein content. Proteins are likely to be involved in the foam stabilization but are not the sole contributors to stable foam.

  • 160.
    Danielsson, Elena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Varför används inte e-dos i större utsträckning?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study is to increase the understanding of why physicians don’t use e-dos (a computerized prescription system) to a greater extent than about 50-60 % when prescribing medicine to patients within the specific medication dispensing system (ApoDos).

    Methods. This study has a qualitative approach. Data was collected via interviews with general practitioners and physicians from a hospital in the municipality of Kalmar during a couple of weeks in April 2010.

    Results. The physicians feel that e-dos is a good system, that provides a complete picture of the patient’s prescriptions. But because the electronic medical record systems “Cosmic” and e-dos aren’t able to share the same information in between them, this leads to an extra workload for the physicians. An integration of these two systems would decrease the workload and maybe also increase the use of e-dos. The graphic design is experienced as complicated and difficult to grasp. To make a change in a patient’s medication within e-dos requires a great quantity of information. Physicians are required to carry out a number of steps before a change is completed. Even experienced users choose not to use e-dos in some circumstances, i.e. then the prescription is urgent or temporary, and they use ordinary prescriptions instead.  After a change in a patient’s medication is prescribed, the system is locked until the change is approved by a pharmacist. This is a course of irritation among the physicians.   

    Conclusion. The majority of physicians considered the use of e-dos as safe for the patient.  They also pointed on the need of integration between the electronic medical record system, “Cosmic” and e-dos. Physicians expressed that the lack of integration was a risk factor for medical errors and that it increased the physicians’ workload. Several physicians also described the system as difficult to handle and wished a simpler design.  

  • 161.
    Danielsson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Den fria kontaktlinsmarknadens effekt på avvikelserapporteringen av kontaktlinsrelaterade skador2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 1 januari 2011 ersattes Lagen om yrkesverksamhet på hälso- och sjukvårdens område, LYHS, (SFS 1998:531) av Patientsäkerhetslagen (SFS 2010:659). I den äldre lagversionen var det endast hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal som fick prova ut och tillhandahålla kontaktlinser (SFS 1998:531 4 kap 2§ punkt 6). I den nya versionen, Patientsäkerhetslagen, är ordet tillhandahålla borttaget. Ändringen och därmed borttagningen av tillhandahållandet medför att det är fritt att tillhandahålla kontaktlinser.

    Studiens syfte var att ta reda på om Sveriges kontaktlinsoptiker har ändrat sitt sätt att rapportera kontaktlinsrelaterade skador efter avregleringen trätt i kraft samt att reda ut vilka skyldigheter optiker i Sverige har gällande kontaktlinser enligt lagen.

    En enkät omfattande 13 frågor skapades i form av en webbaserad enkät med hjälp av programmet Google Docs (http://docs.google.com). Den innefattade frågor om hur svenska optiker rapporterar/rapporterade kontaktlinsrelaterade skador innan och efter lagändringen 1 januari 2011 trädde i kraft. Enkäten skickades ut med hjälp av Optikerförbundets ordförande till dess medlemmar i ett medlemsutskick.

    Det inkom 81 svar under svarsperioden, vilken medför att svarsfrekvensen blev 5,4 %. 34 stycken, 42 %, uppgav att deras arbetsplats hade en policy gällande inrapportering av kontaktlinsrelaterade skador. Det finns inget som tyder på att varje kedja har upprättat en policy som de följer, utan det är upptill varje optikerverksamhet om de vill ha en policy och i så fall vilken. Det var 25 stycken, 31 %, som uppgav att de ändrat sitt sätt att rapportera efter att lagändringen trätt i kraft. Den vanligaste anledningen till att de ändrat sitt sätt att rapportera var att de tidigare inte hade kunskap om att rapportera. Både innan och efter lagändringen trätt i kraft är det vanligaste svaret hos de svarande att de aldrig rapporterar kontaktlinsrelaterade skador. Dock har antalet gått ner från 56 stycken, 70 %, innan lagändringen till 35 stycken, 43 %, efter lagändringen trätt i kraft.

    Inrapporteringen har ökat, men det finns fortfarande ett stort antal svenska optiker som aldrig rapporterar kontaktlinsrelaterade skador. Den kunskapsluckan som finns gällande avvikelserapportering börjar fyllas igen, men fortfarande finns bristande kunskap hos svenska optiker gällande avvikelserapportering.

  • 162.
    Das, Supriyo Kumar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bendle, James
    Routh, Joyanto
    Evaluating branched tetraether lipid-based palaeotemperature proxies in an urban, hyper-eutrophic polluted lake in South Africa2012In: Organic Geochemistry, ISSN 0146-6380, E-ISSN 1873-5290, Vol. 53, p. 45-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the application of the branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (br GDGT) based palaeotemperature and palaeoenvironmental proxy to a hyper-eutrophic, polluted and shallow oxic lake. Lake Zeekoevlei is the largest freshwater lake in South Africa, located close to Cape Town. We use published lake-based and soil-based calibration equations, and compare the reconstructed mean annual air temperature (MAT) with regional (South African) and local (Cape Town) instrumental temperature records. The distribution of br GDGTs in the lake sediments is influenced by air temperature. The lake-based calibration equation, which uses the methylation index of branched tetraethers/cyclisation ratio of branched tetraethers (MBT/CBT), formulated for African lakes (. Tierney et al., 2010), fits well with the instrumental temperature records. Moreover, the CBT-derived pH likely reflects historic socioeconomic changes in catchment. Our results suggest that a polluted/hyper-eutrophic status and shallow water urban setting do not preclude application of the MBT/CBT-MAT proxy. However, further research is necessary to understand the behaviour of br GDGT-producing bacteria in polluted and highly productive lakes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 163.
    de Sa Salomao, Andre Luis
    et al.
    Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Severo, Raul Goncalves
    da Cruz Roque, Odir Clecio
    Engineered ecosystem for on-site wastewater treatment in tropical areas2012In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 66, no 10, p. 2131-2137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a worldwide demand for decentralized wastewater treatment options. An on-site engineered ecosystem (EE) treatment plant was designed with a multistage approach for small wastewater generators in tropical areas. The array of treatment units included a septic tank, a submersed aerated filter, and a secondary decanter followed by three vegetated tanks containing aquatic macrophytes intercalated with one tank of algae. During 11 months of operation with a flow rate of 52 L h(-1), the system removed on average 93.2% and 92.9% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reaching final concentrations of 36.3 +/- 12.7 and 13.7 +/- 4.2 mg L-1, respectively. Regarding ammonia-N (NH4-N) and total phosphorus (TP), the system removed on average 69.8% and 54.5% with final concentrations of 18.8 +/- 9.3 and 14.0 +/- 2.5 mg L-1, respectively. The tanks with algae and macrophytes together contributed to the overall nutrient removal with 33.6% for NH4-N and 26.4% for TP. The final concentrations for all parameters except TP met the discharge threshold limits established by Brazilian and EU legislation. The EE was considered appropriate for the purpose for which it was created.

  • 164.
    Delius, Mathilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sker det en förutsägbar förändring av denperifera refraktionen med kontaktlinser?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När man tillpassar en kontaktlins på ögat korrigeras det centrala synfelet, utan att man känner till hur kontaktlinsen påverkar den perifera refraktionen.Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vad som sker med den perifera refraktionen vid tillpassning av kommersiella mjuka månads- och endagarslinser.28 försökspersoner refraktionerades med en vågfrontssensor (COAS – HD VR) centralt, 20 grader i det nasala samt 20 grader i det temporala synfältet. De försökspersoner som uppfyllde urvalskriterierna; astigmatism mindre än -0,50DC samt kontaktlinsvana, tillpassades med Biofinity och Proclear 1 day innan refraktionen mättes igen, igenom kontaktlinsen.Resultatet visar att både Biofinity och Proclear 1 day korrigerar det centrala synfelet bra till skillnad från det som ses i det nasala synfältet i vilket en mer positiv överrefraktion observerades. Det temporala synfältet följde samma korrigeringsmönster i genomsnitt, dock var resultaten mellan försökspersonerna utspridda för samtliga mätpunkter.Slutsatsen som kan dras av denna studie är att korrigering av den perifera refraktionen måste ske individuellt på grund av att den perifera refraktionsprofilen varierar mellan individer och därmed kan man inte korrigera efter ett genomsnittligt värde.

  • 165. Demirel, Isak
    et al.
    Vumma, Ravi
    Mohlin, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Svensson, Lovisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Säve, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Persson, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nitric Oxide Activates IL-6 Production and Expression in Human Renal Epithelial Cells2012In: American Journal of Nephrology, ISSN 0250-8095, E-ISSN 1421-9670, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 524-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Increased nitric oxide (NO) production or inducible form of NO synthase activity have been documented in patients suffering from urinary tract infection (UTI), but the role of NO in this infection is unclear. We investigated whether NO can affect the host response in human renal epithelial cells by modulating IL-6 production and mRNA expression. Methods: The human renal epithelial cell line A498 was infected with a uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain and/or the NO donor DETA/NO. The IL-6 production and mRNA expression were evaluated by ELISA and real-time RT-PCR. IL-6 mRNA stability was evaluated by analyzing mRNA degradation by real-time RT-PCR. Results: DETA/NO caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in IL-6 production. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling, but not JNK, were shown to significantly suppress DETA/NO-induced IL-6 production. UPEC-induced IL-6 production was further increased (by 73 +/- 23%, p < 0.05) in the presence of DETA/NO. The IL-6 mRNA expression increased 2.1 +/- 0.17-fold in response to DETA/NO, while the UPEC-evoked increase was pronounced (20 +/- 4.5-fold). A synergistic effect of DETA/NO on UPEC-induced IL-6 expression was found (33 +/- 7.2-fold increase). The IL-6 mRNA stability studies showed that DETA/NO partially attenuated UPEC-induced degradation of IL-6 mRNA. Conclusions: NO was found to stimulate IL-6 in renal epithelial cells through p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and also to increase IL-6 mRNA stability in UPEC-infected cells. This study proposes a new role for NO in the host response during UTI by modulating the transcription and production of the cytokine IL-6. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 166.
    Dinasquet, Julie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Granhag, Lena
    University of Gothenburg ; Chalmers University of Technology.
    Riemann, Lasse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stimulated bacterioplankton growth and selection for certain bacterial taxa in the vicinity of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi2012In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 3, article id 302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Episodic blooms of voracious gelatinous zooplankton, such as the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, affect pools of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon by intensive grazing activities and mucus release. This will potentially influence bacterioplankton activity and community composition, at least at local scales; however, available studies on this are scarce. In the present study we examined effects of M. leidyi on bacterioplankton growth and composition in incubation experiments. Moreover, we examined community composition of bacteria associated with the surface and gut of M. leidyi. High release of ammonium and high bacterial growth was observed in the treatments with M. leidyi relative to controls. Deep 454 pyrosequencing of 16 S rRNA genes showed specific bacterial communities in treatments with M. leidyi as well as specific communities associated with M. leidyi tissue and gut. In particular, members of Flavobacteriaceae were associated with M. leidyi. Our study shows that M. leidyi influences bacterioplankton activity and community composition in the vicinity of the jellyfish. In particular during temporary aggregations of jellyfish, these local zones of high bacterial growth may contribute significantly to the spatial heterogeneity of bacterioplankton activity and community composition in the sea.

  • 167.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Physiological adaptations and biotechnological applications of acidophiles2012In: Extremophiles: Microbiology and Biotechnology / [ed] Anitori RP, Norfolk UK: Caister Academic Press, 2012, p. 265-294Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 168.
    Dopson, Mark
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Johnson, D. Barrie
    Biodiversity, metabolism and applications of acidophilic sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms2012In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 14, no 10, p. 2620-2631Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extremely acidic, sulfur-rich environments can be natural, such as solfatara fields in geothermal and volcanic areas, or anthropogenic, such as acid mine drainage waters. Many species of acidophilic bacteria and archaea are known to be involved in redox transformations of sulfur, using elemental sulfur and inorganic sulfur compounds as electron donors or acceptors in reactions involving between one and eight electrons. This minireview describes the nature and origins of acidic, sulfur-rich environments, the biodiversity of sulfur-metabolizing acidophiles, and how sulfur is metabolized and assimilated by acidophiles under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Finally, existing and developing technologies that harness the abilities of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing acidophiles to extract and capture metals, and to remediate sulfur-polluted waste waters are outlined.

  • 169.
    Drab, Dominika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Synen på diagnostiska droppar bland Sveriges optiker2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Behörighetsutredning tillsattes år 2009 för att ta reda på huruvida legitimerade svenska op-tiker med kontaktlinsbehörighet bör få använda diagnostika eller ej. Ett godkännande skulle innebära utökade arbetsuppgifter och större ansvar.

    Syftet med denna studie var att ta reda på hur svenska optiker ställer sig till en eventuell lagändring där diagnostika godkänns som hjälpmedel i det kliniska arbetet. Även viljan att vidareutbildas för att få behörigheten utreds.

    Enkäter i pappersform skickades ut till optiker i Sveriges alla 21 län. Det som tillfrågades var bland annat inställning till diagnostiska droppar som hjälpmedel, inställning till vidare-utbildning, kön, ålder, kedjetillhörighet, antal år i branschen samt antal år som kontaktlins-behörig.

    53 personer deltog i undersökningen, varav 30 kvinnor och 23 män. 64 % av alla frågade ställer sig positivt till förslaget. Män visar sig vara mer positiva än kvinnor. Vad gäller vil-jan att vidareutbildas valde de allra flesta alternativet "inte nu" då frågan ställdes.

    De allra flesta legitimerade optiker med kontaktlinsbehörighet är positivt inställda till an-vändande av diagnostiska droppar. I framtiden bör man utreda hur inställningen är då dia-gnostiska droppar får användas.

  • 170.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Tullborg, Eva-Lena
    Terralogica AB, Gråbo, Sweden.
    Hogmalm, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Trace metal distribution and isotope variations in low-temperature calcite and groundwaters in granitoid fractures down to 1 km depth2012In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 84, p. 217-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of low-temperature fracture calcite in Proterozoic or Archaean crystalline rocks are very limited, mainly becausethis calcite usually is, first, not very abundant and second, very fine-grained or forms rims on older (and much more abundant)hydrothermal calcite and is thus difficult to distinguish. Knowledge of chemical characteristics and the correlation withgroundwater chemistry is thus scarce for low-temperature calcite in these settings, and consequently, knowledge of the recentpalaeohydrogeological history is limited. Boreholes drilled with triple-tube technique in the upper 1 km of the Palaeoproterozoiccrystalline crust at Laxemar, SE Sweden, have enabled preservation of fragile and potentially recently formed fractureminerals. Earlier investigations of these boreholes have resulted in an extensive set of groundwater chemistry data from variousdepths, and in detailed knowledge of the fracture mineral assemblages (ranging from 1.8 Ga to present). This has made itpossible to identify and sample low-temperature, potentially recently formed, calcite from water-flowing fractures for whichrepresentative groundwater chemical data exists. This, in turn, provides an opportunity to detailed comparisons of fracturecalcite (age span in the order of million years, with possibility of post-glacial contributes) and groundwater (age in the order ofdecades to more than a million year depending on depth) in terms of both isotopic and geochemical properties, giving input tothe understanding of groundwater history, partition coefficients derived in laboratory experiment, and reliability of calcitegeochemistry in terms of representing the actual source fluid composition. In this study, the focus is on trace elements (Fe,Mg, Mn and Sr), stable isotopes and Sr isotopes and, for the groundwater data set, also aquatic speciation with Visual MINTEQ.An optimised step-by-step sample specific analytical procedure was used for the collection of calcite coatings. The methodsused depended on the crystal homogeneity (one or several calcite generations), discerned by detailed SEM-investigations(back-scatter and cathodo-luminescence). 87Sr/86Sr ratios as well as d18O signatures in calcite are in the range expected for theprecipitates from present-day groundwater, or older groundwater with similar composition (except in sections with a considerableportion of glacial water, where calcite definitely is older than the latest glaciation). Stable carbon isotopes in calcitegenerally show values typically associated with HCO3 originating from soil organic matter but at intermediate depth frequentlywith HCO3 originating from in situ microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (highly depleted d13C). For one ofthe studied metals – manganese – there was a strong correlation between the sampled calcite coatings and hypothetical calcitepredicted by applying laboratory-based partition coefficients (literature data) on groundwater chemistry for sections correspondingto those where the calcites were sampled. This points to temporal and spatial stability in groundwater Mn/Ca ratiosover millions of years, or even more, and show that it is possible to assess, based on laboratory-derived data on Mn partitioning,past groundwater Mn-composition from fracture calcites. For other metals – Fe, Sr, and Mg – which are expected to interact with co-precipitating minerals to a higher degree than Mn, the correlations between measured and predicted calcitewere weaker for various reasons.

  • 171.
    Duong-Thi, Minh-Dao
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Meiby, Elinor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bergström, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Fex, Tomas
    Isaksson, Roland
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ohlson, Sten
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Weak affinity chromatography as a new approach for fragment screening in drug discovery2011In: Analytical Biochemistry, ISSN 0003-2697, E-ISSN 1096-0309, Vol. 414, no 1, p. 138-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is currently being implemented in drug discovery, creating a demand for developing efficient techniques for fragment screening. Due to the intrinsic weak or transient binding of fragments (mM–uM in dissociation constant (KD)) to targets, methods must be sensitive enough to accurately detect and quantify an interaction. This study presents weak affinity chromatography (WAC) as an alternative tool for screening of small fragments. The technology was demonstrated by screening of a selected 23 compound fragment collection of documented binders, mostly amidines, using trypsin and thrombin as model target protease proteins. WAC was proven to be a sensitive, robust, and reproducible technique that also provides information about affinity of a fragment in the range of 1 mM–10uM. Furthermore, it has potential for high throughput as was evidenced by analyzing mixtures in the range of 10 substances by WAC–MS. The accessibility and flexibility of the technology were shown as fragment screening can be performed on standard HPLC equipment. The technology can further be miniaturized and adapted to the requirements of affinity ranges of the fragment library. All these features of WAC make it a potential method in drug discovery for fragment screening.

  • 172.
    Dzafic, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Genotypisk bestämning av ESBL-producerande E. coli isolerade i Kronobergs län 20092010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vanlig tarmbakterie som Escherichia coli (E. coli) kan bland annat orsaka infektioner i bukhålan och urinvägsinfektioner. Infektioner orsakade av bakterien har ofta behandlats med betalaktamantibiotika, som penicilliner och cefalosporiner, vilket har resulterat i selektion av antibiotikaresistenta bakterier. Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) är enzymer som hydrolyserar 3:e generationens cefalosporiner som cefotaxim, ceftazidim och ceftriaxon, men kan även bryta ner penicilliner, monobaktamer och övriga cefalosporiner. ESBL förekommer främst hos E. coli och Klebsiella pneumoniae. I början utgjordes ESBL-enzymerna av TEM och SHV, men idag är CTX-M den vanligaste ESBL-varianten. CTX-M genen finns i över 50 olika varianter, vilka delas in i fem subgrupper (CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-8, CTX-M-9 och CTX-M-25). Syfte med arbetet var att utföra en genotypisk bestämning av ESBL-producerande E. coli, som isolerats i Kronobergs län 2009, med hjälp av realtids-PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). För detektion av CTX-M användes multiplex-realtids-PCR med vilken de fem olika grupperna kunde detekteras under samma PCR-analys. Resultatet visade att den vanligaste ESBL-varianten bland ESBL-producerande E. coli i Kronobergs län 2009 var CTX-M-1 (88 positiva av 123), men ett stort antal var positiva både för CTX-M-1 och TEM (41 isolat). Den minst förekommande varianten visade sig vara SHV (2 isolat). En ökad antibiotikaresistens kan leda till svårigheter att behandla vissa vanliga infektioner som urinvägsinfektioner och infektioner efter bukoperationer. Med tanke på att E. coli är en vanlig tarmbakterie är det viktigt att motverka uppkomst och spridning av ESBL. En genotypisk karaktärisering av förekommande ESBL-stammar i Kronoberg är därför en viktig del av övervakningen.

  • 173.
    Düring, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    En jämförelse av standard CSF och quickCSF i den perifera näthinnan med statiska och dynamiska stimuli2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 174.
    Edfors, Inger
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Torremorrel, M
    Univ Minnesota.
    Escherichia coli and Salmonella in pigs2010In: Breeding for Disease Resistance in Farm Animals / [ed] RFA Axford, S Bishop, F Nicholas, JB Owen, Walllingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 2010, 3rd, p. 232-250Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diarrhoea due to bacterial infections is a problem mainly in the young growing animal, including the pig. Among the bacteria that cause diarrhoea in pigs are various strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Considerable genetic variation in resistance/susceptibility has been found for both neonatal and post-weaning diarrhoea caused by E. coli carrying F4 fimbriae and post-weaning diarrhoea and oedema disease due to E. coli strains with F18 fimbriae. The loci for the receptors of both types of fimbriae have been mapped: the F4 receptor(s) to chromosome 13 (SSC13) and the F18 receptor to chromosome 6 (SSC6). Several candidate genes have been suggested for the F4 receptor, among them different mucine genes (MUC4, MUC13), and a very close association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in an alpha (1, 2) fucosyltransferase gene (FUT1) and the F18 receptor has been identified.Resistance to Salmonella infections in mice is associated with the antimicrobial activity of macrophages, and some studies have suggested that it is linked with polymorphism in the Nramp1 gene. The gene has been identified in several species including the pig, but data are so far lacking concerning association between polymorphism in the porcine gene and resistance-susceptibility to Salmonella infection. Using transcriptome profiles, several porcine genes that are differentially up or downregulated during Salmonella infection have been identified. Further studies of associations between polymorphisms in these genes and the outcome of Salmonella infection may facilitate the development of tools to identify carrier pigs, and lead towards identification of markers that can be used to select for resistant pigs.Breeding for increased disease resistance can be potentially performed in several ways; excluding susceptible breeding of animals after exposure, marker-assisted selection (MAS) based on closely linked loci or direct selection based on polymorphism in the causative gene. The rapid development in molecular genetics has provided dense genome maps and the tools to identify and study individual genes, both at the deoxyribonuclease acid (DNA) and the expression level. Overall use of genetic markers influencing disease traits is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. This number will grow as large-scale accurate disease phenotypes are collected in pedigreed populations. It is likely that many disease markers will contribute additively to the selection criteria and will be used as part of complex selection indices that will balance other economically significant traits.

  • 175.
    Edfors, Inger
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wikman, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Cedric, Linder
    Uppsala Universitet.
    An exploration of how university students relate to representations used within two different science disciplines2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 176.
    Edgren, Ellen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Analys av vitamin B12 i tillagad och återuppvärmd lax genom bioassay med Lactobacillus delbrueckii subart lactis ATCC® 7830TM2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Halten näringsämnen i livsmedel varierar bland annat med tillagningsmetod, lagringstid och lagringsförhållanden, som exponering för ljus och syre. Oklarheter finns för mikrovågors inverkan på näringsämnen och framförallt på vitamin B12. Eftersom många äldre drabbas av brist på vitamin B12, är detta av intresse eftersom många hemmaboende äldre människor får hemleverans av färdiga matportioner som är avsedda att värmas, ofta i mikrovågsugn. Syftet med studien var att kunna ge en indikation på om uppvärmning genom mikrovågor påverkar halten vitamin B12 i färdiga kylda måltider. Detta gjordes genom litteratursammanställning om vitamin B12 och mikrovågar samt genom bioassay med Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Vitamin B12 i ouppvärmd lax, lax värmd i mikrovågsugn samt lax värmd i konventionell ugn analyserades. Tillväxten av bakterier uppskattades genom mätning av turbiditet. Högst vitamin B12-halt sågs i mikrovågsvärmd lax, därefter ouppvärmd lax och ugnsvärmd lax. Statistiskt signifikanta skillnader sågs för analyserade vitamin B12-halter mellan ouppvärmt- och ugnsvärmt prov respektive mellan mikrovågsvärmt- och ugnsvärmt prov. De varierande vitaminhalterna kan bero på metodfel, otillräcklig vitaminextraktion eller att bakterierna inte konsumerat allt tillgängligt vitamin vid turbiditetsmätning. Slutsatsen av studien är att halten vitamin B12 i livsmedel inte verkar påverkas negativt av mikrovågor, däremot finns tendenser att halten minskar beroende av temperatur och tillagningstid.

  • 177.
    Edgren, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Skötselförslag på utvalda nyckelbiotoper i Kalmar och Kronobergs län.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to contribute with suggestions of nature preservation managements of selected forest objects of high nature values managed by the Swedish state-owned forest company Sveaskog. Many forests with high natural potential are relatively rare today due to modern forestry, where wood production is the main purpose. Sveaskog’s policy is to consider and to priority nature conservation on valuable objects. This assessment includes objects that in the future may develop into nature reserves. By identifying key objects of high nature values in the database of Sveaskog, 29 of 69 objects were selected for further field studies in the survey in the area of Hultsfred, Vimmerby and Växjö County. Finally, 19 objects were selected by various reasons. Based on the biological requirements of a number of observed vulnerable species, management strategies in order to improve the flora and fauna at the sites were proposed. From the field studies I consider the majority of the objects were in a relatively good state for preservation of high nature values. However, at a number of sites the ingrowth of spruce has to be reduced and at other sites the amounts of dead wood has to increase. Conclusively, the majority of the studied forest sites of Sveaskog are in a good state for nature preservation, although some need an improved management.

  • 178.
    Egfors, Angelica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Utredning av koldioxid för transporter samt livscykelvärdering av monteringsdetalj  : Carrab Brake Parts AB2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöarbete för företag blir allt mer viktigt för att kunna konkurrera med sin verksamhet och leder samtidigt ofta till andra konkurrensfördelar. Olika företag ställer krav på sina leverantörer att de ska visa ett aktivt miljöarbete för att kunna få uppdrag eller kontrakt. Ett sätt för företag att visa för kunder och intressenter att man aktivt jobbar med miljöfrågor är att införa ett ledningssystem för miljöarbete, t.ex. ISO 14001:2004. Detta är en internationell standard för miljöledningssystem och certifiering sker efter granskning från tredje part av implementerat ledningssystem.   Studien har gjorts i samarbete med företaget Carrab Brake Parts AB, som inom kort tänker påbörja sitt arbete med att införa standarden. Syftet med studien har därför varit att försöka utreda hur stor miljöpåverkan företaget har från sin största miljöaspekt, vilket är transporter, samt att göra en livscykelvärdering på den produkt företaget säljer mest av, vilket är en monteringsdetalj i rostfritt stål som ska sitta i direkt anslutning till bromsbeläggen på bilar och lastbilar.

    För att kunna uppskatta miljöpåverkan och då främst utsläppen av koldioxid har programvaran SimaPro 7,3 använts, samt uppgifter främst från databasen IDEMAT 2001. Uppgifter om transportsätt, antal frakter, vikter m.m. har tillhandahållits från företaget. Samtliga uppgifter är från år 2011.

    Resultatet visar att företaget har störst påverkan från sina båttransporter, samt att påverkan från vägtransporterna är minimal i förhållande till de andra. Resultatet från livscykelvärderingen visar att utsläpp från transportfasen av produkten i princip är lika stor som materialframställnings- samt tillverkningsfasen tillsammans.

    Slutsats blir att företaget idag till störst del använder sig av det transportsätt som anses bidrar minst till påverkan på miljön, även om den totala påverkan blir relativt stor. Att flytta företagets produktion till ett ställe närmare företagets bas i Kalmar skulle minska utsläppen betydligt.

  • 179.
    Einarsson, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Jämförelse mellan olika filterglas från Multilens på synsvaga patienter med bländningsbesvär2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare Multilens Bilux Iris against their regular polarized filter-glasses on low vision subjects with pronounced light sensitivity.

    A total of 15 people aged 42-89 years participated in the study. All were patients at the low-vision clinic at the hospital in Kalmar, Sweden. Patients were recruited during a prior routine examination whereby they were asked if they would be willing to participate in a study in which they would have the chance to try an extra pair of filter-glasses. The patients were recalled after a few weeks for the examination. Patients’ high- and low contrast visual acuity was measured both with and without glare. An interview with all of the patients was also conducted regarding the different filter lenses.

    This study showed no significant difference in high contrast or low contrast visual acuity, with or without the different filters examined during this study. A subjective difference was however detected between filters under certain situations.

  • 180.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Occurrence of prescriptions for noncurrent - changed or terminated -treatment and prescription duplicates in electronic medical records and the Swedish national prescription repository2010In: The 14th European Symposium on Patient Adherence, COMpliance and Persistence, LODZ, POLAND 17-18.09.2010, Lodz.Polen, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patient adherence to prescribed treatment for chronic conditions has been estimated to be on average about 50% [1] and drug related problems may cause as much as 30% of acute admittances to hospital care [2]. Discrepancies between medical records and patients’ actual current medication are common [3-5].

     

    The objective of the present study was to compare current prescribed treatment stated by patients with the printouts from the electronic medical record (EMR) and the Swedish national prescription repository (NPR) with regard to (1) prescriptions for noncurrent (previously changed or terminated) treatment, (2) prescription duplicates and (3) missing prescriptions.

     

    Design: Cross-sectional study. Patients over 18 years of age with 5 or more prescriptions stored in the NPR or the EMR, with follow-up visit at a health care centre or visiting a pharmacy, were invited to the study. Patients giving written informed consent to participate were interviewed. The stated prescribed current, ongoing treatment was compared with printouts of prescribed medication from the EMR and of the stored prescriptions in the NPR.

     

    Main Outcome Measures: Proportions of prescriptions for (a) noncurrent treatment (changed or terminated), (b) prescription duplicates and (c) missing prescriptions in the EMR and the NPR.

     

    Results: 216 patients with altogether 2515 prescriptions were included. In total, 71% were unique prescriptions for current ongoing treatment, 17% were prescriptions for noncurrent treatment (changed or terminated therapy) and 11% were prescription duplicates. Of 2195 prescriptions in the EMR, 75% were unique prescriptions for current treatment, 13% were noncurrent, 11% were prescription duplicates and 8% of the current prescriptions were missing. Of 1904 prescriptions in the NPR, 75% were unique prescriptions for current ongoing medication, 13% were noncurrent prescriptions, 11% were prescription duplicates and 20% of the current prescriptions were missing. The EMR and the NPR contained ≥1 noncurrent prescription or duplicate for 76% and 69% of patients.

     

    Conclusion: Prescriptions for noncurrent treatment and prescription duplicates as well as missing prescriptions are common in both EMR and the Swedish NPR. Consequently, claims data based on data of prescribed medicines in the EMR or the stored prescriptions in NPR contain many errors. Adherence estimates measured as “claims data” for prescriptions in the EMR and NPR may deviate significantly from true figures.

  • 181.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Al-Fakhri, Marwa
    Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Andersson, Clara
    Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Babic, Dina
    Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Lubarsky, Nadja
    Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Ly, Helen
    Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Comparison of prescription data in the electronic medical record, stored prescriptions in the Swedish national prescription repository and the current prescribed treatment stated by patients2010In: Pharmacy World & Science, ISSN 0928-1231, E-ISSN 1573-739X, Vol. 32, p. 678-679Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirty percent of the prescriptions in the EMR and one fourth of all prescriptions in the NPR were either non-current treatment or prescription duplicates. The present data show that printouts of the prescriptions in both the EMR and the NPR contain many errors. Printouts may be confusing and if patients are not fully aware of their prescribed present treatment, medical errors may occur. The problem may be aggravated by generic substitution

  • 182.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Brosius, Helen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Julia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Yngvesson, M
    Differences between the data in the electronic medical record, the prescriptions stored in the Swedish national prescription repository and and the patient’s knowledge of the present treatment2010In: Pharmacy World & Science, ISSN 0928-1231, E-ISSN 1573-739X, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 679-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective Patient adherence to prescribed treatmentfor chronic conditions has been estimated to be on average about 50%(1), drug related problems may cause as much as 30% of acuteadmittances to hospital care (2), and the costs have been estimated tobe of the same magnitude as the direct costs for pharmaceutical drugs.A reason for lack of adherence to the treatment and medication errorsmay be that patients with many drugs, especially when changes in thetreatment have occurred, may have knowledge gaps on the drugsrepresenting the actual prescribed treatment.

    E-prescribing, from the physicians’ electronic medical record(EMR) directly to the pharmacies, constitute[75% of all prescriptionsin Sweden and [70% of patients in Sweden store theirprescriptions electronically at the national prescription repository(NPR), accessible from any pharmacy in Sweden. Any new e-prescriptionwill automatically be stored in the NPR.However, the NPR may contain both prescriptions for the present,actual treatment, prescription duplicates, and prescriptions for previous,terminated or changed treatment. For patients with manymedications and/or many changes in the treatment it is obvious thatthe risk for medication errors is increased.The objective of the present study was to compare the prescribedtreatment in the EMR, the prescriptions in the NPR, and patient’sknowledge of her/his present prescribed treatment.Design Compare prescribed treatment in the EMR with the prescriptionsin the NPR, and patients knowledge of her/his presentprescribed treatment with regard to prescriptions; prescribed drug,strength; formula and dosing.Setting Ten HCCs in four cities in Sweden, February 2010.Main outcome measures Differences between the computerisedpatients health care journal record and the prescriptions in the NPR,and patients view of her/his actual present prescribed treatment withregard to prescriptions; prescribed drug, strength; formula and dosing.Results The results are available in March 2010.Conclusions Conclusion.

    References1. Adherence to long-term therapies: evidence for action. WHO,2003.2. Fryckstedt J, Asker-Hagelberg C. Drug-related problems commonat the medical acute care clinic—the cause of admission foralmost one-third of patients. [Läkemedelsrelaterade problemvanliga på medicinakuten - Orsak till inläggning hos nästan vartredje patient, enligt kvalitetsuppföljning] Läkartidningen 2008;105(12–13): 894–898.

  • 183.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Brosius, Helen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Julia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Yngvesson, Maria
    Discrepancies between the electronic medical record, the prescriptions in the Swedish national prescription repository and the current medication reported by patients.2011In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 1177-1183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To study discrepancies between (i) the prescribed current treatment stated by patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) compared with patients with other chronic diseases, (ii) the data in the medication list (ML) in the electronic medical record and (iii) the data in the prescription list (PL) on the prescriptions stored in the national prescription repository in Sweden, to determine current, noncurrent, duplicate and missing prescriptions.

    Methods At one healthcare centre, a random sample of patients 18 years and older with a diagnosis of CHF, diabetes mellitus (DM) or osteoarthritis (OA) provided written informed consent to participate. Participants were interviewed by telephone on the prescribed current treatment.

    Results Of 161 invited patients (61 CHF, 50 DM and 50 OA), 66 patients were included. More than 80% of the patients had at least one discrepancy, a noncurrent, a duplicate or a missing prescription, in the ML and PL. The overall congruence for unique prescriptions on current treatment between the ML and the PL was only 55%. Patients with CHF had overall more discrepancies and patients with DM fewer discrepancies in the ML.

    Conclusions Prescriptions for noncurrent treatment, duplicates and missing prescriptions are common in both the ML in the electronic medical record and the list on prescriptions stored in the Swedish National Prescription Repository. Patients with CHF had more discrepancies in the ML. The risk for medication errors in primary care due to incorrect information on prescribed treatment may be substantial.

  • 184.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hoffman, Mikael
    The NEPI Foundation, Linköping, Sweden.
    Patients' information on the prescribed current treatment2012In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research, ISSN 1759-8885, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 79-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate how many patients, with five or more prescriptions in the Swedish National Prescription Repository (NPR) had received (1) the Medication List (ML) from the electronic medical record and (2) the Prescription List (PL) on prescriptions stored in the NPR and how these lists were used.

    Methods Patients> 18 years of age, with five or more prescriptions stored electronically in the NPR, collecting medicines on prescription for themselves at nine pharmacies all around Sweden were interviewed about their knowledge of, and if they had received, the ML, the PL and/or the pharmacy record (PR) on medicines purchased on prescription during the last 15 months, and what documentation they used to track their current, prescribed treatment.

    Key findings A total of 777 consensual patients (485 women) were interviewed. Of these, 32% were aware of the ML, but only 13% had received the MLat least once a year, and only 9% used the MLto track their current, prescribed medicines. Virtually all patients (99%) had received the PL at every pharmacy dispensing and 68% said they used the PL as documentation on their current, prescribed medicines. 52% used the dispensed packs to track their medication and 10% said they used a handwritten list. Only few patients were aware of the PR.

    Conclusion Our study shows that patients’ access to information on their prescribed medicines is not in accordance with intentions in health care. The risk for errors in medicine use at home is substantial.

  • 185.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Mattsson, Johanna
    Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Patients’ knowledge of prescriptions stored in the Swedishnational prescription repository—prescription duplicates,double medications and changed treatment2010In: Pharmacy World & Science, ISSN 0928-1231, E-ISSN 1573-739X, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 688-689Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prescriptions for non-current treatment that previously has been changed or terminated and prescription duplicates are common in the Swedish NPR. The risk for medication errors in the open care setting may be substantial.

  • 186.
    Ekelöf, Josefine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Detection of Carbapenemases in Klebsiella pneumoniae Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/IonizationTime-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 187.
    Ekman, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Tågerud, Sven
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Awareness among nurses about reporting of adverse drug reactions in Sweden2012In: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety, ISSN 1179-1365, E-ISSN 1179-1365, Vol. 4, p. 61-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate awareness among nurses regarding their new role as reporters of adverse drug reactions in Sweden and factors that may influence reporting by nurses.

    Methods: In 2007, all nurses were included in the adverse drug reaction reporting scheme in Sweden. A questionnaire was sent to 753 randomly selected nurses in September 2010.

    Results: Of the 453 (60%) responding nurses, 265 (58%) were aware that nurses were included in the reporting of adverse drug reactions. Sixty-one nurses (14%) stated that they had reported an adverse drug reaction. Fifteen percent (n = 70) of the respondents had received training about reporting of adverse drug reactions. Almost one third of these (n = 21, 30%) had reported an adverse drug reaction on at least one occasion. Among nurses without training, a smaller proportion (n = 40, 11%, P < 0.05) had reported an adverse drug reaction on at least one occasion. The two factors considered most important by nurses for reporting were the severity of the adverse drug reaction and if the reaction was to a newly approved drug. A majority of the nurses (n = 397, 88%) were interested in a training course in pharmacology as part of their ongoing professional development. One third (32%) of all nurses stated that one reason for not reporting a suspected adverse drug reaction was that the physician responsible did not regard the reaction necessary to report.

    Conclusion: We found that more than half of the study population of nurses in Sweden were aware of their new role as reporters of adverse drug reactions, but few of the responding nurses had reported an adverse drug reaction. Given that training seems to be associated with high reporting frequency, we suggest more training in pharmacovigilance for nurses.

  • 188.
    Ekstam, Börje
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Beatha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    School of Life Sciences, Södertörn University.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Clinical Bacteriology, Dept of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Predicting risk habitats for the transmission of the small liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum to grazing ruminants.2011In: Geospatial Health, ISSN 1827-1987, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 125-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multiple regression model was used to analyse if the structure of vegetation and soil patches in grazed units (pastures) can be used as explanatory variables to predict the prevalence of Dicrocoelium dendriticum, a common parasite of cattle and sheep, in grazing cattle stocks on the Baltic island of Öland in southern Sweden.

    The scale dependency was evaluated by comparing three levels of spatial resolution of patches. Prevalence data were obtained from slaughtered animals.

    Our models predict that the prevalence of D. dendriticum increases in grazed areas with woody vegetation, whereas moist and wet areas decrease parasite prevalence. The predictive power of the statistical models increased with increasing level of patch resolution. Approximately 42% of the variation in parasite prevalence (angular transformation) was explained by the areal proportion of vegetation types (4th-root-transformed).

    Based on the results obtained, we believe that our model strategy provides a rational and systematic tool to identify habitats that carry risk for D. dendriticum infection of ruminants, and that it can be applied to other parasites with similar life cycles such as Fasciola hepatica.

  • 189. EL Hiar, Raida
    et al.
    Haddad, Samir
    Jaidane, Hela
    Hober, Didier
    Ben M'hadheb-Gharbi, Manel
    Gullberg, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Neji-Guediche, Mohamed
    Lindberg, A. Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Gharbi, Jawhar
    Aouni, Mahjoub
    Enteroviral Central Nervous System Infections in Children of the Region of Monastir, Tunisia: Diagnosis, Laboratory Findings of Cerebrospinal Fluid and Clinical Manifestations2012In: Indian Journal of Virology, ISSN 0970-2822, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 294-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human enteroviruses (HEV) are one of the major causes of central nervous system (CNS) infections in pediatrics. A prospective study was conducted to assess the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of enterovirus (EV) infections of the CNS in children under 15-years-old, suspected of having viral CNS infections and admitted to the Pediatric Department of Monastir University Hospital, Tunisia. Enteroviral RNA was detected by 5' NCR nested RT-PCR assay in 33 % (20 out of 60) of cerebrospinal fluid specimens, whereas only six samples (10 %) were EV positive in cell culture. EV-positive patients were clustered according to their clinical manifestations, predominantly diagnosed as aseptic meningitis (65 %) and meningoencephalitis (20 %). Fever, headache, vomiting, and neck stiffness were the most pronounced symptoms. Pleocytosis with the predominance of lymphocytes was observed in 60 % of EV positive specimens. Although patients suffering from EV infections were encountered throughout the year, most occurred during spring and summer months. Using VP1-2A nested RT-PCR and sequence analysis, three of the 20 positive HEV were identified as Echovirus (E)-9. This is the first report of a cluster of aseptic meningitis cases caused by E-9 in Monastir.

  • 190.
    ElAwad, Lucien
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bästa optotyp för retinoskopi2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om resultatet vid statisk retinoskopi varierar om man använder olika fixationsobjekt, och i så fall vilket objekt som ger ett resultat som är närmast till den subjektiva refraktionen.

    Metod: 30 patienter i åldrarna 17-40 år undersöktes. Patienterna fick först genomgå en subjektiv refraktion varpå deras styrkor ställdes in i foroptern. Därefter utfördes en objektiv refraktion (retinoskopi) på dessa patienter medan de fokuserade på en av de tre olika fixationsobjekten. (En röd-grön tavla, en bokstav två rader större än bästa visus på patientens sämsta öga samt en LED-lampa) Testet upprepades sedan två gånger medan patienten fokuserade på resterande fixationsobjekt.

    Resultat: Resultatet från den objektiva refraktionen jämfördes med resultatet från den subjektiva refraktionen, och någon skillnad mellan fixationsobjekt kunde inte påvisas i denna studie. Den röd-gröna tavlan hade en medelavvikelse på -0,05 dioptrier, LED-lampans medelavvikelse var -0,025 dioptrier medan tavlan som visade en bokstav två rader större än bästa visus i sämsta ögat hade en medelavvikelse på – 0,012 dioptrier. Däremot uppfattade undersökaren den röd-gröna tavlan som ett bättre alternativ för retinoskopi, tack var sitt dämpade ljus som inte gav upphov till jobbiga reflexer i foroptern.

    Slutsats: Vilken av dessa fixationsobjekt som är mest lämpad för retinoskopi är en bedömningsfråga, resultats mässigt är den ingen skillnad fixationsobjekten emellan dock föredrog både undersökaren och patienterna den röd-gröna tavlan.

  • 191.
    Elfström, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bestämning av axelläget för astigmatism – Jämförelse mellan tre objektiva metoder2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Många tidigare studier har genomförts där olika objektiva metoder för att ta fram refraktionsvärden utvärderats med den subjektiva refraktionens resultat som guldstandard. Axelläget för astigmatism har dock sällan varit i fokus för dessa studier.

    Syfte: Studiens syfte var att undersöka vilken objektiv metod av retinoskopi, autorefraktor och keratometri som bäst överrensstämmer med resultaten från subjektiv refraktion när det gäller att hitta axelläget för astigmatism. Studien har undersökt vilken eller vilka av dessa objektiva metoder som bäst kan assistera undersökaren i att få fram en utgångspunkt för sin synundersökning.

    Metod: Studiens resultat har baserats på undersökningar av 21 försökspersoner med en regelbunden astigmatism på ≥-0.75 DC på minst ett öga. De objektiva testerna utfördes först varefter en binokulär subjektiv refraktion genomfördes.

    Resultat: Resultaten analyserades genom att differensen för avvikelsen i axelläge mellan subjektiv refraktion och varje objektiv metod togs fram. Studien fann att autorefraktorn uppvisade det lägsta medelvärdet för avvikelse där skillnaden mot de andra två metoderna var statistiskt signifikant. Ingen statistiskt signifikant skillnad fanns mellan de andra metodernas medelvärden. För astigmatism ≥-1.50 D sågs ingen statistiskt signifikant skillnad mellan medelvärdena för avvikelse i axelläge för någon av metoderna.

    Slutsats: Autorefraktorn är den metod som bäst överensstämmer med subjektiv refraktion för bestämning av axelläget för astigmatism, följt av retinoskopi och keratometri som är likvärdiga metoder. Samtliga metoder uppvisar dock godtagbara resultat. Resultaten tyder också på att alla tre objektiva metoder är likvärdiga för cylinderstyrkor ≥-1.50 D.

  • 192.
    Elfving, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University Hospital ; Falu Hospital.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University Hospital.
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University Hospital.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control.
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå University Hospital.
    Mejlon, Hans
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    Uppsala University Hospital ; Falu Hospital ; Uppsala University.
    Dissemination of Spotted Fever Rickettsia Agents in Europe by Migrating Birds2010In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 1, article id e8572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migratory birds are known to play a role as long-distance vectors for many microorganisms. To investigate whether this is true of rickettsial agents as well, we characterized tick infestation and gathered ticks from 13,260 migratory passerine birds in Sweden. A total of 1127 Ixodes spp. ticks were removed from these birds and the extracted DNA from 957 of them was available for analyses. The DNA was assayed for detection of Rickettsia spp. using real-time PCR, followed by DNA sequencing for species identification. Rickettsia spp. organisms were detected in 108 (11.3%) of the ticks. Rickettsia helvetica, a spotted fever rickettsia associated with human infections, was predominant among the PCR-positive samples. In 9 (0.8%) of the ticks, the partial sequences of 17kDa and ompB genes showed the greatest similarity to Rickettsia monacensis, an etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever-like illness, previously described in southern Europe as well as to the Rickettsia sp. IrITA3 strain. For 15 (1.4%) of the ticks, the 17kDa, ompB, gltA and ompA genes showed the greatest similarity to Rickettsia sp. strain Davousti, Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis, all closely phylogenetically related, the former previously found in Amblyomma tholloni ticks in Africa and previously not detected in Ixodes spp. ticks. The infestation prevalence of ticks infected with rickettsial organisms was four times higher among ground foraging birds than among other bird species, but the two groups were equally competent in transmitting Rickettsia species. The birds did not seem to serve as reservoir hosts for Rickettsia spp., but in one case it seems likely that the bird was rickettsiemic and that the ticks had acquired the bacteria from the blood of the bird. In conclusion, migratory passerine birds host epidemiologically important vector ticks and Rickettsia species and contribute to the geographic distribution of spotted fever rickettsial agents and their diseases.

  • 193.
    Elgström, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Preparation and characterization of pretargeting molecules: The antibody BR96-Streptavidin conjugate2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In pretargeted radio immunotherapy, one molecule is administrated to bind to the target cell, e.g. a tumour cell, and after clearance another molecule, a radio labeled effecter molecule, which binds to the pretargeting molecule, is administrated.

    Aim: In this thesis work methods are tested and validated for conjugation of a monoclonal antibody with streptavidin by two separate conjugation methods. One of the methods involves sulfo-SMCC (sulfo-Succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate) and SATA (S-acetylthioacetic acid) and the other one is based on the Staudinger reaction with NHS-azide and NHS-phosphine. Moreover, preparation of F(ab)2- and Fab-fragments of the monoclonal antibody with immobilized pepsin and papain, respectively,  is evaluated. The plan is that the antibody-streptavidin conjugate shall be used as a pretargeting molecule while radio labelled biotin will be used as an effecter molecule.

    Method: The formed conjugates are evaluated by using Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100, by  immunoreactivity investigations, and to some extent by gel filtration using an ÄKTA system.

    Result: The sulfo-SMCC reaction results in conjugates with higher immunoreactivity than the  Staudinger based reaction, which seems to be more efficient. The conjugates prepared by the later method might be less functional due to the fast reaction resulting in undetectable large multi-complexes.

    Conclusion: Streptavidin-IgG complexes were efficiently formed by both conjugation procedures used. However, it was difficult to characterize the obtained complexes by the utilised methods.

  • 194. El-Sayed, Ashraf
    et al.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Twidle, Andrew
    Mitchell, Vanessa
    Manning, Lee-Anne
    Cole, Lyn
    Suckling, David M
    Flores, Fernanda M
    Zaviezo, Tania
    Bergmann, Jan
    Chrysanthemyl 2-acetoxy-3-methylbutanoate: the sex pheromone of the citrophilous mealybug Pseudococcus calceolariae2010In: Tetrahedron Letters, ISSN 0040-4039, E-ISSN 1359-8562, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 1075-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Headspace volatiles collected from virgin females of the citrophilous mealybug, Pseudococcus calceolariae, contain three Compounds not present in the headspace of control samples. The main female-specific compound is identified as[2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropyl]methyl 2-acetoxy-3-methylbutanoate (chrysanthemyl 2-acetoxy-3-methylbutanoate). The other two compounds are identified as [2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropyl]methanol (chrysanthemol) and [2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropyl]methyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoate (chrysanthemyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoate). Traps baited with 100 mu g and 1000 mu g of chrysanthemyl 2-acetoxy-3-methylbutanoate captured 4- and 20-fold more males than traps baited with virgin females.

  • 195.
    Emilsson, Erica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Vilka underlag för sin receptordinerade läkemedelsbehandling använder sig kvinnor respektive män av?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Obtaining accurate and sufficient information about prescribed drug therapy is a prerequisite for a patient to implement the treatment in a satisfying way. Which medicines should be used, why should they be used, how should they be used (dosage, administration) and for how long should the therapy last – all these questions should be answered with an accurate source. The information on different sources can differ and therefore contain incorrect information. This may result in medication errors, which in turn can have serious consequences for the patient’s health.

    From the electronic patient record (EMR), the patient can receive a list of the doctor’s prescriptions. This list contains information about product name, dosage and indication of the medicine prescribed. In the national prescription repository (NPR), the prescriptions sent electronically (almost all of the Swedish prescriptions) are saved and can be obtained and dispensed at any pharmacy. The patient can also receive a list from the NPR, containing information about all saved prescriptions in the repository. The list contains information about product name, dosage and indication. The doctor can not make changes in this repository. To be informed of what dispenses has been executed during the last 15 months, the patient can ask for another list from the national prescription repository (NPR). This list contains information about what dispenses has been executed, independently of prescribing doctor and dispensing pharmacy. This list can for example be used to complement a patient’s medical records and to give the doctor information about what medicines the patient eventually has taken.

    The aim of this study was, from a gender perspective, to examine if pharmacy custumers where aware of the different sources mentioned above and/or which sources they use to implement the medication treatment. Furthermore, it was examined how many used are presentative for their pharmacy errands. It was also examined if there were problems keeping track of the medicine prescriptions. The extent of discrepancies between the number of prescriptions and number of medicines the patient specify they used, was also examined.

    The study was conducted at Apoteket Lejonet (Apoteksgruppen AB) in Kalmar by interviewing pharmacy custumers. Patients with five or more prescriptions in the NPR were asked about sources, prescriptions, potential problems and socio-economic survey.

    The study showed that 223 of 699 respondents (32 %) knew of the list from the EMR, slightly more common among men then women. A third of them used it as a source to implement the medication treatment. Almost all of the respondents knew of the list from the NPR. This was also the most common source – used by almost 70 %. Nine percent used a representative for their pharmacy errands. Fifteen percent said there were problems keeping track of the medicine prescriptions. The problem most of them specified was about generic substitution.

    It is important that the sources contain accurate and sufficent information about the prescriptions. In that way the patient can achieve a safe treatment with satisfying results. Both pharmacies and the health care can and should make reconciliations when changes in the treatment are done. Then, the sources can be kept updated and correct, thereby reducing the risk of medication errors, and the patients’ safety is promoted.

  • 196.
    Engberg, Anna E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Biomaterials and Hemocompatibility2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomaterials are commonly used in the medical clinic today; however, artificial materials can activate the cascade systems in the blood (complement-, coagulation-, contact- and fibrinolytic systems) as well as the platelets to various degrees. When an artificial surface comes in contact with blood, plasma proteins will be adsorbed to the surface within seconds. The composition of the layer of proteins differs between materials and is crucial for the hemocompatibility of the material.

    This thesis includes five projects.

    In Paper I the anticoagulants heparin and the thrombin inhibitor hirudin were evaluated in a whole blood model. Hirudin was found to be superior to low dose heparin since it did not affect the activation of the complement system nor the leukocytes. The most interesting observation was that expression of TF was seen on surface-attached monocytes in hirudin- treated blood but not heparin blood.

    In Paper II peptides from the streptococcal M-protein, which has affinity for the human complement inhibitor C4BP, were attached to a polymeric surface. When being exposed to blood the endogenous complement regulator was enriched at the surface of the material, via the M-peptides. With this new approach we created a self-regulatory surface, showing significant lowered material-induced complement activation.

    In Paper III apyrase, an enzyme which hydrolyzes nucleoside ATP and ADP, was immobilized on a polymer surface. Lower platelet activation and platelet-induced coagulation activation was seen for the apyrase-coated surface compared to control surfaces after exposure to whole human blood, due to the enzymes capability to degrade ADP released from activated platelets.

    In Paper IV and V we synthesized an array of polymeric materials which were characterized regarding physical-chemical properties, adsorption of plasma proteins, and hemocompatibility. The polymers showed widely heterogeneous protein adsorption. Furthermore, when the polymers were exposed to whole blood, two of the materials showed superior hemocompatibility (monitored as complement- and coagulation activation), compared to the reference poly(vinyl chloride).

  • 197.
    Engberg, Anna E.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Mollnes, Tom Eirik
    Rosengren-Holmberg, Jenny P.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The ratio between C4 and C4BP adsorbed from plasma predicts cytokine generation induced by artificial polymers in contact with whole blood2012In: Immunobiology, ISSN 0171-2985, E-ISSN 1878-3279, Vol. 217, no 11, p. 1211-1211Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Englund-Johansson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Clinical Sciences, Lund, University of Lund, Sweden..
    Mohlin, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Liljekvist-Soltic, Ingela
    Department of Ophthalmology, Clinical Sciences, Lund, University .
    Ekström, Per
    Department of Ophthalmology, Clinical Sciences, Lund, University .
    Johansson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Human neural progenitor cells promote photoreceptor survival in retinal explants2010In: Experimental Eye Research, ISSN 0014-4835, E-ISSN 1096-0007, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 292-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of progenitor and stem cells have been shown to provide neuroprotection in animal models of photoreceptor degeneration. The present study was conducted to investigate whether human neural progenitor cells (HNPCs) have neuroprotective properties on retinal explants models with calpain- and caspase-3-dependent photoreceptor cell death. In the first experiments, HNPCs in a feeder layer were co-cultured for 6 days either with postnatal rd1 mouse or normal rat retinas. Retinal histological sections were used to determine outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, and to detect the number of photoreceptors with labeling for calpain activity, cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL. The ONL thickness of co-cultured rat and rd1 retinas was found to be almost 10% and 40% thicker, respectively, compared to controls. Cell counts of calpain activity, cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL labeled photoreceptors in both models revealed a 30-50% decrease when co-cultured with HNPCs. The results represent significant increases of photoreceptor survival in the co-cultured retinas. In the second experiments, for an identification of putative survival factors, or a combination of them, a growth factor profile was performed on conditioned medium. The relative levels of various growth factors were analyzed by densitometric measurements of growth factor array membranes. Following growth factors were identified as most potential survival factors; granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), neurotrophic factor 3 (NT-3), placental growth factor (PIGF), transforming growth factors (TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-D). HNPCs protect both against calpain- and caspase-3-dependent photoreceptor cell death in the rd1 mouse and against caspase-3-dependent photoreceptor cell death in normal rat retinas in vitro. The protective effect is possibly achieved by a variety of growth factors secreted from the HNPCs.

  • 199.
    Engstedt, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Anadromous Pike in the Baltic Sea2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pike (Esox lucius) is a major predator and top-down regulator in the Baltic Sea where it exists in two sympatric forms. One spawn in streams and rivers and the other one spawn in the sea. During the last decades, the habitats for both of these forms have developed in a negative way. In some freshwater systems, up to 90 % of the water areas have disappeared, mainly through drainage and straightening of watercourses for agricultural purposes. In the sea, reproduction habitats decrease due to construction of harbours and human activities that create disturbances. The perhaps largest single factor negatively affecting recruitment of pike in the sea is the eutrophication. Bottoms are overgrown with filamentous algae and shallow bays are covered with dense Phragmites belts decreasing the habitats suitable for spawning. Further on, a predator on egg and fish larvae, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has increased in abundance. It is difficult to restore and enhance pike production in the sea and probably the only economically viable alternative is to make restorations in freshwater. However, there is a limited knowledge about the freshwater spawning pike in the Baltic Sea. Thus in this thesis I, together with my coauthors, set out with an aim to increase the knowledge base regarding anadromous pike behaviour.

    We found that pike of natal freshwater origin were common in the Baltic Sea. Through Sr:Ca studies in otoliths, about 45 % of the pike were interpreted to be of freshwater origin. The majority of the pike had emigrated out of freshwater at a length below 6 cm. These results indicate that freshwater recruitment is successful, contrasting the vast areas available for spawning in the sea. This creates incitements that restoration measures in these watercourses could have a significant effect on the pike population in the Baltic Sea.

    Further, in four streams running out in the Baltic Sea, more than three thousand pike were marked to study spawning migration. About 30-40 % returned to the same river the subsequent year. Most of the pike used the lower parts of the stream for spawning. The homing of pike to a watercourse indicate that freshwater pike in the Baltic Sea consist of specific populations and this is crucial information when taking decisions on fish restoration measures.

    Three wetlands adjacent to streams were restored for pike production. The most successful restoration involved minimal digging, with flooded grasslands providing optimal conditions for spawning. The first spawning season after restoration increased the pike production hundredfold.

    In conclusion, the anadromous pike are numerous in the Baltic Sea. To compensate for the decline in pike populations in the sea, “pike-factories” created along the coastline are probably the most justifiable option.

  • 200.
    Engstedt, Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Engkvist, Roland
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Elemental fingerprinting in otoliths reveals natal homing of anadromous Baltic Sea pike (Esox lucius L.)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabit the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. A large part of the fishes show anadromous

    behaviour and spawn in streams and rivers but spend most of the time foraging in the sea. We examined

    spawning migration in four streams in the southwest part of the Baltic, situated within a radius of 50 km. Using

    juvenile pike in the streams as references, otolith analysis by microPIXE revealed unique elemental patterns (Sr,

    Zn, Br, Co and Mn) for the juveniles in each of the four different streams. The strontium signal in the otolith

    of the juveniles was used as an indicator of freshwater origin and the time spent in the stream (size of juveniles).

    Adult marked pike in their migrating spawning phase were caught in each of the streams and otoliths were

    analysed. Defining earlier freshwater origin by the Sr signal from the otolith core to the increase in Sr when the

    fish as juvenile pike migrated to the sea, element composition was determined. A principal component analysis

    showed that the elemental fingerprint during the freshwater phase several years back was similar for adult fish

    and juveniles inhabiting the stream today. The results indicated native homing of the adults to a specific stream,

    a process further corroborated by results from electronic marking (Pit-tags) with the return of adult individuals

    over several consecutive years. We interpret the results as evidence that pike in the Baltic Sea consists of several

    sub-populations and are developed by homing to specific spawning streams. The results of the study may have

    implications for fishery management as pike in the Baltic Sea cannot be seen as homogenous “stock“, but instead

    consists of different, unique populations similar to the pattern demonstrated in salmon (Salmo salar).

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